If-conditional by MoetMuty

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									Conditional Sentences are also known as Conditional Clauses or If Clauses. They are
used to express that the action in the main clause (without if) can only take place if a
certain condition (in the clause with if) is fulfilled. There are three types of Conditional
Sentences.

Conditional Sentence Type 1
→ It is possible and also very likely that the condition will be fulfilled.

Form: if + Simple Present, will-Future

Example: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.

IF Clause Type 1

Form
if + Simple Present, will-Future

Example: If I find her address, I will send her an invitation.

The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a
comma.

Example: I will send her an invitation if I find her address.

Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Present und will-
Future on how to form negative sentences.

Example: If I don’t see him this afternoon, I will phone him in the evening.

Use
Conditional Sentences Type I refer to the future. An action in the future will only happen
if a certain condition is fulfilled by that time. We don't know for sure whether the
condition actually will be fulfilled or not, but the conditions seems rather realistic – so we
think it is likely to happen.

Example: If I find her address, I’ll send her an invitation.

I want to send an invitation to a friend. I just have to find her address. I am quite sure,
however, that I will find it.

Example: If John has the money, he will buy a Ferrari.
I know John very well and I know that he earns a lot of money and that he loves Ferraris.
So I think it is very likely that sooner or later he will have the money to buy a Ferrari.




Conditional Sentence Type 2
→ It is possible but very unlikely, that the condition will be fulfilled.

Form: if + Simple Past, Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)

Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.

IF Clause Type 2

Form
if + Simple Past, main clause with Conditional I (= would + Infinitive)

Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.

The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a
comma.

Example: I would send her an invitation if I found her address.

Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Simple Past und Conditional
I on how to form negative sentences.

Example: If I had a lot of money, I wouldn’t stay here.

Were instead of Was

In IF Clauses Type II, we usually use ‚were‘ – even if the pronoun is I, he, she or it –.

Example: If I were you, I would not do this.

Use
Conditional Sentences Type II refer to situations in the present. An action could happen if
the present situation were different. I don't really expect the situation to change, however.
I just imagine „what would happen if …“

Example: If I found her address, I would send her an invitation.
I would like to send an invitation to a friend. I have looked everywhere for her address,
but I cannot find it. So now I think it is rather unlikely that I will eventually find her
address.

Example: If John had the money, he would buy a Ferrari.

I know John very well and I know that he doesn't have much money, but he loves
Ferraris. He would like to own a Ferrari (in his dreams). But I think it is very unlikely
that he will have the money to buy one in the near future.




Conditional Sentence Type 3
→ It is impossible that the condition will be fulfilled because it refers to the past.

Form: if + Past Perfect, Conditional II (= would + have + Past Participle)

Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

IF Clause Type 3

Form
if + Past Perfect, main clause with Conditional II

Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

The main clause can also be at the beginning of the sentence. In this case, don't use a
comma.

Example: I would have sent her an invitation if I had found her address.

Note: Main clause and / or if clause might be negative. See Past Perfect and Conditional
II on how to form negative sentences.

Example: If I hadn’t studied, I wouldn’t have passed my exams.

Use
Conditional Sentences Type III refer to situations in the past. An action could have
happened in the past if a certain condition had been fulfilled. Things were different then,
however. We just imagine, what would have happened if the situation had been fulfilled.
Example: If I had found her address, I would have sent her an invitation.

Sometime in the past, I wanted to send an invitation to a friend. I didn't find her address,
however. So in the end I didn't send her an invitation.

Example: If John had had the money, he would have bought a Ferrari.

I knew John very well and I know that he never had much money, but he loved Ferraris.
He would have loved to own a Ferrari, but he never had the money to buy one.




Exceptions for Conditional Sentences
So far you have only learned the basic rules for Conditional Sentences. It depends on the
context, however, which tense to use. So sometimes it's possible for example that in an IF
Clause Type I another tense than Simple Present is used, e.g. Present Progressive or
Present Perfect.

Conditional Sentences Type I (likely)
  Condition
                                IF Clause                            Main Clause
  refers to:
                                                          Future I       …I will buy it.
                  Simple         If the book is           Imperative     …buy it.
future action
                  Present        interesting, …           Modal
                                                                         …you can buy it.
                                                          Auxiliary
                                                                         …I will wake him
                                                          Future I
                                                                         up.
action going      Present
                                 If he is snoring, …      Imperative     …wake him up.
on now            Progressive
                                                          Modal          …you can wake
                                                          Auxiliary      him up.
                                                                         …we will visit
                                                          Future I
                                                                         him.
                  Present        If he has moved into
finished action                                           Imperative     …visit him.
                  Perfect        his new flat, …
                                                          Modal
                                                                         …we can visit him.
                                                          Auxiliary
                                                                         …I will
                                                          Future I
                                                                         congratulate her.
improbable        should +       If she should win this
                                                        Imperative       …congratulate her.
action            Infinitive     race, …
                                                        Modal            …we can
                                                        Auxiliary        congratulate her.
  Condition
                               IF Clause                            Main Clause
  refers to:
                Simple          If he gets what he       Simple
present facts                                                           …he is very nice.
                Present         wants, …                 Present

Conditional Sentences Type II (unlikely)
 Condition refers
                              IF Clause                            Main Clause
         to:
present / future     Simple    If I had a lot of      Conditional   …I would travel around
event                Past      money, …               I             the world.
consequence in the   Simple                           Conditional   …I would have said
                               If I knew him, …
past                 Past                             II            hello.

Conditional Sentences Type II (impossible)
Condition refers
                              IF Clause                             Main Clause
      to:
                   Past                                            …I would not be here
present                       If I had known it, …     Conditional I
                   Perfect                                         now.
                   Past       If he had learned for    Conditional …he would not have
past
                   Perfect    the test, …              II          failed it.




          Wikipedia version
Conditional sentence
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For the non-custodial punishment for a crime in Canada, see Conditional sentence
(Canada).

In grammar, conditional sentences are sentences discussing factual implications or
hypothetical situations and their consequences. Languages use a variety of conditional
constructions and verb forms (such as the conditional mood) to form these kinds of
sentences.

Full conditional sentences contain two clauses: the condition or protasis, and the
consequence or apodosis.
       If it rains [condition], (then) the picnic will be cancelled [consequence].

Syntactically, the result is the main clause, and the condition is a subordinate clause. It is
primarily the properties of the protasis (condition) (tense and degree of factualness),
however, that determine the properties of the entire sentence.

Conditional sentences in Latin
Conditional sentences in Latin are traditionally classified into three categories, based on
grammatical structure.

      simple conditions (factual or logical implications)
           o present tense [if present indicative then indicative]
           o past tense [if perfect/imperfect indicative then indicative]
      future conditions
           o "future more vivid" [if future indicative then future indicative]
           o "future less vivid" [if present subjunctive then present subjunctive]
      contrafactual conditions
           o "present contrary-to-fact" [if imperfect subjunctive then imperfect
               subjunctive]
           o "past contrary-to-fact" [if pluperfect subjunctive then pluperfect
               subjunctive]

[edit] Conditional sentences in English
English conditional sentences can be divided into two broad classes, depending on the
form of the verb in the condition (protasis). The terms "realis" and "irrealis" broadly
correspond to the notions of realis and irrealis modality.

[edit] Realis conditions

In these constructions, the condition clause expresses a condition the truth of which is
unverified. The verb in the condition clause is in the past tense (with a past tense
interpretation) or in the present tense (with a present or future tense interpretation). The
result clause can be in the past, present, or future. Generally, conditional sentences of this
group are in two groups, the "zero" conditional and the potential or indicative
conditional. This class includes universal statements (both clauses in the present, or both
clauses in the past) and predictions.

The "zero" conditional is formed with both clauses in the present tense. This construction
is similar across many languages. It is used to express a certainty, a universal statement, a
law of science, etc.:

       If you heat water to 100 degrees celsius, it boils.
       If you don't eat for a long time, you become hungry.
       If the sea is stormy, the waves are high.

It is different from true conditionals because the introductory "if" can be replaced by
"when" or "whenever" (e.g., "When you heat water..."), which cannot be done for true
conditionals.

The potential or indicative conditional (sometimes referred to as a "first" conditional) is
used more generally to express a hypothetical condition that is potentially true, but not
yet verified. The conditional clause is in the present or past tense and refers to a state or
event in the past. The result can be in the past, present, or future. Some examples with the
condition clause in the past tense:

       If she took that flight yesterday, she arrived at 10pm.
       If she took that flight yesterday, she is somewhere in town today.
       If she took that flight yesterday, we'll see her tomorrow.

A condition clause (protasis) in the present tense refers to a future event, a current event
which may be true or untrue, or an event which could be verified in the future. The result
can be in the past, present, or future:

       If it's raining here now, then it was raining on the West Coast this morning.
       If it's raining now, then your laundry is getting wet.
       If it's raining now, there will be mushrooms to pick next week.
       If it rains this afternoon, then yesterday's weather forecast was wrong.
       If it rains this afternoon, your garden party is doomed.
       If it rains this afternoon, everybody will stay home.
       If I become President, I'll lower taxes.

Certain modal auxiliary verbs (mainly will, may, might, and could) are not used in the
condition clause (protasis) in English:

       *If it will rain this afternoon, …
       *If it may have rained yesterday, …

In colloquial English, the imperative is sometimes used to form a conditional sentence:
e.g. "go eastwards a mile and you'll see it" means "if you go eastwards a mile, you will
see it".

[edit] Irrealis conditions

In these constructions, the condition clause expresses a condition that is known to be
false, or presented as unlikely. The result clause contains a conditional verb form
consisting of would (or could, should, might) plus an infinitival main verb.

The contrary-to-fact present conditional (sometimes referred to as the "second"
conditional) is used to refer to a current state or event that is known to be false or
improbable. The past subjunctive (or in colloquial English, simply the past tense) must be
used:

       If she were [colloq. was] at work today, she would know how to deal with this
       client.
       If I were [colloq. was] the king, I could have you thrown in the dungeon.

The same structure can be used to refer to a future state or event:

       If I won the lottery, I would buy a car.
       If he said that to me, I would run away.

In many cases, when referring to future events, the difference between a realis and irrealis
conditional is very slight:

       (realis) If you leave now, you can still catch your train.
       (irrealis) If you left now, you could still catch your train.

The contrary-to-fact past conditional (sometime referred to as the "third" conditional) is
used to refer to contrary-to-fact past events. The pluperfect (or past perfect) is used in the
condition clause.

       If you had called me, I would have come.
       If you had done your job properly, we wouldn't be in this mess now.

Note that would-conditional forms are not usually used in the condition clause in English:
*If you would leave now, you would be on time. There are exceptions, however: If you
would listen to me once in a while, you might learn something. Some varieties of English
regularly use would have in the protasis for past reference, although this is considered
non-standard: If you would've told me, we could've done something about it.

Should can appear in the condition clause to refer to a future event presented as possible,
but unlikely, undesirable, or otherwise "remote": If I should die before I wake, …, If you
should ever find yourself in such a situation, …

[edit] The semantics of conditional sentences
The material conditional operator used in logic (i.e.           ) is sometimes read aloud in
the form of a conditional sentence (i.e. "if p, then q"), the intuitive interpretation of
conditional statements in natural language does not always correspond to the definition of
this mathematical operator. Modelling the meaning of real conditional statements
requires the definition of an indicative conditional, and contrary-to-fact statements
require a counterfactual conditional operator, formalized in modal logic.

								
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