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Norad Review of South Africa – Norway Tertiary Education

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					                            Norad



Review of South Africa – Norway Tertiary Education Development
                     Programme (SANTED)


                         Final Report


                             By


                 Stein Hansen (Team Leader)
             Nordic Consulting Group AS, Norway

                         Hugh Africa
            Hugh Africa & Associates, South Africa
                            and

                          Ad Boeren
                   Nuffic, The Netherlands


                        Oslo, Norway


                       12. October 2005




                                                                 1
                                          Foreword

Against a setting in 1999 where some of the historically disadvantaged tertiary education
institutions were in danger of being closed down due to a combination of poor administration,
worsening financial performance, declining financial support, inadequate human resources
management, and persistent polical instability with student protests and unrest, the
Norwegian Embassy indicated that it was prepared to fund a development programme to
support the transformation of higher education in South Africa. The initial task was to identify
a number of limited, but strategically important areas where it would be possible to assist the
South African authorities in reaching their goals. The projects should be institutionally
anchored. Three focal areas and four historically disadvantaged institutions were identified
for a set of project activities in the fields of (a) access for and retention of people from
previously disadvantaged groups, and (b) capacity building of historically disadvantaged
institutions. In addition, c) to support sub-regional cooperation in tertiary education between
South African universities and universities in other SADC countries as an integral part of the
implementation of the SADC protocol on higher education and training.

The South Africa-Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme (SANTED) was
launched in November 2000 as a five-year programme with a tentative budget of NOK 54
million distributed between access and retention projects at two universities, capacity
building in the areas of finance, administration and human resources management for two
others, and initially four SADC cooperation projects.

As an integral part of the agreement, the Department of Education (DOE) and The
Norwegian Embassy in Pretoria decided to carry out an independent review covering the
whole first phase period of SANTED from 2001 to 2005 analysing and assessing the results
in relation to the objectives defined in the Business Plan of 28. November 2000, selected a
Review Team from Nordic Consulting Group AS, Oslo, with Stein Hansen as Team Leader,
and with Ad Boeren, Senior Policy Advisor at Nuffic Department for Human Resource and
Institutional Development, the Hague, Netherlands, and Professor Hugh Africa of South
Africa, as Review Team members. The Team conducted intensive meetings with the
SANTED leadership and administration, as well as with representative of project
beneficiaries (e.g. university staff and students from formerly disadvantaged groups) at the
involved South African Universities and Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM) in Mozambique
in mid-August 2005.

The Review Team is indebted to Derrick Young, SANTED Programme Director and Zamo
Shongwe, SANTED Programme Co-ordinator for their efficient and effective preparations
and organization of the field tour of the involved institutions, and for providing all the
background documentation. Furthermore, the Team in indebted to DOE and all the
universities involved, in particular to their SANTED coordinators/managers for their very
thorough planning, preparation and implementation of our intensive meetings with them, and
the careful preparation of presentations covering all the focus areas of relevance, and to the
affected stakeholders at each university for setting aside time to meet with the Review Team.

The findings, conclusions and recommendations in this report are those of the Review Team
and do not necessarily reflect those of Norad, DOE, SANTED or the involved universities.

Oslo, 12. October 2005
Stein Hansen, Team Leader




                                                                                              2
                                                      Table of Contents

Foreword.............................................................................................................................. 2
Table of Contents ................................................................................................................ 3
List of Acronyms ................................................................................................................. 5
Summary of Conclusions and Recommendations............................................................ 6
1.      Introduction.............................................................................................................. 9
2.      Focus of the Review – Comments to the ToR.......................................................10
3.      The Rationale for the SANTED Programme ............................................................11
     3.1     Post-Apartheid Restructuring of Higher Education in South Africa ....................11
     3.2     The Deteriorating Development of Historically Disadvantaged Institutions .......12
     3.3     Focus Areas of Effort Identified as Crucial to Turn the Tide...............................12
     3.4     South Africa’s SADC Commitments in the Field of Education............................12
     3.5     Complementarity and Synergy Between SANTED Focus Areas .......................13
4.      SANTED Organization and Implementation ..........................................................13
     4.1     Programme Management..................................................................................13
     4.2     Funds Administration ........................................................................................14
     4.3     Monitoring and Reporting Procedures ...............................................................15
     4.4     Project Management Efficiency .........................................................................15
5.      Access and Retention Activities............................................................................16
     5.1.    SANTED at the University of Western Cape......................................................16
     5.2     University of Durban Westville/University of KwaZulu-Natal ..............................20
     5.3     Lessons Learnt from the Access and Retention Projects...................................22
6.      Institutional Capacity Building...............................................................................22
     6.1     SANTED at University of Fort Hare ...................................................................22
     6.2     SANTED at University of Zululand ....................................................................25
     6.3     Lessons from Capacity Building and Institutional Development.........................28
7.      Sub-regional Cooperation in SADC .......................................................................29
     7.1.    Objective...........................................................................................................29
     7.2.    Selection of projects..........................................................................................29
     7.3.    Objectives of the SADC projects .......................................................................29
     7.4.    Relevance .........................................................................................................31
     7.5.    Effectiveness.....................................................................................................31
     7.6.    Efficiency...........................................................................................................32
     7.7.    Impact ...............................................................................................................34
     7.8     Sustainability.....................................................................................................34
8.      SANTED Phase II ....................................................................................................35
9.      Conclusions and Lessons Learnt..........................................................................36
     9.1     Access and Retention .......................................................................................36
     9.2     Institutional Capacity Building............................................................................37
     9.3     The SADC Components of SANTED.................................................................38
     9.4     Overall Evaluation Conclusions.........................................................................39
10.     Recommendations..................................................................................................40
List of References ..............................................................................................................42
Annex 1: Terms of Reference for Programme Review.....................................................44
Annex 2: Questionaire for SADC Projects ........................................................................52
Annex 3: Itinerary for the Review Team 13-23 August 2005............................................53
Annex 4: Organization and Implementation of the Review .............................................56
Annex 5: Higher Education: Priorities for 2005 Onwards................................................59
Annex 6: Equitable Access through Enrolment Management Project at University of
Western Cape .....................................................................................................................61
Annex 7: Upward Bound University-Wide Enrichment Project and SANTED University
Of Kwazulu-Natal Access And Retention Project ............................................................72
Annex 8: SANTED University of Fort Hare Capacity Building Project............................80
Annex 9: University of Zululand Organisational Development Project ..........................87


                                                                                                                                      3
Annex 10: SANTED-University of Western Cape Review Programme.........................103
Annex 11: SANTED University of Fort Hare Review Programme..................................105
Annex 12: SANTED University of KwaZulu-Natal Review Programme .........................108
Annex 13: SANTED University of Zululand Review Programme...................................110
Annex 14: SANTED University of Witwatersrand Review Programme .........................111
Annex 15: Protocol on Education and Training in the Southern African Development
Community (SADC). .........................................................................................................112
Annex 16: SANTED – SADC Meetings held at Witwatersrand University and Eduardo
Mondlane University, Mozambique .................................................................................116
Annex 17 : Achievements and implementation challenges of the SADC projects ......117




                                                                                                                            4
                                  List of Acronyms

APES         = Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences
CDP          = Career Development Programme
CEPD         = Centre for Education Policy Development
CHE          = Council of Higher Education
DAC          = Development Advisory Committe (OECD)
DOE          = Department of Education
EEP          = Employment Equity Plan
EHC          = Evelyne Hone College
HEQC         = Higher Education Quality Committee
HR           = Human Resources
ICT          = Information and Communication Technology
ITS          = Information Technology System
NCG          = Nordic Consulting Group AS
NCHE         = National Commission on Higher Education
NGO          = Non-governmental Organization
NEW          = NamibiaEduardoMondlaneWits
NOK          = Norwegian Kroner
NPHE         = National Plan for Higher Education
MoU          =Memorandum of Understanding
ODP          = Operations Development Plan
OECD         = Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development
PET          = Port Elizabeth Technikon’s Health Sciences Coop. with SADC Countries
PMC          = Project Management Committee
R            = South African Rand
RPL          = Reckognition of Prior Learning
RR           = Review Report
SA           = South Africa
SADC         = Southern African Development Community
SANTED       = South Africa – Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme
SASCO        = South African Students Volunteer Organisation
SIU          = Norwegian Center for International Coooperation in Higher Education
SP           = Strategic Plan
SRC          = Student Residences and Catering
SSD          = Student Services Department
SUKAR        = SANTED-UKZN Access and Retention Project
TLSP         = Teacher Learner Support Project
TOR          = Terms of Reference
UAN          = University Agostinho Neto
UBEP         = Upward Bound Enrichment Programme
UDW          = University of Durban Westville
UEM          = Universidad Eduardo Mondlane
UKZN         = University of Kwazulu-Natal
UWC          = University of Western Cape
UNAM =University of Namibia
UNEP         = United Nations Environment Programme
UNISA        =University of South Africa
UNISA Project= Nurse Leadership Development in Angola
UNZA         =University of Zambia
UNIZUL       = University of Zululand
USD          = United States Dollar
VC           = Vice Chancellor
WITS         = Witwatersrand University
ZAWECA       = The HIV/Aids Peer Education Project


                                                                                      5
              Summary of Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusions
The new South African dispensation ushered in by the political changes in 1994 meant that the
historical barriers that existed prior to 1994 were removed. In education students who were formerly
restricted to certain institutions, were free to apply to institutions of their choice. As there was a
determined drive to increase participation levels, the historically disadvantaged institutions (HDIs)
were the losers as students flocked to the historically advantaged institutions (HAIs) Further, the HDIs
had always been under resourced, and their continued existence as competitive institutions of higher
learning had to be addressed. Towards the turn of the century the key challenges some South African
higher institutions confronted were prospects of downscaling because they were:

    •   Financially unstable,
    •   Delivered mainly low quality student outputs at all graduation levels,
    •   Were politically and managerially unstable, and
    •   Suffered persisent student protests (mostly related to institutional resource mismatches)

The overhaul of higher education in South Africa since 1999 coincided with a decrease in state
allocations to higher education institutions, and increasd businesstype demands made on
organizational efficiency and on internal operational structures.

The South Africa-Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme (SANTED) project was
conceptualized and implemented at this juncture. It was launched in November 2000 as a five-year
programme with a tentative budget of NOK 54 million distributed between access and retention
projects at two universities, capacity building in the areas of finance, administration and human
resources management for two others, and initially four SADC cooperation projects.

Institutions such as the University of the Western Cape, and the former University of Durban-Westville
now part of the merged University of KwaZulu-Natal, needed to re-conceptualise their enrolment levels
and strategies. The documented decline in their student enrolments had serious adverse effects on
their finances. At the time the government subsidy to institutions was based on enrolment and
completion rates. It was also calculated on the basis of the previous two years’ enrolment which
meant that a drastic decline in student enrolment meant a significant decline in the subsidy payable to
institutions. The DOE intervention with SANTED funding in areas of access and retention was very
important to create stability at the University of Western Cape and the University of KwaZulu-Natal.

Similarly, the intervention in the areas of capacity development at the universities of Zululand and Fort-
Hare was critical. Both these institutions were rural institutions and the recruitment and retention of
qualified staff, for example, in the areas of finance management, human resources, administration and
information technology is a constant challenge. The SANTED project enabled these two institutions
to provide training for the existing staff – thus empowering them to take ownership for the
transformative measures being implemented. This review finds that institutions that are poorly
prepared in terms of institutional capacity in the fields of finance, administration and human resources
management, face poor odds with regard to successful implementation of access and retention
activities.
SANTED has provided the framework and mechanism for inter-institutional collaboration and
networking, among South African institutions, as well as institutions in the Southern Africa
Development Community (SADC). The SANTED funding was a sine qua non to undertake
collaborative activities within the SADC region. The main reason for this is the poor resource base of
the universities in the surrounding SADC countries. However, establishing good working relationships
between project partners took a long time and the formulation of the business plans was time
consuming. The proper embedding of project activities in existing organizational structures and
programmes is a key condition for effective implementation of project activities and ensuring
sustainability of the project results. This collaborative relationship is supportive of the objective spelt
out in the Ministry’s policy documents. All the institutions visited during the review were enthusiastic
about future collaborative ventures.

This review concludes that the SANTED programme is highly relevant in terms of areas chosen and
project components selected for implementation. SANTED is largely a demand driven programme. It is



                                                                                                         6
effective in terms of goals achievement, and efficient in its organization of implementation and
monitoring because it combines the best of project and budget support, and because of its outsourcing
of day-to-day management of it from Department of Education (DOE) to a Programme Secretariat..
Significant impacts have been achieved in the areas stated as priority fields for turning around the
deteriorating administrative-, finance-, and human resources trends towards sustainable operations
observed at the SANTED-supported institutions. The three focus areas of SANTED have been
selected and formulated in such a way that they provide for exchanges of experience in ways that can
prevent reinvention of costly solutions. The SANTED Project Director has organized the overall
programme so as to facilitate such exchanges and mutual fertilization.

The Review Team concludes that had it not been for the Norwegian support, it would have been very
difficult to find other external support for the University of Fort Hare (UFH) and University of Zululand
(UNIZUL) reform projects, needed to turn around their precarious situation. Similarly, in three of the
four SADC sub-regional projects the inter-institutional collaborations would most probably not have
taken place without SANTED funding.

Recommendations

This review clearly shows significant progress along all SANTED dimensions during and towards the
end of this first phase. At the same time, each involved institution has clearly shown where goals have
been achieved and where there is still mileage to be covered compared to to initially stated goals, in
order to establish a resilient set of systems and procedures for eliminating the historical disadvantages
that these institutions and their students have been facing. Thus SANTED still has an important
mission and a Phase II is thus recommended with a focus as follows:

    1. The Business Plan for SANTED II should be followed for the three focus areas, but with a
       slight change of budget emphasis from access and retention projects towards capacity
       development and SADC co-operation because: (a). UFH and UNIZUL will be much better
       prepared to undertake effective access and retention activities as a result of their capacity
       development activities during SANTED I, (b) SADC cooperation at the institutional level is
       more demanding than was originally envisaged.

    2. The SANTED Director must give this the highest priority in 2005 to making a well prepared
       process for selection of projects in line with the NPHE towards of a sound balance between
       continuation of old projects and provision for new initiatives, including a set of carefully
       developed NPHE-derived criteria and procedures for the selection of SADC projects. Funds
       must be allocated for this purpose in Phase II.

    3. Some of the focus areas given increased emphasis in the SANTED II phase could be more
       management-intensive, and therefore the proposed allocation for management in the
       SANTED II Business Plan appears to make sense.

    4. SANTED II needs to further develop the performance indicators to monitor each activity
       relative to a realistic “without SANTED II future”.

    5. The Business Plan must display the projects’ institutional anchoring to secure stakeholder
       ownership of the projects, intra- and inter-institutional communication and networking so as to
       create for synergies to result.

    6. SANTED II must take full advantage of the complementarities/synergies between access and
       retention activities; successful implementation of the former providing for easier achievement
       of the latter. Since much funding has been allocated to recapitalize UWC and to finance
       relocation of faculties and to secure the merger into the UKZN, it is recommended that the
       retention activities in SANTED II continue at these two institutions to secure sustainability.

    7. The experience from access activities in SANTED I must be spread to other institutions for
       use in their access activity planning irrespective of SANTED funding.




                                                                                                       7
8. Once the institutional capacity building at UNIZUL and UFH is well established and functional,
   access and retention activities are much more likely to succeed, and such proposals from
   these institutions should be judged from this perspective.

9. Capacity building projects should be expanded to provinces not included at present; e.g.
   Northern Cape. This however, needs to be worked out in details while assessing where the
   basic needs are and in what order the many different capacity needs ought to be addressed
   for effective and efficient implementation. SANTED II should consider direct DOE support to
   develop such projects in detail for subsequent implementation.

10. Continue the SADC component, and, if resources permit, expand its coverage in terms of
    participating institutions and disciplines. In relation to this, introduce a higher level of
    formalization of programme- and project procedures and practices.

11. Solicit external advice in the selection procedure of proposals when there are doubts about
    the feasibility of projects that are being proposed, and avoid adding projects to the SADC
    component on the basis of ad-hoc decisions rather than according to agreed assessment and
    selection procedures.

12. Consolidate the projects that show potential for establishing broad-based longer-term
    institutional collaboration by giving them the opportunity to further implement what they have
    initiated in Phase I. This specifically regards NEW and ZAWECA.

13. Design and implement a programme policy on payment of financial or non-financial benefits
    for the SADC partners involved in projects.




                                                                                                8
1.       Introduction

Towards the turn of the century some South African higher education institutions had to face the
prospect of down-scaling because they were:

     •   Financially unsustainable
     •   Delivered mainly low quality student outputs at all graduation levels,
     •   Were politically and managerially unstable, and
     •   Suffered persisent student protests (mostly related to institutional resource mismatches)

The overhaul of higher education in South Africa since 1999 coincided with a decrease in state
allocations to higher education institutions, increasd businesstype demands made on organizational
efficiency and on internal operational structures.

It was against this setting in 1999, that the Norwegian Embassy indicated that it was prepared to fund
a development programme to support the transformation of higher education in South Africa. The
South Africa-Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme (SANTED) was launched in
November 2000 as a five-year programme with a tentative budget of NOK 54 million. Norad was
responsible for the programme from the start, but in 2004 the Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign
Affairs (MFA) took over funding and decision making of it.

The initial SANTED task was to identify a number of limited, but strategically important areas where it
would be possible to assist the South African authorities in reaching their goals. The projects should
be institutionally anchored. The historically disadvantaged institutions were identified as having the
greatest need for assistance. Three focal areas were defined:

     -   access for and retention of people from previously disadvantaged groups
     -   capacity building of historically disadvantaged institutions
     -   sub-regional cooperation; implementation of the SADC protocol on higher education.

Two institutions were granted support under what were called student access and retention projects.
The “Equitable Access through Enrolment Management Project” at the University of Western Cape
(UWC) began in January 2001. The “Upward Bound University Wide Project” at the University of
Durban Westville (UDW) had effectively started in January 2000 with support from other donors, and
developed into an access and retention project (SUKAR) when the merger with University of Natal into
the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) materialized in January 2004. In 2002 a formative research
project was added to these projects including the above universities and University of Bergen. This
project set is referred to as Focus Area 1.

Faced with worsening indebtedness due to declining student numbers and poor fee recovery, new
mandates and mergers followed the release of the government’s restructuring plan for higher
education. Institutions in dire financial crisis and acute need of special assistance in building the
capacity for change, were facing possible closing down as a real alternative. Two institutional projects,
one at the UNIZUL and the other at UFH were selected as Focus Area 2. The aim was to develop the
institutions’ capacity in financial management, administration and planning, and in human resources
management in ways suitable to the challenges of the new era. These projects were launched in
2003.

The project’s Focus Area 3 was on institutional collaboration within the SADC region. It was based on
the SADC Protocol on Higher Education of 1997 and in response to outcome 4: “Increased
reqruitment of students from the Southern African Development Community (SADC)” presented in the
South Africa Government’s “National Plan for Higher Education” of February 2001. In spite of the
massive contribution to other SADC-countries by admitting thousands of their students into South
African universities at the same subsidized terms as South African nationals, very little institutional
university collaboration across national SADC borders had resulted. This Area of Focus therefore was
driven by the Department of Education (DOE) as a strategic instrument for acceleration of South-
South institutional collaboration. Norway agreed to commit resources to this effort and it was decided
to operate as a set of pilot projects. After an open call for proposals, four out of 36 South African
universities were selected and SADC-cooperation projects were launched between 2002 and 2003.


                                                                                                       9
DOE and the Norwegian Emabassy decided as an integral part of the agreement to carry out an
independent review covering the whole first phase period of SANTED from 2001 to 2005. It shall
analyse and assess the results in relation to the objectives defined in the Business Plan of 28.
November 2000.



2.      Focus of the Review – Comments to the ToR.

The issues covered by this review are described in chapter 1 above. The Terms of Reference (ToR) is
comprehensive (see Annex 1), clear and detailed in outlining what the review shall concentrate on and
how. It is more or less following the by now well established OECD DAC evaluation criteria dimensions
of (1) relevance, (2) effectiveness, (3) efficiency, (4) sustainability, but not explicitly addressing
dimension number 5: impact. However, impact is addressed in the ToR under the heading of
“effectiveness”.

The review surveys the achievements of the projects against planned outputs and expected effects.
Actors and factors which have influenced their achievement or non-achievement have been analysed
to the extent possible given availability of data and time for analysis. This has been done by studying
project documents and progress reports and by interviewing project implementers and direct
stakeholders, including academic and administrative staff as well as affected students of the selected
institutions.

One challenge – common to virtually all development cooperation programmes, including SANTED –
is the observation that little or no attempts were made from the outset to define a counterfactual path
of development, i.e. what would have happened in the fields of SANTED project activities if the
SANTED project had not materialized. Futhermore, there is the question of would the SANTED funded
activities have been implemented and within the same time frame if the Norwegian funding had not
materialized? Given the way the SANTED project was designed and performance indicators to monitor
it were chosen, such quantitative counterfactual analysis will not be possible. Qualitative
counterfactual considerations will be a key issue based on the document reviews, responses to
questionaire and questions and interviews with the those responsible at the participating institutions
and in DOE.

The implementers of the projects have been asked to give their opinion about the efficiency of the
rules and regulations of the programme, the management model, including financial management, the
organisation, administration effectiveness and coordination of SANTED.

As regards sustainability, project documents have been analysed and project implementers
questioned to find out to what extent the projects can be expected to achieve sustainable results. In
the case of the SADC sub-regional projects, the review assessed to what extent they can be expected
to result in sustainable multilateral and bilateral relationships with institutions in neighbouring
countries. Important indicators for sustainability in this respect are commitment of staff and institutions,
mutual benefits, adequate capacities for effective collaboration, and financial resources.

The review has conducted a performance assessment of the three focus areas. Observed variance in
performance may to some extent be explained by differences in the genesis of the projects, as well as
by internal factors. Notwithstanding, differences in performance levels may also be caused by internal
organizational factors, such as institutional leadership and commitment and human resource
management. The reviewers have attempted to identify factors that are influencing the performance
levels of the projects in a positive or a negative direction.

The review provides a survey of the performance levels of outputs/deliverables in terms of the
indicators for each of the projects as defined for the “Upward Bound” and “Equitable Access“ projects
in the Business Plan. A challenge in this context has been the way these indicators have been
selected and defined by SANTED, and as a consequence has formed the basis for formative research
aimed at documenting performance and impact. But how do these indicators compare to the
performance levels nationally for universities and technikons/intstitutes of technology.




                                                                                                         10
Official DOE statistics show an impressive growth in the proportion of qualifications awarded by South
African universities to black learners. This proportion grew steadily from 37.1% in 1992 to 53.7% in
2001. The transformation of the technicon sector took place at an even faster rate, growing from
24.7% in 1992 to 74.8% in 2001. At the same time the gender distribution of awarded qualifications at
all institutions shows the share of women learners growing from 45.4% in 1992 to 54.4% in 2001. It is
only in the fields of Engineering Sciences and Technology (23.1%) that women are not in majority.



3.        The Rationale for the SANTED Programme

3.1       Post-Apartheid Restructuring of Higher Education in South Africa

In 1994, the democratically elected South African Government had a legacy of almost 50 years of
apartheid legislation to repeal and amend. In order to deal with an irrationally structured higher
education system, a sound policy framework was needed. Consequently, a Presidential Commission
was established in 1995 (The National Commission on Higher Education - NCHE) to recommend to
government a new, rational and equitable higher education system for South Africa. The NCHE
reported its findings in August 1996 under the title A New Policy Framework for Higher Education
Transformation (NCHE, 1996). The three central objectives on which the policy proposals were based
are:

      •   Increased participation, with a focus on issues of redress and equality. The report emphasizes
          that greater numbers of students will have to be accommodated; and these students will be
          recruited from a broader base of social groups and classes;
      •   Greater responsiveness to societal interests and needs; and
      •   Increased cooperation and partnerships in the governance structures and operations of higher
          education.

The subsequent White Paper of April 1997, entitled A Programme for the Transformation of Higher
Education, highlighted the following principles upon which the new higher education system would be
based:

      •   equality and redress
      •   democratisation
      •   development
      •   quality
      •   efficiency
      •   academic freedom and institutional autonomy
      •   public accountability

The Higher Education Act was passed in late 1997 and was formulated around these principles. The
Branch of Higher Education (established in 1997) at the Department of Education (DOE) has been
addressing key areas of implementation of the Act.

From 1994 onwards, the total State budget to higher education increased from year to year. However,
it is acknowledged that increases may not have kept abreast with increases in real costs and with
increases in student numbers.In January 2000 the Minister of Education indicated that the Council of
Higher Education (CHE) should establish a Task Team to conduct a far-reaching review of the higher
education system. It should provide the Minister with a set of concrete proposals concerning the shape
and size of the higher education system. The National Plan on Higher Education (NPHE), the
         s
Ministry' response to the CHE Report, was released in February 2001. The NPHE outlined the
framework and mechanisms for implementing and realising the policy goals of the White Paper. The
Ministry presented a transformation and restructuring program for a new institutional landscape for
higher education in June 2002 (MOE 2002). Following the National Plan, the Cabinet approved the
Ministry’s proposals in December 2002 for the transformation and restructuring of the institutional
landscape of the higher education system so as to consolidate the higher education institutions
through mergers and incorporation.




                                                                                                     11
3.2       The Deteriorating Development of Historically Disadvantaged Institutions

By 2000 the slow rate of change indicated that the success of the transformation had been limited.
Some institutions were finding it difficult simply to survive, with many of them operating in crisis mode,
threatening the universities’ financial stability and demanding an immediate response. There were a
number of reasons for this:

      •   Most institutions experienced a drop in student numbers from 1995 to 1999, and this resulted
          in considerable financial stress, e.g. a 35% drop from 14,600 to less than 9,500 at UWC,, in
          part since many formerly disadvantaged students could now apply for universities previously
          closed to them;
      •   The international and local private higher education market grew rapidly in South Africa in the
          period 1995-2000 and this impacted on the public higher education sector;
      •   Many students had difficulties paying the rising university student fees and many institutions
          accrued sizeable bad debts;
      •   Astute financial management was required during this period, yet many institutions, the
          historically disadvantaged universities in particular, suffered from a low level of expertise in
          this area;
      •   Many institutions experienced management problems at all levels during this period;
      •   The goal of greater cooperation in the sector, a theme that runs through all the policy
          documents, was virtually cancelled out by the increased competition between institutions for
          students and alternative funding sources.

A consequence of these developments was that the gap between the historically advantaged and -
disadvantaged institutions failed to diminish and may in fact have widened in some cases. The
Government’s plan of 2002 to restructure the sector aimed to erase this institutional divide, and
identified a need for special support to promote institutional modernization.

In addition, measures of redress and changes to produce equal grounds for access to higher
education remained a challenge in democratic South Africa. Inequalities in access conditions and
differences in preparedness due to an inadequate high school system, which hindered learners from
formerly disadvantaged groups in taking the leap to university, were identified as a major obstacle to
equity in higher education.

3.3       Focus Areas of Effort Identified as Crucial to Turn the Tide

Turning the tide would require a broadbased approach. The deteriorating financial situation due to
dramatic losses of students to other institutions was magnified by the decrease in State allocations to
higher education institutions. The scale of the policy reforms included:

      •   the development of new schooling exit mechanisms,
      •   the introduction of state assured quality control methods,
      •   new programs and qualifications,
      •   shifting enrolment balances,
      •   new governance structures, and
      •   a search for efficient and high quality student throughput,

This generally resulted in immediate increased busines-type demands made on institutional managers
calling for organizational efficiency and on internal operational structures, i.e. a change in managerial
approach and attitudes of service providers.

3.4       South Africa’s SADC Commitments in the Field of Education

The SADC sub-regional component was included in the SANTED programme because it gave both
the South African government as well as Norad/Norwegian Embassy an opportunity to actively pursue
higher education collaboration in the SADC region. For both organizations this was an area where
they would like concrete results to be achieved.




                                                                                                       12
The South African (SA) Government had undersigned the 1997 SADC Protocol on Education and
Training ( see Annex 15 for Article 7 of the Protocol which deals with higher education) but lacked the
funds to finance the implications of its recommendations. It was however aware of the need to
implement these collaborations for socio-economic, academic as well as moral reasons. Collaboration
contributes to institutional capacity building and human resource development in the region. This was
regarded as critical if SADC is to become a major social and economic development bloc. The
exchange of staff and students between SADC institutions was expected to enrich educational
experiences and broaden understandings of the social, cultural, economic and political ties that
underpin the peoples and countries of the SADC. Collaboration with institutions in the SADC region
may help the SA universities to ‘Africanize’ its curricula as the collaborations expose SA academics to
the challenges, conditions and realities of higher education in the wider region. The collaboration also
gives South Africa a chance to pay back some of the ‘moral debts’ to the countries that provided
assistance in the struggle against the apartheid regime.

Norway has actively supported the establishment of SADC and collaboration within the region.
Because of their thrust and outlook universities are bound to look for collaborations with partners
abroad and are therefore excellent vehicles for international collaboration. However, universities in the
SADC region usually engage in collaborations with counterparts in the Northern hemisphere, either
because they want to link up with renowned institutions which give them access to highbrow research
collaborations and publication possibilities, or because they are linked to Northern partners in the
framework of development cooperation programmes. Hence cooperation with partners in the region is
not a priority for the well-established SAuniversities and not a reality for the weaker SADC institutions.
The SANTED programme can actually change this as it focuses on collaboration within the SADC
region and provides the funds to do it.

3.5     Complementarity and Synergy Between SANTED Focus Areas

The three focus areas of SANTED have been selected and formulated in such a way that they provide
for exchanges of experience in ways that can prevent reinvention of costly solutions.
The SANTED Project Director has organized the overall programme so as to facilitate such exchanges
and mutual fertilization. For example, the access and retention experience from its implementation at
UWC during this first SANTED phase has not only led to a clear focus on retention as the priority area
of the next phase, it has also benefitted UKZN, where they had a more difficult starting up situation
and had to undergo a difficult merger while trying to implement their Upward Bound project
components and subsequently the follow up SUKAR project (see chapter 5.3 for a detailed
discussion). The dialogue with UWC has been clearly beneficial for UKZN during this transformation
phase. Furthermore, both UFH and UNIZUL have benefitted from mutual dialogue in the planning and
implementation of their institutional capacity projects; both as regards project components to be
included and how to implement and mainstream them. In addition, the Project Director has facilitated
and stimulated a dialogue and exchange of experience on how to go about the focus area challenges
between UWC and UKZN on the one hand and UFH and UNIZUL on the other, because there are
clear complementarities and interdependencies of such a nature that the likely success of access and
retention activities is signifcantly improved with successful implementation of institutional upgrading
and capacity building in the areas of finance, administration and human resources management.
Finally, institutional cooperation between the selected SA universities and those selected in other
SADC member countries is also benefitting from the SANTED-facilitated exchange of experience in
implementing these arrangements.

4.      SANTED Organization and Implementation

4.1     Programme Management

The Higher Education Branch of the DOE is responsible for the implementation of the Programme
under the Management Support Directorate. The CEPD (Centre for Education Policy Development,
Management and Evaluation) which is an NGO to which the DOE outsources project and policy
analysis, acts as the managing agency and charges an administration fee to administer the SANTED
funds.




                                                                                                       13
A Programme Director approved by the DOE manages the programme located in CEPD with the
necessary administrative support. The Programme Director is responsible for managing and co-
ordinating all aspects of the programme on a day to day basis. This includes regular field visits to the
institutions benefiting from the programme. When the SADC projects and the UNIZUL project came on
line at the end of 2002, a secretary position was added to handle logistics and travel arrangements.
This position was later upgraded to Programme Coordinator. As of lately, a planning officer and a
programme secretary have been added so that both the completion of SANTED Phase I and the
planning of Phase II can be conducted effectively.

The SANTED institutions report formally to the Programme Director at least twice a year. The reports
are both narrative and financial. The institutions are responsible for executing the approved projects in
accordance with the approved project proposals and budgets, the socalled business plans. Continued
funding support for the projects is dependent on satisfactory implementation of the projects and
adequate reporting and accountability structures being in place at the institutions.

The Programme Director reports regularly to the DOE. The DOE has an Advisory Committee,
spesifically established for the SDAC projects. It includes representatives from the Higher Education
Branch and such external persons that may be deemed appropriate. The Advisory Committee has
advised the DOE on SADC projects to be included in the programme.

The Review Team was surprised that in the final selection of projects and the approval of the business
plans the DOE had to solicit the agreement of the Norwegian Embassy. The Review Team assumed
that in a delegated programme like SANTED, the DOE would carry the full responsibility for the proper
implementation of the programme including the selection of projects and partners. However, when
asked about this by the Review Team, the DOE expressed not to have any problems with the
management arrangements in the programme. As a matter of fact, the relationship between the DOE
and the Norwegian Embassy has been exemplary and the discussions about projects and partners
between DOE, the SANTED Office and the staff at the Norwegian Embassy had been very
constructive and fruitful.

4.2     Funds Administration

The SANTED funding from Norway (initially administered by Norad, but in 2004 the programme
responsibility transferred to Norway’s MFA) is allocated as follows.



            Table 4.1.     Norad funding fo SANTED projects 2001-2005 (‘000 Rand)
Cost Item                               2001      2002       2003       2004    2005 budget
Durban Westville UBEP                 3,784      2,528        587         91         -
UKZN SUKAR                              -          -          -        2,224       1,112
UWC Access and Retention              1,945      2,748      2,061      2,146       1,984
Regional Cooperation (SADC)               3        597      1,730      5,312       4,226
Capacity building (UFH, UNIZUL)           3          3      4,419      4,900       1,519
Formative research                        6        685      1,060      1,200       1,070
Management and administration           668        806      1,325      1,384       1,463
Total                                 6,409      7,367     10,491    17,258       11,374
Source: SANTED Project Office

CEPD is an experienced fund management NGO to which DOE outsources fund management tasks.
In the case of SANTED CEPD was contracted to manage the fund for R1.1 million over the five year
project period, equivalent to approximately 2% of the overall SANTED funding.
.
                                             th
The Signed Business Plan of November 28 . 2000 states that DOE shall submit a written request for
disbursement under the SANTED Grant twice a year. The requests are based upon approved and
revised workplans and budgets for the coming year and accompanied by a statement of accounts
certified by the Director General of DOE. Transfer of the funds to a separate account operated by the
CEPD then takes place upon Norad’s approval of the request, and CEPD immediately acknowledges
the receipt of the funds, and starts disbursing according to the programme budget on instruction from
the DOE.


                                                                                                      14
The participating institutions are responsible for applying their own regulations and standing orders
that are made in terms of the approved project budgets. The DOE follows departmental procurement
procedures , and the CEPD follows standard CEPD procurement procedures.

4.3     Monitoring and Reporting Procedures

The projects have developed a comprehensive set of performance indicators for monitoring, and these
are reported on in annual progress reports, but they report both narrative and financial to the
Programme Director every four months, and he undertakes regular visits to the institutions benefitting
from the programme. For the two access and retention projects such visits occurred every other month
over the five year project period. For the two capacity building projects such visits took place on a
monthly basis over the two year duration of the project. For the SADC projects each one had an
annual visit from the Programme Director to the SADC country institution, whereas visits to the
cooperating South African institutions were coordinated with other visits to these institutions in order to
save on the travel costs.

The CEPD submits half-yearly financial reports to the DOE, and the Programme Director submits an
annual report to the DOE. The DOE then submits annual progress and financial reports signed by the
Director General to the Norwegian Embassy for Norway’s MFA (until 2004 Norad was the responsible
Norwegian party), and the DOE submits an annual audit of the project acount to Norway’s MFA. The
cost of the audit is covered by the Grant. Once a year, the DOE calls for and chairs the Annual
Programme Meeting. Norway’s MFA is then represented by the Norwegian Embassy in Pretoria.

4.4     Project Management Efficiency

Locating the project office with the established and well-functioning CEPD is claimed to have saved
significantly in startup costs and provided for smooth project management and monitoring with minimal
delays since the CEPD procedures are much simpler and less time consuming than those of DOE.
While one may have considered establishing an independent project office infrastructure for a long
term (e.g. ten years) activity, it was considered more cost-efficient for a five year operation to use the
premises and infrastructure of an existing NGO with a lean bureacracy where relationship building was
made much easier and quicker. At the same time, CEPD had their own audits, which under any
circumstances were supplemented by that of the Auditor General.

In the case of SANTED, administration and programme management was originally budgeted to be
14% of overall costs (including the 2% fund management payment to CEPD). This, however, has
gradually been reduced around 10.8%, including the 2% fund management fee to CEPD. This
percentage is considerably higher than what Nuffic of the Netherlands gets on its contracts (6.2%),
and what SIU charges for managing the Norad Fellowship Programme. UNEP charges around 7-8%
for managing the Framework agreement projects, and that is over and above the core financing of
UNEP. Even if it seems high from this comparison, one has to reckognize that there are vast
differences in the nature of the above programmes in terms of their administration intensity. A direct
comparison of managment cost percentages is therefore not possible. It would be reasonable to
assume that an innovative and reformative approach to access, retention and institutional capacity
upgrading at established but poorly performing universities, and piloted sub-regional institutional
collaborative arrangements, would be rather demanding of administrative coordination and monitoring
resources compared to many of the above mentioned programmes for which administrative costs are
referred.The Review Team thus has no reason to conclude that programme management is cost
inefficient.




                                                                                                        15
5.        Access and Retention Activities

5.1.      SANTED at the University of Western Cape1

5.1.1 Background
The University of the Western Cape (UWC), located in the greater Cape Town metropolitan area, was
established in 1960 to serve the needs of the people classified ‘Coloured’ by the apartheid regime.
Today UWC is one of only three historically disadvantaged universities singled out by resolution of the
Cabinet to retain its autonomous university status, and is a medium-sized university. Following a
period of rapid decline in the late 1990’s, student enrolments grew dramatically since 2000 until it was
voluntarily capped at below 15000.

Internally over the past years UWC experienced severe fiscal constraints, dwindling student numbers,
an exodus of staff and cumulative under-funding that led to backlogs in maintenance and renewal that
began to compromise the teaching, learning, research and quality of campus life. It also affected its
ability to respond efficiently to emerging opportunities. The sense of urgency among institutional
decision-makers to move the institution to an academically and financially viable position as well as
the leadership team’s confidence in the university’s strategic direction has stabilised and positioned
UWC favourably. Effective from 2005 the university has been fully recapitalised, and all short-term
debt has been eliminated.

5.1.2 Relevance
The SANTED project, entitled “Equitable Access through Enrolment Management”, forms part of
UWC’s broader enrolment strategy. The project was conceptualised as part of an extensive strategic
planning exercise in 1999 and 2000 and the actual roll-out coincided with its five year horizon (2001-
2005). Generally, the project responded to an area of vulnerability when student numbers declined
dramatically, student debt escalated, public confidence in UWC was at an all time low and these
factors threatened the academic and financial viability of the university. The project was designed to
assist, to stabilise and manage the overall size and shape of the university, support student
development, and address issues of quality, efficiency and finance (tuition and subsidy) based on a
coherent and well-planned participation strategy. As such it must be concluded that the project is
HIGHLY RELEVANT.

5.1.3 Effectiveness
The target audience of this project has been
    a) Prospective Grade 12 learners,
    b) Current students,
    c) The further education sector educators,
    d) University staff members.

To meet their demands, the SANTED-project is comprised of the following eight components:
   1. Increase access to higher education for disadvantaged learners by providing advice and
       subject-specific support to grade 12 learners and school teachers,
   2. Widen access to non-traditional learners through the recognition of prior learning and testing
       for academic potential,
   3. Improve retention, throughput and graduation rates of students through tracking, early warning
       systems and academic support,
   4. Conduct formative research, linking pertinent information to planning and strategic
       management,
   5. Grow the post-graduate enrolments through work-study arrangements linked to strategic goal
       attainment,
   6. Provide professional administrative and support services to improve satisfaction level and
       quality of campus life,
   7. Foster reciprocal open communication and culture of information-sharing with internal and
       externalconstituencies, and
   8. Increase employability of graduates through carer development and graduate job placement
       opportunities.

1
  A detailed account of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impact and sustainability of this project is shown in the Synopsis
report in Annex 6. The text in chapter 5.1 thus presents key findings



                                                                                                                                   16
These components appear to have been carefully selected based on identified stakeholder needs and
on the basis of observed gaps between goals and what was considered achievable prior to the
SANTED opportunity appeared. Furthermore, the components have been selected and designed so
that they complement and reinforce each other. Furthermore, each component has been clearly
formulated from an operational implementation perspective. This is also reflected in the way UWC has
organized to manage the overall project.

Given the change in national and institutional context over the period of the project, it was necessary
to adopt a flexible approach to implementation of the project, and to annually reflect on objectives and
implementation for the year. Receptivity to change was at the very heart of the project. Difficulties
included the fact that all initiatives were new interventions, cross-faculty and across portfolios, were
complex, slow to take root and extremely time intensive. It also required buy-in from all relevant
stakeholders and complex project management skills which had to be applied at all layers of the
university’s hierarchy. The support of leadership mitigated most of the risks in these areas.

In the main, all components started in the first year, although the project funding of the different
components varied from two years to the full five years. In cases where planned project funding came
to an end the university opted to sustain the activities, phased in its funding and institutionalised it
where appropriate. The project was organized to provide for considerable organizational learning and
it has achieved this goal. Failures in sub-projects were detected and immediately addressed, and all
sub-projects operated alongside existing faculty or student support initiatives, complemented these
and therefore provided for transparent and effective institutional management In conclusion therefore,
this review finds that the UWC equitable access and retention project has been HIGHLY EFFECTIVE.

5.1.4 Efficiency
The project is coordinated by a full-time Project Manager who reports directly to the Institutional
Planner and Executive Assistant to the Rector. A component manager was appointed within each of
the components. The project was never designed as a stand-alone but firmly integrated to blend into
existing management and governance structures with the respective executive managers accepting
responsibility for its roll-out. A project board was established to coordinate more complex components
that straddled across academic and administrative executive portfolios.

Central management of financial aspects of the project allowed for stringent financial principles and
practices to be followed, which facilitated the auditing process as no transaction could take place
without the authorization of the project office. However, the involvement with financial management
uncovered for the project an array of difficulties in terms of processes and timeous information and
highlighted the need to integrate the information from UWC’s disparate systems. This has proved to
be a major challenge as the institution has different legacy systems, one for its HR function and
another for its Financial transactions. The different systems make it difficult to have a single version of
the “truth”.

The project has assisted the university to align its combined institutional and project objectives with
UWC’s annual budgets and performance expectations. In cases where project funding ended, the
university sustained such activities beyond the funding cycle. It appears from this review that in spite
of the reported difficulties and remaining challenges the project implementation has been HIGHLY
EFFICIENT.

5.1.5 Impact2
Much individual as well as organisational learning has occurred within and as a result of this project,
and a culture of monitoring and evaluation emerged. Typical of the UWC-SANTED components is the
close monitoring, focus on detecting weaknesses early on, and transparent reporting of progress or
lack thereof. UWC adopted a set of monitoring indicators for this purpose, but have gradually come to
realize that not all impacts can be attributed to SANTED alone. However, there can be little doubt that
SANTED was crucial for launching such ambitious and comprehensive project packages at a time
when the financial situation of UWC could have suggested a more cautious strategy. With the gradual
improvement of the UWC finances, isolated quantification of the SANTED impact is in fact virtually



2
    The detailed impact presentation for each sub-component is presented in Annex 6.



                                                                                                        17
impossible, since UWC has prepared back up contingency plans for sustained operation of their high
priority commitments to these projects.

Teacher and Learner Support (TLSP): Within two years of project initiation UWC has been able to
stabilise student enrolments, increase the pool and quality of intake of first time entering students and
to attract fee paying students. Through this community outreach and educational support initiatives
UWC also restored its relationship and confidence levels with feeder schools and raised the aspiration
levels of learners to proceed to degree studies. More learners from these schools opted to do Maths
and Physics at higher grade level and the support enable teachers and learners to complete their
curriculum on time. The project recruited experienced teachers to be utilised on the program to
enhance competencies of Grade 12 learners within the areas of mathematics and physical science in
the main. In areas where the support was provided on the school’s site, the local communities owned
the project with greater appreciation.

Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL): The project saw the first intake of RPL students to provide
non-traditional students with a second-chance to access Higher Education (HE). This category of
students performed exceptionally well, often outperforming the students who gained entry via the
normal route.

Academic and Profesional Support has covered three sub-components:
Identifying students at risk became a fully-fledged project in 2003, and has, among others, already
lead to a significant improvement in throughput. Academic Support to undergraduate students
provides much needed interdisciplinary, cross-curricular academic development support to
undergraduate as well as postgraduate students. Academic support to post-graduate students
addresses the difficulties that students and supervisors experience that hamper their progress. For
example, HIV/AIDS has had impacts on the enrolment patterns and more particularly on the success
of students, as well as the retention rate of students.

Under the Postgraduate Enrolment and Throughput (PET) project component, various study guides
have been published and disseminated, and the postgraduate administrative procedures streamlined.
The project has assisted the institution to create a framework in which students can find support,
which attends to common difficulties such as isolation and inadequate advising, and promotes
academic collaboration and mentorship.

Component Mangement and Institutional Research includes Coordination and management. Much
individual as well as organisational learning has occurred within and as a result of this project, and a
culture of monitoring and evaluation emerged. Institutional Research has initiated many surveys and
has instituted a culture of self reflection, and self assessment.

Through the Internship and Workstudy Component 160 masters and doctoral students were
assisted with much needed financial assistance and work related experience and skills.

UWC uses SANTED to ensure Effective and Efficient Student Services and has developed a
central marks administration system for tracking purposes. It has also purchased a central timetabling
package to ensure effective and efficient organisation and implementation of the examination
timetable.

The Career Development Progeramme (CDP) provided the framework for campus-wide career
related projects, initiatives and activities in order to facilitate students’ progression into the world of
work. In 2005 a Director of Public Affairs was appointed who is also tasked with building relationships
with the institutions alumni, but it does not yet have a vibrant or any kind of relationship that is
sustainable with its alumni. This lack of relationship implies that many opportunities for the institution
and its students are lost, as alumni often support their own institution when recruiting students or
donating funds.

While some among the sub-projects had to be re-designed and some elements given up along the
way, the vast majority of the eight SANTED components have been implemented and achieved or
overachieved the initially agreed goals. Due to the complementarity and interdependencies between
many of these components, significant synergies resulted. It must be added that the Review Team
also finds that the access and retention activities implemented at the same time have implied a



                                                                                                        18
significant amount of student- and staff-oriented institutional capacity building to better meet the
stakeholder demands.

Given the constrained precarious financial situation UWC was in at the time of the SANTED initiative,
the access and retention projects could not have been initiated and implemented on such a broad
scale during this period without donor funding. It is not at all clear that other donor were prepared to
support these UWC initiatives at the time and as developed by UWC. The overall conclusion of this
review is that the SANTED project has provided genuine value added. THE IMPACTS HAVE BEEN
MOST IMPRESSIVE.

5.1.6 Sustainbility
Effective from 2005 UWC has been fully recapitalised, and all short-term debt has been eliminated.
Within two years of equitable access project initiation UWC has been able to stabilise student
enrolments, increase the pool and quality of intake of first time entering students and to attract fee
paying students. The RPL component received financial support from the project for the first two years
of its life span, and thereafter the institution opted to sustain it by providing financial support.

The PET project has since 2004 budgeted for the activities within the project. The PET director has
also been incorporated into the various committee structures that deal with postgraduate issues. The
challenge in the coming years is to increase the quality of students with retention measures and to
attract an increasing share of graduate and post-graduate students, because the revised DOE funding
scheme favours post-graduates.

UWC appears to have established itself on a sustainable path for providing higher education for the
student categories it is targeting. Strict and transparent management both financially and academically
as well being student needs focused now characterizes the institution.

5.1.7 Valuable lessons for wider dissemination and adoption
The following are some main conclusions and lessons learnt from SANTED at UWC::
    • The project structure is innovative and unconventional. Its link to all executive portfolios gave it
         high prominence and secured the sustainability of the different components and alignment to
         current strategic thinking.
    • The project has facilitated processes to work across functional silos, and aspects of each of
         the access strategies have become institutionalised. The institution has prioritised, and hence
         supported these with resources - both financial and human.
    • Given the hierarchical nature of the institution, it is essential that the most senior person takes
         responsibility for the initiative and implementation.The project model enabled UWC to quickly
         ascertain this to take place.
    • Central management of financial aspects of the project allowed for stringent financial
         principles and practices to be followed, which facilitated the auditing process as no transaction
         could take place without the authorization of the project office.
    • The project spearheaded a shift in the way in which the institution employs its workstudy
         students, now linking their experience to match their formal skills acquired hence giving them
         real work experience as opposed to menial work experience.
    • Through the project good relationships evolved with the leadership, while internal collaboration
         with internal stakeholders developed positively. An unintended consequence of one of the
         access strategies to attract a better candidate pool of top achievers lad to a rapidly changing
         race profile at UWC.
    • As enrolment management becomes a key instrument in guiding national strategy, the project
         paved the way for a much more sophisticated way of student enrolment management and
         student development. This would encompass student processes from prospective students,
         through their studies to their alumni status.

In spite of the impressive goals, achievements and progress made, much work is still required to
change the business culture and processes to be more service orientated and to live up to the
challenge of a post-apartheid modern higher education institution.




                                                                                                       19
5.2      University of Durban Westville/University of KwaZulu-Natal3

5.2.1 Background
The five year trajectory of Upward Bound Enrichment Project (UBEP) involves the University of
Durban-Westville (UDW), where the project originated and ran for four years; and the new University
of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), which came into being at the start of 2004 through a merger of the UDW
with the former University of Natal. In the context of the merger, the original UBEP project, too,
became part of a broader project; the SANTED UKZN Access and Retention Project (SUKAR) at the
merged institution. This review therefore begins with a consideration of UBEP (2000 – 2003), and then
moves on to SUKAR (2004 – mid 2005).

UDW was one of the first to open itself to Black African students, and call for social and educational
redress. From the mid 1990s, however, UDW was characterized by high levels of internal instability,
labour unrest and leadership turmoil. It was within this context that UBEP was conceived, planned,
launched in 1999, and implemented, as part of the Vice Chansellor’s (VC) transformatory vision for
UDW. By the time SANTED became involved in funding UBEP (in 2000), an initial survey into
competencies and deficiencies of the target group of learners, as well as a pilot Summer School
(1999) had already been completed and materials development was being undertaken. Hence
SANTED funding became directed towards the Intervention Phase, the Summer and Winter Schools
linked to the University’s strategic plan, with the endorsement of the DOE. Yet for a variety of reasons,
considered below, the vision was realized only in part, see Annex 7 for detailed analysis and review.

5.2.2 Relevance
One of the problems facing South African higher education institutions in the 1990s was a dramatic
rise in the number of Black students entering university from rural areas and townships, and how to
cater better to their needs. UBEP was a major intervention, designed to offer school-level assistance
to learners in Grades 10, 11 and 12 and continued support for them once they were admitted to the
university. Accordingly, the focus of the programme was on improving access, success and retention.
The detailed objectives of the UBEP (see Annex 7, subchapter 4.1) combined four aspects:
‘marketing’ UDW to schools; preparing and recruiting school learners for university studies; promoting
participatory pedagogy in schools; and, within the university, transforming curriculum and teaching to
be better attuned to the South African society and disadvantaged communities. In other words, UBEP
was HIGHLY RELEVANT from an access and retention perspective.

5.2.3 Effectiveness
UBEP was a complex and carefully conceptualised programme with the potential for substantial
transformatory impact, both on the learners, and on the University community broadly. Its roll-out was
intended as incremental, beginning with an initial survey to identify the strengths and weaknesses of
the learners, and following this with a substantial intervention phase, the Summer and Winter Schools.
With these learners were to be positioned for success in Matriculation exams and for entry into higher
education. Registering substantially increased numbers of learners from disadvantaged schools would
in turn have considerable impact on mainstream curricula, for the project envisaged that UBEP
entrants would be monitored and supported, during their studies at UDW, for a further two years.

The roll-out of the Summer and Winter Schools evoked an extremely positive response in the
participants, but became fraught with very substantial logistical problems, and, at the same time, was
impacted on by the more general campus turmoil. As a result, during 2002 and 2003 UBEP energies
focused increasingly on the Summer and Winter Schools. The intended additional focus on
mainstream curricula was largely lost sight of. In this way, UBEP was in danger of failing to realise its
intended transformatory potential for the university as a whole. At this point, the merger offered an
opportunity for something of a renewal: The SUKAR project (May 2004) emerged through a process
of reflection on the partial failure of UBEP, a revisiting of the original UBEP goals in the context of the
merged university. It resulted in a much more explicit focus on retention issues and ‘mainstream’
curricula.

It is the conclusion of this review that while the effectiveness in reaching the learners turned out to be
only partial, it was rather high in terms of the achievements of the teacher workshops.

3
  See Annex 7 for a detailed synopsis of relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, impacts, lessons learnt and recommendations from
the UBEP/SUKAR project.



                                                                                                                           20
5.2.4 Efficiency
Difficulties experienced were primarily logistical. Given that capacity development was included in the
project’s goals, many staff (including project leadership) had to learn ‘on the job’. The logistical
difficulties inherent in running a two-week residential programme for 2000 teenaged learners (many of
whom were experiencing an urban area for the first time) were clearly immense. Nevertheless,
progress was made; and the 2002 schools (in terms of project management) were a clear
improvement on 2000 and 2001.
Modifications and a gradual scaling down to match the UKZN-capacity for sound implementation were
introduced into project management and running from 2001 onwards (see Annex 7 for more details of
main activities). However, a core weakness of UBEP was that of the Project Director reporting direct
to the Vice-Chancellor, thus bypassing the Deans, who remained largely unaware of UBEP. This was
changed with SUKAR, which in addition to a greatly scaled-down UBEP. included:
     • A ‘test development project’, with the specific goal of identifying students with potential from
           disadvantaged schools. In team-work with other institutions of higher learning, a new entrance
           and placement test has been developed and trailed,
     • Redevelopment of ‘merged’ foundation programmes in Science and in the Humanities, all
           existing teaching materials have been substantially reworked.
     • Initiation of approximately 20 disciplinary-based retention projects in Science and the
           Humanities;
     • Initiation of an institutional access and retention research project, which includes ongoing
           tracking of student performance;

Major difficulties were also experienced in the financial management of the project, with financial
reports and audits either not appearing, or appearing after substantial delays. These matters were
only resolved with the introduction of stringent financial management with the SUKAR project.

While efficiency was UNSATISFACTORY during the UBEP phase at UDW, it clearly improved during
the SUKAR phase at UKZN.

5.2.5 Impacts
Such a programme brought with it enormous logistical challenges, especially as, following on the
initial pilot with 500 learners, the target for each Summer/Winter School was set at 2000 learners, with
well over 100 schools participating. For five years (2000 to 2004), ongoing contacts were maintained
with the over 100 participating schools, regular Summer and Winter Schools were held at UDW,
substantial numbers of learners attended UBEP over the five years; and in most cases responded to
the project with considerable enthusiasm; on surveys they rated their learning and increased
knowledge highly.

The impact of the project on the learners involved cannot be solely judged in terms of the learners
who registered for higher education (one of the specified performance indicators). For one, even if
they did not register as intended by the UBEP, they are likely to come out better prepared than
otherwise. Furthermore, many learners with a disadvantaged background chose to apply to
institutions that were not previously open to them.

A further achievement of UBEP has been its impact on participating schools, and on the teachers at
these schools. From the outset, up to 50% of the UBEP tutors were teachers from local schools, who
benefited from the preparatory training sessions for all tutors.

The SUKAR project, into which UBEP was integrated from 2004 on, took as its theme ‘Learning from
Upward Bound’ and drew extensively on the above points in its project conceptualisation. In working
towards these specific projects, SUKAR has furthermore enabled fruitful working relationships to
develop between staff at the two merging universities, and in this way has made a substantial
contribution to the success of the merger.
Impacts of both the learner- and teacher oriented components were far below expectations from the
start of UBEP, but improved gradually and with the more stable SUKAR setting became significant.

5.2.6 Sustainability
UBEP evolved and developed in a setting that could not provide for sustainability. Between 2003 and
2004, due to the above listed substantial difficulties and the fraught situation of university politics,



                                                                                                      21
UBEP was placed in a holding phase. Following the merger and staff reorganization, with the project
being transformed into SUKAR, the sustainability outlook is much improved and the commitment of
the stakeholders appears to be greater. Great care has been taken in the SUKAR project to ensure
that Deans remain involved, not least in that projects must in the long run be sustainable by Faculty
budgets. At the same time, the ability of the Executive Director to have access to initiate and fund
curriculum projects (in a time of great budgetary constraints) has given additional status and visibility
to access and retention, and more broadly to the teaching project. In sum, this holds promise for a
sustainable future.

5.3         Lessons Learnt from the Access and Retention Projects

Both UWC and UDW/UKZN entered the SANTED programme to implement changes aimed at
widening student access and completion success through retention measures for improved
institutional quality. Both drafted a strategic three year plan that was submitted to the DOE in
2000/2001 for access to donor money provided through the SANTED partnership with Norad.

For UWC this meant that donor money provided an opportunity to implement a newly conceptualized
strategic focus, whereas for UDW, it meant additional funding for a USA-designed programme
“imported” by its new Rector as a “Rector-owned” project, and started in 1999 as a way of addressing
the legacy of Apartheid. Thus the key difference in institutional contexts was that UDW tried to mould
students to the institutional requirements by introducing a reform initiative in an inherently unstable
system, whereas UWC tried to adapt their institutional structures to their reform projects and to
presumed student features. They introduced the reform in a situation in which project staff shared a
general organizational goal and showed commitment to improving institutional activities, and there was
an organic link with the high school system.

It appears that the UWC SANTED project management model has been extended to other projects.
Furthermore, there are signs that individuals involved in SANTED activities have been rewarded for
their effort, and that the involved institutional leaders have developed more efficient leadership skills.
Related to this, the project management model gave rise to operational efficiencies. Collectively, this
indicates that UWC has derived considerable additional benefits from the resources made available
through the SANTED initiative.

While the contrasts are stark so long as the comparison is limited to UDW’s UBEP only, one would
need to look to the progress and achievements taking place once the merger was completed and
stability assured at UKZN. This provided a basis for much more effective and efficient implementation
of the revised programme now named SUKAR, and which included much hard earned lessons from
UBEP and inputs from other institutions. In working towards these specific projects, SUKAR has
furthermore enabled fruitful working relationships to develop between staff at the two merging
universities, and in this way has made a substantial contribution to the success of the merger. With
this being the setting when SANTED Phase I ends and Phase II is to be decided on, one should not
jump to the conclusion that the experience and lessons learnt at these Durban campuses have been a
failure.



6.          Institutional Capacity Building4

6.1         SANTED at University of Fort Hare

6.1.1 Background
The University of Fort Hare (UFH) came into existence in 1916 and is the oldest historically black
university in Southern Africa, considered one of the prestigious universities of the Continent. However,
a 1999 Review Report (RR) identified serious problems in the current systems, procedures and
practices in the academic, financial and administrative sectors, whose ability to provide the services
required of them had collapsed due to negligence and mismanagement. With such a broad-based
crisis UFH was faced with collapse.


4
    See Annex 8 for a detailed synopsis



                                                                                                       22
At the same time, the 1999 RR also saw opportunities for the University to re-invent itself. These were
consolidated and focused in ”the Strategic Plan 2000” (SP2000). A new leadership team was brought
in which recognized that it was important to create the necessary environment and conditions that
would enable the University to achieve its core business of quality teaching and research. Central to
this issue was the importance of revamping the University support services.A critical aspect of
capacity building identified was in the area of human resources, systems and procedures. This
entailed the development of the quantity and quality of people capable of realizing the vision.

UHF, therefore, decided to seek financial for funding its capacity building initiative from DOE, and the
Norwegian Government, However, the parties were uncertain about UFH’s ability to restructure so as
to survive as an institution. However, Norway decided to risk it, and the UFH SANTED project was
designed to re-establish a resilient and modern “machinery” for running a university, and was launched
during November 2003 with the appointment of the Project Leader

6.1.2 Relevance
There are three major objectives for the project, one for each of the three service departments:

1.          Finance: to provide effective and efficient financial services to the institution.
2.          Human Resources: to manage and develop human potential and effective leadership.
3.          Administration: to provide students with improved and effective links to the faculty,
            curriculum, and classroom through a continuum of services from enrolment to graduation.

The tasks defined under SANTED in each of these three areas are mutually reinforcing and
complementary, and HIGHLY RELEVANT for the implementation of the Strategic Plan 2000.

6.1.3 Effectiveness
The initial upgrading of the information technology system (ITS) was implemented during January
2004, with the completion to the current web-based system during January 2005. However, staff have
not been able to maximize the benefits of the enhanced system due to their limited IT skills. This is an
                                                          nd
area of concern and could likely be addressed during the 2 phase of the SANTED Programme.

The SP 2000 was developed internally by UFH, which means that a UFH “ownership” to it was
established. Preparation of the Compliant Financial Manual is progressing slowly. However, a mindset
change of UFH’s Finance Department in the direction of being a user-friendly university administration
in the three selected areas is not implemented overnight, but based on the field visit, the Review Team
is convinced that it is well underway.

Overall, significant effectiveness is observed in all three areas reflecting gradual achievement of the
stated goals, and in ways that mutually reinforce each other and provide a sound basis for managing
and monitoring the challenging plan of aquisition and development for the next five years. Staff of all
three departments now see more clearly how their jobs impacts on the users of their services, and
therefore see the challenge in abiding by service level agreements. With user-friendly services
departments in place, UFH is also much better placed to take upon itself access and retention tasks of
the kind that UWC has successfully implemented.

6.1.4 Efficiency
A Project Management Committee (PMC) was established, and conducted monthly meetings over the
duration of the project, in order to monitor the very stringent timeframe and to ensure the successful
attainment of all the predetermined outcomes. All relevant issues pertaining to each deliverable were
closely scrutinized and any deviations recorded by the Secretariat. However, from the outset of the
SANTED programme, the delay in the appointment of a Project Leader placed undue constraints on
the achievement of the respective objectives. The original two-year project timeframe had been
reduced to a 12 month period. A combination of shortage of in-house staff to manage and coordinate
the project, and the very pressed timeframe, led UFH to engage external expertise to take on the
management and coordination of the SANTED project. This appears to have been an effective and
efficient solution, and the project has been well mainstreamed into and affected the design and
implementation of UFH’s administrative, reporting and monitoring procedures.

From a slow start with several delays, the organization of the project is now showing clear signs of
good progress in terms of increased responsiveness to meet stakeholder demands with high levels of


                                                                                                     23
service, and the UFH at all levels is taking ownership of it. As a result, UFH is now sharing experience
and cooperating with UWC and UNIZUL, and in this way avoids reinventing what these other
institutions have already achieved.

6.1.5 Impact
UFH was in deep trouble at the time its SANTED proposal was initiated and eventually approved.
Stimulated by the support from DOE and Norway, a tremendous team building effort has taken place,
and staff of different departments started to communicate. This was new to the UFH administration.
SANTED has thus been catalytic in reintroducing confidence, pride and removing the feelings of
inferiority in the UFH workforce. Students interviewed by the Review Team suggested that the
transformation of UFH has been most encouragingly felt by them as well.

One may claim that UFH would have been forced to carry out the modernization and user-oriented
administrative reforms irrespective of SANTED in order to survive as a university, but being accepted
by Norad as an institution prepared to undergo severe “reform surgery”, led to a massive mobilization
of internal staff resources around a consensus that a solid and stable foundation must be in place
before the rest of the structure is added on top of it.

It seems fair to say that without Norway’s support it would definitely have taken much longer to reach
these goals, and UFH could not have survived unless such structural reforms were implemented.
SANTED has helped accelerate the restructuring process, and to catapult UFH into areas that no-one
at UFH had thought of and, to provide oportunities for staff to be trained in using hardware and
software so as to achieve much better utilization of the various university equipment.

Since SANTED occurred in the context of an established UFH plan (SP2000), it had a much better
chance of contributing to success at a systemic level than had it been an isolated initiative. Impacts
are described in more detail for each of the three departments that the SANTED project has focused
on in Annex 8. Here is a summary:

The Finance Department
The new up-to-date ITS system has had a significant impact including the alignment of the various
operational activities/functionalities to the ITS Financial sub-system. This new manual will add
significant value to the operational aspects in the Finance Department and will also be marketed to
other institutions as a best practice SANTED product.The Budget Control Process has been
addressed, with the establishment of a Budget Review Committee.
The Human Resources Department
All HR policies have been reviewed in terms of current labour legislation and embraced by a wide
spectrum of stakeholder groups and approved. Extensive individual designed training was conducted
by an ITS expert in HR administration to meet each individual staff members’ capacity needs. A
comprehensive Employment Equity Plan (EEP) was duly approved and implementation thereof will be
monitored by the HR Department. In sum, the process led to much improved internal communication,
an ability to handle criticism, a more open dialogue, and ability to identify departmental training needs.
Administration Department
Implementation of the “Archiving and Retrieval” system has been delayed due to the institution’s
process of outsourcing the document management activities. A comprehensive policy manual
Examinations Operational Procedures has been compiled. The ITS Student iEnabler Web
Application/Registration System and the ITS Enquiry Module have been implemented. By 2006 it is
expected that student waiting lines and waiting times for procedural services shall have been
significantly reduced. In an endeavour to enhance the administrative personnel project management
skills, staff were registered and exposed to a “Practical Projects Management” programme which is
presented by the Johnson and Johnson Leadership Development Institute which is an internally
accredited division.

6.1.6 Sustainability
The political economy of UFH is now stabilized, but still vulnerable with very constrained margins of
flexibility. With tight margins many important activities are postponed. Therefore, SANTED has
become a major contributor to facilitate faster and more effective transformation towards a sustainable
future. The achievements notwithstanding, UFH will need significant funding in order to fullfill the
challenging institutional capacity enhancement in a university-wide context it has embarked upon.




                                                                                                       24
UFH has to tie the various administrative- and service departments to service level agreements with
set expectations with the faculties.

This funding requirement will be even more critical if UFH is to succeed in implementing all the
ambitious expansion projects that require new land and renovation of old buildings to satisfy the needs
they are determined to be used for. However, the success in creating trust and enthusiasm for the
transformation activities they have committed to and gone a long way in achieving also suggest that
UFH will be an institution that will benefit from the new formula for allocating tertiary education funds,
and at the same time be an attractive partner for a dynamic employment creating industrial sector in
East London.

6.2     SANTED at University of Zululand

6.2.1 Background
University of Zululand (UNIZUL) is located in the rural north of Kwa-Zulu Natal. It was established in
1960 as a College. In 1970 it became a fully-fledged university. Given its rural location, the University
continues to play a role in broadening access to higher education in a part of the Kwa-Zulu Natal
Province which was not well served.

However, the University, like many other historically disadvantaged institutions, experienced
significant fluctuations and decline in student numbers over the past 25 years. The apparent
unpredictable fluctuation in student numbers made planning and financial management difficult. At the
same time, large student debts were accumulated. As the preponderance of students at this University
come from disadvantaged school systems, it often takes them longer than the minimum period to
complete their studies. The State funding system does not take this handicap into account and the
outcome is reflected adversely in the allocation of funds. UNIZUL thus experienced a decline in its
financial situation and was plagued by management/governance disruptions. This impacted not only
on teaching, learning and research, but also on the quality of the day-to-day life of students and
personnel.

The University was in a serious financial crisis with a debt burden of R141 million and South African
Generally Accepted Accounting Standards were not being followed. In addition, attention was drawn
to concerns about the financial viability of the University. Thus, the immediate priority for all concerned
was to ensure the future viability of the University. This situation, together with the fact that students
mostly come from indigent environments and subsequently pay greatly reduced tuition and board and
lodging fees, has forced the University to launch a vigorous fundraising programme in order to
augment its resources and to generate additional funds to finance its many special projects aimed at
community upliftment.

6.2.2 The Restructuring and Turnaround Begins
The DOE had been acutely aware of the need to find lasting solutions to the problems experienced by
UNIZUL and has now addressed this as part of the overall restructuring of the higher education
system. It includes refocusing the mission of UNIZUL to become a comprehensive institution offering
technikon-type programmes, as well as a limited number of relevant university-type programmes, with
its future growth linked to the Richards Bay region. This new orientation has the full support of the
Cabinet.

The academic programme profile of UNIZUL at the time of the SANTED Business Plan preparation
was not responsive to the development needs of the region, especially for increased opportunities for
technikon type vocational certificate, diploma and degree level qualifications, to support and sustain
the industrial developments associated with the growth of the Richards Bay area. The rural location of
the institution also allows exciting possibilities for teaching and research to be closely linked to
development challenges, through, amongst others, service learning and other forms of community
service.

In order to succeed with the major task of re-shaping and strengthening the academic offerings of
UNIZUL, a turnaround strategy was immediately needed to restore its financial stability, and was
approved for immediate implementation. It was shown to depend largely on the development of
efficient and effective administrative, management and financial systems which became the focus
areas of the SANTED project. However, another key to the ‘turnaround’ of the University was resolving


                                                                                                        25
the under-capitalisation of the University. This would eventually lead to the injection of major
resources to the University. Policies, systems and processes needed to be shown to be in place
before major new investment could be made.
The process of institution transformation began during 2002 and a substantive Vice-Chancellor has
been appointed and is committed to continue the work that was initiated by a temporary highly
experienced VC.

The purpose of this SANTED project was therefore to lay the foundation for a viable academic
organisation, through building capacity in the establishment of sound administrative, management and
                                                                                s
financial systems. It was implemented in parallel with three of the University' initiatives already in
progress (See the Business Plan of 2003 in Annex 9 for details):
(i)                                s
         The University of Zululand' internal turnaround initiatives
(ii)    The Department of Education’s contribution to turnaround activities
(iii)   Refocus of the vision and mission of the University

6.2.3       The SANTED Project Activities
As the focus was on ensuring a functional organisation that operates within financially sustainable
parameters to facilitate the strategic aspects of the University’s refocusing towards becoming a
comprehensive institution, the SANTED activities included:
    • stabilising the institution;
    • the identification and analysis of all material factors pertaining to the current situation at the
        University as well as to the future vision for the University;
    • work sessions with representative groups of stakeholders in each of the appropriate focus
        areas to facilitate the above analysis;
    • development of an executive report which summarises the needs for institutional changes;
    • changing and improving the support service structures of the University in line with the newly
        defined core academic business.

The project was to run through to the end of 2004/early 2005 with a SANTED budget contribution of R
5 million (amounting to less than 5% of the overall budget for refocusing the vision and mission of
UNIZUL over a three year period).

The Director of SANTED was responsible for monitoring the overall progress according to normal
procedures for the SANTED Programme. Disbursements would only occur on the successful
attainment of the a priori agreed performance indicators in terms of defined outputs. Based on the
Synopsis Report on the implementation of the Operational Development Plan (ODP) of 2005, and
interviews with stakeholders at UNIZUL, the Review Team is led to draw the following conclusions5:

6.2.4 Relevance
In order to succeed with the reshaping and strengthening of the offerings of UNIZUL, investment
needs to be made in building institutional capacity and a committed and competent leadership. As a
first stage in this development, the necessary administration and managerial structures, policies and
processes essential to support teaching, learning, research and community service must be put in
place.

The Project is one of the institutional projects that are identified as appropriate in terms of the overall
                      s
SANTED Progamme' aims and specifically in relation to the institutional capacity building component
thereof. Considering the precarious state of UNIZUL and the sector-wide reform in South Africa at the
time of SANTED being formulated, it must be concluded that the UNIZUL SANTED proposal was
HIGHLY RELEVANT.

6.2.5 Effectiveness
It is interesting to observe from the impacts described in section 6.2.5 below that the measures
initiated and implemented in all nine areas where frustration and poor performance was being
observed, have yielded results very much in line with the objectives of the SANTED project for
UNIZUL. Furthermore, the Review Team concludes based on the meetings at UNIZUL that the mutual
interactions and communication between staff responsible for implementing the tasks in each of the

5
  See Annex 9 for a detailed synopsis from UNIZUL, the 2003 Business Plan, and the Detailed report of the Review Team, upon
which this chapter, conclusions and recommendations are based.



                                                                                                                        26
nine project areas now communicate and exchange experience and in this way produce synergies and
a joint UNIZUL impact and effectiveness that goes beyond the sum of the impacts of each indiviual
project component. Staff and management now clearly see the extent to which all these operational
fields are mutually dependent on the performance of the others, and thus find it in their own interest
that other fields also do well. Visible gains have already been made in areas such as governance and
student debt recovery.

6.2.6 Efficiency
Efficiency has been achieved in implementation of the institutional upgrading and reforms from the
effective collaboration with UFH which has been facilitated by SANTED. As a result, UNIZUL could
draw on the UFH experience and avoid time-consuming re-invention of cost-efficient and effective
approaches to deal with the many challenges in the nine administrative areas discussed under impact
in section 6.2.5 below. SANTED has contributed significantly to the overall restructuring and reform
which again has facilitated productivity enhancing attitudes among staff who now appear to take
ownership of the turnaround process of UNIZUL. Staff have now taken on an attitude of user-
friendliness and service orientation.

The part elimination of the high risk situation caused by the financial crisis has provided for staff
confidence, and staff now sees the importance of financial efficiency as a basis for overall
sustainability of the institution.

6.2.7 Impact
The Review Team observed that there has been CONSIDERABLE PROGRESS AND IMPACT in
accordance with stated project goals in all the nine sectors where institutional capacity development
and effectiveness was to be achieved (for details see Annex 9):

With regard to academic administration, new academic policies and procedures have been approved.
Registration planning was finalised end-2004 and implementation of improved procedures took place
in 2005.

A proper finance governance structure has been implemented. The University’s debt collection policy
has been revised and implemented. Debt collection has improved considerably. Proper budget
management has been implemented centrally with departmental budget management improvements
underway. A risk assessment of the Finance Department was completed and improved processes
implemented. In sum, the University’s overall financial situation has been turned around from an
operating deficit to an operating surplus.

In the Human Resources area, the staff transfer from the closed-down satellite Durban-Umlazi campus
has been completed, and a new HR structure has been developed and recruitment to fill high-priority
positions is underway. The HR policies and procedures were approved.

The equipping of new Information Communiation Technology ICT offices is about finalized. A
comprehensive selection process for new University business systems is ready for implementation in
2005. A new network infrastructure tender process has been completed and implementation
commenced January 2005. The integrated data-cleanup is well underway.

As regards Catering and Student Services, the SANTED project has contributed to improved food cost
control. The Student Services Department has completed an internal Business Plan. The “Keep Unizul
Clean Campaign” is successfully launched and should continue as an on-going project. Improved
financial monitoring and control mehcanisms for Sports & Recreation have been put in place and the
recruitment of additional staff for the Financial Aid Bureau was completed and service improvement
has been visible.

As for Facilities, an assessment of the Physical Planning and Works departmental structure was
completed and a new, specialised structure submitted. Outsourcing of the vehicle fleet is underway,
with a comprehensive tender process conducted.

With regard to the library, the Library roof repair project has been completed, which means no more of
the substantial flooding of the library floors which made studying there virtually impossible and
uncomfortable for a long period.



                                                                                                   27
For marketing, the overall strategic coordination project was completed for 2004, and an improved
2005 business plan addresses lingering shortcomings. Marketing policies and procedures were
approved, and a Marketing Committee established to co-ordinate University-wide marketing activities.
The new UNIZUL website was launched in February 2005.

Finally, with regard to the important area of security, a Crime Prevention Officer job specification has
been completed and the recruitment process is underway. A Campus Protection Forum has been
established, and a physical security improvement plan is being implemented. Residence access
control supervisors commenced work in January 2005.

6.2.8 Sustainability
It appears to the Review Team that UNIZUL’s leadership has taken on the turn around challenge and
given an all out effort to secure sustainability.

The debt crisis has been turned around and thanks to the massive recapitalization given by the DOE a
solid foundation for future success has been laid.Both politically and financially UNIZUL now seems to
be be well placed and can plan ahead as a national university with its major task being that of meeting
the demands for highly skilled labour in its region. The science education at the Richards Bay Campus
is an important element in this context. At the same time, one cannot disregard the challenges
resulting from UNIZUL’s rural location. Since many academics tend to form families with academic
spouses, one has to take into account the fact that it will be much more difficult to provide attractive
terms at a location where it is less likely that both spouses will be able to find jobs suitable to their
academic background. This raises the problem of recruitment and retention of staff.

6.3       Lessons from Capacity Building and Institutional Development

The Review Team concludes that SANTED stepped in with much needed financial support for key
uplifting activities at a critical time when both these institutions were at risk due to many mutually
reinforcing detrimental factors, and when few if any other donors were prepared to take the financial
risk. From this perspective SANTED has contributed genuine value added.

Key lessons that were learned from the organizational development projects on higher education
business turnaround (UFH and UNIZUL) are:

      •   A project management approach to delivery can be difficult to grasp for line managers and
          sufficient preparation time is required for project management capacity building;
      •   Leadership is key to the success of turnaround initiatives and any uncertainty on where an
          organisation is headed based on feedback (or lack thereof) received from the top can
          debilitate those responsible for implementation;
      •   For an institution such as Unizul, which is confronted with various management challenges on
          a daily, weekly and monthly basis, projects should be clearly defined and staggered in order to
          prevent delays in implementation;
      •   Strong management action is required in areas where delivery is not forthcoming;
      •   Regular monitoring and performance checking significantly increases the quality and tempo of
          work done;
      •   The in-built tension at higher education institutions between academic and administrative
          managers is a fact and needs to be addressed through joint planning initiatives and
          communication;
      •   The human aspects of change and turnaround as they transpire through capacity, adaptability
          and commitment are critical. If not sufficiently addressed from the start, they present a
          perpetual risk that can prevent long-lasting change from occurring within an organisation.
      •   Lessons learnt from organisational turnarounds have indicated that major organisational shifts
          take approximately three years to fully bed down into new work cultures and methods that are
          sustainable. Future interventions of an ODP nature might need to take a longer view on the
          support required.




                                                                                                      28
7.      Sub-regional Cooperation in SADC

7.1. Objective

The background for the SADC component in SANTED is described in chapter 3.4 above under the
rationale of the SANTED programme. The SANTED Business plan states that the SADC sub-regional
component aims at establishing and strengthening ties between higher education institutions within
the South African Development Community (‘SADC’) countries, in line with the SADC Protocol on
Education (see Annex 15).           It was stipulated that the projects selected under this component have
to cover some or all of the outputs emerging from the SADC Protocol, in particular:
     • To co-operate in the design of academic programmes, particularly in programmes that are
         jointly taught.
     • To establish links between and among institutions bilaterally and multilaterally, for purposes of
         joint or split-site teaching, and for other academic activities where appropriate.
     • To collaborate in the production of teaching and learning materials, such as textbooks,
         computer software and others.
     • To promote student and staff exchange programmes negotiated on a bilateral and multilateral
         basis.
The tentative budget for the SADC sub-regional component was set at NKR 9,487,500.

7.2. Selection of projects

A letter with guidelines signed by the Director-General Education was sent to the Vice-Chancellors of
all South African institutions in April 2001 inviting them to submit a proposal to be considered by the
SANTED Programme for funding. The guidelines had to guarantee that women would benefit from the
projects. A total of 28 proposals were received. Of these 28 proposals, 4 were eventually short-listed
to be considered for funding. The SANTED Advisory Committee used as selection criteria the main
objective and output areas for regional collaboration as mentioned in the SADC Protocol on Education
and Training. Before the end of 2001 three out of four of the projects could start their implementation.
The fourth commenced early in 2003 (ZAWECA) after a long re-orientation and re-formulation
process. The four selected and implemented projects are:

    The NEW (Namibia EduardoMondlane Wits) Institutional Co-operation Project; a collaboration
    between the Witwatersrand University, the University of Namibia and the Eduardo Mondlane
    University in Mozambique, with a budget of R 6.5 million.
    Port Elizabeth Technikon’s Health Sciences Co-operation with SADC Countries (PET); a
    collaboration between the Port Elizabeth Technikon (since 1 January 2005 named the Nelson
    Mandela Metropolitan University) and the Evelyn Hone College in Zambia, with a budget of R 0.7
    million.
    Nurse Leadership Development in Angola (UNISA Project); involving a collaboration between the
    University of South Africa and the University Agostinho Neto in Angola, with a budget of R 1.0
    million.
    The HIV/Aids Peer Education Project (ZAWECA); a collaboration involving the University of
    Western Cape and the University of Zambia, with a budget of R 1.8 million.
Late in 2002 a fifth project was added:
    The SASVO-SANTED SRC Workcamp 2003; a project of the University of Pretoria involving
    student leaders from the SADC region, with a budget of R 0.2 million.

This project did not originate from the selection process that was carried out in 2001 but was added to
the portfolio of SADC projects on different grounds at the request of the Department and with the
agreement of the Norwegian Embassy.

7.3. Objectives of the SADC projects

This section briefly lists the specific objectives of the various SADC projects and sub-projects. This is
necessary as background for addressing the main questions in the ToR in an effective and meaningful
way. These main review questions are be dealt with below in the sections 7.4 – 7.8. A comprehensive




                                                                                                       29
account of the projects’ achievements, lessons learnt and challenges as identified by the Review
Team is presented in Annex 17.

7.3.1 The NEW (NamibiaEduardoMondlaneWits) Institutional Co-operation Project
The NEW project was implemented in two phases. The first one started in 2001. The purpose of this
phase was two fold:
1. To build and strengthen existing relationships with the two partner institutions in Namibia (Unam)
   and Mozambique (UEM) through a series of workshops and exchange visits, and;
2. To develop a detailed business plan for academic collaboration between the three partners

The NEW project has sub-projects in three subject disciplines.

Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences (APES)
There are two broad objectives in this subject area. Firstly, to jointly produce a programme for a joint
Masters of Science degree in Rangelands Management based at the University of Namibia and to
agree a way forward with regard to joint implementation of this degree. Secondly, to pilot
undergraduate team teaching courses on Inhaca Island in Mozambique.
Economics
There are four objectives in this subject area. Firstly, to jointly develop a Masters programme in
Economics at the Universities of Eduardo Mondlane and Namibia. Secondly, to support high level staff
development at the Universities of Eduardo Mondlane and Namibia. Thirdly, to encourage
collaborative research and sharing of research. Finally, to review the undergraduate offering at the
University of Eduardo Mondlane. These inputs rely heavily on Wits’ long expertise in delivering
Economics programmes at the undergraduate and postgraduate level.
Engineering
The following are the main objectives in the Engineering component. Firstly, to jointly develop an
undergraduate curriculum for the University of Namibia. Secondly, to assess the offering of the
University of Eduardo Mondlane and to advise on issues of accreditation and harmonization. Thirdly,
to assist the University of Eduardo Mondlane in the adequate provision of teaching and learning
materials. Fourthly, to promote human resource development of academic staff, and; finally, to initiate
a staff exchange programme between the three institutions.

7.3.2 Port Elizabeth Technikon’s Health Sciences Co-operation with SADC Countries (PET)
The goal of the project is to help SADC countries to upgrade the qualifications of health academics
and professionals by providing opportunities to obtain higher qualifications through the Port Elizabeth
Technikon. The qualifications offered are B Tech post diploma in: a) Radiography, b) Environmental
Health, and c) Biomedical Technology. The B Tech is offered by means of distance tuition as well as
contact lectures. A further objective is to assist, in particular, education institutions in SADC countries
to upgrade their staff so that they in time will be able to offer these higher qualifications. Apart from
increased numbers of graduates with advanced studies, the project’s Business Plan mentions the
establishment of research projects and increased contacts with other countries in Africa as envisaged
outputs.

7.3.3 Nurse Leadership Development in Angola (UNISA Project)
The main purpose of the project is to develop and empower Angolan nurses as leaders in the health
field for Angola, and that these leaders will upon completion of their degrees, continue to develop and
empower the nurses in Angola. The development of nurse leadership forms a foundation for the
improvement of nursing education and the strengthening of health service delivery.

7.3.4 The HIV/Aids Peer Education Project (ZAWECA)
The goal of the ZAWECA project is to enhance institutional collaboration between UWC and the
University of Zambia through developing, implementing, and evaluating appropriate university-based
HIV/AIDS peer education programmes. It aims to equip students on both campuses with relevant life
skills, enabling them to negotiate safer sex practices in order to reduce HIV/AIDS transmission.

7.3.5 The SASVO-SANTED SRC Workcamp 2003
This project was an ad-hoc funding arrangement at the request of the Department of Education and
with the agreement of the Norwegian Embassy. The project aimed to enable the South African
Students Volunteer Organisation (SASVO) to spread volunteer work by involving student leaders from
the SADC region. The SANTED programme funded on a pilot basis a workcamp in December 2003.


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7.4. Relevance

The critical question regarding relevance is: Are these the right projects for achieving the programme
objectives? In order to answer this question, the review analysed the extent to which the projects aim
to achieve outputs defined in the SADC Protocol on Education and Training (Article 7, Higher
Education), and to what extent the projects aimed to establish and strengthen ties between higher
education institutions in line with South Africa’s policies for transforming higher education during the
programme period from 2000 to 2005. The review also looked into the criteria that have been used to
select projects for this component, and the argumentation for selecting the SADC projects.

Of the four projects, the NEW project scores high on the main objective and on all four of the output
areas as it involved curriculum development, joint teaching activities, the production of teaching and
learning materials and the exchange of staff and students. The proposal addressed the aims of the
SADC Protocol directly. The agreement on institutional co-operation in a number of key areas was
already established at the highest institutional level. Staff development and research collaboration
activities have been added which will contribute to longer-term institutional collaborations.

The ZAWECA scores high on the main objective as well as on staff and student exchange. It
addressed a key social problem in co-operation with other SADC institutions. Strictly speaking the
peer education programme is not an academic programme, but it lays the foundation for academic
collaboration in various academic disciplines. Quite a number of conference presentations were made
and articles written on the project.

The Unisa project was assessed as able to make a real contribution to the region and accommodate
the SADC Protocol. It would empower a SADC university. However, the results of the project make
clear that the approach (distance education) might not have been the most appropriate for achieving
the specific objectives. The Business Plan also does not mention institutional collaboration as an
important vehicle for project implementation.

The Committee considered the PET Project to be an interesting project that seemed viable. Strong
points were that it was an existing project that seemed to be working and it served a need in the
region. However, in its implementation it has very little to offer in terms of the SADC protocol output
areas. It has established contacts within various SADC countries but not with the intention to establish
institutional collaborations.

The Review Team is of the opinion that the SANTED Advisory Committee has performed the
assessment and selection in an accountable and professional manner. Many of the 28 proposals were
not appropriate or too rudimentary. This may partly be explained by the fact that the letter of invitation
and the accompanying guidelines were very concise and provided interested parties with little or no
instructions for the formulation of proposals.

The four proposals that were eventually recommended by the Committee and selected by the DoE
and the Norwegian Embassy, do indeed qualify according to the set aims and outputs areas of the
SADC component. Four years later we may conclude that the selection of the NEW and ZAWECA
projects was justified and a good choice. The reservation that the Committee had with regard to the
institutional co-operation scope of the PET project has proven to be correct. In the case of the Unisa
project, an external advice or short exploratory study could have helped to assess the feasibility of a
project like this.

7.5. Effectiveness

Based on the project documents, progress reports and interviews with project implementers and the
SANTED office, the Review Team assessed the quality and impact of the four SADC projects in terms
of facilitating increased cooperation based on the SADC Protocol of Higher Education and Training. In
particular the Team looked for indicators of increased cooperation, and analysed the influence of
project objectives and set-up on establishing and sustaining cooperation between institutions. A
testing question was whether the SANTED support could be regarded as the sine qua non for the
relationships that are being built through the projects.




                                                                                                       31
Only one of the four projects was based on an existing collaboration, i.e. the PET project, but it is not a
collaborative project in the true sense. Apart from existing relationships with EHC in delivering the B
Tech programmes, the other contacts that were established in the course of the project were made to
market the PET programmes and attract students. The SANTED funding helped to finance the tutoring
of students in their home countries or in South Africa. It is not far fetched to think that SANTED was
only one of the possible sources of funding for this project. Considering the topic and discipline, the
Review Team thinks that PET could also have found the necessary funds elsewhere.

For the NEW project the SANTED funding was essential. Collaboration agreements had been signed
between Wits, UEM and Unam prior to the NEW project, plans had been discussed, but no activities
had been undertaken. Although Wits has funds to engage in collaborative arrangements, Unam and
UEM are less well off. The latter institutions do not have spare funds to finance their part of a
collaboration project. Although both universities do get donor support for collaborations, this is
commonly earmarked for collaborations with Northern partners. Despite the fact that many of these
programmes propagate regional and South-South cooperation, in practice it seldom happens. The
Team was told at UEM that SANTED is a unique programme, precisely because it is set up to
stimulate institutional collaboration in the region. This is one of the strong points of the programme.

Through the NEW project good relations and collaboration evolved between the staff involved in the
APES and Economics sub-projects. The desire to continue the co-operation is shared by the partners
in these sub-projects. The Engineering sub-project is not at that level (yet). Strong relations have also
been built at the level of the project administration. For Wits the project has provided an opportunity to
be more strategic about its collaborative activities and also to pilot systems of collaboration and the
management thereof. It has enriched Wits’ work in various areas.

The Unisa and ZAWECA proposals aimed to establish new collaborative relationships between
institutions. The ZAWECA collaboration would not have taken off without the SANTED programme.
Because of the topic, the project activities as such could probably have found external funds from
other sources. However, the establishment of a collaboration between the two institutions needed a
type of funding which focused on collaboration in the first place and on content in the second.

Unfortunately, the Unisa project has failed to establish good collaboration with the University
Agostinho Neto. According to Unisa there has been a lack of commitment on the part of that institution.
On the other hand, the lack of co-operation may also find its origin in the design of the project and the
approach taken. There is little doubt that SANTED funding has been instrumental in getting this project
off the ground.

Summing up, for three out of four of the SADC projects the SANTED funding was a sine qua non to
undertake collaborative activities within the SADC region. The main reason for this is the poor
resource base of the universities in the surrounding SADC countries. Without external funds they
cannot collaborate. In two SADC projects relatively strong foundations have been laid for continued
collaboration that is based on mutual interests and shared commitment. Credit must be given to the
NEW and ZAWECA projects. In the NEW project, good foundations for further collaboration have been
laid for two of the three discipline areas.

7.6. Efficiency

The SANTED programme is a programme with a limited set of rules and regulations for programme
and project implementation. In the SADC component there are no formats for the formulation of a
proposal, a business plan, a progress or financial report. There are no guidelines for drawing up a
budget, nor guidelines for costs that are reimbursed. It is implicitly understood that the management
costs should not exceed 10% of the total project budget. Similarly, it is understood that the institutions
follow institutional or national guidelines for the costing of travel expenses and the purchase of
equipment and materials, and that the partners do not cost fees for the time inputs of the South African
partners.

There are no contracts that stipulate the terms of the contractual arrangement. The business plan is
accepted as the ‘plan of operations’ sealed with a covering letter in which the ‘contractor’ accepts to
carry out the project according to this business plans. The agreements with the SADC partners are left
to the SA institution.


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SANTED is a fairly small programme which started off as a programme with an uncertain future in
terms of possible continuation after the agreed period. Therefore the administrative bureaucracy at
programme level was kept to a minimum. An intense hands-on management of the projects by the
SANTED Office compensated for the lack of detailed instructions and manuals to guide the
programme management and project implementers. Workshops were organized in which project
partners were to discuss and agree on the scope of their collaboration and contents of the business
plan. In some projects it took several workshops to come to an agreement. The SANTED Office was
present at all workshops. This arrangement has worked very well and can be regarded as one of the
strengths of the programme.

The SANTED Project Director visited the collaborating partners at regular intervals, the SA partners
twice a year, and the SADC partners once a year. The hands-on management provided the necessary
backing and guidance to the institutions and the project implementers, solved problems where needed
and facilitated good relationships between the participating institutions, and between the SA
institutions and the Department of Education. All participants in the programme spoke highly of the
professional support rendered by the SANTED Office staff and their commitment to the projects in the
programme. Compared to other programmes the management costs are fairly high (10.8% of the total
programme budget), but taking into account the positive impact of the SANTED Office on the
implementation of the programme the Review Team thinks that the expenses were worth it.

The hands-on management by the SANTED Office also includes a possible risk: Its success very
much depends on the commitment and attitude of the SANTED staff involved and their capacity to
establish and maintain good relations with all stakeholders involved. So far, the programme has been
very lucky with the professional quality and social personality of the SANTED Office Director and other
staff. The same management concept may not work all that well with staff that do not possess the
same qualities. This risk has suddenly and unexpectedly surfaced with the tragic recent death of the
SANTED Project Director.

Similar observations can be made about the management at the project level. The administration and
management of the NEW project is well organized. Essential is the role of the full-time co-ordinator at
Wits who co-ordinates all internal and external contacts of the project, monitors the progress in the
sub-programmes and co-ordinates the financial administration. The co-ordinator follows-up on
financial matters when necessary and prepares the progress reports for the NEW project. The NEW
co-ordinator acts in a similar way as the SANTED office for the SANTED programme as a whole. Also
the NEW co-ordinator is very committed and professional, and her role and inputs are highly
appreciated by the institutions and staff involved in the NEW project.

The SADC partners have accepted the tight financial control exerted by Wits once they understood
that Wits is held accountable for all the project funds. They have to submit financial reports at regular
intervals, and the NEW co-ordinator makes sure that this happens in time. Requests for new funds by
the SADC partners are not honoured unless they have properly accounted for the money they have
previously received. The co-ordinators at UEM expressed their satisfaction with this system and
approach. The only bottleneck is the slow transfer of money, which seems to be a banking problem.
The Review Team has no information on the management arrangements in the other SADC projects.

An issue that affects all SADC projects is the ‘buying of time’ of the staff members at the SADC
counterpart institutions. Because of the under-resourced status of these institutions, staff members
usually have side jobs to supplement their meagre salaries. If they have to perform activities over and
above their agreed workload they expect to be compensated or incentivized. Involvement in projects
like the SADC projects is regarded as an extra activity. There is no common policy among institutions
and donors to deal with this issue. Some accept it as a matter of fact, others refuse to give in to this
practice.

It may be advisable to call for the advice of external experts in those cases where the Advisory
Committee feels not capable enough to properly assess the merits of a proposal or where it has
doubts about the feasibility of its implementation. The Team was surprised by the fact that in the final
selection of projects and the approval of the business plans the DOE had to solicit the agreement of
the Norwegian Embassy. The Review Team assumed that in a delegated programme like SANTED,
the DOE would carry the full responsibility for the proper implementation of the programme including



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the selection of projects and partners. When asked about this by the Review Team, the DOE
expressed not to have any problems with the management arrangements in the programme. As a
matter of fact, the relationships between the DOE and the Norwegian Embassy are excellent and the
discussions about projects and partners between DOE, SANTED Office and the staff at the Norwegian
Embassy had been very constructive and fruitful.

7.7. Impact

It is still early to be able to assess the impact of the SADC projects on the participating institutions and
the higher education sectors in the countries involved. The projects have barely been completed and
some of them had a very short lifespan. At this point in time we can only speculate about expected
longer-term effects. The major impact that all four projects will have is on the staff and students who
have been involved in the projects. They have been exposed to situations and opportunities that were
unknown to them before. It affects their knowledge base and professional as well as personal outlook.
In the long run the effects of this will trickle down to the research that is being undertaken, the curricula
that are being taught and the networks that are being established.

The SA partners have learned how to run collaboration projects with counterparts in the SADC region
and can use this experience in setting up new projects. They also have learned that they are not
involved in the projects just to give, but also to receive. This is a great stimulus for continued
collaborations in the region. The curricula that have been developed and which are meant to involve
joint-teaching or split-type teaching, are expected to increase the exchange of staff and students and
will therefore contribute to further academic and social integration in the region. Since the greatest
interest of most academics is doing research, the established contacts will no doubt lead to joint
research activities. This will further boost capacity building at the institutions and probably enhance the
content relevance of the research that is being carried out.

The projects had to submit progress reports twice a year, a narrative report complemented with a
financial report. The Review Team noticed that the business plans and progress reports contain few
quantitative indicators to measure the progress of the project. This makes it virtually impossible to
determine the impact/success/failure of a project in exact terms.

7.8     Sustainability

The sustainability of institutional collaborations depends on many factors, some of which are easier to
control than others. Key words in sustainability are shared vision, shared interests, mutual benefits,
institutional and personal commitment, and adequate resources.

In most cases institutional collaborations start at the top in the form MoU’s between institutions or at
the bottom when academics from two institutions decide to get involved in a collaborative activity. For
achieving proper sustainability, it is necessary that the management gets the support and
commitment of the staff for a collaboration project or programme, and for the individual academic to
get the backing of his department and/or institutional management. In other words we are talking
about institutional commitment in a broad sense, involving all layers of the institution.

The NEW and ZAWECA projects have laid good foundations for continued institutional collaboration.
The management of the institutions have given their full backing to the collaborations, which augurs
well for continued collaboration.

At Wits, the NEW project can count on the backing of the institutional management and the
commitment of the staff involved, but the commitment from the intermediate level, that of the
department or faculty is weak or non-existent. In order to ensure the sustainability of the project, its
activities need to be properly integrated in the regular programmes and budgets of the departments,
and in the workloads of the staff. In other words, the project activities need to be institutionalized.

Also the ZAWECA project has been able to generate commitment at various levels, but also in this
case the institutionalisation of the activities still needs to be arranged. The Review Team does not
have sufficient information at hand to judge on the commitments of institutions and individuals involved
in the two other projects.



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As soon as partners are clear about the mutual benefits involved, which may seem unequal but which
are acceptable to both, the partnership is placed on a good footing. It seems that both in the NEW as
well as in the ZAWECA project the mutual benefit principle is developing roots. In the beginning some
of the Wits staff looked upon the projects as a form of technical assistance to their poor neighbours,
but now that academic programmes are being developed at the partner institutions and staff is being
trained, the perspectives of interesting collaborations in terms of teaching and research are dawning.

What may come out of the PET and Unisa projects is unpredictable. It is unlikely that they will result in
lasting institutional relationships. Benefits of a mutual nature were not explicitly intended. The end
result of the Unisa project more or less reflects the PET situation although originally the project aimed
for broader mutual benefits.

When it comes to financial sustainability, the projects do have a challenge. The majority of the
institutions in the SADC region are poor, donor dependent and spend most of their budgets on staff
salaries. The masters degree programmes developed in the NEW projects are being integrated in the
academic programmes of the institutions, which will ensure their continuation. The South African
universities will probably be able to cover the costs involved in joint and split-side teaching
arrangements, although the Review Team has not checked this with the institutions. The involvement
of UEM in the team teaching at Inhaca island in Mozambique continues to depend on external funding
unless the activity is integrated in a regular academic programme of the institution. For joint research
activities, publications, conference visits and the like, the SADC institutions do not have the funds.
Hence the collaborating partners will have to look for these funds elsewhere.

Now that the programme has come to the end of Phase I the question arises whether to continue with
the existing projects or give an opportunity to other initiatives, in other words to consolidate or to
renew. When asked about this, the DOE indicated that it plans to do both: consolidate what shows
potential for continued institutional collaboration and give the opportunity to other institutions to come
up with new proposals. The DOE would like to see that as a result of the SADC component long-term
partnerships between institutions in the region develop.

The Review Team fully supports this view of the DOE. There are examples of broad-based and
longer-term collaborations with potential to develop into real partnerships in the SADC portfolio: the
NEW and the ZAWECA projects. It would be befitting to give them support for another phase to
consolidate the results, which they have achieved to date and to expand and deepen the
collaboration. The other two projects do not seem to have a similar potential.



8.      SANTED Phase II

The goals of DOE for the transformation and development of the sector are presented in the National
Plan on Higher Education (NPHE) (2001). One of the four areas chosen by Norway for the agreed new
development co-operation period with South Africa for the period 2005-2009 is higher education and
research, and is based on this plan and the experience gained from the SANTED Phase I Programme
for 2001-2004. The SANTED II programme follows on from what has been achieved in SANTED I, and
aims to heighten these achievements.

Section 2 of NPHE underlines the need for increased participation and graduation rates from a
broader social base. It highlights the need to shift the balance in enrolments between arts and
sciences, and emphasizes the need for greater equity in the sector, particular for black and women
students . Although significant gains have been made in these areas between 2000 and 2004, access
and retention of non-traditional students will remain a major challenge in the sector for a long time to
come, and therefore also in phase 2 of SANTED. One or two intervention project in this area will be
continued during the second funding period. These projects can cover broader issues that impact on
student access and retention and, more importantly, success through the system.

Another major goal of NPHE is the restructuring of the higher education sector through institutional
mergers and transformations, The institutional capacity needs to successfully complete this have been
highlighted and a second focus area for phase 2 will fall under the broad heading of capacity
development. Currently, the DOE can identify three distinct need areas where capacity development is


                                                                                                       35
essential for restructuring. The first concerns the processes necessary to establish effective National
Institutes of Higher Education in Mpumalanga and the Northern Cape. Secondly, some universities are
shifting from their traditional university offerings to becoming new comprehensive universities,
intended to offer both traditional university programmes and vocational higher education. Apart from
major organizational restructuring, and in some cases the merging of institutions, these changes
require major curriculum developments and the institutions will need significant assistance in these
endeavours. Thirdly, major project management skills are required by institutions involved in
acquisitions where campuses and/or institutions are incorporated. The DOE, after consulting with the
institutions concerned, will determine where the greatest needs are and will subsequently propose two
or three projects in this area. A Phase 2 objective will be to assist the DOE to complete the
restructuring process.

NPHE also highlights the need for a greater role in the SADC region. The 1997 SADC Protocol on
Higher Education has acted as a guide. This review has shown encouraging results from the SADC
projects under SANTED I, but also that this is a very time- and resource-consuming process where
much greater momentum is needed to reach the stated goals. These projects are particularly difficult
to initiate, as co-operation, trust and a working relationship have to be established between two or
more institutions that often function very differently. Nevertheless, these projects are vitally important
for the future development of the Region and should be pursued vigorously in SANTED II favouring
bids that include clusters of institutions. Thus the area of institutional co-operation in the SADC region
will form another focus area for phase II.

As a result, the majority of the projects will again fall into the 3 broad areas of
        access and retention
        capacity development
        SADC institutional co-operation in higher education

In defining projects in these areas, it will be desirable to build on what has been developed and to
raise the achievements to a higher level. Emphasis will be on institutional collaboration, not only for
SADC projects, but also between SA institutions on access and retention and capacity building
projects. All the SANTED I projects are located at individual institutions. No project is managed
centrally. In phase II it may be beneficial to establish some centrally run projects initiated by the DOE
that have national or provincial importance.

DOE and the SANTED Secretariat anticipate that in order to continue the work in the priority areas the
budget for phase II will be of a similar magnitude as that for phase I (of the order of R60 million).
During the five year period of the SANTED programme dramatic increases were experienced in basic
costs like air travel and accommodation and attempts should be made to anticipate these uncontrolled
escalations. This is a difficult task, not made any easier by fluctuations in the Rand over a five year
period. In addition, if an inflation rate of 7% over the five year period from 2000 is estimated, the funds
need to increase by 40% to have the same buying power in 2005. The overall budget should be made
as robust as possible. The anticipated breakdown of the phase II budget is given below, taking into
account the current level of the Rand. The SANTED (phase I) figures are given in brackets:

Access and Retention Projects:                     R15m              (R22m)
Capacity Development:                              R15m              (R12m)
SADC Co-operation:                                 R15m              (R12m)
Research:                                          R 4m              (R4.5m)
Management:                                        R 8m              (R5.3m)
Project Development Year:                          R 8m              (R0.0m)
TOTAL (16.5% increase)                             R65 million       (R55.8m)

9.      Conclusions and Lessons Learnt

9.1     Access and Retention
Key characteristics of the Upward Bound case at UDW can be summarized as a failure of a specific
project management model as follows:




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      •   Organizational stress, poor planning and poor financial administration (frequent
          underbudgetting), leading to incremental ad hoc decision-making and a “muddling through”
          approach,
      •   The necessary means to ensure that organizational learning from the project was
          disseminated were not established, very little coordination or contact between faculty
          members, administrative officers of the univeristy and the project, which initially had its own
          management structure,
      •   Project employees were on temporary contracts with little vested interest in the project,
      •   The institutional location of the project changed during implementation,
      •   Organizational change at UDW was fraught with political contestation, contributing to
          organizational stress and a lack of institutional insertion.
      •   Poor knowledge management of project activities due to the absence of proper filing systems
          to store project material and due to absence of institutional dissemination of project knowledge

In contrast, the Equitable Access case at UWC provides an example of considerable organizational
learning. Unlike at UDW, the project structure at UWC remained unchanged from 2001 to 2004 and
applied as such both to positions and individuals. Even in the many sub-projects that this SANTED
project was composed of, and where most of the appointees had temporary jobs, considerable
continuity was evident. The SANTED projects at UWC helped create a fairly durable structure and
system of institutional relationship that provided a basis for future enactment of policy decisions, and
an organization concerned with improving existing policies and practices and of one that can
effectively run, organize, implement projects and achieve success. The UWC SANTED sub-projects
operated alongside existing faculty or student support initiatives, complemented these initiatives and
therefore provided institutional management –through structured and face-to-face reports – indirect
insight into operational features. The main integral project features involved:

      •   Setting prior goals and achieving targets (see e.g. the “Equitable Access Performance
          Indicators 2001, 2002, 2003” report),
      •   Recruiting suitable individuals with extensive experience and sound reputations to initiate
          project activities,
      •   Providing them opportunity to develop ideas and to take limited initiative,
      •   Curbing their style when they became too adventurous,
      •   Maintaining the reporting lines that previously characterized old projects that were revamped,
      •   Trying to use technology advances to improve institutional efficiency and to centralize
          knowledge co-ordination, and
      •   Establishing a new co-ordination structure with a hierarchical command to oversee the
          implementation of SANTED sub-projects.

While the contrasts are stark so long as the comparison is limited to UDW’s UBEP only, one would
need to look to the progress and achievements taking place once the merger was completed and
stability assured at UKZN. This provided a basis for much more effective and efficient implementation
of the revised programme now named SUKAR, and which included much hard earned lessons from
UBEP and inputs from other institutions. In working towards these specific projects, SUKAR has
furthermore enabled fruitful working relationships to develop between staff at the two merging
universities, and in this way has made a substantial contribution to the success of the merger. With
this being the setting when SANTED Phase I ends and Phase II is to be decided on, one should not
jump to the conclusion that the experience and lessons learnt at these Durban campuses have been a
failure.

9.2       Institutional Capacity Building

By 1999, UFH had serious problems in its systems, procedures and practices in the academic,
financial and administrative sectors, whose ability to provide the services required of them had
collapsed due to negligence and mismanagement.

During the same period UNIZUL experienced a decline in its financial situation and
management/governance disruptions and serious student unrest. This impacted on teaching, learning
and research as well as the quality of the day-to-day life of students and personnel.




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The political economy of UFH is now stabilized, but still vulnerable with very constrained margins of
flexibility. With tight margins many important activities are postponed. Therefore, SANTED has
become an important contributor to facilitate faster and more effective transformation towards a
sustainable future. The achievements notwithstanding, UFH will need significant funding in order to
fullfill the challenging institutional capacity enhancement in a university-wide context it has embarked
upon.

Significant impacts are observed in all three UFH SANTED project capacity building areas of finance,
administration and human resource management reflecting gradual achievement of the stated goals,
and in ways that mutually reinforce each other and provide a sound basis for managing and
monitoring the challenging development plan for the next five years. With user-friendly services
departments in place, UFH is also much better placed to take upon itself access and retention tasks of
the kind that UWC has successfully implemented.

Similarly, at UNIZUL there has been considerable progress and impact in accordance with stated
project goals in all the nine sectors where institutional capacity development and effectiveness was to
be achieved with SANTED support. Both politically and financially UNIZUL now seems to be be well
placed and can plan ahead as a national university with its major task being that of meeting the
demands for highly skilled labour in its region. At the same time, one cannot disregard the challenges
resulting from UNIZUL’s rural location.

9.3     The SADC Components of SANTED

For three out of four of the SADC projects the SANTED funding was a sine qua non to undertake
collaborative activities within the SADC region. The main reason for this is the poor resource base of
the universities in the surrounding SADC countries.

In two SADC projects relatively strong foundations have laid for continued collaboration that is based
on mutual interests and shared commitment. The NEW and the ZAWECA projects are examples of
broad-based and longer-term collaborations with potential to develop into real partnerships. It would
be befitting to give them support for another phase to consolidate the results, which they have
achieved to date and to expand and deepen the collaboration. The other two projects do not seem to
have a similar potential.

Establishing good working relationships between project partners took a long time and the formulation
of the business plans was time consuming. The time investments were needed and paid off. The
workshops which brought the partners together to agree on the content of the project and work out
implementation agreements have been instrumental in this process.

The SANTED programme is a programme with a limited set of rules and regulations for programme
and project implementation. An intense hands-on management of the projects by the SANTED Office
compensated the lack of detailed instructions and manuals to guide the programme management and
project implementers. Workshops were organized in which project partners were to discuss and agree
on the scope of their collaboration and contents of the business plan. This arrangement has worked
very well and can be regarded as one of the strengths of the programme. The hands-on management
by the SANTED Office also includes a possible risk: its success very much depends on the
commitment and attitude of the SANTED staff involved and their capacity to establish and maintain
good relations with all stakeholders involved.

The proper embedding of project activities in existing organizational structures and programmes is a
key condition for effective implementation of project activities and ensuring sustainability of the project
results. Linking project objectives to interest areas of departments, faculties or institutions, helps to
ensure institutionalization of projects. Linking projects to academic interests of individual staff
members is stimulating the implementation of project activities but not necessarily the institutionalizing
of project results. Three out of four of the SADC have as yet not properly institutionalized the project
activities in their institutional set-up and programmes. This needs to be done if project results are to be
sustained.

It is important to note that relationships between institutions that seem unequal at first because of
obvious disparities in capacities and resources should be looked at from the perspective of potential


                                                                                                        38
for growth and development into mutually benefiting arrangements. This guiding principle helps to
keep the relationship on the right footing.

An issue that affects all SADC projects is the ‘buying of time’ of the staff members at the SADC
counterpart institutions. The Review Team feels that it is important the SANTED programme develops
a policy about the payment of incentives that is applied across the board and agreed upon with the
SADC counterpart institutions before projects are signed.

A very positive effect of the projects has been that the SA partners have learned how to run
collaboration projects with counterparts in the SADC region and can use this experience in setting up
new projects. They also have learned that they are not involved in the projects just to give, but also to
receive. This is a great stimulus for continued collaborations in the region.

The financial sustainability of the projects poses a challenge. The majority of the institutions in the
SADC region are poor, donor dependent and spending most of their budgets on staff salaries.


9.4     Overall Evaluation Conclusions

Based on the NPHE, the SANTED programme is considered highly relevant in terms of topics chosen
and project components selected for implementation. It is generally viewed as effective in terms of
goals achievement, and efficient in its organization of implementation and monitoring because it
combines the best of project and budget support, and because of its outsourcing of day-to-day
management of it from DOE to a Programme Secretariat located at CEPD. The budget support
element is that Norway allocates funds to DOE based on the SANTED agreement, while DOE decides
where to spend it based on its analysis and judgement of domestic needs and how to implement the
SADC Protocol. From this perspective SANTED is largely a demand driven programme. The Review
also concludes that significant impacts have been achieved in the areas stated as priority fields for
turning around the deteriorating administrative-, finance-, and human resources trends towards
sustainable operations, along with improved access and retention indicators, observed at the
SANTED-supported institutions catering to formerly disadvantaged students.

Compared to other programmes the management costs are fairly high (10.8% of the total programme
budget), but taking into account the positive impact of the SANTED Office on the implementation of
the programme the Review Team thinks that the expenses are justified.

The effectiveness and efficiency of the programme has been enhanced by the close and streamlined
relationship and reporting that evolved between the Programme Director, DOE and the Norwegian
Embassy in Pretoria. Such relationships often evolve more as a result of dedicated individuals than as
a result of formal structures.

The hands-on management by the SANTED Office also includes a possible risk: its success very
much depends on the commitment and attitude of the SANTED staff involved and their capacity to
establish and maintain good relations with all stakeholders involved. So far, the programme has been
very lucky with the professional quality and social personality of the SANTED Office Director and other
staff. The same management concept may not work all that well with staff that do not possess the
same qualities.

From a counterfactual perspective, the Review Team concludes that had it not been for the Norwegian
support, it would have been very difficult to find domestic or other donor support for the management
of the UFH and UNIZUL reform projects, because they were not very “glamorous”, but rather basic
“down to earth” set of capacity building and institution improving activities needed to turn around the
precarious situation of these clearly endangered institutions. The DOE formula for allocating to
universities applied at the time was unfavourable to such institutions.




                                                                                                      39
10.       Recommendations

The recommendations of the Review Team draw implications from the above conclusions and the
higher education priorities of the Government of South Africa for the 2005-2010 period, and suggest
adjustments/improvement to the following aspects in particular:

      1. The Business Plan for SANTED II should be followed as regards the overall budget stability
         for the three focus areas, but with a slight change of budget emphasis from access and
         retention projects towards capacity development and SADC co-operation because e.g. UFH
         and UNIZUL will be much better prepared to undertake effective access and retention
         activities as a result of their capacity development activities during SANTED I, while SADC
         cooperation at the institutional level is more demanding than was originally envisaged. The
         Review team also supports the use of funds for thorough project development in 2005 which
         will pay off in the form of more realistic project designs and implementation plans.

      2. The SANTED II Business Plan provides a well prepared process for selection of projects in
         line with the NPHE towards a sound and valuable balance between the continuation of old
         projects and the provision of support to new initiatives, including a set of carefully developed
         NPHE-derived criteria and procedures for the selection SADC projects. The SANTED Director
         must give this the highest priority in 2005.

      3. Although the SANTED I projects have come to an end, the institutions still have many
         challenges related to the goals set out in these projects. SANTED II should encourage
         proposals for adjustment/adaptation of SANTED I projects, expected to yield incremental
         benefits in line with the NPHE goals .

      4. The Review Team finds that the management and coordination of the Programme has been
         successful and should not be changed. However, some of the focus areas given increased
         emphasis in the SANTED II phase could be more management demanding, and therefore the
         proposed additional allocation for management appears to make sense. This issue has
         become particularly critical with the tragic loss of the Project Director.

      5. SANTED I has done good preparatory work in the development of objectives and outputs and
         the definition of results with corresponding indicators for judging performance. However, the
         Review Team would emphasize the need to try to further develop the performance indicators
         to monitor each SANTED II activity from the perpsective of a counterfactual approach; i.e.
         each project proposal should present an outlook in terms of the selected indicators for a
         realistic “without SANTEDII future”. This means attempting to do a “With – without”
         comparison as opposed to a “before and after” one. This requires preparing for measurement
         and monitoring from the very beginning of the SANTED II projects

      6. The Review Team finds that the format for a new draft of the Business Plan can follow that of
         the previous one, but with the addition that experience (what went wrong and why) from
         SANTED I be taken explicitly into account in the respective focus area projects for the
         institutional anchoring of projects. This will secure stakeholder ownership of the projects, intra-
         and inter-institutional communication and networking so as to create for synergies to result,
         and to present budgets, staffing and time schedules reflecting how to achieve such goals. A
         programme policy should be designed and implemented that will stress the non-financial (as
         opposed to the financial) benefits for the staff involved.

      7. The Review Team see clear complementarities/synergies between access and retention
         activities; successful implementation of the former providing for easier achievement of the
         latter. The Review Team therefore finds it natural to recommend increased emphasis on the
         retention activities at the cost of access activities in SANTED II. Since much funding has been
         allocated to recapitalize UWC and to finance relocation of faculties and to secure the merger
         into the UKZN, it is recommended that the retention activities in SANTED II continue at these
         two institutions to ensure sustainability.


                                                                                                         40
8. The experience from access activities in SANTED I must now be spread to other institutions
   for use in their access activity planning. This is now a prioritized activity that will take place
   regardless of SANTED funding in the future.

9. Access and retention challenges must not be underestimated. Institutions that are poorly
   prepared in terms of institutional capacity in the fields of finance, administration and human
   resources management, face poor odds with regard to successful implementation of access
   and retention activities. Once the SANTED I funded institutional capacity building at UNIZUL
   and UFH is well established and functional, access and retention activities are much more
   likely to succeed, and such proposals from these institutions should be judged from this
   perspective.

10. Capacity building projects should be expanded to provinces not included at present; e.g.
    Northern Cape. This however, needs to be worked out in details while assessing where the
    basic needs are and in what order the many different capacity needs ought to be addressed
    for effective and efficient implementation. SANTED II should consider direct DOE support to
    develop such projects in detail for subsequent implementation.

11. As regards the SADC component of SANTED, the Review Team recommends its continuation
    and, if resources permit, expand its coverage in terms of participating institutions and
    disciplines. In relation to this a higher level of formalization of procedures and practices should
    be introduced into the management and the administration of the programme and the
    projects..

12. Solicit external advice in the selection procedure of proposals when there are doubts about
    the feasibility of projects that are being proposed, and.to avoid adding projects to the SADC
    component on the basis of ad-hoc decisions rather than according to agreed assessment and
    selection procedures.

13. Consolidate the projects that show potential for establishing broad-based longer-term
    institutional collaboration by giving them the opportunity to continue. This specifically regards
    the NEW and ZAWECA projects.

14. To design and implement a programme policy on payment of financial or non-financial benefits
    for the SADC partners involved in projects. Preference should be given to the incorporation of
    non-financial benefits where needed, to ensure effective implementation of projects and
    sustainability of project results.




                                                                                                    41
List of References

CEPD (2002), “ Minutes of the SANTED programme Annual Meeting 29 November and 2 December
2002.”

Deloitte (2005), “Report of the independent auditors to the Fort Hare Foundation’s SANTED project for
period 1 January 2003 to 12 August 2005”

DOE (2000), “South Africa – Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme – Business Plan.”
Pretoria.

DOE (2002), “SANTED: Business Plans for 3 of the 4 SADC projects” (UNISA, Port Elisabeth Technicon,
University of Witwatersrand with University of Eduardo mondlane and University of Namibia)

DOE (2005), “Strategic Plan 2005/6 – 2007/8, and operational plans for 2005/6

MOE (2001), “National Plan for Higher Education.” Pretoria

MOE (2002), “Transformation and Restructuring. A New institutional landscape for higher education”

MOE (2004), “Statement on Higher Education Funding: 2004/5 to 2006/7”,

MOE (2004), “A new funding framework: How government grants are allocated to public higher education
institutions.”

Norad (2000), “Bevilgningsdokument. Tiltaksnr RSA 0050 Higher Education, Avtale RSA 99/320 South
Africa Norway tertiary education deelopment programme (SANTED programme)

SANTED (2001), “ Guidelines for Submission of Project Proposals for the SADC Component.”, SANTED
Directors Office, Johannesburg

SANTED (2003), “Proceedings of the SANTED formative Research Seminar “. 3-5 December 2003,
Magalies Manor, Magaliesburg
SANTED (2005), “Business Plan: Planning project on future co-operation in tertiary education
development between South Africa and Norway.”

University of Durban Westville (2002), “Upward bound, 2002. Evaluation Report.” by Cliff Malmcolm,

University of Durban Westville (2003), “The Upwardbound university-wide enrichment programme (UPB)”
Narrative report for the Upward bound programme

University of Durban Westville (2003), “The Uward bound university-wide enrichment programme (UPB)”
Tracer study draft proposal.

University of Fort Hare (2002), “SANTED Business Plan – Capacity building for Fort Hare”

University of Fort Hare (2002), “Draft SANTED proposal - Capacity building – UFH Support Services”

University of Fort Hare (2003), “Business Plan: Capacity building – UFH Support Services”

University of Fort Hare (2004), “SANTED project closure report – Executive summary report.”

University of Fort Hare (2005), “SANTED project – Comprehensive project closeout report”

University of Fort Hare (2005), “SANTED project – Executive summary report.”

University of Fort Hare (2005); “SANTED Capacity building projects at the UHF and UNIZUL.” Report on
the joint Review Workshop held in East London and at the Bisho Campus of UFH, 7-8 June 2005




                                                                                                        42
University of Kwazulu-Natal (2004), “SANTED Business plan for the implementation of a holistic access
policy at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.” 22. March 2004.

University of Kwazulu-Natal (2004), “SANTED progress report on the implementation of a holistic access
policy at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The SANTED-UKZN Access and retention project
(SUKAR project)”, 09 July 2004

University of Kwazulu-Natal (2005), “Graduate trends for the period 2000-2004.”

University of Western Cape (2000), “ Draft Strategic Plan 2001-2005”

University of Western Cape (2002), “Annual Report 2002”

University of Western Cape (2003), “Annual Report 2003”

University of Western Cape (2003), “Equitable Access: Annual Report 2003”

University of Western Cape (2003), “Equitable Access: Performance indicators 2001 – 2002 – 2003”

University of Western Cape (2005), “Matric performance and post matric destinations of learners on the
teacher and learner support.” Prepared by the Further Education and training institute.

University of Western Cape (2005), “SANTED programme project synopsis 2005.”

University of Western Cape (2005), “Reckognition of prior learning” Summarised report for SANTED
project, August 2005

University of Western Cape (2005), “Executive summary of post-graduate enrolment and throughput
2004/5”

University of Western Cape (2005), “Equitable access project review” August 2005

University of Witwatersrand (2005), “SANTED NEW: Project Update.”

University of Zululand (2003), “Capacity development: Administrative processes and financial
management” Strategy Partners Consortium

University of Zululand (2004), “Turnaround business plan 2004 and beyond.” Organizational Development
Project in association with SANTED.

University of Zululand (2005), “SANTED capacity building project and the University of Fort Hare and
University of Zululand “. Report on the joint workshop held in East London and the Bisho campus of the
University of Fort Hare, 7-8 June 2005.




                                                                                                         43
Annex 1: Terms of Reference for Programme Review

1   BACKGROUND

1.1     The policy on the restructuring of South African Higher Education
In 1994, the democratically elected South African Government had a legacy of almost 50 years of
apartheid legislation to repeal and amend. In order to deal with an irrationally structured higher
education system, a sound policy framework was needed. Consequently, a Presidential Commission
was established in 1995 (The National Commission on Higher Education - NCHE) to recommend to
government a new, rational and equitable higher education system for South Africa.

The NCHE reported its findings in August 1996 under the title A New Policy Framework for Higher
Education Transformation (NCHE, 1996). The three central objectives on which the policy proposals
were based are:
   • Increased participation, with a focus on issues of redress and equality. The report emphasizes
       that greater numbers of students will have to be accommodated; and these students will be
        recruited from a broader base of social groups and classes;
   • Greater responsiveness to societal interests and needs; and
   • Increased cooperation and partnerships in the governance structures and operations of higher
        education.
The subsequent White Paper of April 1997, entitled A Programme for the Transformation of Higher
Education, highlighted the following principles upon which the new higher education system would be
based:
        • equality and redress
        • democratisation
        • development
        • quality
        • efficiency
        • academic freedom and institutional autonomy
        • public accountability
The Higher Education Act was passed in late 1997 and was formulated around these principles. The
Branch of Higher Education (established in 1997) at the Department of Education (DoE) has been
addressing key areas of implementation of the Act.

In January 2000 the Minister of Education indicated that the Council of Higher Education (CHE) should
establish a Task Team to conduct a far-reaching review of the higher education system. It should
provide the Minister with a set of concrete proposals concerning the shape and size of the higher
                                                                                   s
education system. The National Plan on Higher Education (NPHE), the Ministry' response to the
                              s
Council on Higher Education' Report, was released in February 2001. The National Plan on Higher
Education outlines the framework and mechanisms for implementing and realising the policy goals of
the White Paper. Following the National Plan, the Ministry released its proposals In December 2003,
which were approved by the Cabinet, for the transformation and restructuring of the institutional
landscape of the higher education system. The proposals aim to consolidate the higher education
institutions through mergers and incorporation.


1.2    Constraints on the transformation of higher education 2000 – 2004
By 2000 the slow rate of change indicated that the success of the transformation had been limited.
Some institutions were finding it difficult simply to survive, with many of them operating in crisis mode.
There were a number of reasons for this:

•   Most institutions experienced a drop in student numbers from 1994 to 1999, and this resulted in
    considerable financial stress.
•   The international and local private higher education market grew rapidly in South Africa in the
    period 1995-2000 and this impacted on the public higher education sector.
•   Many students had difficulties paying the rising university student fees and many institutions
    accrued sizeable bad debts.
•   Astute financial management was required during this period, yet many institutions, the historically
    disadvantaged universities in particular, suffered from a low level of expertise in this area.


                                                                                                       44
•   Many institutions experienced management problems at all levels during this period.
•   The goal of greater cooperation in the sector, a theme that runs through all the policy documents,
    was virtually cancelled out by the increased competition between institutions for students and
    alternative funding sources.

A serious consequence of these developments was that the gap between the historically advantaged
and disadvantaged institutions failed to diminish and may in fact have widened in some cases. The
government’s plan of 2003 to restructure the sector aimed to erase this institutional divide. There was
a need for special support to promote institutional modernization so as to level out the differences in
capacity among South Africa’s higher education institutions.

In addition, measures of redress and changes to produce equal grounds for access to higher
education remained a challenge in democratic South Africa. Inequalities in access conditions and
differences in preparedness due to a low quality high school system, which hindered learners from
formerly disadvantaged groups in taking the leap to university, were identified as a major obstacle to
equity in higher education.

1.3      The SANTED Programme
In 1999, the Norwegian Embassy indicated that it was prepared to fund a development programme to
support the transformation of higher education in South Africa. The initial task was to identify a number
of limited, but strategically important areas where it would be possible to assist the South African
authorities in reaching their goals. The projects should be institutionally anchored. The historically
disadvantaged institutions were identified as having the greatest need for assistance. Three focal
areas were defined:

    -   access for and retention of people from previously disadvantaged groups
    -   capacity building of historically disadvantaged institutions
    -   sub-regional cooperation; implementation of the SADC protocol on higher education.

The South Africa-Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme was launched in November
2000. Two institutions were granted support under what were called student access and retention
projects. The “Equitable Access through Enrolment Management Project” at the University of Western
Cape (UWC) began in January 2001. The “Upward Bound University Wide Project” at the University of
Durban Westville (UDW) had effectively started in January 2000 with support from other donors. In
2002 a formative research project was added to the access and retention projects. Researchers from
UDW and UWC joined up with the University of Bergen to follow the institutions’ response to the
national reforms introduced in the sector.

Faced with new mandates and mergers following the release of the government’s restructuring plan,
many institutions needed special assistance in building the capacity for change. Two institutional
projects at the University of Zululand and the University of Fort Hare were selected. The aim was to
develop the institutions’ capacity in financial management, administration and planning in ways
suitable to the new era. These projects were launched in 2003.

The project’s third area of focus was on institutional collaboration within the SADC region, based on
the SADC protocol on higher education of 1997. After an open call for proposals, four out of 36 South
African universities were selected and cooperation projects were launched between 2002 and 2003.


Focus Area              Project (budget - R millions)         Institutions

Access and              Upward Bound (R7.0m)                  University of Durban Westville
Retention
                                                              University of Kwa Zulu Natal
                        SUKAR (R3.3m)                         University of Kwa Zulu Natal
                        Equitable Access (R10.0m)             University of the Western Cape
                        Formative Research                    University of Bergen
                        (R3.3m)                               University of Durban Westville
                                                              University of Kwa Zulu Natal
                                                              University of the Western Cape


                                                                                                      45
Capacity                Organisational Development (R         University of Zululand
Development             5.8 m)
                        SANTED Project (R 5.0)                University of Fort Hare

SADC Collaboration      SANTED Health Sciences                Port Elizabeth Technikon
                        (R 0.7m)                              Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
                                                              Evelyn Hone College, Lusaka
                                                              Health authorities in Botswana, Malawi
                                                              and Zambia
                        Unisa Nursing Sciences          (R    University of South Africa
                        1.0m)
                        NEW                                   University of the Namibia
                        (R 6.5m)                              University Eduardo Mondlane
                                                              University of the Witwatersrand
                        ZAWECA                                University of the Western Cape
                        (R 1.8m)                              University of Zambia



1.4     Programme Management
The Higher Education Branch of the Department of Education is responsible for the implementation of
the Programme under the Management Support Directorate. The CEPD (Centre for Education Policy
development) acts as the managing agency and charges an administration fee to administer the
funds. An agreement has been entered into for this purpose between the DoE and the CEPD.

A Programme Director approved by the DOE manages the programme. The Programme Director is
responsible for managing and co-ordinating all aspects of the programme on a day to day basis. This
includes regular field visits to the institutions benefiting from the programme. The Programme Director
is housed at the CEPD with the necessary administrative support. The Programme Director reports
regularly to the DoE.

The institutions report formally to the Programme Director at least twice a year. The reports are both
narrative and financial. The institutions are responsible for executing the approved projects in
accordance with the approved project proposals and budgets. Continued funding support for the
projects is dependent on satisfactory implementation of the projects and adequate reporting and
accountability structures being in place at the institutions.

The Department of Education has an Advisory Committee, which includes representatives from the
Higher Education Branch and such external persons that may be deemed appropriate. The Advisory
Committee has advised the Department on projects to be included in the programme.

1.5      A new phase for the SANTED programme
The Declaration of Intent between the Governments of South Africa and Norway was signed 31 March
2004. The Declaration reaffirms continued development cooperation for the period 2005 to 2009. The
operational objectives of the development cooperation are to consolidate democracy, strengthen
regional integration and collaboration by using South African expertise in the region and to build long
term sustainable relationships between the two countries. While the SANTED programme focuses
mainly on the first and second of the operational objectives, other programmes supporting bilateral
research cooperation and student exchange are aimed at the third. The Declaration of Intent also
confirms the continued support for implementation of the National Plan for Higher Education. Following
this, the Norwegian government is prepared to continue to support limited, but strategically important
interventions assisting South African authorities in implementing the policies under the National Plan in
a second phase of the SAINTED programme.




                                                                                                      46
Discussions concerning a second phase of the SANTED Programme were initiated at the annual
meeting in November 2004. A planning project was approved for 2005 so as to avoid delay in
implementation of the second phase of the programme, due to start in 2006.

The Business Plan of 28 November 2000 states that a “final review shall be conducted on completion
of SANTED”. In view of the continued development cooperation and Norwegian support for a second
phase, the parties have agreed to undertake an overall review of the programme, an in-dept review
with a selective focus on certain important cases/projects. The review will also describe lessons learnt
during the first phase of the programme. The review will be conducted in parallel to the planning
project carried out by the SAINTED Programme Director.

 Against this background a joint review will be carried out. Conclusions and recommendations will be
fed into the planning of the second phase of the SANTED programme. The overall aim of the planning
process for the second phase is to develop and adapt the programme to cope with challenges
currently facing the restructuring and transformation of higher education, and this involves reassessing
and adjusting to the sector’s current development needs.

2   TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR THE REVIEW

2.1 Major issues
The review shall analyse and assess the results of the SANTED programme in relation to the
objectives defined in the Business Plan of 28 November 2000.

2.2     Issues to be covered
The review shall cover the whole period of the first phase from its start in 2001 to 2005. An overall
review of the programme should be assumed in terms of the criteria below. In addition, more in-depth
analysis of various sustainability elements, like mainstreaming of access and retention measures
(focus area 1), lasting effects of capacity building (focus area 2) and effectiveness on facilitating long-
term cooperation in SADC (focus area 3) can be addressed by using particular projects as cases, as
indicated below.

Relevance
The review shall assess the relevance and relative importance of the three focal areas and the
selection of projects under them, in terms of South Africa’s policies for transforming higher education
during the programme period from 2000 to 2005. The reviewers shall analyse the extent to which the
programme has adapted to changing challenges facing the sector and the policy development
formulated by the South African authorities since 2000, and whether this has had an effect on the
overall relevance of the SANTED programme.

Effectiveness
The effectiveness of the projects should be studied in terms, firstly, of the objectives of the SANTED
programme, and secondly, of the overall objectives set out in the Plan for Higher Education.

Quality, impact and relevance (contextual relevance)
In particular the review shall assess the effectiveness of the projects in relation to:


        Focus area I:
    -   the quality and contextual relevance of the school intervention projects
    -   the quality and impact of the summer schools in improving student access for previously
        disadvantaged learners
    -   the quality and contextual relevance of retention and throughput measures
        Focus area 2:
    -   the quality and impact of the institutional capacity for capitalising on human resources for the
        universities to function as effective and modern institutions in line with their turnaround
        strategies.
        Focus area 3
    -   The quality and impact of the four SADC projects in terms of facilitating increased cooperation
        based on the SADC Protocol of Higher Education.




                                                                                                        47
Performance assessment
The “Upward Bound University Wide Project” at UDW and the “Equitable Access through Enrolment
Management Projects” at UWC have had varied success in delivering outputs in accordance with the
Business Plan. The variance in performance may to some extent be explained by differences in the
genesis of the projects, as well as by internal factors. Notwithstanding, differences in performance
levels may also be caused by internal organizational factors, such as institutional leadership and
commitment and human resource management. The reviewers shall seek to identify factors that are
influencing the performance levels of the projects in a positive or a negative direction.

The review shall provide a survey of the performance levels of outputs/deliverables in terms of the
indicators for each of the projects as defined for the “Upward Bound” and “Equitable Access“ projects
in the Business Plan. In cases where outputs have not been delivered as planned the reviewer shall
seek to explain the reasons for the lack of achievement or the low performance level.

The review shall provide a survey of the level of performance and impact of the four SADC projects in
terms of the outputs emerging from the SADC protocol on higher education (i.e. concerning design of
academic programmes, joint or split site teaching, production of teaching and learning materials, and
the promotion of student exchange).

Sustainability
The reviewers shall assess the extent to which the SANTED programme has contributed to the
sustainability and mainstreaming of university projects.

•     To what extent have the institutions receiving support made concrete efforts to mainstream all or
      parts of the projects initiated under the SANTED Programme?
•     To what extent are the access and retention initiatives and measures set up under the SANTED
      programme at UWC and UDW/KwaZuluNatal sustainable, in terms of the universities’ abilities,
      interest and plans to continue them organizationally and financially and in terms of the effects of
      the projects?
•     To what extent have the projects at the University of Zululand and the University of Fort Hare been
      able to build sustainable internal capacity in human resources in ways that will have a lasting
      effect on the universities’ strategic plans for the implementation of new mandates and
      requirements on institutional and financial management in line with the national authorities’ policy
      for restructuring, modernisation and accountability of higher education in South Africa?
•     To what extent are the projects initiated under the SADC component sustainable in terms of the
      South African institutions’ ability to maintain multilateral and bilateral links with institutions in
      neighbouring countries?
•     To what extent has the University of Witwatersrand been able to prepare the ground for
      sustainable relationships with the universities of Eduardo Modelane and Namibia and/or the
      University of the Western Cape and the University of Zambia in the areas selected for cooperation
      and joint development.


Efficiency
The review shall assess the organization, dissemination, and transparency of the application and
selection procedures for the SADC projects.

The review should assess the management model, including financial management, organisation,
administration effectiveness and coordination of the SANTED programme.

The reviewers shall in particular assess the role of the SANTED coordinator in the initiation,
coordination and management of the overall programme as well as the individual projects.

2.3       Methodology and scope

In undertaking the tasks listed above, the reviewers shall employ the following methodology, to which
they are invited to add complementary elements that might be of interest.

      -   A desk study of relevant background documents
      -   A survey analysis of performance indicators



                                                                                                        48
      -   Field visits to all universities/institutions in South Africa and the University of Eduardo
          Mondlane/Namibia/Zambia.
      -   Interviews with key personnel

The desk study requires familiarisation with, at a minimum, the following documents: relevant
agreements and correspondence between the parties to the Business Plan, minutes from annual
meetings, the proceedings, and guidelines, rules of procedure and relevant documentation of the
secretariat/coordinator, National Plan for Higher Education of 2001, Dep of Education, annual report
2003-04, Dep of Education, Education Statistics in South Africa at a Glance in 2002, Dep of
Education, Strategic Plan 2005-2010 and other relevant policy documents. The essential
documentation required to carry out the review shall be provided by the SANTED Director.

                                                                         s
The survey analysis implies a general assessment of the programme' accomplishment based on the
perceptions of a reasonable selection of key actors participating in the projects

The field visits shall include in-depth interviews with the leadership (Vice Chancellors where possible)
and administrators at the respective universities, the coordinators and organisers of projects,
researchers/evaluators and a reasonable number of project beneficiaries, including students from
formerly disadvantaged groups. In addition the reviewer shall conduct interviews with relevant
personnel at the Norwegian Embassy in Pretoria, Norad, and the Department of Education (RSA), and
the SANTED Programme management

The reviewers shall as far possible make use of the information and empirical data already compiled in
the evaluation and monitoring of the projects, including the formative research project currently
ongoing under the programme.

2.4       Conclusions, lessons learned and recommendations

The conclusions shall indicate the major strengths and weaknesses of the programme, with a
particular focus on the selected cases/projects. Conclusions shall assess the results and usefulness of
the programme in terms of the contribution to limited, but strategically important areas of the National
Plan for Higher Education.

The conclusions shall include an evaluation of the projects values, which will serve as a benchmark
and best practice for other universities involved in processes of change similar to those of the
institutions granted support under the SANTED programme.

The conclusions shall seek to explain major problems and obstacles to the progress of the Programme
and in light thereof discuss the realism of the goals, objectives and outputs defined in the Business
Plan.

The lessons learned should present the reviewers’ impressions of the major achievements and
successes together with the principal failings and the reasons for the latter.

The recommendations should draw implications from                        the   conclusions     and      suggest
adjustments/improvement to the following aspects in particular:

      •   the relative importance of focal areas
      •   the selection of projects and the implication of a sound and valuable balance between the
          continuation of old projects and the provision of support to new initiatives
      •   proposals for adjustment / adaptation of projects likely to continue
      •   the development of criteria and procedure for selection SADC projects
      •   the management and coordination of the Programme
      •   the development of objectives and outputs and the definition of results with a proposal for
          corresponding indicators
      •   the format for a new draft of the Business Plan.

It is agreed that the recommendation from the review shall feed into the appraisal of the next
programme phase, and that this together with the planning project will constitute to as a foundation for
the dialogue concerning the continuation and adjustment of the Programme 2006 to 2009.


                                                                                                            49
3       Organisation of the review

3.1     The Review Team
The team of the review shall consist of three persons, one higher education expert from South Africa,
one from Europe/Norway and one experienced consultant with knowledge of methods and
requirements of evaluations/reviews of Norwegian development programmes.

The higher education expert should have excellent knowledge of policies and
developments in higher education in South Africa and knowledge the institutions forming part of the
SANTED programme. This team member shall be selected based on a suggestion from DoE.

The higher education expert form Europe/Norway shall have special knowledge of capacity building in
higher education and bring in experience form the international developments in the sector, including
from other countries in Africa.

The professional consultant shall bring in in-dept knowledge of assessments/evaluations of Norwegian
development assistance, be an experienced team leader and have sufficient knowledge of support to
higher education in development.

3.2     Budget and responsibilities
This is a joint review, where Norwegian Embassy and Department of Education share the overall
responsibility and costs. The Norwegian Embassy will through Norad assign a professional consultant
to lead the team, as well as the Norwegian/European consultant. The costs of the South African
consultant will be born by the programme

The time frame for total assignment will be as follows:
   -
   - maximum 12 days including travels for the team leader
   - maximum 11 days for the European consultant for the field visit, including travels
   - a total of 12 days working days for the two consultants to prepare for field visits and for writing
       up reports.

The team leader will take responsibility for the division of work within the team, including the final
assignment of field responsibilities and allocation of work days. The team leader shall submit at total
budget for the two international consultants to Norad for approval before 24 June 2005.

The South African consultant will be available for the whole field work period and report to the team
leader. The South African consultant will be contracted by the DoE /the Programme Director. The
Programme Director/Management will be responsible for support to the review team with regard to
appointments/meetings, as well as logistic within South Africa in consultation with the team leader.

3. 3    Timelines, reporting and outputs
The review shall include the presentation and discussion of an inception report and a final report with
an executive summary.

The 10 days of field visits shall take place within the month of August 2005

The inception report should identify appropriate methods for the review, including the planning of field
visits, key questions to be asked and when applicable cases selected of in-debt studies of particular
questions covered by the review. The inception report shall not be more than 4 pages. It shall be
presented to Norad by 10 August 2005.

The final report shall cover all issues identified in the ToR. Adjustments that the review team finds
necessary and appropriate shall be communicated to and discussed with Norad. The final report shall
be written in English and shall include an executive summary, conclusions and recommendations.
The final report shall be from 30 -40 pages including the executive summary. The draft final report
shall be submitted to Norad before 15. September 2005.




                                                                                                     50
The review team will e-mail the final report to DoE, the Norwegian Embassy and Norad, with a copy to
the SANTED programme Director. A paper copy shall be send to the Norwegian Embassy in Pretoria,




                                                                                                 51
Annex 2: Questionaire for SADC Projects

SANTED REVIEW
BASIC INFORMATION
Project title:
Your name:
Your position:
Your institute/organization:
Your involvement in the project:
Since when are you involved in the project:
PROJECT EFFECTIVENESS:
1.1 What do you regard as achievements of the project to date:
1.2. Which actors/factors have contributed to these achievements:
2.1.What do you regard as hindrances in project implementation :
2.2 Which actors/factors have caused these hindrances:
3.1 What do you recommend to (further) improve project implementation:
PROJECT IMPACT:
4.1 What are the effects you expect from successful project implementation:
4.2 What factors influence the achievements of these expected effects:
4.3 What actions are planned and executed to achieve these expected effects:
PROJECT SUSTAINABILITY:
5.1 What are the chances that the results of the project will be sustained after project funding comes to
an end:
5.2 Which factors influence the sustainability of project results:
5.3 What is are you doing to ensure sustainability of project results:
PROGRAMME DESIGN and IMPLEMENTATION:
6.1 What do you appreciate about the set-up of the SANTED programme:
6.2 What do you consider to be shortcomings in the set-up of the SANTED programme:
6.3 What is your opinion about the administrative arrangements of the SANTED programme:
6.4 What are your suggestions for improvement of the administrative arrangements of SANTED
projects:
6.5 What is your opinion about the management and administration of the SANTED programme:
6.6. Any suggestions for improvements:
OTHER RECOMMENDATIONS and SUGGESTIONS:
7.1 Do you have any other recommendations or suggestions which would help to improve the
effectiveness of your project:
7.2 Do you have any other recommendations or suggestions which would help to improve the
effectiveness of the SANTED programme:
PROGRAMME RELEVANCE AND EFFECTIVENESS
8.1 Is SANTED a necessary or useful instrument to establish and strengthen ties between higher
education institutions within the SADC countries? In other words, would your institution have
established the ties with your partners if there had not been this SANTED opportunity?
8.2 What is the added value of the SANTED programme compared to other mechanisms to establish
ties with partners in SADC countries?
8.3 Which of the outputs mentioned in the SADC protocol do you find most effective in establishing
ties with institutions in the SADC countries, and why? Could you think of outputs or mechanisms which
would be equally or more effective?

Please send your filled out questionnaire to:
Ad Boeren
Member of the SANTED review team
At: adboeren@zonnet.nl or adboeren@lycos.nl
Deadline: 12 August 2005

THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION!




                                                                                                      52
          Annex 3: Itinerary for the Review Team 13-23 August 2005


  Date     Time         Persons                          Activity                      Arranged
                                                                                          by:
Sunday    10h10                                                                       Stein
14 Aug.   LH 576    Stein Hansen        Arrive Cape Town from Oslo                    Hansen
          10h30     Stein Hansen        Picked up by UWC at airport                   UWC
#51668    11h00     Stein Hansen        Book into hotel (The Commodore,               SANTED
                                        Waterfront)
          16h40     Hugh Africa         Arrive Cape Town from Johannesburg            SANTED
          SA 345
          17h00     Hugh Africa         Picked up by UWC at airport                   UWC
#51669    17h30     Hugh Africa         Book into hotel (The Commodore,               SANTED
                                        Waterfront)
          19h30     Stein Hansen        Dinner with UWC representatives – Blue        UWC
                    Hugh Africa         Dolphin Restaurant
          09h30
          SA 237    Ad Boeren           Arrive Johannesburg from Amsterdam            Ad Boeren
          10h00     Ad Boeren           Picked up by SANTED at airport                SANTED
#3134     11h00     Ad Boeren           Book into hotel (Courtyard, Rosebank)         SANTED
          19h30     Ad Boeren           Dinner with SANTED/Wits (Melrose Arch)        SANTED


                    Stein Hansen
Monday              Hugh Africa         Meetings at UWC (picked up at The
15 Aug.   09h00     Larry Pokpas        Commodore and returned to airport by          UWC
                    Desiree Cranfield   UWC)
                    Tanya Vergnani
          17h00 –   Stein Hansen
          18h30     Hugh Africa         Fly to East London (transport to airport by   UWC
          SA 1375                       UWC)
          18h45     Stein Hansen
                    Hugh Africa         Picked up by UFH (Alan/Noel) at airport       UFH
#12288    19h00     Stein Hansen
#12287              Hugh Africa         Book into hotel (Dolphin View Lodge)          SANTED
          19h30     Stein Hansen        Dinner with UFH representatives -
                    Hugh Africa         Cape to Cairo Restaurant                      SANTED
          09h00 –   Ad Boeren           Meetings at Wits (picked up at hotel by
          14h00     D McConnell         SANTED/Wits)                                  WITS
                    (09h00-11h30)
                    Prof Mthembu
                    (11h30-12h30)
          14h30     D Young et al       Meet with SANTED at offices                   SANTED
          19h10 –                       Deborah to pick up Ad Boeren and drive
          20h10     Ad Boeren           him to airport                                SANTED
          TM 306                        Fly to Maputo
                    Ad Boeren           Picked up at airport by Hotel transfer        WITS/UEM
                    Ad Boeren           Book into Hotel (Polana)                      SANTED
                    Ad Boeren           Dinner with UEM representatives               WITS/UEM


Tuesday   08h00     Stein Hansen
16 Aug.             Hugh Africa         UFH to collect Review Team                    UFH
                    Stein Hansen
          08h30     Hugh Africa         Meetings at UFH East London Campus            UFH
                    Noel Knickelbein
                    Alan Shaw et al
          13h30     Stein Hansen        Return to East London airport with UFH        UFH


                                                                                             53
                     Hugh Africa         reps
           17h00 –   Stein Hansen
           18h10     Hugh Africa         Fly to Durban                               SANTED
           SA 8257
           18h30     Stein Hansen        Pick up at airport an Imperial rental car   SANTED
                     Hugh Africa
                     Ad Boeren
           08h00     Orlando             Meetings at UEM                             SANTED
                     Quilambo et al
           12h00     Ad Boeren           Return to airport                           SANTED
           14h00-
           15h15     Ad Boeren           Fly to Durban                               SANTED
           TM2325
           15h30     Ad Boeren           Picked up at airport by hotel Holiday Inn   SANTED
7A2G4                Stein Hansen
7A2G5      16h30     Hugh Africa         Book into hotel (HI Elangeni)               SANTED
7A2G6                Ad Boeren
           20h00     Stein Hansen        Dinner with UKZN representatives –
                     Hugh Africa         Cargo Hold                                  SANTED
                     Ad Boeren


Wed.                 Stein Hansen
17 Aug.    09h00     Hugh Africa         Meetings at UKZN                            UKZN
                     Ad Boeren
                     Elizabeth de Kadt
                     Stein Hansen        Drive to Empangeni
           15h30     Hugh Africa         Book into B&B (Zimbete Lodge)               SANTED
                     Ad Boeren           Dinner at B&B


                     Stein Hansen
Thursday             Hugh Africa
18 Aug.    09h00     Ad Boeren           Meetings at Unizul                          UNIZUL
                     Prof Gumbi
                     S Govindsamy
                     S Maphisa et al
           15h50 –   Stein Hansen
           17h15     Hugh Africa         Fly from Richards Bay to Johannesburg       SANTED/
           SA 1606   Ad Boeren                                                       UNIZUL
#22212               Stein Hansen        Picked up at airport by shuttle (Guy) and
#22214               Hugh Africa         driven to Pretoria                          SANTED
#22213               Ad Boeren           Book in hotel (Court Classique, Arcadia)

Friday     Morning   Stein Hansen        Work on report
19 Aug.              Ad Boeren                                                       SANTED

           14h00     Stein Hansen        Meetings with DoE, Pretoria, Nasima
                     Ad Boeren           Badsha’s office. Transport to be provided
                                         by SANTED from Court Classic
           16h30     Stein Hansen        Meeting with SANTED project Director
                     Ad Boeren           DerrickYoung and Co-ordinator Zamo
                                         Shongwe



Saturday             Stein Hansen
20 Aug.              Ad Boeren           Work on report
Sunday               Hugh Africa



                                                                                              54
21 Aug.
Monday    Morning     Stein Hansen   Work on report
22 Aug    and         Ad Boeren
          afternoon   Hugh Africa

                      Stein Hansen   Debriefing at Norwegian Embassy           SANTED
          11h00       Hugh Africa    Kirsti Methi, Advisor
                                     Sten Anders Berge, Minister Councellor.
                                     Embassy to provide transport


          Morning     Stein Hansen   Work on report
                      Ad Boeren
Tuesday               Hugh Africa
23 Aug.
          16h00       Stein Hansen   Johannesburg Airport:
                      Ad Boeren      Meeting with Derrick Young, Project
                                     Director
          19h20 –                                                              Stein
          11h40                      Fly to Oslo                               Hansen
          LH 573
          (3130)

          21h00 –                                                              Ad Boeren
          10h20                      Fly to Amsterdam
          SA 236
          (7622)




                                                                                        55
Annex 4: Organization and Implementation of the Review

1.      The Mobilization and Inception Phase

The Review Team was mobilized as of the second part of July and consisting of Professor Hugh
Africa, a prominent expert on tertiary education reforms in South Africa, Ad Boeren, Senior Policy
Advisor of Nuffic, the Netherlands, who is a world-wide experienced expert on higher education
programmes in developing countries, and Stein Hansen, senior economist of Nordic Consulting Group
AS, Norway, as team leader. He was recently team leader for the comprehensive evaluation of
Norad’s Master Degree Fellowship Programme (where Ad Boeren also was a team member) where
field work was conducted at University of Western Cape (UWC) and University of Eduardo Mondlane
(UEM) in Mozambique.

During the inception phase, the SANTED secretariat and Norad have provided the Review team with
electronic and paper copies of all relevant documentation of relevance to SANTED. This includes all
available progress reports, the indicator reports, financial reports, the SANTED Business Plans,
minutes from annual meetings, proceedings, guidelines, the South African policy documents and plans
for tertiary education (National Plan for Higher Education of 2001, Department of Education (DOE),
Annual report 2003-4, DOE Statistics on tertiary education, and DOE Strategic Plan 2005-2010 .
These documents have been reviewed during this study phase and forms the basis for the questions,
questionaire and scheduled meetings during the field visit phase.

A key incepetion phase activity has been a survey analysis of the performance indicators of the
SANTED Business Plan. The survey finding of this review is that the indicators selected and defined in
the SANTED Business Plan are selected as targets with time schedules for the projects to reach.
However, the indicators do not represent counterfactual type baselines against which one could
compare outcomes to determine the “additional value” of the projects. The counterfactual analysis is
therefore carried out in the main review phase during and after the field work, but it could be
established already at the inception stage that it would be qualitative rather than quantitative in
charcter.

The review is surveying the level of performance and impact of the four SADC projects in terms of the
outputs emerging from the SADC protocol on higher education (i.e. concerning design of academic
programmes, joint or split site teaching, production of teaching and learning materials, and the
promotion of student exchange). This task is started during the inception phase with a document
review, and completed during the field work in August.

In cases where outputs have not been delivered as planned the reviewers have sought to explain the
reasons for the lack of achievement or the lower performance level. As compared to a counterfactual
baseline indicator, the chosen ones may represent anything from highly unrealistic, ambitious targets
to “easy to reach” targets. The former could have been chosen to stimulate the responsible institutions
and staff to stretch efforts to the limit, and in such cases not reaching the target does not necesarily
indicate failure. In cases where the target values re easy to reach, performance beyong the target may
not at all be impressive. The review team therefore has tried to establish what the actual indicators
represent on such a performance scale, and from the answers to that establish to what extent the
results represent genuine value added.

The Review Team developed and passed on counterfactual questions to all involved institutions in
focus areas 1 and 2, and a questionaire designed for the four SADC projects prior to the field work,
and followed up on these in the meetings during the field visit phase of the review, see Annex 2.

With the excellent assistance of the SANTED secretariat and its Director, Derrick Young, the inception
phase has proven to be a highly efficient field visit planning phase. The time and budget available to
the review team is rather limited, and it has been necessary to limit visits to the only a sample of the
institutions involved in the SADC projects. Based on consultation with Norad and the SANTED
Director, the Review Team decided to visit UEM, UWC and WITS only, and review the remaining
SADC focus area 3 institutions by means of a questionaire, document reviews and interviews with the
South African partner institutions during the field visits.




                                                                                                     56
2.       The Field Work

The field work in South Africa and Mozambique was completed during the period 13-24 August 2005.
It covered visits to the involved tertiary institutions, the SANTED office, the Department of Education in
South Africa, the Norwegian Embassy in Pretoria and to Eduardo Mondlane University in
Mozambique, see detailed field visit programme in Annex 3.

The Review Team was organized in two parallel groups during the first half of the field work. It
conducted intensive meetings with the leadership and administration, as well as with representative of
project beneficiaries (e.g. staff and students from formerly disadvantaged groups). Ad Boeren visited
University of Witwatersrand (WITS) in Johannesburg and Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM) in
Mozambique, before teaming up with Hugh Africa and Stein Hansen in Durban for joint meetings at
and University of Kwazulu-Natal (UKZN) and University of Zululand (UNIZUL). Mr Africa and Mr
Hansen visited University of Western Cape (UWC) and University of Fort Hare (UFH) prior to teaming
up with Ad Boeren in Durban.

The team based its findings on a review of the available documentation about the programme and the
individual projects, interviews and questionnaires. Prior to the mission, three of the SADC-cooperation
universities had been selected for a field visit by the review team: University of the Western Cape
(ZAWECA project), Witwatersrand University and the Eduardo Mondlane University (NEW project).
UWC and UKZN were visited for the access and retention projects, and UFH and UNIZUL for the
institutional capacity building projects. These visits gave the team a chance to discuss in-depth the
achievements of the projects and success of the programme with the leadership (Vice Chancellors
where possible) and administrators at the respective universities, the coordinators and organisers of
projects, researchers/evaluators and project beneficiaries, to the extent possible within a very tight
timeframe.

The institutions that are also involved the various SADC projects but which could not be visited during
the field mission were asked to fill in a questionnaire that covered the review questions included in the
ToR. These questionnaires were being sent to the management and project responsible persons at
these institutions one week prior to the field mission. The response was modest as only five
questionnaires were returned. Communication problems with the partners in the SADC countries may
well explain the low rate of return (see Annex 2 for the questionnaire).

After having visited the involved institutions, the Review Team met as one group with relevant persons
the Department of Education (DOE), the SANTED Programme Director and management, and the
Norwegian Embassy in Pretoria.

3.       Reporting

This report is focused on indicating the major strengths and weaknesses of the SANTED programme,
with a particular focus on the selected cases/projects. The conclusions:

     •   Assess the results and usefulness of the programme in terms of the contribution to limited, but
         strategically important areas of the National Plan for Higher Education.

     •   Include an assessment of the extent to which the project achievments can serve as
         benchmark and best practice for other universities involved in processes of change similar to
         those of the institutions granted support under the SANTED programme.

     •   Seek to explain major problems and obstacles to the progress of the SANTED Programme
         and in light thereof discuss the realism of the goals, objectives and outputs defined in the
         Business Plan.

The lessons learned present the reviewers’ impressions of the major achievements and successes
together with the principal failings and the reasons for the latter.

The recommendations draw implications from the conclusions and suggest adjustments/improvement
to the following aspects in particular:



                                                                                                       57
    •   the relative importance of focal areas
    •   the selection of projects and the implication of a sound and valuable balance between the
        continuation of old projects and the provision of support to new initiatives
    •   proposals for adjustment / adaptation of projects likely to continue
    •   the development of criteria and procedure for selection SADC projects
    •   the management and coordination of the Programme
    •   the development of objectives and outputs and the definition of results with a proposal for
        corresponding indicators
    •   the format for a new draft of the Business Plan.

It is agreed that the recommendation from the review shall feed into the appraisal of the next
programme phase, and that this together with the planning project will constitute to as a foundation for
the dialogue concerning the continuation and adjustment of the Programme 2006 to 2009.




                                                                                                     58
Annex 5: Higher Education: Priorities for 2005 Onwards

The basis for the priorities are the policy goals and objectives outlined in Education White Paper 3: A
Programme for the Transformation of Higher Education (1997), and the framework for the
implementation of those goals and objectives, which is contained in the National Plan for Higher
Education (2001).

An area in which strengthened interventions will need to be made is in driving the reform and
transformation of our higher education institutions to enable the development agenda of the
Government to be achieved. This transformation can be achieved in terms of the changes to the
management, governance and administrative systems, staff and student profile, and environment in
institutions as all these affect how the institutions are able to equitably develop graduates who exhibit
high levels of cognitive achievement and exercise the values, behaviours and attitudes envisaged in
the Constitution.

In this regard, the formal processes of Higher Education institutional restructuring will be completed by
                                                                                                  s
2006. Transformation will be carefully monitored to assess the attainment of the government' policy
objectives. Graduation and through put rates, student and staff profiles, research output, institutional
ethos and culture, financial and resourcing patterns, as well as differentiation and curriculum reform
and programme output in the higher education system will be examined. The Department will more
closely examine the nature of the contribution of higher education institutions to the creation of a new
pool of intellectuals as well as the extent of the development of centers of excellence in different fields
in our country.

Administrative systems will also receive attention in that their contribution to the goals of the education
and training system will be more clearly defined in developmental, rather than purely operational terms
from institution level all the way up to national level. This institutional reorientation will complement the
extensive infrastructure development and provision achieved in the system. Infrastructure provision as
well as institutional and structural reorientation will receive renewed attention through focused
resource and fund mobilization in the coming years, in order to achieve our development objectives.

The following are the key strategic priorities for the Branch’s activities in the following years.

1. To support the production of quality graduates needed for the social and economic
   development of the country.
   Particular attention will be paid to enrolment planning for the higher education system and the
   alignment during the period 2005-2009 of student growth with the availability of resources. In this
   regard a study will be initiated to assess the macro-funding requirements for a sustainable,
   affordable and quality higher education system, which is responsive to national policy goals and
   objectives.

    Attention will also be paid to the full implementation of the new funding framework, including
    effecting any changes that may be required as a result of existing weaknesses or gaps. This will
    include the development of a framework for the allocation of research development funds, which
    will be undertaken in conjunction with the Department of Science and Technology and the
    National Research Foundation.

    The goal and objectives, including, targets and indicators, in the National Plan, which was adopted
    in 2001, will be assessed and revised as necessary.

    A draft new qualifications framework for higher education was released in 2004. This will be
    finalised during 2005 in alignment with the revised NQF framework.

    With the introduction in 2006 of the new curriculum for grades 10-12, the FETC will replace the
    current senior certificate examination from 2008. In this regard, during the first half of 2005, the
    new statutory minimum requirements for entry to higher education will be finalised. In the
    subsequent years, and especially in the context of the rejuvenation of FET colleges, attention will
    be paid to the interface between higher and further education, particularly to promote student
    mobility.



                                                                                                          59
2. To achieve equity in the South African higher education system.
   Enrolment and graduation patterns will be monitored, amongst others, to assess impact on the
   achievement of race and gender equity. The level of participation in higher education by adult
   learners will also be monitored to assess the system’s response to lifelong learning. The impact of
   institutional culture on the achievement of equity goals will be examined with the view to informing
   best practice at the institutional level.

3. To achieve diversity in the South African education system.
   The implementation of the new institutional landscape is underway. The Branch will monitor the
   ongoing implementation of the restructuring of institutions and facilitate the achievement of the
   broader policy objectives informing the restructuring exercise. As part of the ongoing planning
   processes, academic programmes, particularly at postgraduate level and in high cost fields, will be
   identified for possible regional rationalisation. This exercise will be based on the current
   “programme and qualification mix” of institutions, which provides a comprehensive audit of existing
   programme offerings at all levels of higher education. In the light of the re-shaping of the
   landscape of the higher education system, attention will also be paid to ensuring institutional
   diversity through, amongst others, programme differentiation.

4. To provide institutional support to higher education institutions.
   Continued attention will be given to supporting the governance capacity in higher education
   through the development of a framework for student governance and an evaluation of the role of
   institutional forums.

5. To promote and sustain research in the higher education system.
   The focus will be on the implementation and monitoring of the new policy for the measurement
   and reward of published research output. A review will also be conducted of the measurement
   and reward of research output in the performing and creative arts. In addition, the particular role
   of universities of technology in research and development will be assessed, with the view to
   enhancing innovation in these institutions.

6. To promote and support a leadership role for South Africa in responding to the African
   Renaissance and NEPAD.
   A national conference will be convened on African studies in order to provide a platform for debate
   amongst scholars from South Africa and the rest of the Continent. The Higher Education Branch
   will also engage with the sector in order to support curriculum development initiatives, and in
   particular those that seek to address the curriculum and its links to identity and values.
   The proposed interventions and activities to realise each of the strategic objectives outlined
   above, as well as performance indicators and timeframes are provided in the detailed plans.




                                                                                                    60
Annex 6: Equitable Access through Enrolment Management Project at
                    University of Western Cape



 South Africa Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme


                     SANTED PROGRAMME

                         SYNOPSIS 2005




                                                                    61
                            History and profile of the institution.

The University of the Western Cape (UWC), located in the centre of the greater Cape Town
metropolitan area, was established in 1960 to serve the needs of the people classified ‘Coloured’ by
the apartheid regime. There is broad recognition of UWC’s efforts throughout the ‘struggle’ to
repudiate the ideological terms on which it was founded and to refashion itself at the intellectual
forefront of South Africa’s historic change, consistently dedicated to access, equity and quality. The
university is firmly oriented to the future, committed to excellence in teaching, learning and research,
and to assist educationally disadvantaged students gain access to and succeed in relevant higher
education studies. In a rapidly changing local and global setting, UWC’s established commitment to
the needs of a society in transition is an advantage. There is much to suggest that this South African
University is exceptionally well suited to play a distinctive intellectual role to engage with both the
national and continental needs and dilemmas, and establish a dynamic link between academic
knowledge and community service.

The period after 2002 saw the restructuring of the higher education landscape to address the
fragmentation of the apartheid-induced system through mergers. By 2005 this process reduced the
number of higher education institutions from 36 to 23, many with new institutional identities. In this new
landscape the UWC is one of only three historically disadvantaged universities singled out by
resolution of the Cabinet to retain its autonomous university status. In addition, it was mandated to
incorporate the School of Oral Health Sciences of the University of Stellenbosch from 2004, and to be
the only university in the region offering undergraduate Nursing. A further accolade was the Cabinet’s
public announcement that UWC was to be developed into a flagship Higher Education institution.
These developments brought home the special place that UWC occupied in the minds and hearts of
many but it also emphasized the huge responsibilities that accompanied the new mandate.

UWC is a medium-sized university with strong programmes where approximately 80% of the
                                                        s
enrolment is undergraduate. At the upper level Master' students and Doctoral candidates constitute
10% of the total headcount. Following a period of rapid decline in the late 1990’s, student enrolments
grew dramatically since 2000 until it was voluntarily capped at a headcount of below 15000. The
gender trend has been very consistent with 57% of current enrolment being female. The student race
profile is as follows: Coloured 48%; African 34%; Indian 10%; White 6% and Other (International) 2%.
Of the total permanent academic staff complement, 40% are White, 39% Coloured, 7% Indian and
15% African. Females represent 46% (219 out of 475) of the permanent academic complement.

The university has the following faculties: Arts; Community and Health Sciences; Dentistry; Economic
and Management Sciences; Education; Law; and Natural Sciences. The Faculty of Economic and
Management Sciences (EMS) is the largest faculty, comprising 6 departments, and the postgraduate
School of Government, which also houses the Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS).
UWC is one of the most successful institutions in South Africa producing Black scientists, economists
and people with a business education The Community and Health Sciences Faculty (CHS) comprises
four schools of which the School of Public Health recently received designation as a "World Health
Organisation Collaborating Centre for Research and Training in Human Resources for Health
Development". The Dentistry Faculty, the largest in Africa, offers a range of Dentistry qualifications as
well as extensive clinical care to patients, carried out at two Dental Hospitals and associated clinics.
The faculty of Education boasts the largest Science and Mathematics programme in Africa. The Law
Faculty has a strong Social law and Human Rights thrust. The Science Faculty hosts the only Herbal
Science and Medicine Institute in South Africa, offers unique programmes in Petroleum Geology and
Advanced Material Chemistry and hosts the foremost research institute in Bio-informatics in Africa, as
well as one of the leading Biochemical and Molecular Biological departments in the country.

                                 Institutional/ Project Context

Two main external forces are shaping higher education in South Africa. The burgeoning and
increasingly sophisticated demands of globalisation as a world trend accelerated by technological
advances, and the imperatives of transformation to achieve major social and economic change
promised in the shift to democracy in 1994 shape the context in which the university operates. UWC is
challenged to give strategic prominence to both pressures, transcend past glories and embrace a
complex, challenging future in which the congruencies and contradictions between transformation and



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global competitiveness are held in balanced tension. For example: globalisation favours advanced
technological solutions, while national transformation requires widespread creation of jobs;
globalisation requires advanced levels of education and cutting edge research, while national
transformation requires massive extension of literacy and numeracy and equitable access to
educational development opportunities, globalisation is associated with international commerce and
industry, while national transformation must place the plight of the poor high on the agenda. Meeting
both global and national imperatives is vital for South Africa’s success in building social justice.

With its history of commitment to social justice, UWC finds itself in double jeopardy, addressing both
the huge ravages of apartheid and keeping up with the unprecedented pace of global change. At
national level this new set of realities had to be accounted for and is steered through a planned
economy, quality requirements and revised financial regimes. Several changes occurred in the
legislative and policy environment to undo the system’s apartheid features and align institutional plans
to national objectives. These strategies are outlined in the National Plan on Higher Education. The
restructured South African higher education landscape in 2005 is very different from the apartheid-
constructs that communities have become accustomed to over the past decades. The statutory Higher
Education Quality Council’s (HEQC) quality criteria are in place which implies that all aspects of the
university will increasingly come under scrutiny and that dynamic institutions will make of planning an
ongoing quality promotion exercise. Institutional offerings and funded student places are tied to
approved mandates on Programme and Qualification Mixes. A new academic policy and revised
qualifications framework is in place and the introduction of the new Further Education and Training
Certificate (FETC) is poised to change the school offerings and admission requirements to degree
studies. Since 2004 a new distributive funding model is in place. The restrictions placed on the number
of students permitted to enter the system annually as well as the new emphasis on the increased
graduate outputs are likely to impact on the quality of the candidate pool with unintended
consequences for the class and race profile of institutions.

Internally over the past years UWC experienced severe fiscal constraints, dwindling student numbers,
an exodus of staff and cumulative under-funding that led to backlogs in maintenance and renewal that
began to compromise the teaching, learning, research and quality of campus life. It also affected its
ability to respond efficiently to emerging opportunities. The sense of urgency among institutional
decision-makers to move the institution to an academically and financially viable position as well as
the leadership team’s confidence in the university’s strategic direction has stabilised and positioned
UWC favourably. Effective from 2005 the university has been fully recapitalised, and all short-term
debt has been eliminated. There is a renewed focus on the right priorities. In repositioning itself
through the extensive planning processes, UWC has been afforded a unique opportunity to envision
and work towards a future scenario that is most sustainable and desirable.

                                       Project description

The university’s “Enrolment Management” approach is generally understood as a systematic set of
strategies to: influence the overall size and shape of the university; and define the planned growth in
the student body that will distinctly characterise the university by academic field, programme types and
demography and enable the university to make appropriate resource and financial commitments in
relation to these enrolment projections. The SANTED project, entitled Equitable Access through
Enrolment Management, forms part of this broader enrolment strategy. Generally, the project
responded to an area of vulnerability when student numbers declined dramatically, student debt
escalated, public confidence in UWC was at an all time low and these factors threatened the academic
and financial viability of the university. The project assisted to stabilise and manage the overall size
and shape of the university, support student development, and address issues of quality, efficiency
and finance (tuition and subsidy) based on a coherent and well-planned participation strategy. The
project is comprised of eight components to:

Increase access of marginalised learners to higher education; Widen access to non-traditional learners
through the recognition of prior learning; Provide academic support that aims to assist students in their
academic success; Monitor management’s implementation and complement strategic planning
through targeted institutional research; Leverage student hardship through financial aid linked to
service learning; Improve the satisfaction level and quality of student life on campus through
professionalisation of administrative and support services; and Assist with the smooth transition of
graduates into the world of work by providing career development support.


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The project is coordinated by a full-time Project Manager who reports directly to the Institutional
Planner and Executive Assistant to the Rector. A component manager was appointed within each of
the components to strengthen existing units and to action some of the component activities. The
project was never designed as a stand-alone but firmly integrated to blend into existing management
and governance structures with the respective executive managers accepting responsibility for its roll-
out. A project board was established to coordinate more complex components that straddled across
academic and administrative executive portfolios. Because enrolment management permeates all
strands of the strategic plan, the project’s planning location ensures continued alignment with
executive priorities and institutional strategies, as well as an understanding of internal and external
changes in the environment. The Project has also commissioned institutional research with a view to
inform UWC’s strategic planning. The project further assisted the university to align its combined
institutional and project objectives with UWC’s annual budgets and performance expectations. In
cases where project funding ended, the university sustained such activities beyond the funding cycle.

The target audience of this project has been a) Prospective Grade 12 learners, b) Current students, c)
The Further Education sector Educators, d) University staff members.



                                         Project Roll-out

The project was conceptualised as part of an extensive strategic planning exercise in 1999 and 2000
and the actual roll-out coincided with the five year horizon (2001-2005) of the strategic plan. In the
main, all components started in the first year, although the project funding of the different components
varied from two years to the full five years. In cases where planned project funding came to an end the
university opted to sustain the activities, phased in its funding and institutionalised it where
appropriate.

The project proposal was conceptualised at a very high level, giving the broad objectives for each of
the access strategies, and hence provided flexibility around the implementation required for each of
the access strategies. In the first year the project, with its different access components needed to
implement a project management methodology that encompassed the different phases of project
management, including a) developing detailed component plans and setting criteria for selecting
participating schools, b) organising resources, c) actual implementation, and d) Monitor and control
processes. Given the change in national and institutional context over the period of the project, it was
necessary to adopt a flexible approach to implementation of the project, and to annually reflect on
objectives and implementation for the year. This required us to request approval for changes, where
deemed necessary and where such changes had an impact on the budget. Also, volatility in the policy
environment demanded a degree of flexibility, which led to a knock-on effect on budgets in some
components. This included the need to modify implementation of the stated goals to reflect an
alignment to the changing contexts and alignment to the institutional direction. A description of some
of the affected access strategies are described briefly below:

Component 1: Increase access
The project proposal provided for support to Grade 10, 11 and learners and teachers on a once-off
basis over vacations. This approach was not educationally justifiable. Instead the idea of support to
the former two groups was dropped in favour of extensive year-long support to Grade 12 teachers and
learners and to increase the budget proportionally to sustain such support in clusters in the respective
communities in township areas. In addition we shifted the line item salary budgets between
components 1 and 3 without affecting the overall project budget.

Component 2: Recognition of Prior Learning.
This component was funded for a period of 2 years as per plan and no budgetary shifts were required
for it. UWC accepted responsibility for this component after the funding period.

Component 3: Academic and Professional Support.
Strategy 3.1: Identifying students at risk – The proposed initiative under-estimated the task at hand,
and while a student flow model, linked to an excel spreadsheet was initially envisaged, it soon became
clear that an on-line tracking system was required and that a Marks Administration System (MAS)
module was required as a first phase. UWC accepted long-term responsibility for the extended MAS


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project, which was only fully implemented in 2005, and institutional funds have been set aside for the
completion of a tracking system.

Strategy 3.2: Academic support to undergraduate students: - In the writing centre the budgeted
salary of a senior writing centre workshop coordinator was concentrated over a shorter period to
attract and retain a replacement at a higher salary level. UWC agreed to fund the post for the
remaining two year until the original EAP contract period ended.

Strategy 3.3: Postgraduate Enrolments and Throughput (PET) – The project seconded Prof N Bak
from the Education faculty in November 2000 as project director to manage this initiative. However, no
administrator was budgeted for to support the initiative, which required a minor budgetary change.

Component 5: Financial Assistance through internships and workstudy.
The overwhelming need for the skilled help within the respective components, coupled with the dire
financial need of the postgraduate students required us to make a shift in budget each year to
accommodate for this category of students.

Component 6: Professionalisation of services.
One of the obstacles that present a case for urgent change is the university’s lack of professionalism
and technological support to respond efficiently to emerging opportunities. The budget and priorities
were amended to link the access strategy to the technology and services.

Component 7: Communication and Marketing.
Although this component’s activities and budget remained largely within plan over the period, the
increased volume and quality of the Career Magazine, as a result of its resounding success, required
minor budgetary adjustments.

Component 8: Career Development Programme.
This component remained largely within budget and plan.

                                      Project Achievements

Component 1 &2: Increase and broaden Access:
Teacher and Learner Support: Within two years of project initiation UWC has been able to stabilise
student enrolments, increase the pool and quality of intake of first time entering students and to attract
fee paying students. Through this community outreach and educational support initiatives UWC also
restored its relationship and confidence levels with feeder schools and raised the aspiration levels of
learners to proceed to degree studies. More learners from these schools opted to do Maths and
Physics at higher grade level and the support enable teachers and learners to complete their
curriculum on time. Support to Grade 12 learners in cluster schools was sustained throughout the year
(February to September annually) for the past five years, while the number of beneficiary schools
increased from 7 in year one to 30 and eventually to 52 in 2005.

The institution was able to assist more than 400 learners and 60 educators each year through a
number of workshops, tutorial sessions throughout the year, laboratory visits to UWC, and vacation
schools. The project also initiated a peer network for educators which facilitated the sharing of
resources and experiences and allowed for a common platform for these educators to participate and
collaborate in. The project recruited experienced teachers to be utilised on the program to enhance
competencies of Grade 12 learners within the areas of mathematics and physical science in the main.
Although the project could not focus on the grade 10, 11 educators and learners, a workshop was held
with this group of teachers in the project schools in 2003 to explore ways to respond to challenges
within these schools. In areas where the support was provided on the school’s site, the local
communities owned the project with greater appreciation. Visits to UWC laboratories under the
guidance of professors and teachers-as-tutors gave learners practical exposure to science
experiments while they could complete their assignments under professional supervision.

Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL): Following a successful advertising campaign in January 2001,
the project saw the first intake of RPL students to provide non-traditional students with a second-
chance to access HE. The project also appointed an RPL coordinator to provide a policy framework
and assess students through a battery of tests, of which one was the portfolio development process. In


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the first year (2001) sixty students were enrolled. This total increased to seventy three in 2002 and in
2003 the first RPL students graduated. This category of students performed exceptionally well, often
outperforming the students whom gained entry via the normal route. The RPL component received
financial support from the EAP project for the first two years of the projects life span, and thereafter the
institution opted to sustain it by providing financial support to the Division For Life Long Learning.
Other activities include the customisation of courses and the curriculum to accommodate this category
of learners, particularly in core professions. UWC now annually reserves places and has an annual
achiever award for RPL students.

Component 3: Academic and Professional support
Strategy 3.1: Identifying students at risk: Historically UWC’s system produced end-of-semester marks
for purposes of promotion to the next module or year level and students who dropped out during this
phase were only identified retrospectively. No current marks were systemically available which also
meant that there was no system of monitoring timeous feedback to students. In 2001 and 2002 the
project conducted a pilot, which involved the development of a prototype to centralise all current
(including continuous assessment) marks. This pilot was to serve as a proof of concept that would
demonstrate the functionality of such a system within the UWC higher education context. This proof of
concept also concretised and highlighted the need for a centralised marks administration system. It
proved that the system would be a complex as it needed to encompass all the administrative rules and
processes for marks which in some cases were not formalised, and in many cases were disparate
across faculties and departments. This pilot also highlighted areas where certain rules and standards
were not in place, and it forced academics and administrators alike to debate the standards and
processes for administering marks, and highlighted areas where too much flexibility was allowed. A
process of discussion of these standards and rules was undertaken, formalised and documented.

The institution recognised the importance of this initiative based on the proof of concept and in 2003 it
became a fully-fledged project within the Information and Communications Services (ICS) Unit. The
major development work required the institution to seek additional funds and in 2004 the institution not
only prioritised this area but also supported it financially. Development work as well as training has
taken place, several versions released and in the second semester of 2005 the Marks Administration
System (MAS) will be rolled out to the campus community.

Increased emphasis on turn-around time for feedback to students, better management of students’
course load and greater transparency of how marks are calculated has, among others, already lead to
a significant improvement in throughput. The degree credit rates of students between 2003 and 2004
increased from 67% to 75%.

Strategy 3.2: Academic Support to undergraduate students. The majority of students pursue their
studies through the medium of a second language (English) and they also lack the prerequisite writing
skills to cope in a tertiary environment. The Writing Centre Project, almost solely funded by the EA
project, provides much needed interdisciplinary, cross-curricular academic development support to
undergraduate as well as postgraduate students. Several postgraduate students act as consultants
and work collaboratively to facilitate students’ academic literacy, with the focus being on academic
reading and writing, and promoting the development of related academic competencies such as the
ability to manage information, communicate effectively and to read and think critically. It also aims to
support students through the academic writing and reading support. This support included one-on-one
consultations (872 in 2001, 833 in 2002, 1078 in 2003, 515 in 2004), and workshops (95 in 2001, 110
in 2002, 74 in 2003 and 90 in 2004) offered within some academic programs as well as stand alone
workshops.

Strategy 3.3: Academic Support to postgraduate students.
The introduction of the Postgraduate Enrolment and Throughput (PET) component was preceded by
research in 2001 into the difficulties that students and supervisors experience that hamper their
progress. This report provided the project with the opportunity to respond to and to align its support
activities with the actual difficulties experienced by postgraduate students. Most of the postgraduate
students study part-time and their time-to-degree rate is a matter of concern. This strategy
complements UWC’s research objectives and is designed to support higher degree students and to
create an environment that encourage and support the increase in postgraduate output of
conference/seminar proceedings and publications. As of 2004, 41 papers and peer reviewed




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conference proceedings (including postdoctoral students and visiting scholars) were produced by
students.

PET has successfully evolved into a research service which co-ordinates and makes visible the
support structures in place at UWC for postgraduate students. The project has assisted the institution
to create a framework in which students can find support, which attends to common difficulties such as
isolation and inadequate advising, and promotes academic collaboration and mentorship. The PET
project has therefore contributed to the educational, cultural and social advancement of postgraduate
students by providing academic support so as to deliver excellent masters, professional, and doctoral
students.

The PET project has been institutionalised which means that the institution, since 2004 has budgeted
for the activities within the project. The PET director has also been incorporated into the various
committee structures that deal with postgraduate issues. A reference group comprising experienced
and well respected academics have been developed to inform the implementation of the support
services. Various study guides have been published and disseminated, and the postgraduate
administrative procedures streamlined. Two Software packages were purchased, the one – ATLAS TI
to assist students to conduct qualitative analysis, and the other, Research Toolbox, was purchased to
assist students with the organisation of their research material and data.

The project also co-funded the appointment of renowned writer and poet, Professor Antjie Krog, to
stimulate debate and research interests in selected areas and to create sense of community and
belonging among student.

Component management and institutional research:

Coordination and management: Located within the Institutional Planning Office, under the direct
leadership of the institutional planner / Executive Assistant to the Rector, the project was able to
constantly align with the aims and objectives of the institution as well as keep abreast of the national
and institutional changes and address these within the project where possible. Much individual as well
as organisational learning has occurred within and as a result of this project, and a culture of
monitoring and evaluation emerged. The project used a phased approach in the first year, following
the 4 general phases of management, i.e planning, organising, implementing and monitoring and
control. Within each of the individual access strategies these different phases needed to be followed
as the high level strategic plan did not include implementation or tactical plans. The project model
adopted the central management of the finances which has facilitated the implementation of strict
financial controls and the annual financial auditing process was a very simple one. The central
financial management proved to be a model that worked well, although it was extremely time and
resource intensive. The project has enabled dedicated resources to strengthen various units and in
so doing allowed the institution to achieve and initiate certain aspects which it would not have been
able to do.

Institutional Research: This project has initiated many surveys and has instituted a culture of
monitoring, self reflection, and self assessment. Surveys initiated were: 1) A first and second Tracer
Study of the Career Destination of the 1999, 2000 and 2001 Graduates from the University of the
Western Cape (UWC); 2) Employer perceptions of the labour market readiness of graduates and the
quality of graduates UWC produces; 3) Understand how the category of Senate Discretionary students
perform in relation to the general admissions students at the University of the Western Cape; 4)
Institutional research to inform university planning in the broad area of student services in relation to
administrative/academic support and the quality of non-academic campus life. The specific objectives
of the study were to determine the main challenges /barriers contributing to low throughput rates and
to make recommendations on how these could be improved, to understand student perceptions and
experiences of services, and to investigate student perceptions of the quality of non-academic life on
campus; 5) Factors that impact on postgraduate throughput and success; 6) Formative study on RPL
implementation at UWC; 7) Employer perceptions of our Law, Computer Science and Information
System students; 8) A space management survey was conducted to monitor teaching space
utilisation. This highlighted that the lecture venues were not optimally utilised and a strategy to
improve this needed to be considered. This study fed into a broader strategy to expand the campus
and modernise teaching facilities.




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Financial Assistance through internships and workstudy:
Over the project period 160 masters and doctoral students were assisted in the internship and
workstudy component. Senior students were utilised and these students were not only exposed to the
real community difficulties, but were also given the opportunity to acquire practical working experience
and skills linked to their chosen profession and our strategic initiatives. These students often would
leave with a very good reference as well if they were diligent and on task. Based on the way in which
work-study is linked to strategic initiatives – the institution is now rethinking the way in which it utilises
the work-study funds.
The attrition rate of postgraduate students is high, many of these students being mature students who
drop out or stop their studies (with the full intention of continuing at a later stage), due to financial
constraints. Also, if students were to pursue their studies on a part-time basis access to financial
support would be almost non-existent, and hence access to pursuing postgraduate studies becomes
so much more difficult for this category of students. Through this project students were assisted
allowing them to not only receive much needed financial assistance but also to receive work related
experience and skills. The overwhelming need for the skilled help within the access strategies,
coupled with the dire financial need of the students required us to make a shift in budget each year,
and even then we could not accommodate this category of student s adequately.

Professionalisation of Services:
The institution strives towards an environment that enables student centeredness. Integral to this goal
is the need to professionalise our student processes to ensure effective and efficient student services.
To this end various initiatives were engaged under this strategy which includes: The development of a
central marks administration system for tracking purposes; The purchasing of a central timetabling
package to ensure effective and efficient organisation and implementation of the examination
timetable; The analysis of business processes within the student enrolment management sector for
the purposes of improvements in service delivery to our students; Training of staff both in the area of
call centre as well as front end training of our student administration office; Dale Carnegie training for a
pilot cohort of 30 participants which included both students and staff members.

Communication and Marketing:
Through this component the project was able to profile the institution in a positive way through the
internally and externally communicated printed material, as well as through these annual public
functions, which facilitated the strengthening of relationships with other institutions, as well as
government and funding agency representatives both in South Africa and Norway, and in other cases
deepened. The project provided printed material which aimed to be supportive of the components in
the project, but it was not to substitute what essentially is the responsibility of the media and
communications department. This printed material included: a) promotional material to raise the
aspiration of learners to access higher education, career advisement, educational and marketing
material for learner and teacher support; b) An advertising campaign to launch the RPL project; c)A
career magazine written by student interns’ primarily, which is well received by students. This
magazine has also generated revenue to assist with the sustainability of it; d) Other forms of
communication included publication to support recruitment and retention, i.e. a supervisory guide,
proposal writing guide, research toolbox guide. In addition, the dissemination of research results,
annual as well as progress reports were published under this component.

Annually there has been broad public recognition for the generous support received from SANTED at
events that celebrated the year’s successes. This included round table discussions with senior
external officials (i.e. the Norwegian embassy, the Department of Education, and NORAD) and
celebratory functions involving the media and various beneficiaries. These occasions provided
opportunities to display project material and discuss progress. These annual events included: The
public launch in 2001 which coincided the end of Ambassador Per Grimstad’s term of office; the broad
gathering of external stakeholders (school communities and employment agencies) in 2002 coincided
with a visit by Ms Medina from NORAD; the 2003 launch of the HIV & AIDS Peer education
collaborative program which marked the start of collaboration with the University of Zambia coincided
with a visit to UWC by Director Tove Strand; The 2004 annual event coincided with the new term of
office of Councilor Inga Stoll and the taking leave of office of Ambassador Jon Beck. A close out
function will celebrate the successes over the past five years in all three SANTED projects at UWC:
Equitable Access; ZAWECA HIV/AIDS Peer Education; and the Formative Research Project.




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Graduate Development Programme:
The Career Development Programme (CDP) provided the framework for campus-wide career related
projects, initiatives and activities in order to facilitate students’ progression into the world of work. The
critical aim of the CDP was to increase the employability of the graduates of UWC through career
development and job placement opportunities, and establish best practices. A recent survey of
Employer Perceptions of UWC Graduates in Accounting, Computer Science, information Systems and
Law, completed in 2004 found interesting matches and mismatches between the perceptions of
academics, recruitment agencies and recruiters about the qualities and competencies of UWC
graduates. Through this program various skills development workshops, graduate and recruitment
and placement training sessions and interviews have been conducted, the publication of a well
received Career Update Magazine (initiated by the project with articles written by EAP student interns);
a resource library is being realised in the CDP office.

                                         Project Difficulties

Component Management: The implementation of components was often complicated by the model
the project adopted as it conceptualized the appointment of support persons, in some cases, who
were often required to introduce interventions that went against the grain of well established
institutional cultures. Receptivity to change was at the very heart of the project. Difficulties included the
fact that all initiatives were new interventions, cross-faculty and across portfolios, were complex, slow
to take root and extremely time intensive. It also required buy-in from all relevant stakeholders and
complex project management skills which had to be applied at all layers of the university’s hierarchy.
The support of leadership mitigated most of the risks in these areas.

Smooth roll-out was also often interrupted by the departure of contract staff who to up new
employment opportunities, mainly external to UWC. This included two managers of component 1; the
RPL manager; the PET coordinator who moved abroad; two Writing Centre coordinators, etc. Securing
suitable internal replacements often led to deviations in the plan.

The project model adopted presented many advantages and some challenges. Although the
advantages outweigh the challenges, some of the challenges linked to the project structure, not being
a stand-alone project in one office, makes for easier application of specific project management
methodologies and standards. The downside is that the project did not develop a single identifiable
identity or brand and often, under the leadership of executives, the rank and file did not always
understand their dual accountability to the line manager and the project.

The involvement with financial management has also uncovered for the project an array of difficulties
in terms of processes and timeous information and highlighted the need to integrate the information
from our disparate systems. This has proved to be a major challenge as the institution has different
legacy systems, one for its HR function and another for its Financial transactions. Access to real time,
pertinent, financial and student related information, for management decision making purposes,
remains a major difficulty and the different systems make it extremely difficulty to have a single version
of the “truth”, which then becomes time and resource intensive to ensure that the information is correct
and up to date.

Increase and Broaden Access: Given the context of declining student numbers in 1999, recruitment
of a different kind of student became a priority to ensure the viability and sustainability of the
institution. However, the stated intention of this access strategy was never conceptualised around
actively recruiting students, but focused on raising aspirations of Grade 12 learners to pursue higher
education and to encourage learners to enrol for mathematics and physical science subjects on the
Higher Grade by providing consistent support throughout the year. Through the type of engagement
with teachers and learners, we hoped to change preconceived ideas about the institution and instill a
different kind of confidence that would encourage these learners to be proud to read towards a degree
at our institution, and not think of it as a possible last choice. This happens over a period of time and
is extremely difficult to measure.         Also the project adopted a model that allowed for informal
collaboration with schools rather than the formal collaboration via the Department of Education. This
model had its disadvantages as the school was often bombarded with different kinds of support
interventions from different institutions and NGO’s and as there was no directive from the department
instructing the school as to which intervention to participate in, the school needed to make the choice,


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hence the competition became rife. Another difficulty related to the unanticipated external pressure
and incentives offered to schools which seemed to run contrary to what the project aimed to achieve,
as students were often advised by educators to write the mathematics and physical science
examinations on the standard grade so as to comply with the required pass rate of the school,
however, possibility limiting the learners chance of access to programs that required it to be passed
on the HG level, which in some cases would also limit their access to higher education.

Since the introduction of Curriculum 2005, the structure of the curriculum and the approach to
assessment has changed. Outcomes Based Education presents opportunities but also many different
challenges to educators and learners. Given the institutional and national educational system contexts
the project needed to align it’s support with the needs of the individual project schools as well as the
learners to ensure that the kind of support provided would be of value. This required continual
analysis and reflection of the kinds of support offered which required budgetary shifts, that often was
inadequate and could not be accommodated.

Academic Support: Students at UWC are drawn from a diverse range of communities, the majority
however, coming from the poorer and educationally disadvantaged communities, hence not being
exposed to an excellent further education, and also having major financial constraints. HIV/AIDS has
had impacted on our enrolment patterns and more particularly on the success of our students, as well
as the retention rate of our students. Another issue that came to the fore was that ill-prepared
students within certain faculties would overload themselves with modules to try and ensure completion
within the minimum time. This had a reverse effect impacting on these students ability to complete on
time, as they were too overburdened with modules. The problem was unforeseen and never managed
until it was too late. The effect of this being that these students would either drop-out or fail to
complete within the minimum time and then be excluded academically. Postgraduate students are
often the more mature students who generally have a family to cater for, and hence experience
financial constraints and pressures to pursue employment, which ultimately impacts on our throughput,
and retention rates.

Professionalisation of Services: Change management in a large organisation is always extremely
complex and time consuming which requires a process for change. This proved to be complex, as it
forced related organisational rules and requirements as well as processes to be documented, but also
reengineered, and the dynamic of the “one size fits all” debate needed to be fleshed out. UWC has
only recently budgeted to enhance its technological support of administrative services.

The notion of student development is a relatively new one at an institution like UWC and the challenge
remains to create an environment that is conducive to and promotes education and learning outside of
the classroom. UWC, with its largely commuting student body, lacks a vibrant student life, and has a
culturally poor student community which impacts on a student’s ability to relate to concepts in the
classroom. The institution has benefited greatly, via the assistance of the project, by co-funding the
broader inter-disciplinary experience to students, which aimed to promote a culture that respects other
views and critical citizenship.

Career Development and Job Placement: - The institution does not have a vibrant or any kind of
relationship that is sustainable with its alumni. This is a lost opportunity in many instances as many of
its alumni have progressed into key government as well as other positions. This lack of relationship
implies that many opportunities for the institution and its students are lost, as alumni often support
their own institution when recruiting students or donating funds. In 2005 a Director of Public Affairs
was appointed        who is also tasked with building relationships with the institutions alumni.
Relationships with companies need to be deepened and there still is a need for internships with
external companies to expose our students to real life practical experience and to ensure that the
confidence      levels and employer perceptions of our students and institution, continues to be
improved.

                    Lessons learned/unexpected results or spin-offs

Lessons Learnt / Unexpected Results and spin offs

Leadership is often taken for granted. The project structure is unconventional but its link to all
executive portfolios gave it high prominence and secured the sustainability of the different components


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and alignment to current strategic thinking. The project has facilitated processes to work across
functional silos and aspects of each of the access strategies have become institutionalised which
implies that the institution has prioritised, and hence supported these with resources - both financial
and human. Although the project model adopted enabled us to quickly ascertain proof of concept and
to place initiatives high on the agenda of the senior management of the institution, given the
hierarchical nature of the institution, it is essential that the most senior person takes responsibility for
the initiative and implementation, which formally needs to be incorporated into the project model.
Central management of financial aspects of the project allowed for stringent financial principles and
practices to be followed, which facilitated the auditing process as no transaction could take place
without the authorization of the project office. Financial management raised some difficulties in terms
of systems and processes.

The project spearheaded a shift in the way in which the institution employs its workstudy students,
now linking their experience to match their formal skills acquired hence giving them real work
experience as opposed to menial work experience.

Through the project good relationships evolved between with the leadership of FE , while internal
collaboration with internal stakeholders developed positively. The unintended consequence of one of
the access strategies to attract a better candidate pool of top achievers had the unintended
consequence of rapidly changing the university’s race profile.

As enrolment management becomes a key instrument in guiding national strategy, the project paved
the way for a much more sophisticated way of student enrolment management and student
development. This would encompass student processes from prospective students, through their
studies to their alumni status. Much work is still required to change the business culture and processes
to be more service orientated and to live up to the challenge of a post-apartheid modern university.

                                         Recommendations

UWC is entering a vastly different future than the one that it has become accustomed to when
students were directed to it on the basis of ethnicity. UWC envisaged a future of associational
engagement that puts the individual staff member-and-student-in-community at the centre of its
concerns about local and global issues, particularly issues pertaining to the African continent. During
this funding period UWC has established strong relations with universities in South Africa, SADC and
Norway and it believes that this can form the basis for a much stronger future. We trust that these
networks will be built into the next phase.

Equity of access and outcomes remain a key challenge for South African universities. Universities may
become academically and financially vulnerable when students places are capped and funding is
directly linked to attainment of teaching and research norms. This requires careful planning and
alignment between institutional and national strategies at a time when the school sector migrates to a
relatively unknown curriculum and school leaving certificate, the FETC. The new further education and
training certificate is expected to be phased in over the next three years with the first cohort likely to
enter higher education in 2009. This provides for a much more purposeful relationship between further
and higher education institutions and to strengthen the former’s capacity in selected areas. It is
recommended that the next phase optimises this window of opportunity to mitigate the risk of whole
schools being systemically barred from higher education.

Universities in South Africa currently receive development grants designed to narrow the gap between
academic outputs and the expected levels of performance. Many institutions, however, lack the
necessary environment to stimulate a vibrant intellectual culture. Enrolment management support
activities therefore are critical elements necessary to create this intellectual environment that will
enhance student success. Government funding has also changed to include an element that
measures institutional student output linked to subsidy and national norms. To position UWC as a
serious teaching and learning and research institution would require ongoing support. Student
success (UG and PG): to ensure progress through students’ chosen programmes at the required rate
is vital. In addition, financial support through in service learning helps to link the academic project to
community need.




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Annex 7: Upward Bound University-Wide Enrichment Project and SANTED
University Of Kwazulu-Natal Access And Retention Project




                       Executive Summary Report

                               June 2005




                              Compiled by:
                       Professor Elizabeth de Kadt
                       Executive Director: Access
                       University of KwaZulu-Natal




                                                                      72
1. INTRODUCTION

The five year trajectory of Upward Bound Enrichment Project (UBEP) spans a period of enormous
change at KwaZulu-Natal institutions of higher education. It involves at least two universities: the
University of Durban-Westville, at which the project originated and where it ran for four years; and the
new University of KwaZulu-Natal, which came into being at the start of 2004 through a merger of the
University of Durban-Westville with the former University of Natal. In the context of the merger, the
original UBEP project, too, became part of a broader project at the merged institution, the SANTED
University of KwaZulu-Natal Access and Retention Project (SUKAR). This synopsis will therefore
begin with a consideration of UBEP (2000 – 2003), and then move on to SUKAR (2004 – mid 2005).

2. INSTITUTIONAL BACKGROUND

The University of Durban-Westville (UDW), which saw the genesis of UBEP, was founded in 1961 as
one of a series of ethnic universities which were to cater for post-school education of the various
ethnic groups designated by the apartheid state. Durban-Westville was founded as an ‘Indian’
university on Salisbury Island in Durban Bay, in due course moving to its present site in the Durban
suburb of Westville. The University of Natal (UN), on the other hand, with three campuses in Durban
and one in Pietermaritzburg, was one of the former ‘white liberal’ and in due course ‘open’ universities,
with a vastly different history and institutional culture, which was long captured by (but is certainly not
limited to) the labels ‘Historically Advantaged’ and ‘Historically Disadvantaged’.

To a large extent, changes in the South African higher education system have been driven by national
macro-economic policies, as the national government seeks a compromise between the neo-liberal
economic policies underpinning globalization and re-distributive policies based on redress and equality
of opportunity

3.      INSTITUTION AND PROJECT CONTEXT

3.1 The University of Durban-Westville
Over the decade preceding the first free South African elections in 1994, UDW had begun to think of
itself as the premier, and most politically progressive, Historically Disadvantaged Institution; it was one
of the first to open itself to Black African students, and call for social and educational redress. From
the mid 1990s, however, UDW was characterized by high levels of internal instability. The university
did not have a permanent leader to deal effectively with differences between academics, students and
members of the top management structures. In particular, 1996 was a year of unprecedented labour
unrest and leadership turmoil, and from this flowed much that has dogged the university since.

Between 1994 and Professor Ramashala’s appointment as Vice-Chancellor in 1998, there were three
Acting Vice-Chancellors. Thus the appointment of Professor Ramashala as a substantive (not Acting)
VC was greeted with hope and optimism in the university community. Her appointment period of five
years promised a period of stability, conducive to strategic planning and policy implementation that
would ensure the university was not left behind in the rapidly changing post-apartheid higher
education context. Within months of her appointment, a small (eight person), hand-picked Strategic
Planning Task Team began work in restructuring the university, aimed at improvements in planning
and efficiency. This was linked to government requirements of Five-year Rolling Plans, according to
specific guidelines and protocols. Yet unrest and division continued as an accompaniment to
restructuring, deployments, financial management and general management processes.

It was within this context that UBEP was conceived, planned and implemented, as part of the VC’s
transformatory vision for UDW and a reflection of broader policy imperatives at both global and
national levels. It was linked to the University’s strategic plan, but funded through donors (primarily
NORAD and USAID) with the endorsement of the national Department of Education. Yet for a variety
of reasons, considered below, the vision was realized only in part.

3.2 Towards the merger
In late 2002, the Department of Education announced its vision for the transformation of Higher
Education in South Africa, in the shape of a number of mergers of institutions of higher education. The
University of Durban-Westville was earmarked for a merger with the University of Natal, to be formally


                                                                                                        73
implemented at the start of 2004. Merger preparations would therefore become the main focus of
2003.

Durban this period, UDW institutional politics remained fraught. By the end of 2002, at the end of her
five years of tenure as VC, Professor Ramashala did not have the wide institutional support required
for renewal of her contract, and Professor Saths Cooper was appointed as Vice-Chancellor, but - in
view of the impending merger - only in an acting capacity. Thus, three years into the UBEP, its original
champion had left, and there was a major shift in senior management, and again new structures and
accountabilities.

3.3 The University of KwaZulu-Natal
In 2004, Professor WM Makgoba (Vice-Chancellor and Principal designate of the University of Natal
for the previous 18 months) was appointed Interim VC of the merged institution, and, late in 2004,
substantive VC. Within the newly-formed Executive, the creation of an Access portfolio, to be driven
by an Executive Director, signalled the new university’s commitment to access as a strategic initiative,
and provided a university-wide mechanism for building on the UBEP and other existing access
programmes.

4. PROJECT DESCRIPTION

One of the problems facing South African higher education institutions in the 1990s was a dramatic
rise in the number of Black students entering university from rural areas and townships, and the need
to cater better to their needs. UBEP was a major intervention, designed to offer school-level
assistance to learners in Grades 10, 11 and 12 and continued support for them once they were
admitted to the university. Accordingly, the focus of the programme was on improving access,
success and retention. As shown in the initial business plan, it was intended too that UBEP would
have major impacts on curriculum design and teaching generally within the university and on
associated programmes of academic development.

4.1 Objectives
The objectives of the UBEP indicate the very considerable scope of the programme:
    • To increase the participation of Black and women students from disadvantaged schools and
       communities in the higher education system through active recruitment, preparation and
       placement.
    • To increase the intake of disadvantaged students in fields such as science, engineering and
       technology, health sciences and commerce.
    • To improve the progression rates of Black students who enter higher education, through early
       identification and systematic preparation of talented potential higher education students prior
       to and during their induction in higher education institutions.
    • To restructure the university curricula and re-prioritise university services so that it provides a
       broader, more flexible and responsive educational programme to serve disadvantaged
       students over an extended period of time.
    • To provide intensive staff development opportunities for senior students through training and
       experience in managing and teaching educational programmes to disadvantaged students.
    • To provide in-service development for secondary school teachers to meet the needs of
       disadvantaged students.
    • To build and test and test an innovative model for the induction and retention of
       disadvantaged students in the higher education system beyond the familiar ADP model of
       development.

Thus UBEP, in concept, combined four aspects: ‘marketing’ UDW to schools; preparing and recruiting
school learners for university studies; promoting participatory pedagogy in schools; and, within the
university, transforming curriculum and teaching to be better attuned to South African society and
disadvantaged communities.




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5. PROJECT ROLL-OUT

5.1 Overview: From UBEP to SUKAR
The goals of UBEP, as listed above, show it to have been a complex and carefully conceptualised
programme with the potential for substantial transformatory impact, both on the learners from the
UBEP schools, and on the University community broadly. Its roll-out was intended as incremental,
beginning with an initial survey to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the learners, and following
this with a substantial intervention phase, the Summer and Winter Schools, by means of which
learners were to be positioned for success in Matriculation exams and thereby for entry into higher
education. Registering substantially increased numbers of learners from disadvantaged schools would
in turn have considerable impact on mainstream curricula and indeed on campus ethos, for the project
envisaged that UBEP entrants would be monitored and supported, during their studies at UDW, for a
further two years.

In the event, however, the roll-out of the Summer and Winter Schools, while evoking an extremely
positive response in the participants, became fraught with very substantial logistical problems, and, at
the same time, was impacted on by the more general campus turmoil. As a result, during 2002 and
2003 UBEP energies focused increasingly exclusively on the Summer and Winter Schools, and the
intended additional focus on mainstream curricula was largely lost sight of. In this way, UBEP was in
danger of failing to realise its intended transformatory potential for the university as a whole. At this
point, the merger (and the SANTED formative research project) offered an opportunity for something
of a renewal: the SUKAR project (May 2004) emerged through a process of reflection on the partial
failure of UBEP, a revisiting of the original UBEP goals in the context of the merged university, and
resulted in a much more explicit focus on retention issues and ‘mainstream’ curricula.

5.2 UBEP: Summer and Winter Schools
In conceptualising the UBEP for the University of Durban-Westville, Professor Ramashala drew on a
1960s model from the United States. The project was launched by the University management in
1999, as a special project of the VC. By the time SANTED became involved in funding UBEP (in
2000), an initial survey into competencies and deficiencies of the target group of learners, as well as a
pilot Summer School (1999) had already been completed and materials development was being
undertaken. Hence SANTED funding became directed towards the Intervention Phase, the Summer
and Winter Schools.

The Summer and Winter Schools were to be the means of delivering a holistic programme of
enrichment to learners (and especially female learners) from disadvantaged schools. The model
envisaged learners being identified by their participating schools at the end of Grade 9 (at the age of
14/16 years) and participating in a total of six Summer and Winter schools over the following three
years (Grades 10 – 12). Holistic enrichment was to be offered via an academic enrichment
programme (targeting science and commercial subject areas, but including English and
communicating skills), a social and life skills development programme, and a career development
programme. For the twice-yearly Schools, learners from the whole of KZN (and initially from other
neighbouring provinces) would travel to the University of Durban-Westville and spend two full weeks
in residence there.

Such a programme brought with it enormous logistical challenges, especially as, following on the
initial pilot with 500 learners, the target for each Summer/Winter School was set at 2000 learners, with
well over 100 schools participating. Project personnel included, on the one hand, project management
staff, who reported directly to University Management: the Project Director, the Project Administrator,
and the Research, Evaluation and Programme Coordinator, together with additional research
assistants and office administrators. Curriculum staff, on the other hand, involved a team of 15
material developers, 20 tutor coordinators, and 230 tutors (at least half of these post-graduate
students from UDW). (In subsequent years both the learner targets and the size of the project teams
were reduced.)

For five years (2000 to 2004), ongoing contacts were maintained with the over 100 participating
schools, regular Summer and Winter Schools were held at UDW; and systematic evaluations of these
Schools were undertaken.




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6. PROJECT ACHIEVEMENTS

6.1 Numbers of UBEP Learners
Substantial numbers of learners attended UBEP over five years; and in most cases responded to the
project with considerable enthusiasm; on surveys they rated their learning and increased knowledge
highly. (In a self-evaluation undertaken in 2002, for instance, the two highest ratings were selected for
four out of eight categories by over 80% of learners; for the remaining four categories by over 70% of
these learners.)

                                 Table 1: Learners attending UBEP by yeat
                   Winter                  Summer                      Female     Target
   1999 (pilot)                            407                                    500
   2000              1791                                              59%        2000
                     Grd 10 502            Approximately the same      1060
                     Grd 11 513
                     Grd 12 776
   2001              491                   *982 + 625                  Over 50% ? 1500
                     Grd 10 -              Grd 10 326 + 264
                     Grd 11 163            Grd 11 420 + 361
                     Grd 12 328            Grd 12 236
   2002              952                   1235                        50%/60%    ? 1500
                     Grd 10 408            Grd 10 662
                     Grd 11 277            Grd 11 371
                     Grd 12 267            Grd 12 202
   2003              599                   412                         WS: 58% 600
   (holding          Grd 10 278            Grd 10 -                    female
   phase)            Grd 11 232            Grd 11 242                  SS: 55%
                     Grd 12 40             Grd 12 170                  female
   2004 (as part 120                       80                                     120/80
   of SUKAR)         Grd 10 40             Grd 10 40
                     Grd 11 40             Grd 11 40
                     Grd 12 40
*Due to logistical difficulties, for 2001 a Summer School was held in both December 2001 and January
2002
Source: Yearly Evaluation Reports

6.2 UBEP learners entering higher education
The following table indicates the numbers of UBEP learners who can be shown to register at UDW for
degree studies. (There is some concern as to the accuracy of these figures; and the table does not
include learners who may have registered at other tertiary institutions, eg. at the Durban Institute of
Technology, or at UCT.)

  Table 2: UBEP Grade 12 learners by performance at Matric, and registration at UDW
    Date      Expected        Learners     Learners      Learners        Learners
              Grade 12        who wrote    obtaining     obtaining       registering at
              learners        Matric       Exemption     Senior          UDW
                                                         Certificate
    2000      1000            652          No data       No data         38
    2001      500             236          184           52              77
    2002      500             276          110           141             48
    Total     2000            1164                                       163
       Source: 2003 Narrative report p5

The figures for 2002 are of particular interest, as, in terms of the UBEP model, the Grade 10 intake
from 2000 would have attended 6 Schools, prior to writing their Matriculation examinations in
November 2002. It is disappointing that relatively few of these appear to have registered to study at
UDW; and there is at present no means of ascertaining to what degree UPEB may have contributed to
their success in obtaining entry to the university.




                                                                                                      76
At the same time, the impact of the project on the learners involved cannot be solely judged in terms
of the learners who did register for higher education (one of the specified performance indicators).
(See the need for a detailed tracer study, below.)

6.3 Teacher workshops
A further achievement of UBEP has been its impact on participating schools, and on the teachers at
these schools.

From the outset, up to 50% of the UBEP tutors were teachers from local schools, who benefited from
the preparatory training sessions for all tutors.

In 2003, teacher workshops were initiated. A workshop was held in January 2003 for 70 Physical
Sciences teachers from UBEP schools, followed by a second workshop in August 2003. In 2004, the
decision was taken to hold teacher workshops in conjunction with the Winter and Summer School:
during the Winter School, 60 teachers from the 20 participating UBEP schools attended a three-day
workshop exploring changes in teacher roles, in view of societal pressures and changes in
departmental policy. This was followed by a smaller teacher workshop in December 2004. At the
same time, learners were provided with packs of UBEP materials, to make these available in their
schools on a broader basis.



7. PROJECT DIFFICULTIES

7.1 Logistical difficulties
Difficulties experienced were primarily logistical. Given that capacity development was included in the
project’s goals, many staff (including project leadership) had had little prior experience, and had to
learn ‘on the job’. The logistical difficulties inherent in running a two-week residential programme for
2000 teenaged learners (many of whom were experiencing an urban area for the first time) are clearly
immense. Nevertheless, progress was made; and the 2002 Schools (in terms of project management)
were a clear improvement on 2000 and 2001.

7.2 Problems in learner selection
The UBEP model provided for selected learners to remain in the programme for three full years, and
to attend a total of six Summer/Winter Schools, before writing their final examinations. This model
proved difficult to realise, in that some schools appeared unwilling to ‘privilege’ a few selected
participants over others, and sought to vary the learners who attended the Summer/Winter Schools.
This factor must be borne in mind in evaluating the outcomes of UBEP, in terms of the Matriculation
performance of UBEP learners.

7.3 Financial management
Major difficulties were experienced in the financial management of the project, with financial reports
and audits either not appearing, or appearing after substantial delays. These matters were only
resolved with the introduction of stringent financial management with the SUKAR project.

7.4 Project evaluation
Further difficulties were experienced by the project evaluators, especially once CEREP had begun to
conduct more sophisticated evaluations: attempts to obtain reliable input from tutors, for instance,
remained unsatisfactory in spite of repeated attempts.


8.      LESSONS LEARNT

8.1 Ongoing learning
Reading the evaluation reports in succession indicates clearly that lessons were being learnt on an
ongoing basis, after the enormous logistical difficulties experienced in 2000. (The UBEP annual
evaluations, which from 2002 were carried out by the UDW Centre for Education Research,
Evaluation and Policy, and the SANTED formative research project, which used UBEP as a case
study, greatly encouraged reflection on and learning from UBEP.)




                                                                                                     77
8.2 Introduction of modifications into UBEP
Modifications gradually introduced into project management and running from 2001 onwards included
the following:

     •   Detailed upfront planning (which was not adequately in place in 2000) – this was imperative
         especially given the intended size of UBEP cohorts;
     •   Introduction of necessary support structures, in terms of security, health care, house parents
         etc. (In spite of these enhanced precautions, the Summer School 2002 experienced the tragic
         drowning of a learner in the University swimming pool.)
     •   A more realistic estimation of the numbers of learners that could effectively be catered for;
     •   Attempts to build closer links with University Units, and in particular to involve Faculty staff
         (and especially Deans) in the project. Changes in 2003 included a revised Management
         structure, with a Planning Committee and an Academic Oversight Committee; and the re-
         location of UBEP within the Faculty of Humanities, responsible to its Dean;
     •   Attempts to involve teachers and schools in UBEP, primarily by means of teacher upgrade
         workshops;
     •   Reviews and revisions of the initial learning materials, not least in terms of a shift away from
         teacher-dominated approaches to learning;
     •   Implementation of a computer-based registration and student records system for UBEP
         learners;
     •   Planning of a tracer study, to gain a better understanding of the actual impact of UBEP
         (currently underway);
     •   A reiteration of the original conceptualisation of UBEP, which had included support for
         learners in undergraduate degrees.

8.3 The SUKAR project
Between 2003 and 2004, due to these substantial difficulties and the fraught situation of university
politics, UBEP was placed in a holding phase. The SUKAR project, into which UBEP was integrated
from 2004 on, took as its theme ‘Learning from Upward Bound’ and drew extensively on the above
points in its project conceptualisation.

In addition to a greatly scaled-down UBEP, SUKAR has included:
    • A ‘test development project’, with the goal of refining the selection of applicants to UKZN, and
         the specific goal of identifying students with potential from disadvantaged schools. In team-
         work with other institutions of higher learning, a new entrance and placement test has been
         developed and trailed, and is currently undergoing validation; it will remain one focus of
         ongoing research.
    • Redevelopment of ‘merged’ foundation programmes in Science and in the Humanities,
         drawing on expertise from both former universities; all existing teaching materials have been
         substantially reworked.
    • Initiation of approximately 20 disciplinary-based retention projects in Science and the
         Humanities; these in the main involve curriculum and materials development and are student-
         centred and methodologically innovative. The intention is to extend these projects through the
         full major of the disciplines concerned; and to involve a wider range of Faculties.
    • Initiation of an institutional access and retention research project, which includes ongoing
         tracking of student performance; the long-projected and much needed tracer study of ex-
         UBEP students is shortly to be carried out.
    • One further small-scale schools outreach project, Fast Forward, involving two educationally
         marginalized schools and run by Humanities staff.

In working towards these specific projects, SUKAR has furthermore enabled fruitful working
relationships to develop between staff at the two merging universities, and in this way has made a
substantial contribution to the success of the merger.

9.       RECOMMENDATIONS

Schools outreach work is expensive and time-consuming; at the same time it does appear to fulfil an
essential role in redressing continuing education deficiencies. Numerous Schools outreach projects
exist – several are driven by UKZN staff, although the precise goals and scope of UBEP appear to be


                                                                                                      78
unique; yet no up-to-date register of such initiatives is available. Within the SUKAR research portfolio,
the mapping underpinning such a register has been initiated; we intend to seek funding to complete
this important project, which will enable schools outreach projects to interface with each other, thereby
increasing their effectiveness. On the basis of such an overview, renewed consideration will be given
to additional outreach work, specifically in the fields of science and mathematics, and specifically
targeting female learners.

The name of the UKZN Access portfolio is misleading, in that it appears to presuppose the ‘add-on’
foundational approach to alternative access, and downplays the imperative to integrate academic
development into disciplinary study, thereby making this additional support available to any students
who would find it of benefit. It also suggests that academic development can be removed from
faculties and disciplines and driven centrally. (This was, of course, one core weakness of the original
UBEP proposal, that in reporting directly to the Vice-Chancellor the Project Director bypassed Deans,
who remained largely unaware of UBEP.) At the same time, an Executive portfolio does have the
potential to highlight issues and to ensure appropriate coherence across campuses and disciplines.
Great care has been taken in the SUKAR project to ensure that Deans remain involved, not least in
that projects must in the long run be sustainable by Faculty budgets. At the same time, the ability of
the Executive Director: Access to initiate and fund curriculum projects (in a time of great budgetary
constraints) has given additional status and visibility to access and retention, and more broadly to the
teaching project, which is often (incorrectly) seen as of lesser importance than research.

SUKAR has initiated a wide variety of retention projects, but in the main these have been limited to
two Faculties. Limited University funding has now been made available, which will enable some
further expansion. However, budgetary restrictions are likely to remain a reality for the foreseeable
future, and it would hence appear wise to include a strong focus on initiatives which explore the scope
offered by modern technologies in student support and development. (The School of Information
Systems Technology is currently embarking on such a project, with reference to the UKZN OLS
system.) Of course, technologically underpinned approaches may not be appropriate to all disciplines,
and for this reason, a wide variety of approaches should be encouraged.

One core outcome of UBEP was its exploration of the capacities and needs of so-called
‘disadvantaged’ students, and of the (perhaps unexpected) contributions that these learners can make
to student-centred learning and teaching projects. However, these insights have remained limited to
the very few mainstream staff who became involved; a broad-based understanding at UKZN of both
the critical problems facing many schools in our province and of the undoubted capacities of some of
their learners has yet to develop. Any future projects should include strategies to expose more
teaching staff to the realities of township and rural schools, to the challenges they face, and to the
ways in which some schools are overcoming these.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The many UKZN staff involved in the UBEP and SUKAR projects would like to acknowledge the great
generosity of the Norwegian funders, in making these interventions possible; their impact, in a variety
of ways, is likely to be long-lasting and remain productive.




                                                                                                      79
Annex 8: SANTED University of Fort Hare Capacity Building Project


                   Executive Summary Report

                          20 May 2005

                          Compiled by:
                      Mr. Noel Knickelbein
                     SANTED Project Leader




                                                                    80
1.      Institutional Background
In the peaceful, historical Eastern Cape town of Alice, on the former military station which was donated
by the United Free Church of Scotland, is Fort Hare, with its proud tradition of excellence and
achievement.

This remarkable institution, traditionally recognized as one of the prestigious universities of the
continent of Africa, owes its inception to the initiatives of the black elite and early twentieth-century
white liberals, many of whom were clergy and the support of many traditional Southern African
leaders.

Fort Hare came into existence in 1916 and is the oldest historically black university in Southern Africa.
Throughout its existence, Fort Hare graduates have come from as far North as Kenya, Uganda and
Nigeria, and all knew they were as good as the best.

Many enjoyed prominent careers in fields as diverse as politics, medicine, literature and art. Some
alumni, like Nelson Mandela, Govan Mbeki, Robert Sobukwe, Mangosuthu Buthelezi, Dennis Brutus
(an acclaimed poet), Can Themba (an accomplished journalist), the 23 year-old Dr Louis Brown in
South Africa, Robert Mugabe, Herbert Chitepo, novelist Stanlake Samkange and the first black
Zimbabwean medical doctor, Ticofa Parirenyatwa, are well known. Eliud Mathu and Charles Njonjo
are two of our better-known alumni in Kenya.

This cosmopolitan university boasts a long-standing tradition of non-racism which is characterized by
intellectually enriching and critical debate. There is an almost tangible aspiration towards educational
excellence while social life on campus is vibrant.

The model blueprint for the transformation and repositioning of this legendary institution in the twenty-
first century - the Strategic Plan 2000 - nurtures and builds upon this tradition. The objective of this
internationally lauded corporate re-engineering plan is to make this university worthy of its rich
inheritance. As a reflection of a dynamic institution, the plan is working.

Fort Hare students are definitely motivated by this distinctly superior reputation. Many are inspired by
the remarkable liberation movement archival records kept at Fort Hare. The unparalleled academic,
cultural and emotional development experience Fort Hare offers counts for a great deal. Life after Fort
Hare is based on the solid preparation afforded by the complete scholarly experienced at the
institution.

The University of Fort Hare is the proud recipient of the Supreme Councellor of the Baobab (Gold) in
recognition of the exceptional role it has played in the academic leadership in South Africa and the
African continent. South African President, Thabo Mbeki, bestowed the honour on Fort Hare on the 26
April 2005.

2.      Institutional / Project Context
The recent history of the University of Fort Hare (UFH) has been characterized by a massive
transformation drive originating from pressures internal to the university and from the wider higher
education context. A critical phase in this history was captured in the Review Report (RR) of 1999
which, among other things, documented a comprehensive assessment of the UFH “…current systems,
procedures and practices in the academic, financial and administrative sectors...” (RR.p.1).

From these areas the RR identified problems and threats to the very survival of UFH as well as
opportunities for the University to re-invent itself. These were consolidated and focused in the
Strategic Plan 2000 (SP2000) which sought to chart a course for the renewal of UFH.

The UFH recognized that, for this to happen, it was important to create the necessary environment
and conditions that would enable the University to achieve its core business of quality teaching and
research. Central to this issue was the importance of revamping the University support services, a
point which had been expressed as one of the overarching objectives emanating from the stated
vision of Increasing Capacity, Quality and Efficiency of Support Systems (SP2000:19).

A critical aspect of capacity building identified was in the area of human resources, systems and
procedures. This entailed the development of the quantity and quality of people capable of realizing


                                                                                                      81
the vision. In short, capacity building in the UFH context was the development of a “critical mass” of
skillful people who understand the shared vision and mission of the university and the full scope of the
work and efforts underway and who, with the recently acquired skills, would be able to carry them out.

The purpose of this proposal was, therefore, to seek financial assistance to cover the development of
the systems designed to address the identified needs of the three key support services departments,
Finance, Human Resources and Student Administration in order to create the critical mass of capable
people and modernized, appropriate systems. This resulted in the acceptance of the SANTED
Business Plan and an agreement between the UFH, the Higher Education Branch of the Department
of Education and the Norwegian Government, funding the SANTED capacity building initiative at the
institution.

3.      Project Description
The primary aim of the SANTED Project was to facilitate a process of developing the service skills of
all the individuals, who are functioning within the respective service departments of finance, human
resources and administration.

By providing the employees the opportunity to develop their skills, capacity will be enhanced and thus,
good individual skills should significantly contribute to a good system functioning effectively and
efficiently. A good system allows personnel to render an excellent service. The institution requires well
equipped and trained personnel in order to bring out the best in its systems.

The SANTED project has progressed over a period of 14 months with the development of essential
systems and procedures in the three critical areas of finance, human resources and administration.
This development has not only been necessary as part of the turnaround policy described in the
introduction but also essential for the expansion of the institution to its'urban campuses.

3.1    Project beneficiaries
The project will have two sets of beneficiaries: direct and indirect

3.1.1 Direct
The support service staff in the three service departments that have their skill and knowledge base
developed.

3.1.2 Indirect
Academic and management staff and students of the University enjoy the benefits of a fully functional
university with increased efficiency and effectiveness in all support areas.

3.2     Scope of the programme
3.2.1 Goal
Increasing capacity, quality and efficiency of support systems, which in turn will secure long term
sustainability and viability for the university.

3.2.2 Objectives
There are three major objectives for the project, one for each of the three service departments:

Finance: to provide effective and efficient financial services to the institution.
Human Resources: to manage and develop human potential and effective leadership.
Administration: to provide students with improved and effective links to the faculty, curriculum, and
classroom through a continuum of services from enrolment to graduation.




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3.3     Management Structure


       PROJECT MANAGEMENT                          SANTED PROJECT LEADER               VICE-CHANCELLOR
            COMMITTEE


                                                                        PROJECT MANAGER
                                          PROJECT INITIATOR
              DEPUTY VICE -

                                                                          SANTED DIRECTOR



                                                                                   REGISTRAR
       I.T.             DIR: FINANCE           DIRECTOR: HR

                                                                                        ASST. REGISTRAR
      SECRETARIAT




The Project Management Committee structure, reflecting all the applicable committed members, is
tabled hereunder, indicating their respective roles of involvement during the entire project.

4.      SANTED Project Roll-out

The project was launched during November 2003 with the appointment of the Project Leader, namely
Mr. Noel Knickelbein. A comprehensive Project Plan was compiled and presented to the Project
Management Committee, which comprised of Executive Management staff members, and Mr. Derrick
Young, the National Director of the SANTED Programme.

Monthly meetings were conducted by the Project Management Committee (PMC) over the duration of
the project, in order to monitor the very stringent timeframe of 11 months and to ensure the
successfully attainment of all the predetermined outcomes, All relevant issues pertaining to each
deliverable were closely scrutinized and any deviations recorded by the Secretariat, for record
purposes.

5.      Project Achievements

5.1    Finance Department
5.1.1 The ITS migration process from Version 10 to Version 12 has had a significant overarching
impact on a number of the projects deliverables. The migration process from V10 to V11 was
implemented during January 2004, with the successful migration from V11 to V12 during January
2005.

The database clean-up exercise was conducted by a delegation of consultants from ITS (Pty) Ltd. This
resulted in the presentation of a comprehensive report being tabled by the Service Provider. A
number of the salient aspects were reflected in the report for immediate attention by the relevant
Heads of Department.

5.1.2 Extensive research has been conducted into the design and development of a GAAP
                                                         th
Compliant Financial Manual. The document is in its 5 draft and currently being endorsed by the Chief
Finance Officer, Mr Clint Ramoo, who will present the manual to the Finance Committee for favourable
consideration as well as to the Council for final ratification and implementation purposes. A feature of
the manual is the alignment of the various operational activities/functionalities to the ITS Financial sub-
system.

This document will add significant value to the operational aspects in the Finance Department and will
also be marketed to other institutions as a SANTED product in terms of best practice.




                                                                                                        83
5.1.3 The Budget Control Process has been addressed, with the establishment of a Budget Review
Committee. The committee has been commissioned by the Executive Committee to review and realign
the Budget Control Process, by considering the implementation of a decentralized budget
      system.

5.1.4 Co-ordination of a workshop on corporate governance requirements in terms of the King 2
Report legislation has been recommended for the personnel of the Finance Department, once the
GAAP policy manual has been ratified and implemented.

5.1.5 Capacity Building initiatives have included workshops relating to “Salary Budgeting”, “Advanced
Training on the ITS Finance System” “Excel Training for Financial Managers” and numerous ICDL
computer courses for the personnel within the department.

5.2    Human Resources Department
5.2.1 Capacity enhancement initiatives relating to the labour legislation have been embraced by a
wide spectrum of stakeholder groups. Members of Executive Management, Union Members and Line
Managers have all been invited to participate in the various workshops.



                                      Training Courses                             Delegates


         1. Basic Conditions of Employment Act & Labour Relations Act                  35


         2. Skills Development Act, Employment Equity Act & Occupational               14
            Health and Safety Act


         3. LRA – Discipline and Dismissals                                            32


         4. LRA: Arbitration Skills                                                    14


5.2.2 In terms of the objective, extensive theoretical and hands-on training was conducted over a
two-week period by an ITS expert in Human Resources administration. All the personnel within the
section were exposed to individual training initiatives with the consultant after he had analyzed each
individual staff members’ capacity needs.

5.2.3 The implementation of the JE Manager grading system was duly sanctioned by Executive
Management and a sample of post descriptions have been re-drafted by the trainees who have
undergone training as JE Facilitators.

5.2.4 All HR policies have been reviewed in terms of current labour legislation and have been
approved by Executive Management for implementation purposes.

5.2.5 The institution has accepted a proposal to design and implement an integrated performance
optimization model, based on the Balance        Scorecard concept, which will institutionalize a
process of enhancing performance at all levels of the organization on a sustainable basis.

5.2.6 In an endeavour to address the employment equity goals and objectives of the institution, an
appeal was made to include this Human Resources related outcome for inclusion into the project as
an additional deliverable. A very comprehensive Employment Equity Plan was researched, compiled
and presented, by the Service Provider, to the Executive Management Committee for favourable
consideration and implementation. The EE Plan was duly approved and implementation thereof will be
monitored by the Director of the Human Resources Department.




                                                                                                   84
5.2.7 Accepted internationally as a benchmark and regarded as one of the best Facilitation Skills
programmes in South Africa and DDI (Development Dimensions International) accredited, seven staff
members were identified and registered for the course.Endorsed as one of the many successes of the
programme, all seven candidates attained “Full Certification” for the programme and awarded their
internationally accredited DDI certificates.

5.3      Administration Department
5.3.1 Extensive research was conducted on the various document “Archiving and Retrieval”
products. A service provider had been identified, who would be implementing the system, however the
process has been delayed due to the institutions process of outsourcing the document management
activities.

5.3.2 Mr. Peet Du Plessis from Messrs. ITS (Pty) Ltd was commissioned to interrogate and revamp
the current examinations operational procedures.    After considerable research, interviews with
academic and administration personnel, a comprehensive policy manual was compiled and is pending
Senates approval prior to implementation. In terms of this outcome, on-site training was also
conducted over a two week period on the ITS Student sub-system for all the Examination
Administration personnel.

5.3.3 The ITS Student iEnabler web application/registration system and the ITS Enquiry module have
been implemented. The successful implementation of the respective modules is dependant upon best
practice principles and the institution is currently researching these aspects. It is intended to introduce
these modules to our student population in due course.

5.3.4 A process of addressing the CHE quality assurance issues at the institution have been
addressed by a cross-section of academic and administrative personnel at two workshops, which were
facilitated by representatives from the University of Pretoria. The workshops broadly addressed the
salient aspects that would be considered by all departments in preparation for future institutional
HEQC audit visit.

5.3.5 In an endeavour to enhance the administrative personnel project management skills, staff
were registered and exposed to a “Practical Projects Management” programme which is presented by
the Johnson and Johnson Leadership Development Institute. This is an internally accredited division
and has achieved ‘preferred supplier’ status with respect to leadership development courses within the
East London business community, including global organizations like Johnson & Johnson and
DaimlerChrysler. In addition, it has been engaged by the Eastern Cape Department of Health with the
support of funders MSH, to provide a series of highly innovative and internationally recognized
transformational leadership programmes.

6.      Project Difficulties

From the outset of the SANTED programme, the delay in the appointment of a Project Leader placed
undue constraints on the achievement of the respective objectives. The original two-year project
timeframe had been reduced to a 12 months period. This resulted in the revision of the original
business plan timeframes and adopted accordingly.

An additional constraint was the unavailability of staff to be relieved from their daily operational duties
in order to attend and/or participate in numerous planned workshops and training initiatives. In order
to address this constraint, workshops were conducted during the recess periods when academic
personnel and students were away on vacation.

7.      Lessons Learned/Unexpected results or spin-offs.

An appeal by the Vice-Chancellor to consider the inclusion of the drafting of an Employment     Equity
Plan for the institutions has been an unanticipated but beneficial spin-off for the university and the
Human Resources Department.

The institutions success of rapidly migrating from an obsolete ITS Version 10 system to the current
Version 12 web-based system must be celebrated.        However, staff have not been able to



                                                                                                        85
maximize the benefits of the enhanced system due to their limited IT skills. This is an area of concern
and could likely be addressed during the 2nd phase of the SANTED Programme.

The commitment of the staff to the project and its numerous objectives has been      truly
symbolized by the projects logo “SAKHA NGETHEMBA” meaning “Building with Hope”. Each staff
member participating in the programme was presented with a golf shirt reflecting the SANTED logo.
These shirts are worn with pride at every opportunity. They tend to create a sense of pride and
belonging which was not evident prior to the SANTED project.

In terms of the significance and viability of the programme, all courses and training initiatives were
rendered by SETA accredited service providers. All      certificates presented by the service providers
to the participants met the    minimum international or national standards in terms of our SETA pre-
requisites.

8.      Conclusion / Recommendations

The SANTED Project has progressed considerably since the implementation of the programme. Many
of the planned interventions, within the three service departments, have been successfully
implemented under very stringent operational timeframes.

The motto “Sakha Ngethemba – Building with Hope” has truly been embraced by all the staff
members from within the enhancement programmes relating to their respective areas of responsibility
and accountability. respective departments. The personnel have welcomed the opportunities to attend
the various skill

It has been encouraging to note how the staff members have acquitted themselves in a manner
beyond reproach and during these strenuous times, have been willing to go the proverbial extra mile
for the institution.

The opportunity to enhance their skills and knowledge during this programme, has had an
overwhelming positive impact on the individual’s confidence within the three targeted service
departments.

Unquestionably, real capacity has been built through the SANTED project over the past year, and a
foundation has been created for ‘real’ progress for building upon and enhancing what has already
been accomplished.

Future steps require careful and wise planning to ensure that the momentum created is sustained and
taken to the desired level. The excellence that we seek depends upon excellent, appropriate and
aligned capacity being in place.

On behalf on the UFH Council, Prof. Derrick Swartz: Vice-Chancellor, staff and students at the
institution, may I take this opportunity in expressing our sincere gratitude and appreciation to the
Department of Education, the Norwegian Government and the Embassy for their valued contribution in
the development of the systems designed to address the identified needs of three key support
services departments, Finance, Human Resources and Administration in order to create a more
effective and efficient support service of capable people with modernized and developed systems.

We are convinced that the University of Fort Hare is ideally positioned to take advantage of the many
challenges that it faces as it forges ahead with its vision and mission for the 21st Century.

In addition, the university is convinced that it and other institutions could benefit significantly from
formalized sharing of lessons, resources and experiences gained from what has proven to be major
milestone in the life of this illustrious institution.




                                                                                                     86
Annex 9: University of Zululand Organisational Development Project


                   in association with SANTED:




           (A) Final Project Report: Executive Summary

                          10 June 2005

                               and

                  (B) The Business Plan of 2003

                               and

(C) The Detailed SANTED-UNIZUL Assessment of the Review Team




                                                                     87
                                                                                          Final Project Report: Executive Summary

SANTED Project overview

The SANTED Organisational Development Project (ODP) was initiated in August 2003 to facilitate a
process of sustainable business turnaround at the University of Zululand. The project objectives as
defined by SANTED were to:

             •        Scrutinise the University of Zululand’s Business Plan of 1999 in the context of the current
                      turnaround strategy;
             •        Assess the University of Zululand’s administrative and financial processes by investigating the
                      current situation at the University;
             •        Revise and develop a business plan;
             •        Implement the relevant recommendations contained in the revised business plan and other
                      mechanisms the consultants may think necessary to ensure that the University is turned into a
                      well-managed and efficient organisation.

The ODP was a project partnership between:

             •        The University of Zululand (Unizul);
             •        The Department of Education (DOE);
             •        South Africa Norway Tertiary Education Development Programme (SANTED);
             •        Strategy Partners Consortium (SPC).

The following summary of activities comprises the ODP timeline:




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Review of project achievements and risks
                                                                                                                                                                                    Ongoing implementation and monitoring




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Detail assessment of project outcomes




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Start-of-year assessment of short term
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               End-of-year assessment and planning
                                                                                                                                                 Change management implementation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Strategic prioritisation of deliverables
                                                        Strategic imperatives developed




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Launch of ODP internal phase
                         Stakeholders review findings
                         Situation analysis completed



                                                        Assessment report finalised




                                                                                                                        Action Plans developed

                                                                                                                                                 Start of Implementation
                                                                                              Business Plan finalised




                                                                                                                                                 ODP Manco convenes
                                                                                              Official Project Launch
  Project commences




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     progress



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         " !
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              !
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                !




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         88
PHASE 1: Situation Assessment

The Situation Assessment phase comprised the above stages 1 and 2 and was conducted between
August 2003 and February 2004. The components were:

Project establishment – clarification of scope and setting up logistic arrangements;
Initial stakeholder interaction – communication of project scope and assessment of expectations;
Detail situation assessment – individual reviews of all administrative functions in terms of cost and
staff profile, service quality, effectiveness and efficiency;
Situation assessment feedback – report back to stakeholders and management to capture
comments and feedback;
Leadership planning and prioritisation – critical reflection on strategic priorities for business
turnaround and prioritisation of actions and projects;
Detail business planning – incorporation of all inputs into a comprehensive Unizul turnaround
business plan.

The assessment of Unizul’s administrative functions and business processes yielded the following
scenario by October 2003:


          At the end of 2003, the University of Zululand finds itself in a precarious financial
          position, in part due to its inability to effectively and efficiently collect student funds
          over time and tightly manage its internal operations and systems. The
          organisational structure needs to be critically assessed in the move towards a
          ‘comprehensive academic institution’, while specific administrative and support
          areas requiring urgent attention are financial and human resources management.
          At Unizul, management processes in general require greater application of
          financial and staff discipline, communication and performance management. While
          a provisional turnaround assessment of Unizul indicates room for investment, a
          lack of financial resources necessitates unambiguous prioritisiation of key areas.




Based on the situation assessment findings a Unizul leadership group identified the following priority
areas to address in a business plan:

Finances: resources, debt and administration;
Structure: organisational size and shape;
Human capital: human resource management;
Change: leadership, management, culture;
IT/ Systems;
Academic restructuring.

The business plan outlined projects in the various functional areas aligned to these priority areas to
address the shortcomings identified in the assessment phase.

                                      PHASE 2: Implementation

To assist project managers with implementation, business plan activities where cascaded into fifty-two
action plans that were to be implemented, measured and monitored. Action plans were developed for
the following functional areas:
•   Academic Administration;
•   Catering;
•   Facilities;
•   Finance;
•   Human Resources;



                                                                                                         89
•   ICT;
•   Library;
•   Marketing;
•   Security;
•   Student Services.
Implementation progress was monitored on a monthly basis by way of progress reports submitted by
University project managers. Informal interaction and advice strengthened the monitoring mechanism.
The primary project oversight bodies were:

•   Project Committee – comprising representatives from SANTED, DOE, Unizul senior
    management and SPC and responsible for overall project monitoring;
•   Management Committee – the Rector/ Vice-Chancellor’s senior management team, responsible
    for day-to-day running of University;
•   ODP Manco – comprising senior University academic and administrative managers, responsible
    for progress monitoring of all ODP projects;
•   ODP Programme Office – set up by SPC and responsible for project logistics and coordination;
•   Strategy Partners Consortium – specialist higher education consultants appointed to undertake
    project assessment and advice;
In August 2004 an assessment was made of the first six months of implementation and projects were
reprioritised based on factors such as a changed academic reconfiguration timeline and an analysis of
successes and remaining risks. Priority projects for completion were earmarked and closely monitored
in the second six months of implementation.

By February 2005 significant progress had been made with improving the University’s administrative
and financial processes and recommendations were made to management as to how to address
remaining risk factors.



                               Achievements and lessons learnt

The major achievements of the ODP by end-February 2005 were:

FUNCTIONAL AREA         MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS (24-02-2005)
                        •   Academic policies and procedures have been drafted, finalised and
                            approved
                        •   Registration planning was finalised end-2004 and implementation of
      Academic
                            improved procedures took place in 2005 (with room for further
    Administration
                            improvement)
                        •   An International Office needs analysis was done, infrastructure was
                            established and the recruitment of an officer is underway




                                                                                                  90
FUNCTIONAL AREA   MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS (24-02-2005)
                  •   The University’s debt collection policy has been revised and implemented
                  •   Debt collection has improved considerably (with room for further
                      improvement)
                  •   Proper finance governance structures have been implemented
                  •   Proper budget management has been implemented centrally with
                      departmental budget management improvements underway
                  •   Final University budgets were approved by Council
                  •   A risk assessment of the Finance Department was completed and
    Finance           improved processes implemented
                  •   A Finance department concept structure has been drafted
                  •   A skills assessment and action plan for the Finance department has been
                      completed
                  •   The University’s external funding plan was approved by Council and a
                      DBSA loan application was approved
                  •   A third stream revenue policy was developed and approved
                  •   The University’s overall financial situation has been turned around from
                      an operating deficit to an operating surplus

                  •   The staff transfer from the closed-down satellite Durban-Umlazi campus
                      has been completed
                  •   New HR structure have been developed and recruitment to fill high-
                      priority positions is underway
                  •   Selected HR policies and procedures were approved by Council, with the
Human Resources       remaining policies to be tabled to Council in March 2005
                  •   A preliminary assessment of workers Co-operatives, responsible for
                      cleaning   and   maintenance  contracts,  was     completed      and
                      recommendations submitted to Manco. A detailed feasibility study has
                      been commissioned
                  •   A complete organisational chart for Unizul has been compiled

                  •   Equipping of new ICT offices is nearing finalisation
                  •   A comprehensive selection process for new University business systems
                      has been completed, with implementation to commence in 2005
      ICT         •   A new network infrastructure tender process has been completed and
                      implementation commenced January 2005
                  •   The integrated data-cleanup is well underway given constraints such as
                      filing backlogs




                                                                                           91
FUNCTIONAL AREA      MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS (24-02-2005)
                     •   Improved food cost control has been implemented
                     •   A “Pick and Pay” system has been put in place, to be activated with card
                         reader installation
                     •   A self-catering system for West Residences has been put in place
                     •   A VIP lounge conversion/ student training programme has been initiated
                     •   A room booking system was put in place for returning students
                     •   The Student Services Department completed an internal Business Plan
Catering & Student
     Services        •   Improved communication and interfaces between the SRC and SSD are
                         evident, linked to important student governance events that took place
                         such as the establishment of a Student Parliament
                     •   The Keep Unizul Clean Campaign was successfully completed
                     •   Improved financial monitoring and control mehcanisms for Sports &
                         Recreation have been put in place
                     •   The recruitment of additional staff for the Financial Aid Bureau was
                         completed and service improvement has been visible

                     •   An assessment of the Physical Planning & Works departmental structure
                         was completed and a new, specialised structure submitted to Manco
                     •   Outsourcing of the vehicle fleet is underway, with a comprehensive tender
    Facilities
                         process conducted
                     •   A hot water system for East Residences is being installed and on
                         schedule for completion before Winter 2005

                     •   A facilitated conflict resolution workshop took place, with follow-up
                         workshop to commence as soon as funding is made available
                     •   A new functional structure for the Library was developed and submitted to
     Library             Manco
                     •   New hardware is to be supplied to Library on an incremental basis
                     •   A training plan has been finalised and is being incrementally implemented
                     •   The Library roof repair project has been completed

                     •   The overall strategic coordination project was completed for 2004, and an
                         improved 2005 business plan addresses lingering shortcomings
                     •   Marketing policies and procedures were submitted to Manco and
    Marketing            approved
                     •   The new University of Zululand website was launched in February 2005
                     •   A Marketing Committee has been established to co-ordinate University-
                         wide marketing activities




                                                                                               92
FUNCTIONAL AREA         MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS (24-02-2005)
                        •   A Crime Prevention Officer job specification has been completed and the
                            recruitment process is underway
                        •   A Campus Protection Forum has been established
                        •   A physical security improvement plan was finalised and is being
      Security              implemented
                        •   A CCTV network extension is being implemented jointly with ICT
                        •   the recruitment of new Director: PSD is underway
                        •   Residence access control supervisors commenced work in January 2005

Key lessons that were learned on higher education business turnaround during the ODP are:

•   A project management approach to delivery can be difficult to grasp for line managers and
    sufficient preparation time is required for project management capacity building;
•   Leadership is key to the success of turnaround initiatives and any uncertainty on where an
    organisation is headed based on feedback (or lack thereof) received from the top can debilitate
    those responsible for implementation;
•   For an institution such as Unizul, which is confronted with various management challenges on a
    daily, weekly and monthly basis, projects should be clearly defined and staggered in order to
    prevent delays in implementation;
•   Strong management action is required in areas where delivery is not forthcoming;
•   Regular monitoring and performance checking significantly increases the quality and tempo of
    work done;
•   The in-built tension at higher education institutions between academic and administrative
    managers is a fact and needs to be addressed through joint planning initiatives and
    communication;
•   Lessons learnt from organisational turnarounds have indicated that major organisational shifts
    take approximately three years to fully bed down into new work cultures and methods that are
    sustainable. Future interventions of an ODP nature might need to take a longer view on the
    support required.
•   The human aspects of change and turnaround as they transpire through capacity, adaptability and
    commitment are critical. If not sufficiently addressed from the start, they present a perpetual risk
    that can prevent long-lasting change from occurring within an organisation.




                                                                                                     93
                                           Business Plan

The Project is located at the University of Zululand, Kwa Dlangezwa, in the Province of KwaZulu-
Natal.

1.      PROJECT GOAL
The overall goal of the Project is to provide the appropriate capacity within the University of Zululand
to facilitate the establishment of a viable academic organisation that has been restructured in
accordance with the National Plan for Higher Education, and the subsequent proposals of the Ministry
of Education for the institutional reconfiguration of higher education.

2       PROJECT DESCRIPTION
The Ministry of Education requires the University of Zululand to refocus its vision and mission in line
with the National Plan for Higher Education. In order to succeed with this major task of reshaping and
strengthening the offerings of the University of Zululand to become a comprehensive higher education
institution, an investment needs to be made in building institutional capacity and a committed and
competent leadership. As a first stage in this development, the necessary administration and
managerial structures, policies and processes essential to support teaching, learning, research and
community service must be put in place.

The Project is one of the institutional projects that are identified as appropriate in terms of the overall
                     s
SANTED Progamme' aims and specifically in relation to the institutional capacity building component
thereof.

Background to the Project
The University of Zululand, which is located in the rural north of Kwa-Zulu Natal, was established in
1960 as a College affiliated to the University of South Africa (UNISA). In 1970 it became a fully-
fledged university. Given its rural location, the University continues to play a role in broadening
access to higher education. However, the University, like many other historically disadvantaged
institutions, continues to experience serious difficulties in terms of a lack of capacity – many of which
are rooted in its past apartheid legacy. In particular, it has experienced a significant decline in student
numbers, large student debt, a decline in the financial situation and management/governance
disruptions.

                                                      s
The Minister of Education asked the Auditor-General' office to facilitate special audits in late 1998 to
address the financial deficits and shortcomings in the administrative and financial management
systems of six of the historically disadvantaged universities, including the University of Zululand. The
audits were carried out in 1999 by major audit companies. The findings for the University of Zululand
included a set of recommendations that needed to be implemented in order to address the identified
deficiencies.

However, the University of Zululand suffered management and governance disruptions and there was
also little capacity at the time to ensure the implementation of the recommendations that emanated
from the special audit. This has impacted not only on teaching, learning and research, but also on the
quality of the day-to-day life of students and personnel.

The Ministry of Education has been acutely aware of the need to find lasting solutions to the problems
experienced by the University of Zululand. This has now been addressed as part of the overall
restructuring of the higher education system. In this regard, the Minister of Education published his
intention in June 2002 to refocus the mission of the University to become a comprehensive institution
offering technikon-type programmes, as well as a limited number of relevant university-type
programmes, with its future growth linked to the Richards Bay region. This has the full support of the
Cabinet of the Republic of South Africa.

The proposal to reconfigure the University of Zululand is intended to ensure the expanded and
broadened access to higher education in a part of the Kwa-Zulu Natal Province which, at the moment,
is not well served. In particular, the current academic programme profile, comprising largely of general
formative degrees in the arts, humanities, education and law, is not responsive to the development
needs of the region, especially for increased opportunities for technikon type vocational certificate,



                                                                                                        94
diploma and degree level qualifications, to support the industrial developments associated with the
growth of the Richards Bay area. The current academic programme offerings are also unlikely to
support or sustain future growth. The reconfiguration of the University of Zululand to a comprehensive
university will require the planning of a new programme profile that is responsive to the needs of the
region. Phased implementation will, in turn, require human and infrastrucural resources, including the
appropriate personnel development initiatives to allow for the re-skilling of existing academic
personnel to meet new teaching challenges; a commitment to major curriculum reform and the
establishment of close links with the immediate community and with business and industry. The rural
location of the institution also allows exciting possibilities for teaching and research to be closely linked
to development challenges, through, amongst others, service learning and other forms of community
service.

In order to succeed with the major task of re-shaping and strengthening the academic offerings of the
University of Zululand, the necessary investment needs to be made in building institutional capacity
and a committed and competent leadership. Most importantly, the necessary administration and
managerial structures, policies and processes essential to support teaching, learning, research and
community service must be established. In this regard, Professor H P Africa, a very experienced
retired Vice-Chancellor, was until very recently appointed as acting Vice-Chancellor at the University
of Zululand. Professor Africa began the process of institution transformation during 2002 and visible
gains have already been made in areas such as governance and student debt recovery. A
substantive Vice-Chancellor, Professor R V Gumbi, has been appointed and is committed to continue
the work.

Nevertheless the University is in a serious financial crisis and the current financial condition of the
University can best be summed up by the response of the institution’s auditors, Deloitte and Touche,
in their qualification to their audit report on the financial statements at year-end 2001. The
qualification firstly draws attention to the fact that South African Generally Accepted Accounting
Standards are not being followed. In addition, attention is drawn to concerns about the financial
viability of the University.

Turnaround Strategies Currently Being Implemented
The immediate priority for all concerned was to ensure the future viability of the University. In this
regard, the Department had meetings with the University management and the Chairperson of the
Council to assist the University to draft a turnaround strategy to restore its financial stability. This
strategy framework has been approved by the Council of the University for immediate implementation
and depends largely on the development of efficient and effective administrative, management and
financial systems which are the focus areas of this project.

Another aspect which is key to the ‘turnaround’ of the University is the Government’s intention to
address the under capitalisation of the University as part of the restructuring of higher education. This
will eventually lead to the injection of major resources to the University. Policies, systems and
processes need to be shown to be in place before major new investment can be made.

The purpose of this SANTED project is therefore to lay the foundation for a viable academic
organisation, through building capacity in the establishment of sound administrative, management and
                                                                                  s
financial systems. It will be implemented in parallel with three of the University' initiatives currently in
progress:

(i) The University of Zululand's internal turnaround initiatives
Activities have been initiated and managed within the University over the past year to address areas of
weakness. These were initiated and driven by Professor Africa and work on these will be continued by
the new Vice-Chancellor. The University has allocated a budget of R 500 000 for this purpose. Visible
gains have already been made.

These turnaround activities include:
   • refocused budgeting process (implemented);
   • upgrading of human resources activities: job descriptions have been written ahead of the next
       phase of evaluation, performance appraisals are being implemented. In addition, a skills
       development exercise is underway (in progress);



                                                                                                          95
     •   the development of a new organisational structure to improve efficiency and effectiveness for
         council approval (in progress);
     •    the restructuring of the information and technology services within the University (in
         progress);
     •   improvements to the physical surrounds (done);
     •   focus on improving internal controls including the development of a structured audit plan which
         provides for prompt follow-up where weaknesses have been identified (implemented).

(ii)     The Department of Education’s contribution to turnaround activities
The Department of Education identified and advised on appropriate actions that could be implemented
                                                             s
to support the continued momentum within the University' own turnaround activities. These actions
have the potential for quick wins for which an amount of R1 million has been provided by the
Department of Education.
Activities include:
     • the recommendation that focused resources be put in place to facilitate the effective collation,
         control and progress of turnaround/improvement activities;
     • the actual amalgamation of the two existing Information Technology Departments;
     • implementation of best practice as established by other South African universities in selected
         areas;
     • the strengthening of the financial division through a restructuring process currently in progress
         and the identification of an appropriately qualified individual to fill a vacancy on a contract
         basis if necessary.

(iii) Refocus of the vision and mission of the University
The reconfiguration of the University of Zululand to a comprehensive university will require the
planning of a new programme profile that is responsive to the needs of the region. It includes the
following activities:
     •   The development of an institutional operating plan. Funds will be provided to re-capitalise the
         University but they are contingent on the development of a satisfactory institutional operating
         plan. All institutions involved in the restructuring of the higher education system are required
         to submit to the Ministry an ‘institutional operating plan’. The Department of Education
         anticipates the University will require re-capitalisation of approximately R100 million;
     •   Realigning and refocusing academic programmes to the new comprehensive character of the
         institution.

3.       SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
3.1     Objective
The primary objective of the Project is the establishment of sound administrative, management and
financial systems at the University.

3.2    Outputs / Deliverables
The outputs linked to the above objective are:
    • a business plan developed on an assessment and situation analysis pertaining to the current
       situation as well as the future vision and mission. The business plan comprises:

                     shape and size of the intended University organisation (students, academic,
                     support structures);
                     human resources model;
                     facilities and spatial plan;
                     information and communications technology plan;
                     student affairs plan;
                     academic administration plan;
                     marketing and communications plan;
                     change management plan;
                     financial plan;
                     an operating revenue and expenditure budget;
                     a capital expenditure budget;
                                                      s
                     a restructuring of the University' balance sheet;
                     a funding plan;


                                                                                                      96
                   a cashflow forecast;

    A strategy for the implementation of the business plan in terms of short, medium and longer
    term outputs.

    Joint agreement between the service provider and the University on the implementation of the
    business plan in terms of defined deliverables.



4. DEVELOPMENT PATH OF THE PROJECT
4.1 Project Activities
As the focus will be on ensuring a functional organisation that operates within financially
sustainable parameters to facilitate the strategic aspects of the University’s refocusing towards
becoming a comprehensive institution, the activities will include:
        • stabilising the institution;
        •     the identification and analysis of all material factors pertaining to the current situation
              at the University as well as to the future vision for the University;
        •     work sessions with representative groups of stakeholders in each of the appropriate
              focus areas to facilitate the above analysis;
        •     development of an executive report which summarises the needs for institutional
              changes;
        •     changing and improving the support service structures of the University in line with the
              newly defined core academic business.

4.2 Timeframe
The project will run through to the end of 2004/early 2005. The broad timelines with the different
components of the project are given below. These will be subject to the outcome of the review
phase.
 (
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                                                             !




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                                                                                                      97
4.3 Project Management
4.3.1 Service Provider
In order to ensure the achievement of the stated objectives and the sustainability of capacity
building within the University, the service provider identified through a tender and evaluation
process will be contracted with the University of Zululand to secure ownership.
4.3.2 Project Steering Committee
A Steering Committee will be established comprised of all stakeholders to monitor progress and
facilitate discussions.

4.3.3 Formal Decision Making Structures
                                                        s
Formal decisions will be jointly made by the University' management and the Department of
Education.
The Director of SANTED will monitor the overall progress according to normal procedures for the
SANTED Programme.

4.3.4   Budget and Disbursement Plan
4.3.5
              Indicative budget of the SANTED Project and related activities

                          R total              Tentative Disbursement Plan
    Project
                                           2003             2004             2005
    1. University’s   R    500 000    R    400 000     R    100 000
    turnaround
    strategy
    2. DoE’s          R   1 000 000   R    500 000     R    500 000
    support of
    turnaround
    strategy
    3. Refocus of     R100 000 000    R 15 000 000     R 55 000 000     R 30 000 000
    the vision and
    mission
    4. The            R   5 000 000   R   2 500 000    R   2 000 000    R    500 000
    SANTED
    Project
    disbursement is
    dependent on
    business plan
    to be
    developed by
    service
    provider and
    approved by
    the Department
    and the
    University.


4.3.6 Key Performance Indicators
On assessment of the business plan developed by the service provider, key performance
indicators will be agreed upon with the service provider. Disbursements will only occur on the
successful attainment of these indicators in terms of defined outputs.

4.3.7 Procedures for Monitoring and Reviews
These will follow the normal SANTED procedures in conjunction with the Project Steering
Committee.




                                                                                            98
              The Detailed SANTED-UNIZUL Assessment of the Review Team

Introduction
The SANTED programme was launched in August 2003 and closed in June 2005. This review covers
this period and comments on the progress achieved in the capacity building domain which was the
main thrust of the SANTED intervention. The report reviews measures and steps taken in the fields of
human resources, financial management and academic administration.

A total of 66 activities was generated within the SANTED programme and although some of the
activities are on-going a large number were finalized. It is noteworthy that all the projects and
activities generated by the SANTED programme have been integrated into the mainstream line
functions of UNIZUL and are going to be continued as part of its on-going business and turn-around
strategy.

Institutional focus areas
The SANTED intervention was designed to effect change in the area of capacity development;
consequently the following line management fields have been positively affected:

information communication technology
facilities
student services
library
bureau for development and public relations
academic administration
human resources
financial management

Information Communication Technology (ICT)
This department was identified as an area of weakness, in spite of its critical role in the delivery of
quality service for both academic and non-academic activity. A new executive director was appointed
to undertake and oversee the transformation of the ICT from being a data processing unit into an
information systems unit. The ICT department now provides support and functional activities to all the
departments on campus and ownership of ICT activities now rests with the institutions’ different
departments. The existing staff have received training and the finalization of a new organogram for
the department has been deferred. ICT is now housed in new offices.

The SANTED intervention gave momentum to the changes and transformation that needed to be
effected and because of this intervention new additional funding has been attracted. The overall
achievement has been the re-organisation, re-structuring, and re-positioning of ICT and the training of
staff.

Facilities
Three major projects were undertaken in this section: (i) rightsizing structure (ii) transport model (iii)
hot water system.

The rightsizing of structure entailed the outsourcing of certain functions which meant that the total
number of permanent staff was reduced. This exercise was undertaken with the assistance of an
external consultancy. A new approach to transport provisioning was initiated by way of a full
maintenance lease model. This exercise is being undertaken jointly with the institution’s bankers,
ABSA bank. The third project in this department is the improvement of the hot water system in the
East residences. This initiative is being undertaken in partnership with Eskom and will be handled on
a turn-key basis covering all aspects including design, build and commission. The achievement in this
project is the accumulation of professional expertise, a net saving of thousands of rand, and a part
solution to the perennial hot water problem.

Student Services Department
The SANTED programme has afforded an opportunity to the Student Services Department to design
and implement a business plan and turn around strategy. An office for international students has been
established and the residences have been re-furbished. A new policy on admission to residences has
been drawn up and a self-catering Pick-’n-Pay system has been introduced. New residences to



                                                                                                       99
accommodate five hundred students will alleviate the pressure on student accommodation. As part of
the transformation of this department current staff have been put through extensive training and they
can now assume responsibility for the quality of their work. A new Head of Department for Guidance
and Counselling is to be appointed and change management intervention is to be implemented in the
division.

Library
The library, though centrally located at UNIZUL was in serious need of upgrading. The SANTED
intervention has provided this impetus and the most serious physical shortcomings have been
corrected. An important activity was change management and conflict resolution to result in a
functional management team working together effectively. There are several outstanding issues, for
example, follow-up training sessions, a critical review and determination of staffing structure and the
formalization of a formal working protocol with ICT.

Bureau for Development and Public Relations.
In order for UNIZUL to be recognised and accepted as an efficient and effective institution certain
misperceptions have to be countered. The SANTED intervention afforded the institution the
opportunity of image-building and marketing. In this regard there was strategic co-ordination of school
visits, of marketing during registration, of internal research activities. The Bureau engaged on
extensive market research, analysis, strategy and implementation plan. This operation is at a 70%
completion level and requires additional inputs to reach optimal efficiency. Inputs from academic
departments are yet to be factored into the overall strategy. New and ongoing initiatives include the
relationship with the University of Bergen in Norway, the introduction of development and gender
studies, the expansion of Health Education, and the promotion of ICT for academic purposes.
Activities that complement those of SANTED include the link with Chicago State University in the
teacher education domain, the promotion of research in indigenous knowledge systems and the
developing relationship with the Ministry for Science and Technology.

Security
Unizul had set up satellite stations under the Protective Services Department, and established a crime
prevention function. In furtherance of this objective a business plan was developed which spelt out
clearly the purpose of function, the resourcing requirements and the funding and budget requirements.
In terms of personnel, a crime-awareness/protection officer was to be recruited.

Most of the projects under this section are still in the non-implementation phase. Activities such as the
installation of intruder alarms, CCTV, lighting of the surrounds and the installation of perimeter fencing
(in progress) are still at the planning stages. The use of supporting technology is to be investrigated.

Academic Administration
The activities and functions under this heading were divided into six projects:
registration and process
student information “clean up”
international student office
student help desk
academic policies and procedures
re-structuring of academic administration

Registration and Process
The acquisition of ITS as a business solution instrument meant that the target time frame for student
registration to be completed within a day was achievable.

Student information “Clean Up”
This project was undertaken in collaboration with ICT. All biographical and academic information of all
currently registered students (2004) and all students registered between 1999 and 2003 has been
captured. The next phase in this regard is to capture all data for registered students for period 1998 –
1978 and earlier.

International Student Office
The re-structuring and re-vitalization of this office is undertaken jointly with Student Services. In the
first phase a needs analysis was conducted and the new office with its staff was set up. It proved



                                                                                                     100
essential also to train the existing staff and develop a market plan. In this regard wheelchairs and a
golf cart have been made available for the disabled students.

Student Help Desk
The services to be rendered to students were explicitly defined, a specific location for the desk was
identified and all members in the department were trained to deliver effective and efficient services. A
list of complaints and queries handled was recorded and a satisfaction survey was undertaken.

Re-structuring of Academic Administration
In academic administration the overall goal is to provide students with improved and effective links to
the faculty, curriculum and classroom through a continuum of services from registration to graduation.
To achieve this the following measures were put in place:

    •   development of examination operational procedures (in consultation with staff)
    •   compilation of a comprehensive policy manual
    •   implementation of an ITS students iEnable System ( a web-based
    •   application/registration system and enquiry module (review team did not have the opportunity
        of testing this system)

The major obstacles to the realization of these outcomes were the low skills of current staff in the
examinations and committee structures, and general resistance to change.

By all accounts this is the one portfolio where success must be achieved. This section is at the
interface between general academic administration and the students. The SANTED programme and
its emphasis on collaboration and linkage ensures that UNIZUL can benefit from best practice at UFH
and UWC.

Human Resources
The overall objective of the SANTED programme in this sector was to initiate a re-structuring of the
Human Resources Department. The lack of capacity and skills in the Department was recognised and
recruiting and re-training strategies were formulated. The immediate short term goal was to identify
initiatives for short term staff reduction especially in relation to one of its campuses, the Durban-
Umlazi- Campus which UNIZUL was to shed. The overall expenditure of UNIZUL on remuneration
and salaries was higher than the optimal level (60-64%) The HR department is to design a turn-
around strategy for staffing in view of its new mandate as a comprehensive institution.

Financial Management
As was the case with the University of Fort Hare, the finances of the University of Zululand were in a
parlous state with a high overdraft and a high student debt. Its future hung in the balance. The
SANTED programme was critical in its intervention, as it made possible the introduction of more
competent and experienced staff who introduced an effective turn-around strategy. This section has 7
projects under the SANTED umbrella:

student debt management
governance structure
budget management
internal controls and risks
re-structuring of finance department
source funds
  rd
3 stream income

Student Debt Management
The students owing monies to UNIZUL were categorised and fees collection was highly improved.
This measure has improved the cash situation of the institution, and a student fee office has been
created within the Finance Department.

Governance Structures
The following Committees of Council were either introduced or re-activated.
Finance Committee
Audit Committee



                                                                                                   101
Human Resources Committee
Delegation of Authority – (properly established)

Budget Management
Electronic controls are in place. Actual expenditure monitored against approved budget and quarterly
reports are sent routinely to all departments and Council.

Internal Controls and Risks
Auditors have been appointed to review the controls, and fun dings and reconciliations are being done
monthly and reviewed by senior staff.

Restructure Finance Department
The SANTED programme was responsible for the training given to existing staff in the department.
Interim re-organisation has been completed and implemented. A skill and gap analysis has been
undertaken and decisions must be taken on staff re-deployment.

Source Funds
Schedule of funds required for the implementing the various activities had been drawn up. Additional
funding had been obtained from other organisations for change management, HR capacity building
and the introduction of a performance management system.

Third Stream Income
A unit within the Finance Department has been established to manage third stream income and to
develop practices and procedures regarding the management and allocation of funds from third
stream income. It is believed that all these measures will have a sulatary influence and impact on the
financial management at UNIZUL.

CONCLUSION
The account given of the impact of SANTED – related activities in HR, Finance and Administration
indicates that much success has been made. In particular, it must be stated that the improvement in
the financial management of UNIZUL gives much hope for its future as a comprehensive institution.




                                                                                                 102
          Annex 10: SANTED-University of Western Cape Review Programme

                                  1. EQUITABLE ACCESS PROJECT
                                   2. ZAWECA PROJECT

Monday, 15 August 2005
   Time       Schedule                              UWC delegates                Venue           Person
                                                                                                 responsible
    08h30     Collect NORAD delegates from Hotel
    09h00 –   09h00-     Welcome                    Rector - Prof O’Connell      Small Council
    09h25     09h10      Orientation / Overview     L Pokpas                     Chambers /
              09h10-     presentation               (small group of senior       SOG
              09h25                                 members and project staff)
    09h35 –   09h35 –    Overview of TLSP(C1)       Senior Executive             Council
    10h35     09h55      presentation:              representative -             chambers /
                         Implementation,            L Pokpas,                    SOG
                         achievements, success,
                         challenges                 D Cranfield,
                                                    N Prinsloo,
              09h55 –                               Counsellors (Dorothea &
              10h15      Question / Answer          Erika)
                                                    Student Assistants (past
                                                    and present – Florence
                                                    and Mbolekwa)
              10h15 –    Overview of RPL            Consultants (1 or 2)
              10h25      presentation
              10h25 –                               Senior Executive
              10h35      Question / Answer          representative: Prof Ridge
                                                    Natheem Hendricks
                                                    Allan Ralphs

    10h40 –   10h40 –    Overview of Academic       Senior Executive             Council
    11h20     11h05      support (C3)               Representative Prof          chambers /
                         •       Writing Centre     Ridge:                       SOG
                         •       PET                Lorna Holtman
              11h05 –                               Fatima Sleming
              11h20      Question/Answer            Student Assistants/
                                                    Consultants
                                                    L Pokpas / D Cranfield
    11h25 –   11h25 –    Professionalisation of     Senior Executive             Council
    11h45     11h35      Services                   representative:              Chambers/
                         • MAS (possible            Dr I Miller                  SOG
                             presentation)          Madiny Darries
                         • O! timetabling system    L Pokpas / D Cranfield
                         • Training :
                             o      Call centre
                                 training
              11h35 –        o      Front end
              11h45              training
                             o      Dale Carnegie
                                 training
                         • SEMS

                         Question / Answer
    11h50 –   11h50-     Career Development (C8)    Senior Executive
    12h15     12h00.     presentation.              representative:
                                                    Prof L Tshiwula


                                                                                                    103
          12h00 –                               Winston Middleton
          12h15     Question/Answer             M Kleinsmith
                                                Student Assistants
                                                L Pokpas / D Cranfield
12h20 –             ZAWECA overview             Senior Executive
13h10               presentation.               representative: Prof B
                                                O’Connell
                    Question / Answer           L Pokpas
                                                T Vergnani
                                                J Jacobs
                                                Peer Educators

                                                Students representatives
                                                from Zambia and UWC
13h15 –             REVIEW panel team           Review panel                 Council
13h45               meeting.                                                 chambers/
                                                                             SOG
14h00 –                                 Lunch                                Rectors dining room
15h30
15h30 –              REVIEW panel team.         Feedback session from        Rectors dining
16h15                                           the review team of initial   room
                                                impressions.




                                                                                                   104
Annex 11: SANTED University of Fort Hare Review Programme


                         East London Campus 15/16 August 2005


MONDAY EVENING - 15 AUGUST 2005

18:45               Collect delegation from East London Airport (Alan & Noel)

                    Mr. Stein Hansen and Dr. Hugh Africa

EAST LONDON, DOLPHIN VIEW LODGE

19:00               Arrival at East London, Dolphin View Lodge

DINNER

19h30               Dinner: Welcome and informal discussion at Cape to Cairo Restaurant,
                    Dolphin View Lodge

TUESDAY - 16 AUGUST 2005

EAST LONDON CAMPUS

08h00 - 08:30       Collect Norwegian delegation and travel to East London Campus

08:30 - 09:00       Arrival of all Delegates (Tea / Coffee)

Programme Director: Mr. Alan Shaw

09:00 - 09:10       Introduction and welcome address to Norwegian Delegation

                    Prof. Derrick Swartz - Vice-Chancellor

09:10 - 09:30       Overview of projected outcomes of SANTED Review session from the
                    Norwegian Review Panel

                    Mr. Stein Hansen - Norwegian Delegate.

09:30 - 09:40       Transformation in Higher Education

                    Dr. Hugh Africa - Department of Education

09:40 - 09:55                                         s
                    SANTED Project - Project Leader' perspective on the project experiences
                    and the overall outcomes and objectives of the project.

                    Mr. Noel Knickelbein - SANTED Project Leader

09:55 - 10:10       Reflecting on the Financial Management project outcomes and lessons learnt
                    for the institution.

                    Mr. Clint Ramoo - Chief Finance Officer

10:10 - 10:25       Reflecting on the project outcomes and lessons learnt for the institution from
                    an Academic Administrative Support perspective




                                                                                             105
                        Dr. Pinky Mrwetyana - University Registrar

10:25 - 10:40            Reflecting on the project outcomes and achievements for the institution from
                         an Human Resources perspective

                        Mrs. Nobuhle Mbete - Director: Human Resources

10:40 - 10:55            An overview of the project achievements and the technological advances from
                         an IT perspective.

                         Mr. Mickey Moodley - Director: Information Technology

10:55 - 11:10            Brief overview and the value of institutional collaboration between University
                         of Fort Hare, University of the Western Cape and the University of Zululand

                         Mr. Alan Shaw - Property Consultant

11:10 - 11:25            Vice-Chancellor’s reflection on the positive project outcomes in alignment with
                         the institutional mission of the University of Fort Hare

                        Prof. Derrick Swartz - Vice Chancellor

11:25 - 11:50   * Interviews with staff and student representatives

                        * Overall report-back/comments on SANTED Project from
                        Norwegian Delegation

                        Mr. Stein Hansen - Norwegian Delegate

11:50 - 12:00   Vote of Thanks & Conclusion of Review Session

                         Mr. Bruce Phillips - Chairperson of SANTED Project Management Committee

12:00 - 13h00 Light Finger lunch

13:00 - 13:30   Tour of East London Campus

13h30   - 15:45 Optional activities for visiting delegation

                                 Visit to UFH Bhisho and Cyber Centre
                                 Viewing 10 year structural development plan for Buffalo City Campus
                                 Informal tour of Buffalo City

15:45 - 16:15   Delegation departs for East London Airport (Alan & Noel)

17:00           Flights departs for Durban

List of University of Fort Hare delegates, who will be participating during the SANTED Review session
are as follows:

    1. Prof. Derrick Swartz - Vice-Chancellor
    2. Dr. Pinky Mrwetyana - University Registrar



                                                                                                   106
3.    Mr. Clint Ramoo - Chief Financial Officer
4.    Mr. Raymond Olander - Chief Operations Officer
5.    Mrs. Nobuhle Mbete - Director: Human Resources
6.    Mr. Mickey Moodley - Director: Information Technology
7.    Mr. Alan Shaw - SANTED Project Initiator
8.    Mr. Bruce Phillips - SANTED Project Management Committee
9.    Mr. Msi Silinga - CEO : Institutional Advancement Office
10.   3 x Staff members who have participated in the project
11.   2 x Student Council Representatives
12.   Mr. Noel Knickelbein - SANTED Project Leader




                                                                 107
Annex 12: SANTED University of KwaZulu-Natal Review Programme

                                         16/17 AUGUST 2005

                                             PROGRAMME

DATE:           Wednesday 17 August 2005
VENUE:          Public Affairs Functions Room, Howard College Campus

8.45 – 9.00             Arrival of all delegates: tea, coffee

9.00 – 9.10             Introduction and welcome address to the Norwegian Delegation
                        Professor Malegapuru Makgoba, Vice-Chancellor

9.10 – 9.30             Overview of projected outcomes of SANTED review session from
                        the review panel
                        Mr Stein Hansen

9.30 – 9.40             Transformation in Higher Education
                        Professor Hugh Africa – Department of Education

9.40 – 9.55             Access and retention at UDW and UKZN: from UPEB to SUKAR
                        Professor Elizabeth de Kadt, Executive Director: Access

9.55 – 10.10            UPEB: institutional context, institutional debates
                        Professor Thengani Ngwenya, Deputy Dean, Faculty of Education

10.10 – 10.25           The educational value of UPEB
                        Professor Cliff Malcolm, Faculty of Education

10.25 - 10.40           Access and retention: SUKAR
                        Professor Elizabeth de Kadt, Executive Director: Access
                        and SUKAR project leader

10.40 – 11.00           Access, retention and transformation
                        Input from student leaders

11.00 – 11.20           Overall reportback / comments on UKZN SANTED project from
                        external review panel

11.20 – 12.00           Round table discussion

12.00 – 12.10           Vote of thanks and conclusion of review session
                        Ms Denyse Webbstock, Quality Promotion and Assurance

12.15 – 13.30           Finger lunch

13.30 – 14.00           Departure of delegation for Unizul


Review Panel:
Mr Ad Boeren
Mr Stein Hansen
Professor Hugh Africa


UKZN participants:
Professor MWM Makgoba, Vice-Chancellor
Professor Elizabeth de Kadt, Executive Director: Access
Professor Cliff Malcolm, Professor of Science Education


                                                                                        108
Professor Thengani Ngwenya, Deputy Dean: Faculty of Education
Professor Donal McCracken, Dean: Humanities, Development and Social Sciences Professor
Deogratius Jaganyi, Deputy Dean: Science and Agriculture
Ms Denyse Webbstock, Quality Promotion and Assurance
Student Leaders




                                                                                         109
Annex 13: SANTED University of Zululand Review Programme

                 Notice of meeting of the Santed Project Review Committee


Date :           18 August 2005
Time :           09h00
Venue :          Room 401, Admin Building.


                               AGENDA

   1. Opening & Welcome by Prof RV Gumbi, VC & Rector.

   2. Attendance Register

   3. Presentation – ICT                                          9h15
      Mr T Maphanga : Director - ICT

   4. Presentation – Facilities                                   9h30
      Mr M Smythe : Director – Facilities

   5. Presentation – Catering & Student Services                  9h45
      Mr M Hlongwane : Dean of Students

   7. Presentation – Library                                      10h00
       Ms L Vahed : University Librarian

   8. Presentation – Marketing                                    10h15
      Mr M Kubone : Director- PR

       TEA BREAK               TEA BREAK                          10h30

   9. Presentation – Security                                     10h45
      Mr TG Ntuli : Director – PSD

   10. Presentation – Academic Administration                     11h00
       Mr G Maphisa / Mr E Doeseb : Asst Registrar

   11. Presentation – Human Resources                             11h15
       Mr J Ramathe : Director – HR

   12. Presentation – Finance                                     11h30
       Mr S Govindsamy : CFO

   13. Matters to be discussed under “General”

   14. Closure




                                                                            110
Annex 14: SANTED University of Witwatersrand Review Programme
  TH      TH
15 – 16        AUGUST 2005
Date                           Time                          Details
  th
14 August Sunday               19h00                         Dinner with SANTED and Wits
                                                             @ Meat Company Melrose
                                                             Arch. Prof Scholes, Charles
                                                             Simkins
  th
15 August Monday               09h00 – 10h15                 Wits – Meet with Deborah
                               To meet outside Senate        McConnell – SANTED Project
                               House entrance at 08h45       co-ordinator
                               09h30                         Meet with Dr John Ndiritu,
                                                             Engineering Co-ordinator
                               10h15-11h15                   Meet with Profs Scholes (APES)
                                                             and Simkins (Economics)
                               11h30-12h30                   Wits – meet with Prof Mthembu,
                                                             Project Director
                               12h30-13h30                   Wits – Lunch at Hofmeyer House
                                                             McConnell, Himbara, SANTED
                               14h00                         Meet with SANTED Staff for
                               Deborah to walk Mr Boeren     afternoon
                               over to CEPD
                               19h10                         TM 306 flight to Maputo
  th
16 August Tuesday              09h00 – 12h00                 Meeting with UEM SANTED
                                                             team
                               14h00                         Fly to Durban from Maputo TM
                                                             232


Monday 15th: Arrival and dinner with the SANTED team

Tuesday 16th: 9-10 Meeting with Orlando Quilambo

       10-11.30 Meeting with APES, Engineering and Economics

        11.45-Meeting with financial officer and roundup with Deborah McConnell




                                                                                              111
      Annex 15: Protocol on Education and Training in the Southern African
                       Development Community (SADC).

                        September 1997, ARTICLE 7, PAGES 11 to 14

                                                 ARTICLE 7

                  CO-OPERATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION AND TRAINING
        [Shading has been used to highlight paragraphs B:1(a), (b), (c) and D: (a), (b) and (c)]

(A)     ACCESS TO UNIVERSITIES STUDENT AND STAFF MOBILITY

1 Member States agree to recommend to universities and other tertiary institutions in their countries to
reserve at least 5% of admissions for students from SADC nations other than their own.

2 Member States agree to work towards harmonisation, equivalence, and eventual standardisation of
University entrance requirements.

3 Member States agree that in order to prevent costly repetition of courses taken at universities within
the Region and in order to contribute towards the mutual recognition of qualifications throughout the
Region, universities shall be encouraged to devise mechanisms to facilitate credit transfer from one
University to another within the Region.

4 Member States agree that it is desirable to work towards the harmonisation of the academic years of
universities in order to facilitate staff and student mobility.

5 Member States agree that within ten years from the date of entry into force of this Protocol, they
shall treat students from SADC countries as home students for purposes of fees and accommodation.

6. Member States agree to facilitate movement of students and staff from the Region for purposes of
study, research, teaching and any other pursuits relating to education and training. To this end, Member States agree to work

(B)     UNDER-GRADUATE STUDIES

1 Member States agree that whilst education and training at under-graduate level shall continue to be largely the responsibility
possible and shall take place in some fields of study which can be agreed to by the institutions
concerned. To this end, Member States agree to recommend to their universities:

a) to co-operate in the design of academic programmes where appropriate, in particular in
programmes which are jointly taught:
b) to establish links between themselves bilaterally and multilaterally for purposes of joint
or split- site teaching, collaborative research and consultancy work, and for other
academic activities where appropriate. The format, content and implementing modalities
shall be worked out by the concerned universities between themselves;


c) to collaborate in the production of teaching and learning materials such as textbooks,
computer software and others in order to achieve the economies of scale and to support
the move towards harmonising academic and professional programmes in the Region as
necessary;
d) to promote student and staff exchange programme negotiated on a bilateral and multilat
eral basis by the sending and receiving universities for educational purposes and to pro
mote cultural ties and engender commitment to the Region;
e) to increasingly make use of external examiners from the Region as this shall not only
contribute towards the building of a regional community of scholars but shall also lead to
the development of comparable standards in higher education in the Region;
f) to encourage and support the creation of regional professional associations to enable staff
to exchange views, ideas and experiences on their disciplines, and thus enable them to


                                                                                                    112
develop top quality programmes which are relevant to the development of the Region;
g) to notify the sub-sector about bilateral and multilateral cooperative arrangements agreed
with other universities in the Region for purposes of sharing information and experiences.

2 Member States agree that. where necessary and appropriate, but without prejudice to the normaladmission requirements, s
disadvantaged groups.

3 Member States agree that universities shall ensure that the content, quality and relevance of their
under-graduate degrees shall be acceptable to graduate schools and employers in the Region for
further study and for employment.

4 Member States undertake to provide, where necessary, resources to enable their universities to
develop high quality under-graduate programmes through the provision of the necessary teaching and
research requisites such as qualified staff, physical infrastructures, library holdings, equipment and in
particular scientific and information technology equipment

(C)     POST-GRADUATE STUDIES

ADMISSIONS

1 Member States agree that an acceptable qualification as determined by the receiving institution,
shall constitute a sufficient entry requirement into a post-graduate degree programme of a University
in the Region.

2 Member States agree that the actual numbers admitted shall reflect a more significant mix of
students from SADC countries than that provided for at under-graduate level.

3 Member States agree that where necessary and appropriate, but without prejudice to the normal
admission requirements, socially disadvantaged groups shall be given preference in admission to
fields of study where they have not featured prominently. Further, Governments shall, where
necessary, provide special scholarships for students from socially disadvantaged groups.

4. Member States undertake to provide the necessary resources to enable their Universities
to develop quality post-graduate programmes through the provision of the necessary
teaching and research requisites such as qualified staff, physical infrastructures, library
holdings, equipment and in particular scientific and information technology equipment.

(D)      SPHERES OF CO-OPERATION

Member States agree that mounting robust post-graduate programmes in all required fields is too
costly for each Member State to pursue on a realistically sustainable basis and therefore that it is
                            s
essential to pool the Region' resources in order to establish high quality post-graduate programmes.
To this end, Member States agree to recommend to their universities:

a) to co-operate in the design of academic programmes where appropriate, in particular in
programmes which are jointly taught;
b) to establish links between and among themselves bilaterally and multilaterally for purposes of joint
or split-site teaching, collaborative research and consultancy work, and for other academic activities
where appropriate. The format, content and implementing modalities shall be devised by the
universities concerned between themselves;
c) to collaborate in the production of teaching and learning materials such as text books, computer
software and others. This would be a step towards harmonising academic programmes in the Region
as necessary;
d) to promote student and staff exchange programmes negotiated on a bilateral and multilateral basis
by the sending and receiving universities for educational purposes and to promote cultural ties and
engender commitment to the Region;
e) to increasingly make use of external examiners from the Region as this shall not only contribute
towards the building of a regional community of scholars, but shall also lead to the development of
comparable standards in higher education in the Region;



                                                                                                    113
f) to encourage and support the creation of regional professional associations to enable staff to
exchange views, ideas and experiences on their disciplines, and thus enable them to develop
programmes which are of good quality and relevant to the development of the Region. The
associations would also be for a for con tributing to the development of regional policy and
cooperation in higher education;
g) to create an association of university Vice Chancellors in the Region as a forum for contributing to
the Development of regional policy and co-operation in university education and training and research
and development;
h) that in order to create and maintain a data base, details of the co-operation arrangements shall be
notified to the sub-Sector by the universities concerned.

(E)     CENTRES OF SPECIALISATION

1 Member States agree that the general objective of establishing Centres of Specialisation is to build
capacity for regional training institutions to offer education and training programmes in critical and
specialised areas and thereby increase the stock of trained personnel in the Region. This includes the
need to develop local teaching and learning materials and especially, case studies to make the
programmes relevant to the regional situation.

2 Member States agree to establish Centres of Specialisation in the Region at existing institutions
which they shall strengthen as necessary to be able to offer regional programmes.

3 Member States agree to support Centres of Specialisation by sending students to them and by any
other means including scholarships.

4 Member States agree that regional programmes shall consist mainly of post-graduate fields of study,
but that some critical disciplines offered at under-graduate level such as medicine and engineering
shall also be offered at Centres of Specialisation.

5 Member States agree that the selection of the Centres of Specialisation shall be - on the basis of
equal opportunity to bid by the relevant universities in the Region. The bids shall be assessed by a
group of appropriate specialists selected by the sub-Sector and the distribution of the Centres shall
aim to achieve regional spread and balance in location.

6 Member States agree that +the subject areas of such Centres shall be determined by consultation
between the sub-Sector, the universities and the Governments of SADC Countries.

7 Member States agree that a Centre of Specialisation shall allow for a quota for the admission into its
programmes of students from the SADC Countries. The quota shall be as may be agreed upon
between the Centres of Specialisation and the sub-Sector and may be varied for any agreed –reason
or period of time as may be negotiated.

8 Member States agree that the language of instruction at Centres of Specialisation shall normally be
that of the host institution. The Centre shall provide and facilitate support for language train ing in
those instances where this is essential to expand regional participation.

9 Member States agree that Centres of Specialisation shall provide such facilities and services to
students and staff participating in its programmes as are sufficient to enable them to pursue and
complete their programmes.

10 Member States agree that Centres of Specialisation shall regard students from SADC Countries as
home students of the receiving Centre for purposes of fees and accommodation.

11 Member States agree to work towards the gradual relaxation and eventual elimination of
immigration formalities that hinder free student and staff mobility.

12 Member States agree that the sub-Sector in consultation with universities hosting Centres of
Specialisation shall devise and implement monitoring and assessment mechanisms for ensuring that
the centres dispense their mandate satisfactorily.




                                                                                                   114
13 Member states agree that where the results of monitoring and assessment are not satisfactory, the
university concerned shall be given a period of two years to remedy the situation, failing which the Member States shall withdr




                                                                                                   115
Annex 16: SANTED – SADC Meetings held at Witwatersrand University and
Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique

15 August
Witwatersrand   Ms Deborah McConnell         SANTED Project Co-ordinator
University      Dr John Ndiritu              Engineering Co-ordinator
                Professor Mary Scholes       APES Co-ordinator
                Professor Charles Simkins    Economics Co-ordinator
                Professor Thandwa Mthembu    Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Project Director
SANTED          Derrick Young                SANTED Programme Director
Office          Ms Zamo Shongwe              SANTED Programme Co-ordinator
University of   Dr T.Vergnani                ZAWECA
Western Cape    Mr. J Jacobs                 ZAWECA
                Mr Larry Pokpas              Project Leader
16 August
Eduardo         Professor Orlando Quilambo   UEM SADC Project Co-ordinator
Mondlane        Dr Joachim Saide             APES Co-ordinator
University      Dr Isabel Guiamba            Engineering Co-ordinator
                Dr Fernando Lichucha         Economics Co-ordinator
19 August
Department of   Ms Nasima Badsha             Deputy Director-General: Higher Education
Education       Ms Sanette Boshoff




                                                                                      116
Annex 17 : Achievements and implementation challenges of the SADC projects


This paragraph briefly lists the specific objectives, achievements and implementation challenges of the
various SADC projects and sub-projects. This is necessary in order to be able to address the main
questions in the ToR in an effective and meaningful way.

1       The NEW (NamibiaEduardoMondlaneWits) Institutional Co-operation Project

The data and findings in this paragraph are to a large extent derived from the Project Update August
2005 that was prepared by the NEWs Project Co-ordinator at the Witswatersrand University (Wits)
prior to the review mission. These are supplemented with information gathered during the interviews
with various stakeholders and observations of the team.

The NEW projects is part of Wits’ internationalization plan that networks and partnerships built with
various institutions outside South Africa in order to become a leading center of intellectual
engagement and delivery, particularly within the SADC region. According to Wits policies it is
appropriate to strengthen relationships with higher education institutions in this region in order to
strengthen its profile as leading centre. This will have short-term and long-term benefits for the
university as it will not only attract students - already the overwhelming majority of Wits’ international
students come from within SADC countries - but also researchers and organizations that are willing to
collaborate with Wits. It was for this reason that Wits participated in the SANTED programme. The
NEW project was implemented in two phases. The first one started in 2001. The purpose of this phase
was two fold:

1. To build and strengthen existing relationships with the two partner institutions in Namibia
   (UNAM) and Mozambique (UEM) through a series of workshops and exchange visits,
   and;

2. To develop a detailed business plan for academic collaboration between the three partners

Three workshops were held during the course of Phase I, which resulted in development of strong
relationships between the three partners. Phase I funding was also used to sponsor student visits to
UEM and UNAM by Wits Economics and Sociology of Work students and staff, as well as to engage in
research in educational issues between Wits and UEM. Arising out of the workshops, a business plan
was produced and approved in October 2003. The final business plan reduced the number of subject
areas from five to three, excluding Education and Public Administration. This decision was based on
DOE priorities.

Phase II implementation has been based on the final business plan (7 November 2003). In terms of
timing, this meant that implementation of Phase II was thus effectively 18 months. Originally, the whole
project was to have been 5 years, with two years for planning and three years for implementation.
However, the time that was needed to establish relationships and to agree on the final Business Plan
for Phase II led to the reduced implementation time.

As mentioned, the NEW project has sub-projects in three subject disciplines. The achievements and
implementation challenges in these three sub-projects are discussed in the following paragraphs.

Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences (APES)
Objectives: There are two broad objectives in this subject area. Firstly, to jointly produce a programme
for a joint Masters of Science degree in Rangelands Management based at the University of Namibia
and to agree a way forward with regard to joint implementation of this degree. Secondly, to pilot
undergraduate team teaching courses on Inhaca Island in Mozambique. According to Wits, both of
these objectives involve piloting work in innovative areas of regional collaboration.

Achievements: The outline of Master of Science degree programme is complete while the content is
being developed (80% ready). Approval of the course programme is still to be obtained from the Unam
Senate. A review workshop will be held in September 2005. The planned recruitment of one staff
member at Unam has not yet been realized.



                                                                                                     117
Two successful team teaching workshops have been conducted at Inhaca island in which 10 students
and 3 staff members of each of the three institutions participated. A joint curriculum was produced and
a field guide drafted. A review of facilities and skills on Inhaca Island was completed with a view to
consolidating collaboration.
It is expected that in September 2005, the expenditure of this project will be approximately 75 % of the
original budget.

Challenges:
• The MSc curriculum development activity took of slowly partly because the project staff in Unam
 did not have the capacity to co-develop the curriculum. This was contracted out to specialists in
 Namibia with inputs form Wits and UEM. The project staff at Unam is specialized in animal science
 and is not capable at the moment to teach the full course, which also include plant and
 environmental science subjects. It seems that the partners need to work out capacity building and
 team teaching strategies to successfully launch the degree programme. From the interviews the
 Review Team did get the impression that the ownership issue in this sub-project is not yet properly
 settled and that there is room for strengthening working relations between the collaborating partners.
 The activity is also not yet mainstreamed in the operations of the responsible department at Wits.
• The team teaching at Inhaca suffered from organizational problems in the first workshop. The staff
 from UEM was in the beginning not enthusiastic, but the payment of financial incentives helped to
 change their minds. The relationships between the collaborating partners are good. The weakness
 in the collaboration is the fact that the workshop is not included in a teaching programme at UEM.
 Students do not receive credit points for taking part in the workshop, but this does not stop them
 from participating. For the UEM staff involved it is an extra workload. The review team is of the
 opinion that without integration of the workshop in the regular programmes at UEM or the delivery of
 incentives the participation of UEM staff in this activity will be difficult to sustain.

Economics
Objectives: There are four objectives in this subject area. Firstly, to jointly develop a Masters
programme in Economics at the Universities of Eduardo Mondlane and Namibia. Secondly, to support
high level staff development at the Universities of Eduardo Mondlane and Namibia. Thirdly, to
encourage collaborative research and sharing of research. Finally, to review the undergraduate
offering at the University of Eduardo Mondlane. These inputs rely heavily on Wits’ long expertise in
delivering Economics programmes at the undergraduate and postgraduate level.
Achievements: At Unam the Masters programme has started. It has been integrated into the regular
university system and the University has taken ownership of the programme. It is a fee paying
programme which can be expected to be there after the ending of the programme.
In Mozambique curricula for two Masters programmes were developed and approved by the Academic
and University Councils (Development Economics and Risk Management). At least one of them will
start in 2006. A small team has been set up to deal with resourcing and organizational issues that may
hamper effective implementation. Materials have been procured to assist with teaching and learning.
One staff from Unam and one from UEM have started PhD studies in South Africa. The original plan
was two each, but it was not feasible to identify and release two staff members from the same
institution at one time.
The project sponsored 10 research papers that were presented during a workshop. There were four
papers from UEM, four from Wits and two from Unam.
The review of the undergraduate programme at UEM has not yet been conducted because of the
language barrier involved. The Wits’ Project Co-ordinator is learning Portuguese so he will be able to
read the many lecture notes and exam papers without the need for translation.
The expenditure of this subject area is expected to arrive at 94% by the end of September 2005.
The partners in this project have been able to build good relations and considering the results
obtained in a relatively short time, they have been very productive which augurs well for the
continuation of the collaboration. The Wits’s staff has been committed to the project. The Economics
Project Co-ordinator has been relieved from one teaching obligation to be involved in the project. For
UEM the project meant a turnaround in the attitudes of the Economics faculty. Many of them have side
jobs to implement their incomes and the problems involved in the undergraduate programme made
them skeptical about the possibilities of starting programmes at the Masters level. The project proved
an engine to bring the staff together and to enthuse them. This was particularly stimulated by the
‘competition’ between Unam and UEM in developing the Masters programme.
The three partners expect and want the collaboration to continue, particularly in relation to Masters
and doctoral programmes, as well as collaborative research.



                                                                                                   118
Challenges:
• The research component took off slowly because the original size of the research grants was not
 attractive to the staff at Unam and UEM. Hence the grant had to be increased. During the workshop
 research papers were presented and discussed, but it is the impression of the Review Team that
 little of the research involved collaboration between two or more of the partner institutions.
• The Wits’ Economics Project Co-ordinator would like to institutionalize the annual research
 seminar and to involve the PhD graduates in the African Economics Research Network. He would
 also like to bring the Universities of Zimbabwe and Bostwana in the collaboration; however, the
 feeling at UEM seems to be that priority should be given to the consolidation of the activities that
 have been started in Phase I first.
• The launching of the programmes at UEM is critical to the Department. For UEM the
 implementation of the new Master programmes in collaboration with Wits and Unam may well
 provide the solution to the problems in the undergraduate programme. It will force staff to do
 research and provide an opportunity to upgrade junior staff members.
• It seems to the Review Mission that at Wits the staff involvement in the Master degree component
 of this sub-project needs to be broadened. The project is not really mainstreamed in the
 Department. Probably this will happen when the co-teaching activities in the programmes at UEM
 and Unam take of, and when collaborative research activities with the other partners can be
 formulated and implemented.

Engineering
Objectives: The following are the main objectives in the Engineering component. Firstly, to jointly
develop an undergraduate curriculum for the University of Namibia. Secondly, to assess the offering of
the University of Eduardo Mondlane and to advise on issues of accreditation and harmonization.
Thirdly, to assist the University of Eduardo Mondlane in the adequate provision of teaching and
learning materials. Fourthly, to promote human resource development of academic staff, and; finally,
to initiate a staff exchange programme between the three institutions.
Achievements: The draft of a full undergraduate curriculum in Engineering at Unam was produced with
inputs from Wits and UEM, but apparently has not yet approved by the Unam Senate.
A workshop was held at UEM that examined possibilities for harmonization of curricula and the
introduction of a credits system at UEM, and discussed procedures for regional collaboration. UEM
has to work on a harmonization of engineering curricula within Mozambique before it can decide on a
harmonization of Mozambican curricula with those within the region.
With regard to the teaching and learning materials for UEM, a resource list of key texts and research in
various specific subject areas identified by UEM has been produced. Selection of materials will take
place from this list. Wireless internet connection is being installed and library equipment purchased.
Ten UEM lecturers are presently involved in the preparation of lecture notes. These activities are a
change from the original plan, which envisaged that Wits’ lecture notes would be translated into
Portuguese. This plan met with skepticisms and little enthusiasm on the part of the Wits’ staff and was
subsequently abandoned.
Two staff members from Unam and two from UEM started their postgraduate studies at Wits. One
award for Unam is still outstanding.
Staff exchange between the institutions had a slow start. There have been three visits from UEM staff
members to Wits to discuss possibilities for joint research, contents of lectures and future activities. It
has taken a long time to match UEM and Unam staff up with counterparts at Wits. The Engeneering
staff at Wits did not know the background of the request and showed little interest at first.
The expenditure of the Engineering sub-project is expected to reach 92% by the end of September
2005. The relationships between the Engineering Faculty and its counterparts in the two other
countries are not optimal. The overall results are rather disappointing, contrary to what the expected
expenditure rate may suggest.
At Wits the project lacked clear ownership and the Engineering Project Co-ordinator had the ungrateful
task to sollicit the commitment from the Faculty staff for a project that was not properly introduced nor
integrated into the Faculty. The staff exchange and teaching & learning materials activities got some
momentum when the NEW Project Co-ordinator took over the responsibility for their implementation.
This was in particular a great relief to UEM, otherwise UEM would have gained very little from this sub-
project.




                                                                                                      119
Challenges:
• The Engineering Faculty at UEM expressed the desire to continue the collaboration especially in
 the areas of staff development and staff exchange. The Review Team did not get a response from
 the Engineering Faculty at Unam about its interest in the continuation of the collaboration.
• In the opinion of the Review Team there is little scope for good collaboration between the three
 partners if the Wits Faculty of Engineering does not show more commitment. It has been suggested
 to the Team that part of the problem might be related to the fact that the project is not attached to a
 particular Department within the Faculty but to the Faculty as a whole. This may well be true. Apart
 from this, the commitment from staff and the integration of projects like this in the regular
 programmes of a department or faculty is conditional for their success.

Challenges in general
The August 2005 update of the NEW project identifies two factors which have affected the
implementation of the project a) difficulty in obtaining the time commitment from participating
academics and; b) lack of time for implementation.
It mentions three reasons for the varying levels of commitment of academic staff to participate. Firstly,
academics at all three institutions have many demands on their time. Their key responsibilities are
teaching and research, and projects such as this are therefore often seen as periphery to their core
business. At universities such as Eduardo Mondlane, funding is often derived from donors and for
some academics this is seen as an alternative method of making some extra money, as salaries are
low. Or, they may be engaged in external consultancy work in order to supplement their salaries and
therefore unavailable for project activities.
The update document draws the attention to a related challenge; the fact that this sort of collaborative
work is quite new, at least to the staff at Wits, and therefore ways of integrating it into the academic
work of the institution are still being piloted. In the past, individual academics might have engaged in
collaboration, but this more formal approach is new to them.
The second key challenge has been that of time. This is related both to the NEW project itself since it
is packed with many activities and sub projects; and also to the fact that the time span for
implementation of Phase II has been shortened (from three years to 18 months). This has meant that
some activities have had to fall away altogether (for example, quality assurance within Economics;
some staff development in Engineering) and other activities have had to change (for example, only
one research workshop in Economics, materials development in Engineering).
The planning of collaborative activities has its limitations. Workshop reports can be planned and
implemented and therefore be under the control of project management. However, asking for research
proposals or staff exchange ideas requires time for people to think and communicate with each other.
Such ‘thinking’ and ‘relationship’ time is not built into projects, which are very output focused.

Lessons learnt
Looking back at the experiences gained during Phases I and II of the project, the August 2005 Project
Update Document report lists the following key lessons learnt in the NEW project:
1) When planning sub-projects, it may be of benefit to build on either a) existing project within the
   School or Department or; b) develop projects based on areas of interest of key academics who will
   be involved in implementation. These existing initiatives can then be broadened to include
   collaborative activities.
   Comments from the Review Team: as mentioned in the discussions on the challenges of the sub-
   projects, the proper embedding of project activities in existing organizational structures and
   programmes is a key condition for effective implementation of project activities and ensuring
   sustainability of the project results. Linking project objectives to interest areas of departments,
   faculties or institutions, helps to ensure institutionalization of projects. Linking projects to academic
   interests of individual staff members is stimulating the implementation of project activities but not
   necessarily the institutionalizing of project results.
2) It is important to identify and nurture the champions of the project. The ideal scenario is to have a
   champion who is influential within the University. Where this has not been possible, it has also
   been beneficial to identify enthusiastic, younger staff members or senior students.
   Review Team comments: the commitment and enthusiasm of individuals is key to the success in
   any project. In projects tike the ones supported by SANTED individual commitment should go
   hand in hand with institutional commitment and the embedding of project activities in
   organizational structures and regular activities.
3) When planning the project, it may be necessary to budget for ‘buying’ the time of some of the
   participants. Obviously it is not desirable to set a trend to pay market related consultancy fees,



                                                                                                       120
   however, some benefit for the individual (as well as the institution) must be spelt out. Academics
   seek to build their profile in research or related academic activities. Benefits can therefore also be
   explored in those areas, where it would have a direct favorable impact on their careers.
   Review Team comments: the ‘buying of time’ from, or the payment of ‘incentives’ to implementers
   of projects is a contentious issue, especially when the implementers are ‘co-beneficiaries’ of the
   project. Some donors are more flexible on this issue than others. The RT was told in Maputo that
   the UEM management nowadays implicitly accepts the payment of incentives as a way to keep
   the staff involved in university programmes. Be this as it may, the RT is of the opinion that the
   payment of incentives should be well considered and justified. It has been key to the success of
   this project to have senior management involved. It simply would have floundered without this. In
   particular, the involvement of the Deputy Vice-Chancellor at Wits has given the project status
   within all three institutions.
   Review Team comments: senior management involvement is essential in kicking of institutional
   cooperation activities, in ensuring favorable conditions for collaboration at the institution and in
   strategizing the continuation of co-operating agreements.
4) The close and interested involvement of the management team of the overall SANTED
   programme has also been invaluable. They have been consistently available and have always
   been on hand to share experiences and advice. Their high profile within the project has also made
   given it a more heavyweight status. This assists greatly with implementation.
   Review Team comments: a Dutch proverb says: “the eye of the owner makes the horse fat”,
   meaning to say that proper attention and care pay off. This is certainly proven in the case of the
   SANTED programme, which is characterized by hands-on management by the SANTED Office.
   This project has adopted a model of co-ordination, where a centrally based co-ordinator works
   with part time co-ordinators in the partner institutions. This has benefits in that there is a central
   point of information and control. However, it also means that it is at times difficult to gain entry into
   the administration structures at the different departments/schools involved in the project.
   Inevitably, some of the co-ordination work has to be done by those directly involved, and getting
   results and information at this level has at times been very difficult. A possible solution could be to
   ensure that each department involved agrees to have part of a person’s job (it would be a very
   small part) assigned to project implementation.

Review Team comments: according to the interviewees at Wits and UEM and a response from
Unam, the appointment of a full-time co-ordinator at Wits has had a tremendous positive influence on
the coordination and implementation of project activities, the monitoring of progress, the financial
administration and reporting. Everybody spoke highly of the commitment and performance of the
project co-ordinator at Wits. Decentralizing some of the co-ordination and administration to partner
institutions invariably means that rules, regulations and customs of the participating institutions do play
a role in overall project management. However, the Review Team is of the opinion that efficiently
dealing with these differences forms part of the capacity building agenda of institutional collaborations.
Actually, it may be advised to incorporate it as one of the planned results of co-operation programmes.

2. Port Elizabeth Technikon’s Health Sciences Co-operation with SADC Countries
(PET)

The findings of this sub-paragraph are derived from the SANTED 2004 Progress Report, the project’s
Business Plan of 2001, the 2004 Annual Report, the Project Synopsis and a questionnaire filled
returned by the Project Director at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University.
Objectives: The goal of the programme is to help SADC countries to upgrade the qualifications of
health academics and professionals by providing opportunities to obtain higher qualifications through
the Port Elizabeth Technikon. The qualifications offered are B Tech post diploma in: a) Radiography,
b) Environmental Health, and c) Biomedical Technology. The B Tech is offered by means of distance
tuition as well as contact lectures. A further objective is to assist in particular education institutions in
SADC countries to upgrade their staff so that they in time will be able to offer these higher
qualifications. Apart from increased numbers of graduates with advanced studies, the project’s
Business Plan mentions the establishment of research projects and increased contacts with other
countries in Africa are envisaged outputs.
Achievements:
An existing agreement with the Evelyne Hone College (EHC) in Zambia had enabled the Technikon to
offer these qualifications to the Colleges staff from 1998. The hoped for numbers of students in 2002
did not materialise (the 20 in 2001 only increased to 23 in 2002, 12 below the targeted figure). The


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main reason for this was that the marketing of the courses to other SADC institutions could not take
place in 2001. With the improved marketing in 2002, the projected figure of 40 students in 2003 could
be reached. Students from Malawi and Namibia enrolled in the programme in 2003 and 2004. In 2005
enrolments from Zimbabwe were realized.
The table below, which has been drawn from the Project Synopsis Report, gives an overview of the
enrolments and completions of students in the programme.

 Year        Planned               Actual New             Accumulative          No. of Graduates
             Enrolments            Enrolments             Enrolments
 1998        4                     6                      6
 1999        6                     0                      6
 2000        23                    14                     20
 2001        30                    6                      26                    3
 2002        35                    8                      34                    8
 2003        40                    11                     45                    6
 2004        45                    16                     61                    17
 2005        50                    49                     110
 Total       233                   110                    308                   34

From the table it can be seen that of the 61 students who enrolled between 1998 and 2004, 34 have
already obtained their degrees. There are still some in the system who can still graduate from this
cohort. According to the report, enrolments could have been higher had students been able to afford
to pay the course fees.
Part of the project is to stock the participating institution’s libraries with suitable reference material. A
series of books have been identified which have been delivered to EHC. This is a small contribution
compared to what is actually required, but the budget for this line item is limited.
A mixture of study models is emerging. The original Zambian model of distance education and basing
the programme at Evelyne Hone College is an essential one when financial resources are limited. The
emerging Botswana model were students are sent to the PET for full time study seems to be yielding
better students results, but is much more costly.
The Project Director stipulates that the SANTED programme is a necessary as well as useful
instrument to establish and strengthen ties between higher education institutions within the SADC
countries. SANTED allowed for a well-planned and co-ordinated programme.

Challenges in implementation:
• In 2003, major communication problems were experienced with Zambia as their telephone line
 had been cut due to the account not been paid. Financial support was given from the programme’s
 budget which alleviated the problem and this problem has not occurred again. Weekly contact is
 made with the countries either by telephone or e-mail.
• Having a designated co-ordinator at each institution in the SADC countries has been essential in
 ensuring regular communication and for control purposes. The lack of this in Angola could have
 contributed to the programme not taking off yet.
• Another difficulty experienced was that many students from the SADC countries have major
 financial constraints. In all the SADC countries there has been a huge interest in enrolling for the
 programme but only a small number can successfully pay the required deposits and fees and
 register for the programme. Financial assistance is budgeted for each year, but this basically only
 covers the costs of the students traveling and accommodation expenses when they come to Port
 Elizabeth at the beginning of each year of study for an intensive orientation programme.
• When the programme was first started with the Evelyn Hone College in 1998, the programme was
 run under the UNDP who were committed to paying all the course fees for the students. However
 this support was withdrawn in 2001. Since then there have been a number of co-ordinators at the
 Evelyn Hone College responsible for this programme. Because of this discontinuity, confusion
 arose with regard to the payment of course fees to the PET. The source of this problem has not
 been sorted out to date with the result that approximately R100 000 is owed for outstanding fees.
 This has resulted in some students not being able to continue their studies or being able to graduate
 because of large amounts outstanding. To date a solution has not been found to overcome this
 problem. In trying to solve this, the Evelyn Hone College has not accepted any remuneration for
 their lecturers and co-ordinating services but rather had the amount transferred to the relevant
 student accounts.



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Lessons learnt / spin-offs
The Synopsis Report lists the following lessons learnt and spin-offs:
1) It has been realized that it is of prime importance to appoint co-ordinators at all the institutions
   involved in the programme. This is needed to ensure the following:
   · putting a central control point in place;
   · ensuring regular communication between parties and students;
   · administrative systems are effectively managed.
2) A positive spin-off of the programmes was that the PET in its commitment to the programme,
   established a new Biomedical Technology laboratory with the assistance of the Japanese
   Embassy primarily for the use of B Tech, and
3) M Tech students studying on a full-time basis. It is intended that this laboratory will concentrate
   on research and projects with respect to health problems specific to Africa.

Review Team comments:
The reported outcomes of the project lead the Review Team to the conclusion that the project has
been fairly successful in marketing the programme in a number of SADC countries and has attracted
growing numbers of students. The commitment of PET to the B Techn and M Tech programmes is a
positive factor. At the same time it seems evident that many students in the SADC region do not have
the funds to enrol and that it will be difficult for the programme to continue without fee-paying students
or external funding. The reports do not show any evidence of achievements being made regards staff
training at EHC or the other institutions to a level that they will be able to offer the programme under
the auspices of PET or the establishment of research projects with institutions in the region.

3. Nurse Leadership Development in Angola (UNISA Project)

The findings of this sub-paragraph are derived from the SANTED 2004 Progress Report, the project’s
Business Plan of 2001, the 2004 Annual Report, the Project Synopsis and a questionnaire received
from the Project Director at Unisa.
Objectives: The main purpose of the project is to develop and empower Angolan nurses as leaders in
the health field for Angola, and that these leaders will at the receipt of their degrees, continue to
develop and empower the nurses in Angola. The development of nurse leadership forms a foundation
for the improvement of nursing education and the strengthening of health service delivery.
The specific objectives are to:
• produce a number of Angolan nurses (lecturers at the University of Agostinho Neto) with master’s
     degrees in Nursing and Advanced Midwifery
• extend distance education to a war ravished Angola were an urgent need to improve the
     education and health professionals exists
• empower nursing faculty in a SADC country by offering master degrees in collaboration with the
     University of Agostinho Neto in Angola
• develop nurse educators, health service managers and advanced midwives in Angola
• assist with the improvement of nursing education and health service delivery in Angola
• develop academic excellence in the University of Agostinho Neto.
Achievements:
Twelve Angolan nurses from UAN were selected by UAN from their Nursing Science Faculty to
register for the Master of Arts in Nursing Science (MA Cur) in January 2002. The curriculum comprises
five papers or 10 modules and a dissertation of limited scope. During 2003 four students de-registered
from the programme for a number of reasons, the most prevalent being the inability to set aside time
from their normal employment to pursue part-time study. Despite the formidable challenges (listed
below) which the project had to overcome and the extra efforts which Unisa had to put into the project,
the 8 students have successfully completed the structured part of their master’s programme and have
embarked on the dissertation. It is envisaged that the students will only complete their dissertations at
the end of 2006. For this to happen, the students will need extensive supervision. The supervisors will
have to visit the students at least four times during 2006. The students will also need assistance to
obtain literature for their dissertations. Funds are needed for the translation of each chapter the
students send in and the corrections thereof. Translation and editing of the final copy of each student’s
dissertation on completion will have to be funded.
Challenges:




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•   Language: teaching in a foreign language posed a difficulty. Initially, it was planned that the
    students will receive the teaching in English. The Beginners English course did not equip the
    students with enough scientific English to be able to write and learn. Two translators and
    interpreters were employed by Unisa. All teaching and learning material were either translated or
    bought from Brazil. All work of the students including the dissertations are submitted in
    Portuguese and translated into English.
•   Communication: establishing a communication system was and still is a problem.
    Teleconferencing failed as a result of technical problems with the telephone lines in Angola. It was
    therefore necessary for the Unisa staff to make more frequent visits to the students in order to
    assist them with the preparation of their assignments and examination. No student has access to
    e-mail. All material is sent by courier which at most times, there could be a delay of 3-4 weeks.
•   Academic standards: although the students had the minimum requirements to register for the
    masters programmes, they lacked the basic knowledge and writing skills. The result was that the
    lecturers had to put in a lot of work to fill in the basic knowledge gaps, before embarking on the
    master’s work. Most of the students repeated 2 or more of the papers/modules registered for.
•   Clinical placement: Due to the poor clinical facilities at the hospitals in Angola, it was difficult to
    identify suitable placement for the students. After several commitments made by hospitals to
    assist, a private clinic was identified which had good facilities and Unisa appointed an obstetrician
    and neonatologist to assist with the mentorship of the students.

Review Team comments: Unisa staff should be commended for the commitment displayed in this
project. Unisa had to invest much more time than anticipated. Of the specific objectives, the projects
managed to partially realize the first two. Capacity building at the University Agostinho Neto (UAN) has
not taken place in a structural way and the commitment of this institution to the project seems to have
been weak. Without proper follow-up it may be questionable whether the graduates will be able to use
their acquired knowledge and skills to the fullest. The project seems to have developed good relations
with the Ministry of Health, and much less with UAN. Apparently there are disagreements between the
Ministry and UAN.
Reading the various reports one gets the impression that this project has not been based on a proper
situational analysis. It responds to a real need, but with hindsight the question may be raised whether
in this particular case distance education is the most effective way of teaching and learning,
considering the language and communication problems involved.

4. The HIV/Aids Peer Education Project (ZAWECA)
The findings of this sub-paragraph are derived from the SANTED 2004 Progress Report, the project’s
Business Plan of 2003, the 2003 Progress Reports, two Project Synopsises and two questionnaires
submitted by the UNZA partner.
Objectives: The goal of the ZAWECA project is to enhance institutional collaboration between UWC
and the University of Zambia through developing, implementing, and evaluating appropriate university-
based HIV/AIDS peer education programmes. It aims to equip students on both campuses with
relevant life skills, enabling them to negotiate safer sex practices in order to reduce HIV/AIDS
transmission. The project goal has four inter-related objectives, each of which has a number of related
activities:
• Establish formal links between UWC and the University of Zambia to build capacity in the field of
     HIV & AIDS peer education.
• Develop and implement appropriate university-based HIV & AIDS peer education programmes
     aimed at changing attitudes and perceptions, and developing appropriate lifeskills among the
     participants.
• To evaluate the effectiveness of the peer education programmes through a process of joint
     monitoring and evaluation.
• To disseminate information on the peer education experience.
Achievements:
The project only started in November 2003. Within a relatively short period the projects has been able
to achieve most of its objectives. An important outcome of the project has been the establishment of
formal links between the University of the Western Cape and the University of Zambia, cemented by
official visits between the two institutions at Vice-Chancellor level, working visits by the project
management and research teams and student exchange visits. Two student groups from UWC and
another two from UNZA have exchanged visits, and three staff visits by UNZA project team and two by
UWC have taken place. For all the students who participated in the exchange visits, this was their first


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experience of visiting another African country and they could spend time getting to know each other
and exchanging ideas and experience relating to HIV and AIDS in their respective countries. In
addition, these visits provided the opportunity for joint training and capacity building in peer education
methods, the development of leadership skills and opportunities to do joint community outreach work
relating to HIV and AIDS in both countries. This has laid the foundation for further collaboration
between the two institutions particularly in the area of student development.
At the student level the project has trained 55 students at UWC as peer educators and 59 students at
UNZA. They received intensive training and experience in peer education. In addition, they learned
how to document and reflect on their experience as peer educators in portfolios, which can in turn be
used advantageously when they enter the job market.
The ZAWECA project has succeeded in placing HIV & AIDS on student agendas both in the student
residences and on main campus. This was achieved by involving a number of student governance
structures both in training on HIV & AIDS and planning prevention and social marketing events using
the peer educators.
The project has stimulated both collaborative and individual research projects. These include a
comparative baseline study of first year student sexual behaviour at the two institutions and the
evaluation of the peer education programme at the University of the Western Cape using an action
research model.
Although not intended as a primary objective, the project at both institutions has led to a series of
community outreach projects using peer educators. The perceived success of the project at UWC
resulted in numerous requests from NGO’s, schools, churches and community based organizations to
use the peer educators for HIV and AIDS prevention and also to use the interactive theatre group.
The institutions look forward to closer collaboration across a range of disciplines between the
institutions participating in the project.
Challenges:
• Problems with communication due to lack of email facilities and access at the University of
     Zambia. This meant that extra unforeseen visits between the two project teams had be planned
     and budgeted for. This however, also had positive spin-offs in that it strengthened the
     relationships between the two teams.
• The two institutions had to deal with different administration systems, different cultural contexts
     and different resources available to support the peer education programmes.
• Student apathy with regard to the issue of HIV & AIDS and high levels of HIV & AIDS ‘fatique’.
     Engaging them in preventative activities requires careful planning and the use of new and
     innovative methods.
• Time factor has been a challenge in the implementation of the ZAWECA project. The project did
     not start on time due to logistical problems associated with project start-up and therefore the
     implementation process was delayed. Partly because of this, the first baseline survey of the first
     year students at UNZA was not properly conducted.
• Peer education as an intervention approach is a very labour intensive process as it requires
     constant training, supervision and support of peer educators. The UWC report mentions the need
     for appointing a dedicated peer education manager. The university will have to consider putting
     funding into such a post.

Review Team comments: The project has managed to establish good working relations between the
two institutions at various levels. A strong point in the project is the shared interest in a critical area
and opportunities for the sharing of experiences that can be immediately applied. It has built capacity
of staff and students in the field of peer education and research. According to the partners, the project
provides a model of a mutually beneficial and enduring partnership around the critical area of HIV and
AIDS prevention and could be platform for further collaboration in other disciplines as well. According
to the Review Team, the real challenge is to sustain a partnership where the resource base of the
partners is so unequal. UNZA does not have the funds to support any activity outside its regular
programmes. UWC has funds to continue collaborative activities like ZAWECA. This fact forms a
psychological barrier in the relationship. For this reason it may be a good idea to extend the
collaboration to include other SADC partner institutions which are in a similar situation as UNZA.
Under-resourced institutions have a lot to share in terms of coping mechanisms to survive in difficult
circumstances and of experiences with international cooperation programmes funded by various
donors. In a partnership it is important to be clear about the mutual benefits and to spell these out. A
weaker and poorer partner may not be able to contribute much in financial terms, but can provide the
collaborating partners with access to research grounds, opportunities for staff and student exchange,
regional networks and PhD candidates.



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5. The SASVO-SANTED SRC Workcamp 2003
This subparagraph is based on the information contained in the SANTED 2004 Progress report. This
project was an ad-hoc funding arrangement at the request of the Department of Education and with
the agreement of the Norwegian Embassy. The project aimed to enable the South African Students
Volunteer Organisation (SASVO) to spread volunteer work by involving student leaders from the
SADC region. The SANTED programme funded on a pilot basis a Workcamp in December 2003 under
the condition that the Workcamp would address greater institutional co-operation in the region. Twenty
six universities were contacted to select students (6 from SADC) and 17 attended (3 from SADC).
The Workcamp did not deliver what was planned (the third and last week was cancelled) and the
composition of the group was not in balance in terms of the portfolios students held on their various
councils. However, the students still found the experience useful and a number of resolutions were
adopted.
In the he SANTED Progress Report the write-up on this project ends with the following observations:
”Some useful lessons have come out of this pilot. This type of programme could be very helpful to
student leadership in SADC and may be worth pursuing in a revised form. Given the lack of delivery of
the current project in some key areas, it is doubtful whether this project should be supported beyond
the pilot phase.” (p.42)
Review Team comments: the Team sees the value of strengthening student leadership in SADC
though a workcamp, but doubts that a programme like SANTED, which aims at institutional
collaboration between institutions of higher education in the areas of teaching and research, is the
right locus for an activity like this. The selection of this project did not follow the normal procedures
and the project does not aim to achieve any of the outputs areas targeted in the programme. The
Review Team feels that this project, even though it concerned a pilot activity and carried some
potential, should not have been allowed into the programme on procedural grounds (programme
criteria as well as selection process).
Since the SASVO-SADC SRC Workcamp project is a small pilot activity that does not quite fit into the
portfolio of SADC institutional collaboration projects, the Review Team has decided not to include it
into the overall assessment of the SADC component. Hence, in the following paragraphs the review
will only focus on the four SADC projects that were selected in the 2001 regular selection procedure.

6. Conclusions and lessons learnt
•   The SADC component is highly appreciated by participating institutions, SANTED Office and DoE
    as it is an effective instrument to give meaning to the recommendations agreed upon the SADC
    Protocol on Education and Training of 1997.
•   The SADC component has no detailed rules and regulations, procedures and formats for
    programme or project implementation. This allows for flexibility but at the same time carries the
    risk of inconsistencies and confusion in project implementation. The hands-on management
    practices adopted by the SANTED Office have neutralized this risk. Overall, the management and
    administration of the SADC component has been in very good hands at the SANTED Office.
•   Establishing good working relationships between project partners took a long time and the
    formulation of the business plans was time consuming. The time investments were needed and
    paid of. The workshops which brought the partners together to agree on the content of the project
    and work out implementation agreements have been instrumental in this process.
•   In the SADC component good effective relations have been established between the institutions,
    the SANTED Office and the Department of Education, for which the SANTED Office can be largely
    credited.
•   Four projects were selected as a result of what appears to have been an open and transparent
    assessment procedure. All four qualify according to the programme criteria.
•   In hindsight, the assessment procedure could have benefited form external advise on some
    proposals to check the feasibility of the project that was proposed.
•   Of the four projects, two are clearly showing promising results in terms of establishing firm
    grounds for longer-term institutional collaboration. The other projects have not been able to
    achieve the same position. It is interesting to note that the two more successful projects have
    realized this within a relatively short project period which was preceded by a rather long
    preparatory phase.
•   The SADC projects once more show that commitment of staff and institutions are essential
    ingredients in effective project implementation and sustaining relations.



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•    The proper embedding of project activities in existing organizational structures and programmes is
     another key condition for effective implementation of project activities and ensuring sustainability
     of the project results. Linking project objectives to interest areas of departments, faculties or
     institutions, helps to ensure institutionalization of projects. Linking projects to academic interests of
     individual staff members is stimulating the implementation of project activities but not necessarily
     the institutionalizing of project results. Apart from the PET project, which markets an institutional
     recognized programme, none of the projects have as yet properly institutionalized the project
     activities in their institutional set-up and programmes. This needs to be done if project results are
     to be sustained.
•    The SADC projects also indicate that broader-based, multi-tasked projects lay a better foundation
     for institutional collaboration than single-task projects. It requires the involvement of a broader
     range of staff and creates more room for a variety of mutual benefits that can act as drivers for
     sustained collaboration.
•    It is important to note that relationships between institutions that seem unequal at first because of
     obvious disparities in capacities and resources should be looked at from the perspective of
     potential for growth and development into mutually benefiting arrangements. This guiding principle
     helps to keep the relationship on the right footing.
•    The ‘buying of time’ from staff members in poorer SADC institution for project activities is a factor
     to reckon with. It needs to be dealt with in an open and consistent manner across the programme.

7.       Recommendations
The Review Team recommends the following:
• To continue with the component and, if resources permit, expand its coverage in terms of
   participating institutions and disciplines.
• To consolidate the projects that show potential for establishing broad-based longer-term
   institutional collaboration by giving them the opportunity to further implement what they have
   implemented in Phase I. This specifically regards the NEW and ZAWECA projects.
• To solicit external advise in the selection procedure of proposals when there are doubts about the
   feasibility of projects that are being proposed.
• To design and implement a programme policy on payment of financial or non-financial benefits for
   the SADC partners involved in projects. Preference should be given to the incorporation of non-
   financial benefits where needed, to ensure to effective implementation of projects and
   sustainability of project results.
• To introduce a higher level of formalization of procedures and practices into the management and
   the administration of the programme and the projects when the lifespan of the programme
   continues to expand, and the number of projects increases.
• To consider the need to introduce a management model that is less dependent on incidental
   personal qualities of the manager(s) of the programme.
• For the SANTED Office to stimulate the systematic use of quantifiable output indicators in project
   business plans and project progress.
• To avoid adding projects to the SADC component on the basis of ad-hoc decisions rather than
   according to agreed assessment and selection procedures.




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