Disappearing Mobile Devices

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					    Disappearing Mobile Devices




        Authors: Tao Ni & Patrick Baudisch
Presented by: Alyson Teterenko & Dhana Galindra
Introduction & Background
• Mobile devices have been progressively
  getting smaller in size
  • Constrained by user interface hardware
       • Linked to human constraints


• Miniaturization of mobile devices
  •   What are the limits?
  •   What technologies?
  •   What abilities?
  •   Can devices still provide meaningful interaction?


                                                          2
Introduction & Background
• Future miniaturization requires
  1. Removing interface hardware that is linked to
     human constraints
        •   e.g. Finger size, sight

  2. Removing interface hardware that resist
     miniaturization
        •   e.g. Cameras used for capturing gesturing is limited by
            size of optical path and need to illuminate space



• Essentially scaling down device to “size zero”


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Introduction & Background
• “Ultimately miniaturized” device properties:
  •   Wearable
  •   Always in reach
  •   Simple interactive capabilities
  •   Blend invisibly to surface


• Focus for authors is input interaction with
  disappearing devices



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Introduction & Background
• Examples:




                            5
Gesture & Touch Input
• “Size zero” device touch techniques:
  1. Touch
     • Capacitive sensors
  2. Pressure
     • Pressure sensors
        • Limitation: device must be mounted on hard surface
  3. Motion
     • Some sensors no longer are useful for motion when at
       “size zero”
     • Laser technology is promising




                                                               6
Devices

• Defined three classes of devices

  1. Touch scanner
    •   Single touch sensor
        •   Senses touch and out-of-range state


  2. Direction scanner
    •   Three closely aligned touch sensors
        •   Senses directional gestures across device


  3. Motion scanner
    •   Touch sensor combined with motion sensor
        •   Senses gestures and out-of-range state
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Languages
• The devices need a command language for
  interaction:

  1. Touch Scanners
     • Morse Code

  2. Direction Scanners
     • Marking

  3. Motion Scanners
     • Unistroke



                                        8
Prototype Devices
• Created to simulate disappearing devices




  Touch scanner prototype   Motion scanner prototype



                                                       9
User Studies
• Two studies conducted:

  1. Usabililty Study: Marking on Disappearing Device

  2. User Study: Unistroke on Disappearing Device




                                                        10
Usability Study:
Marking on a Disappearing Device
• Purpose:
  • Validate effectiveness of marking technique on
    direction/motion scanner devices

  • Identify problems and limitations


• Interface:
  • Upside down optical mouse




                                                     11
Usability Study:
Marking on a Disappearing Device
• Task:
  • Make a selection from 8-item marking menu
     • e.g. “up”, “up-right”, “right”, etc.


  • Swipe in corresponding direction using index
    finger over device


• Procedure & Design:
  • 12 participants, all right-handed
  • 80 timed trials each (of random menu item)

                                                   12
Usability Study:
Marking on a Disappearing Device
• Results:
  • Average error rate (all directions) was 4.8%




                                                   13
Usability Study:
Marking on a Disappearing Device
• Observations:
  • Factors that contributed to errors:
     • Biased orientation of device
     • Inadvertently staying in sensor range after gesture


• Discussion:
  • Reference System:
     • Need a visible reference of direction


  • Asymmetries of the finger:
     • Not all gestures are equally reliable to perform


                                                             14
Usability Study:
Marking on a Disappearing Device
• Errors:




                                   15
User Study:
Unistroke on Disappearing Device
• Purpose:
  • Investigate text entry on motion scanners


• Interface:
  • Upside down optical mouse

  • Two interface conditions:
     • Graffiti
     • EdgeWrite




                                                16
User Study:
Unistroke on Disappearing Device




  Graffiti gesture alphabet   EdgeWrite gesture alphabet




                                                           17
User Study:
Unistroke on Disappearing Device

• “Small finger problem”

• Irregularities and gaps in
fingers caused errors
   • Used glove as a work-
   around




                                   18
User Study:
Unistroke on Disappearing Device
• Task:
  • Enter character using the appropriate gesture on
    respective interface


• Procedure & Design:
  • 24 participants
  • Between-subjects
  • 8 blocks of 26 alphabetic characters in random
    order
  • Questionnaire


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User Study:
Unistroke on Disappearing Device
• Hypothesis:
  • EdgeWrite condition will have a lower error rate
    than Graffiti condition


• Results:
  • EdgeWrite error rate: 5.2%

  • Graffiti error rate: 6.9%
     • Characters „D‟, „G‟, „O‟, „Q‟, and „R‟ accounted for
       66.3% of all errors



                                                              20
User Study:
Unistroke on Disappearing Device




  Graffiti gesture alphabet   EdgeWrite gesture alphabet




                                                           21
Implications for Design

• Reduce error by using entire hand for
  motion scanners (“small finger problem”)

• Use unistroke gestures that do not rely on
  relative position

• For direction scanner use a visible
  reference system

• Design to allow irregularities and gaps
  between fingers

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Critical analysis
•   Using entire hand for motion scanners
    reduces “small finger problem”
    •   Could be very awkward
    •   Would users prefer this?

•   Using a visible reference system for
    direction scanner can be helpful
    •   Users may still misinterpret directions during
        constant movement

•   Needed a better optical device for motion
    scanner
                                                         23
Conclusion & Questions
• Explored what abilities disappearing mobile
  devices can have and if they can still
  provide meaningful interaction

• Future work:
  • Explore visual output on disappearing mobile
    devices


• Questions??


                                                   24
References
Tao Ni, Patrick Baudisch: Disappearing mobile
  devices. UIST 2009: 101-110.




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