Louis Pasteur_ fermentation_ and a rival by gyvwpsjkko


									History of Science                              South African Journal of Science 103, September/October 2007                                                  377

            Louis Pasteur, fermentation,
                    and a rival
                                         K.L. Manchester*

          Accusations of plagiarism, probably unjustified, concerning two
          eminent scientists over the first demonstration of fermentation by
          living organisms, still persist after a century and a half

ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY YEARS AGO, IN                        grains, did not fit with this rule, and this
August 1857, Louis Pasteur gave a lecture                  discovery had led him to a special interest
to the Société des Sciences de Lille entitled              in the amyl alcohols. Nevertheless, and a
‘Lactate fermentation’, published soon                     little confusingly, the paper presented in
after as a Mémoire.1 The title may sound                   Lille dealt instead with lactic fermenta-
unexciting, but this historic paper marked                 tion,1 Pasteur declaring that: ‘I intend to
Pasteur ’s first statement of a germ theory                establish that, just as there is an alcoholic
and a specific role for microorganisms in                  ferment, the yeast of beer, which is found
metabolic processes. Pasteur was then                      everywhere that sugar is decomposed                  Fig. 1. Pasteur in 1857 when dean of the Faculty of
34 and professor of chemistry and dean                     into alcohol and carbonic acid, so also              Sciences in Lille. [Musée Pasteur, Paris]
of the new Faculté des Sciences in Lille                   there is a particular ferment, a lactic yeast,
(Fig. 1), in the heart of the sugar beet                   always present when sugar becomes lactic             both leucine and isoleucine exist in dextro
growing region of northern France.                         acid.’ And this is precisely what he found.          (+) and laevo (–) rotatory forms, their
Pasteur ’s appointment was in part in-                     Critics have pondered over the years                 equivalent degradation to optically inac-
tended to give help to industrialists in                   whether Pasteur formed his views on the              tive isoamyl acohol and (optically) active
Lille, but the opening sentence of his                     basis of the evidence or decided what the            amyl alcohol results in loss of the asym-
paper makes clear that he was led to                       result must be and proceeded to prove it!            metry of a carbon atom in isoamyl alcohol,
consider fermentations following his re-                      A prevailing view promoted by Justus              which is retained in active amyl alcohol
searches on the amyl alcohols and their                    von Liebig, up to this time, was that fer-           (Fig. 3). To Pasteur’s considerable distress,
remarkable crystallographic properties.2                   mentation represented a form of decom-               the two alcohols, as their barium
His studies on fermentations led to a pro-                 position, perhaps initiated by yeasts                sulphamylates, had exactly the same crys-
tracted dispute with a contemporary,                       but proceeding essentially as a result of            tal form.2
Antoine Béchamp, over the priority of his                  instabilities arising in molecules in fermen-
findings which, remarkably, is main-                       tation liquors. On this view, amyl alcohol           Fermentation correlative with life
tained to this day and with which the                      possessed optical activity because it re-              Yeast, when incubated with sugar
latter part of this article deals.                         tained some of the properties of the                 alone, gradually disintegrates. Pasteur
                                                           fermenting sugars. Pasteur considered                recognized this event as one of the most
Pasteur’s work on fermentation                             that amyl alcohol was too dissimilar to              important points in Liebig’s theory of
  It will be recalled that, in 1846, as a                  sugars for this to be so (in which he was            fermentation.4 If fermentation, Liebig
student at the École Normale Supérieure                    correct), and that its optical activity derived      argued, is a consequence of the develop-
in Paris, Pasteur had had the remarkable                   from the living organism producing it (in            ment and multiplication of cells, as others
perspicacity and good fortune to notice                    which he was wrong). Subsequent work                 claimed, incubations containing sugar
that the sodium ammonium salt of                           showed that the two amyl alcohols of                 alone should not produce alcohol, since
paratartaric acid, a form of tartaric acid                 fermentation constitute breakdown prod-              such a medium lacks the other essential
that was indistinguishable chemically                      ucts of the amino acids leucine and iso-             conditions for cell growth and division.
from the commonly occurring tartaric                       leucine, present in nitrogenous materials            Nevertheless, alcohol is produced under
acid except that solutions were not optically              in the fermentation media. Although                  these conditions.
active, crystallized to give mixtures of two                                                                      Pasteur showed that it was as a result of
mirror image enantiomorphic forms                                                                               the growth of yeast cells, which can feed
(Fig. 2). These crystal forms, if carefully                                                                     off the remnants of dead cells, that fermen-
separated by hand and then dissolved in                                                                         tation occurs.4 Thus, he reached the cele-
water, gave optically active solutions of                                                                       brated conclusion that ‘the breakdown of
opposite rotations.3 Given the optical                                                                          sugar into alcohol and carbonic acid is an
activity of many organic compounds of                                                                           action correlating with a vital phenome-
natural origin, Pasteur had deduced                                                                             non’, that is, fermentation is a property of
that asymmetry (Pasteur used the term                                                                           living cells. Pasteur was also able to refute
‘dissymmetry’) was a feature of the chem-                                                                       Liebig’s claim by showing that yeast
istry of life and that this would correlate
                                                                                                                grows and ferments sugar in medium
with hemihedral crystals. Optically active
                                                                                                                devoid of albuminoid (proteinaceous)
amyl alcohol recovered in distillates from
                                                                                                                material, although containing ammonia
alcoholic fermentations, particularly of
                                                                                                                and salts.5
*School of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of the                                                          But having made one clear and impor-
Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS 2050, South Africa.     Fig. 2. Hemihedral crystals of (+)– and (–)-sodium
E-mail: keith.manchester@wits.ac.za                        ammonium tartrate. Adapted from ref. 22.             tant advance, Pasteur now risked pushing
378                                                      South African Journal of Science 103, September/October 2007                         History of Science

                                                                                                                           with coloured indicators. He was surprised
                                                                                                                           to see no effect of zinc chloride, since it
                                                                                                                           showed an acid reaction. In this paper,
                                                                                                                           Béchamp makes no suggestion that the
                                                                                                                           appearance of the mould was a significant
                                                                                                                           factor in the occurrence of inversion.
                                                                                                                           Whether the thought had passed through
                                                                                                                           his mind we do not know, which is unfor-
                                                                                                                           tunate because it is this uncertainty which
                                                                                                                           constitutes the basis of the controversy,
                                                                                                                           which began to erupt around this time,
Fig. 3. Structures of leucine and isoleucine, and the related amyl alcohols derived from them during
fermentations. Another name for the amyl alcohols is fusel oil, an acrid, oily liquid occurring in insufficiently          over priority between Béchamp and
distilled alcoholic liquors.                                                                                               Pasteur as to who first showed the pro-
                                                                                                                           duction of ferments by living organisms.
himself into a potentially dubious position,                         turns into one of ‘subtle physiology’.                   In a subsequent paper,8 however, pub-
this time in relation to vitalism, that is                           (Presumably the same could be said of                 lished at the beginning of 1858, Béchamp
that certain metabolic properties of living                          Pasteur, where his academic study of                  pointed out that experiments he had con-
matter cannot be observed outside the cell                           stereoisomerism led to fermentation.)                 ducted since 1855 forced him to modify
and that only those fermentations carried                            Béchamp was anxious to establish whether              his earlier conclusions. He now believed
out by cells were to be regarded as                                  the partial inversiona (hydrolysis) to glu-           that cold water alone does not invert
‘proper’ fermentations. There was clear                              cose and fructose of cane sugar, dissolved            sucrose, but that the reaction, when it
evidence of soluble ferments (that is,                               in water and left to stand in stoppered               occurs, is the result of a ‘true fermenta-
enzymes) that operated outside cells, two                            bottles at room temperature for up to nine            tion’. He concluded that moulds do not
of the best-known examples being the                                 months, was the result of an action of                develop in the absence of air and, in their
actions of diastase on starch and invertase                          water alone or had some other cause.                  absence, inversion does not occur; but if
on sucrose. Thus it was not the ferment                                 His first published work on this topic,7           simple solutions of sucrose are in contact
that was living, but the cells that produced                         in 1855, was to show that, if to the sucrose          with air, then moulds develop and inver-
it, a point established unequivocally only                           solution he added 25% calcium or zinc                 sion occurs in proportion to the develop-
with Buchner’s production, 40 years later                            chloride, no inversion was observed. In               ment of the mould. With these findings,
in 1897, two years after Pasteur’s death, of                         the solution without salts some mould                 Béchamp also regarded himself as the
a juice from yeast capable of ethanolic                              appeared within a month, but in subse-                first to show the action of ferments in
fermentation.6 Pasteur was aware of such                             quent months it did not increase in extent,           sugar solutions in the absence of proteina-
a possibility but was never able experi-                             though inversion was then taking place.               ceous material, that is, the ferment had to
mentally to show it, and we know that in                             At this date it was known that acids could            arise within the living cell.
Buchner’s case the discovery was largely                             bring about inversion of sucrose. Béchamp
a matter of luck.                                                    concluded from this experiment that the               Controversy between Béchamp and
                                                                     acidity of salts was not comparable to the            Pasteur in the academies
Antoine Béchamp                                                      acidity of an acid, yet water acted on                  Things began quietly. At a meeting of
  While Pasteur was busy with his fermen-                            the sucrose by virtue of its acid nature,             the Sociétés des Savantes in 1862, Pasteur,
tations, another chemist was also actively                           although not showing an acid reaction                 in the presence of Béchamp, claimed
studying the possible influence of living                                                                                  precedence for showing the appearance
organisms to bring about fermentation.                                                                                     of living organisms in a medium devoid of
Pierre Jacques Antoine Béchamp was                                                                                         albuminoid matter. The meeting report9
born the son of a miller in 1816 (Pasteur,                                                                                 reads:
the son of a tanner, in 1822). Initially
studying pharmacy in Strasbourg and                                                                                         M. Béchamp quoted some experiments, in
teaching in various of the faculties in the                                                                                 which the transformation of cane sugar
                                                                                                                            into grape sugar, brought about under the
university, in 1854 he succeeded Pasteur
                                                                                                                            influence of air, is always accompanied by
(who had moved to Lille) as professor of                                                                                    moulds. These experiments agree with the
chemistry. In 1856 he was appointed                                                                                         results obtained by M. Pasteur, who has-
professor of medical chemistry and phar-                                                                                    tened to acknowledge that the fact put
macy in the faculty of medicine of the                                                                                      forward by M. Béchamp is one of the most
University of Montpellier (Fig. 4), where                                                                                   rigid exactness.
he worked for 20 years. Béchamp believed
                                                                                                                             The Académie des Sciences was an
that a question of pure chemistry often
                                                                                                                           important venue for airing and develop-
  All naturally occurring sugars rotate the plane of polarized                                                             ing views and a place to put forward
light to the right [dextrorotatory; a plus (+) rotation] or to the                                                         novel ideas. In 1864, Béchamp felt moved
left [laevorotatory; a minus (–) rotation]. Polarimetry, a pro-                                                            to present a Mémoire 1 0 in which he
cedure dating from the early years of the 19th century, was
once one of the easiest ways of following a reaction such as                                                               suggested that only soluble ferments (like
the hydrolysis of sucrose. Sucrose has a specific rotation of                                                              invertase, to which he gave the name
+67°, glucose of +53° and fructose –92°. An equimolar                                                                      zymase) were constant in their actions.
mixture of glucose and fructose is therefore laevorotatory,
whereas that of sucrose is dextrorotatory. Invertase thus                                                                  The organized ferments (Pasteur ’s ‘prop-
catalyses a reaction that results in the inversion of the plane                                                            erly called’ fermentations) generated
of polarization from being to the right to being to the left. An                                                           variable amounts of products, according
old name for fructose is invert sugar or laevulose, and for          Fig. 4. Béchamp when professor of medical chemistry
glucose, dextrose (or grape sugar), as opposed to cane               and pharmacy at the University of Montpellier         to circumstances, because they reflected
sugar for sucrose.                                                   1857–1875. From ref. 16.                              the nutritional activities of cells which
History of Science                                 South African Journal of Science 103, September/October 2007                                           379

consume organic materials, breaking                           accuracy of his experimental methods             what he considered the impropriety of
them down and converting them into                            from the aspersions cast upon them by            Pasteur’s behaviour and the error of his
simpler forms. It often requires several                      Pasteur.’                                        views of disease, which he described as
successive fermentations (in modern                                                                            ‘the greatest scientific silliness of the age’,
terms, several enzymes) to produce the                        Études sur la Bière versus Les                   consumed him for the rest of his long
total effect. For Béchamp, alcoholic fermen-                  Microzymas13                                     life.19
tation and the fermentations by organized                       In his book Les Microzymas, published in
ferments are not ‘properly called’ fermen-                    1883, Béchamp describes how Pasteur, in          The microzymes
tations—they are simply manifestations                        1876 in his Études sur la Bière,15 ‘in cold         The microzymes are a form of life that
of nutrition, a remarkably prescient idea.                    blood’ tried to demolish him once and for        Béchamp, over a period of 30 years, be-
In 1872 we again find Béchamp telling the                     all. Pasteur wrote:                              lieved that he had discovered, beginning,
Academy11 that he believed he was the                                                                          as he points out in his book of this name,12
first to point out that organized ferments                      The first note of Béchamp on the inver-
                                                                sion of sucrose is in 1855.7 There is no       with his experiments carried out in the
can develop in media in the absence of                          mention there of the influence of moulds,      1850s on the influence on moulds on the
proteinaceous material and that fermen-                         the second where he states this influence      hydrolysis of sucrose. In the book he tries
tation is essentially an act of nutrition                       is of 4 January 1858,8 after my work on        to bring together all the relevant data that
which includes excretion.                                       lactic fermentation, published 30 No-          brought him to the belief that the micro-
  Conflict erupted yet again at the inter-                      vember 18571 where I establish for the         zymes are at the basis of all life and death.
national medical congress held in London                        first time that the lactic ferment is an or-
                                                                ganized living being, that albuminoid
                                                                                                                  When examining solutions in which the
in 1881. Describing a session concerning                                                                       hydrolysis of sucrose was taking place,
the role of bacteria in disease,12 Béchamp,                     materials do nothing in the cause of fer-
                                                                mentation, after also my first work on al-     Béchamp observed extremely small micro-
now from Lille, wrote:                                          coholic fermentation published on 21           scopic forms, similar to those seen in fer-
   M. Pasteur began to lecture and sud-                         December 1857.4 What is certain, one is at     mentations. In his paper of 1857 [1858],17
   denly, in my presence, before I had said a                   pains to point out, is that Béchamp, who       he designates them as little bodies and thus
   word, he condemned me in a general                           since 1855 has not suggested the action of     he came to regard the molecular granula-
   anathema towards all aspects of hetero-                      moulds on sugar, although he had noted
                                                                                                               tions of the histologists as being organized
   genesis.b I was waiting to speak, because I                  their presence, has now modified his
                                                                former conclusions.
                                                                                                               and living ferments.
   was due to lecture after him. But soon I
   was obliged to go down from my place to                                                                        Béchamp came up with a startling find-
   the front to sit opposite M. Pasteur                         The implications of this is that the change    ing in 1866.20 It was a well-established
   because he had dared to say “that even if                  of Béchamp’s ideas, which took place             procedure to add chalk, mainly powdered
   there were any points in my results, I had                 between his first paper in 18557 and the         limestone, to lactic and other acid fermen-
   only incorporated his ideas and made                       note which appeared in January 1858,8            tations to maintain neutrality. But Béchamp
   them mine”. In short M. Pasteur had just                   occurred after he had heard of Pasteur ’s        asks whether this is the only role of the
   claimed a priority of views and made an                    work as presented to the Academy in              chalk, which, as well as consisting of the
   accusation of unprecedented plagiarism.                    November1 and December4 1857. To us,             fossil remains of crustaceans, he finds still
   In an indignant voice I demanded of
   M. Pasteur to prove his assertion, since I
                                                              familiar with long intervals between             contains a whole generation of extremely
   would myself show him that the contrary                    submission of a manuscript and its even-         small organisms, smaller than the yeasts.
   was true. M. Pasteur, refusing a public                    tual publication, this charge would seem         Not only do they exist, but they are alive,
   discussion, left the session.                              improbable, but on occasion publication          despite their extreme geological age. They
                                                              could be very rapid.                             grow with a rare energy like ferments
  Béchamp goes on to say that The Times
                                                                Béchamp’s answers in Les Microzymas12          [yeasts]. They are the most active ferments
newspaper carried full details of the inci-
                                                              to Pasteur ’s accusations are, first, outrage    Béchamp has encountered and they
dent. Actually, The Times report of 8
                                                              that Pasteur could make such suggestions,        nourish themselves on very diverse organic
August13 was more restrained and the
                                                              and secondly that all his (Béchamp’s) new        substances.
summary of Pasteur ’s lecture (delivered
                                                              ideas were contained in his memoir of               To the organisms from lime (killed
in French, as was Béchamp’s) was directed
                                                              1857. Unfortunately, the latter does not         when heated to 300°C) Béchamp gives the
towards criticism of the work of Charlton
                                                              exist, but an apologist16 describes how this     name Microzyma cretae, but microzymes
Bastian over spontaneous generation.
                                                              memoir is his paper in Annales de Chimie,17      (meaning ‘minute ferments’) are found
However, Béchamp is reported to have
                                                              which for unknown reasons appeared               everywhere, including in soil. Béchamp’s
‘affirmed that the microzymas in chalk
                                                              only in September 1858. Dates of submis-         paper20 is logically presented, with se-
[see below] did exist and that if Pasteur
                                                              sion of manuscripts are not indicated in         quential arguments, and the remarkable
has not obtained such results it was
                                                              the final publication.                           nature of his results is clear to him. Could
because his experiments were badly
                                                                It is interesting to note, in parenthesis,     it be that Béchamp was genuinely observ-
conducted. Béchamp held that the cause
                                                              how both Béchamp and Pasteur started             ing specific bacteria? Or was it a case of
of disease and death lay in the animal
                                                              their careers more as physical scientists        artefacts in the microscopes of the time?
itself.’ The report of the same session in
the British Medical Journal 14 describes                      than biologists, but were gradually led
Béchamp as ‘vindicating his claim to                          into biology through the study of aspects        Promotion of Béchamp against
priority in the discovery of the organisms                    of fermentation, then turned their atten-        Pasteur
[microzymes] which caused the fermen-                         tion to the diseases of man and of higher          Béchamp’s views would by now have
tation of milk. He also defended the                          animals. Béchamp, like Pasteur, also             been long since forgotten had they not
                                                              worked on the diseases of wine and of            been espoused by anti-vivisectionists and
 Heterogenesis could mean either the birth or organization    silkworms, making significant findings           protagonists of alternative medicine.
of a living being otherwise than from a parent of the same    which did not attract the publicity of           Pasteur ’s use of experimental animals
kind—a process called by Charlton Bastian arche-              Pasteur’s studies, and again Béchamp felt        aroused the wrath of the former, and the
biosis—or the generation of animal or vegetable life of low
organization from inorganic (i.e. non-living) matter—called   he had reason to accuse Pasteur of plagia-       desire of the latter to believe that disease
by Thomas Huxley abiogenesis.                                 rizing his work.18 Béchamp’s anger at            originating from microorganisms is a
380                                               South African Journal of Science 103, September/October 2007                                   History of Science

fiction, set them firmly against Pasteur in                  ing to microzymes. Airborne germs arise                   5. Pasteur L. (1858). Nouveaux faits concernant
                                                                                                                           l’histoire de la fermentation alcoolique. Compt.
favour of Béchamp’s ideas.                                   from microzymes in dead plant and                             Rend. 47, 1011–1013.
  Following the death of Béchamp in                          animal life. Béchamp writes: ‘The micro-                  6. Buchner E. (1897). Alcoholische Gährung ohne
1908, an event ignored in France, a Dr                       zyme is at the beginning and at the end of                    Hefezellen. Ber. Dt. Chem. Ges. 30, 117–124.
Montague Leverson from Baltimore                             every cell organization. It is the funda-                 7. Béchamp A. (1855). Note sur l’influence que l’eau
                                                                                                                           pure et certaines dissolutions salines exercent sur
persuaded a writer and sympathizer,                          mental anatomical element by which the                        le sucre de canne. Compt. Rend. 40, 436–438.
Ethel Douglas Hume, to put together                          cellules, the tissues, the organism, the                  8. Béchamp A. (1858). De l’influence que l’eau pur
some notes he had collected as a book that                   whole of an organism are constituted                          ou chargée de diverse sels exerce à froid sur the
was published first in 1923 under the title                  living.’12                                                    sucre de canne. Compt. Rend. 46, 44–47.
                                                                                                                       9. Meeting report (1862). Revues des Sociétés des
Béchamp or Pasteur? A Lost Chapter in the                                                                                  Savantes I, 81.
History of Biology and pours scorn on                        Coda                                                      10. Béchamp A. (1864). Sur la fermentation alcoo-
Pasteur ’s efforts and accuses him of                          It seems likely that, in the 1850s and                      lique. Compt. Rend. 58, 601–605.
plagiarism and fabrication.16 The book                       1860s, Béchamp and Pasteur were inde-
                                                                                                                       11. Béchamp A. (1872). Seconde observation sur
                                                                                                                           quelques communications récentes de M. Pasteur,
was republished in 1932 and has gone                         pendently making similar discoveries—a                        notamment sur la théorie de la fermentation
through numerous subsequent editions                         not unknown phenomenon in science.                            alcoolique. Compt. Rend. 75, 1519–1523.
and modifications of title (more recently                    Accusations of plagiarism are therefore                   12. Béchamp A. (1883). Les Microzymas: L’hétérogénie,
being attributed to Douglas Hume!).c It is                                                                                 l’histogénie, la physiologie et la pathologie. Librairie
                                                             probably not justified. Pasteur without                       J.-B. Baillière, Paris.
of course increasingly true that much                        question was aggressive and intolerant of                 13. Report of International Medical Congress (1881).
human disease and suffering cannot be                        opposition and treated Béchamp shabbily,                      The Times (London), 8 August, p. 6.
attributed to infection but stems from                       but Béchamp led himself into a theory of                  14. Report of International Medical Congress (1881).
changes within us, but in this the micro-                                                                                  Br. Med. J. 2, 547–548.
                                                             such generality that was both its strength                15. Pasteur L. (1876). Études sur la Bière. Gautier-Villars,
zymes do not have a place.                                   and its weakness—it could be used to                          Paris.
  With a medical colleague, Alfred Estor,                    explain too much, but did not lend itself to              16. Hume E.D. (1923). Béchamp or Pasteur? A lost
Béchamp observed granulations in cells                       experimental testing. In a France increas-                    chapter in the history of biology. Covici-McGee,
(they mainly studied liver of different                                                                                    Chicago.
                                                             ingly idolizing Pasteur and his memory,                   17. Béchamp A. (1858). De l’influence que l’eau pure,
species).21 In the physiological state these                 Béchamp was bound to become increas-                          ou chargée de divers sels, exerce, à froide, sur le
granules, which they considered to be                        ingly ignored. Only Miss Hume16 and fol-                      sucre de canne. Ann. Chim. 3rd ser., 54, 28–42.
microzymes, are spherical, but outside                       lowers, for their own reasons, have kept                  18. Béchamp A. (1867). Lettre adressée à M. le
the cell they develop into bead-like elon-                                                                                 Président, au sujet de la communication faite par
                                                             his name alive.                                               M. Pasteur le 29 avril dernier. Compt. Rend. 64,
gated structures, eventually recognizable                                                                                  1042–1043.
as bacteria. From observations of bacteria                                                                             19. Béchamp A. (1903). Louis Pasteur: ses plagiats
in blood, they conclude that bacteria, far                   1. Pasteur L. (1857). Mémoire sur la fermentation             chimicophysiologiques et medicaux. Chez l’auteur,
                                                                appelée lactique. Compt. Rend. 45, 913–916.                Paris.
from being the cause of illness, are, to the                                                                           20. Béchamp A. (1866). Du rôle de la craie dans les
                                                             2. Pasteur L. (1856). Isomorphisme entre des corps
contrary, the result.                                           isomères, les uns actifs, les autres inactifs sur la       fermentations butyrique et lactique, et des
  Thus, in death the microzymes become                          lumière polarisée. Compt. Rend. 43, 1259–1264.             organismes actuellement vivants qu’elle contient.
bacteria, eventually reducing the cells of                                                                                 Compt. Rend. 63, 451–455.
                                                             3. Pasteur L. (1848). Mémoire sur la relation qui peut
higher organisms to dust, and then revert-                      exister entre la forme cristalline et la composition   21. Béchamp A. and Estor A. (1868). De l’origine et du
                                                                chimique, et sur la cause de la polarisation               développement des bactéries. Compt. Rend. 66,
 The most recent edition I have been able to track down is      rotatoire. Compt. Rend. 26, 535–538.                       859–863.
published by Health Research, in 2003 (ISBN-10               4. Pasteur L. (1857). Mémoire sur la fermentation         22. Findlay A. (1965). A Hundred Years of Chemistry, 3rd
0787311286).There are also items on the Web.                    alcoolique. Compt. Rend. 45, 1032–1036.                    edn, p. 47. Wiley, New York.

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