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					         King Island
LONG RANGE TRANSPORTATION PLAN
      Indian Reservation Roads Program
       Number: E04253-KING ISLAND




               Prepared For:

               King Island Native Community
               P.O. Box 682
               Nome, Alaska 99762


               In Cooperation With:

               Kawerak Transportation Program
               P.O. Box 948
               Nome, Alaska 99762


               Prepared By:




      16515 Centerfield Drive, Suite 101
         Eagle River, Alaska 99577


                March 2007
            King Island

LONG RANGE TRANSPORTATION PLAN


     Indian Reservation Roads Program
      Number: E04253-KING ISLAND




               Prepared For:

       King Island Native Community
                P.O. Box 682
            Nome, Alaska 99762



            In Cooperation With:

    Kawerak Transportation Program
 Community Services Division, Kawerak, Inc.
              P.O. Box 948
           Nome, Alaska 99762



                Prepared By:

 RODNEY P. KINNEY ASSOCIATES, INC.
    16515 Centerfield Drive, Suite 101
       Eagle River, Alaska 99577




                March 2007
King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan

TABLE OF CONTENTS
                                                                                                                Page

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................... 1

INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................. 3

1.0      GENERAL DESCRIPTION....................................................................... 3
         1.1 Location ........................................................................................... 3
         1.2 Background...................................................................................... 3
         1.3 Infrastructure .................................................................................. 4
             1.3.1 Transportation ....................................................................... 4
             1.3.2 Facilities and Utilities ............................................................ 4
             1.3.3 Schools and Health Care........................................................ 5
             1.3.4 Economy ................................................................................ 5
             1.3.5 Housing.................................................................................. 6
         1.4 Soils and Topography ...................................................................... 6
         1.5 Climate ............................................................................................. 7

2.0      REGULATION AND MASTER PLANNING OF TRANSPORTATION
         IMPROVEMENTS ..................................................................................... 7
         2.1 Regulation of Transportation Improvements ................................. 7
         2.2 Long Range Transportation Planning ............................................ 8
         2.3 Comprehensive Transportation Planning .................................... 10

3.0      EXISTING TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM .......................................... 10
         3.1  Community Roadway System ....................................................... 11
              3.1.1 Community Roadway Map.................................................... 11
         3.2  Right-of-Way and Road Ownership ............................................. 11
              3.2.1 Geometric Elements ............................................................. 11
              3.2.2 Utilities ................................................................................ 11
         3.3  Existing Structural Characteristics............................................... 11
              3.3.1 Surfacing and Subbase Material........................................... 11
              3.3.2 Drainage .............................................................................. 12
              3.3.3 Bridges................................................................................. 12
         3.4  User Characteristics ...................................................................... 12
              3.4.1 Trip Generators.................................................................... 12
         3.5  Agencies Responsible For Maintenance........................................ 13
         3.6  Construction Material Sources ..................................................... 13

4.0      ROADWAY FACILITY NEEDS ............................................................. 13
         4.1 2007 Updated Road Inventory List ............................................... 14
         4.2 Road Inventory Maps.................................................................... 16

REFERENCES..................................................................................................... 17


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King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan

APPENDIXES
Appendix A: Adopting Resolution
Appendix B: Memorandum of Understanding
Appendix C: Existing (Accepted) IRR Inventory
Appendix D: Meeting Notes and LRTP Public Notice
Appendix E: Scoping Report for King Island Community Streets Project




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King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
On behalf of the King Island Native Community, Kawerak, Inc. hired Rodney P. Kinney Associates,
Inc. (RPKA) to develop a Long Range Transportation Plan. The plan outlines transportation priorities
within the community of King Island and its surrounding boundaries, as well as the planning for using
funding from Tribal Shares monies allocated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Indian Reservation
Roads (IRR) Program.

Kawerak and RPKA collected data from site visits, the King Island Native Community, King Island
Native Corporation, Bering Straits Native Corporation, and the general public. In a collaborative effort
the affiliated groups evaluated the village road system, identified transportation needs, discussed
alternatives, and prioritized projects. Once the transportation plan is completed it will be available to all
organizations involved and the public.

Within the property owned by the King Island Native Corporation, U.S. Federal Lands (BLM), and the
Bering Straits Regional Corporation there are approximately 130.6 miles of official BIA roads currently
inventoried and 77.1 miles of existing and proposed roadways to be submitted as updated inventory for
the Village of King Island. Both accepted and updated inventory routes can be reviewed in the
Community Roadway Maps in Section 4.2.

       1.       Construct proposed subsistence and economic routes listed as updated inventory in
                Section 4.1 (a total estimate of 271 million dollars).
       2.       Upgrades (including dust control) to the Nome-Teller Highway (a total estimate of 19
                million dollars).
       3.       Upgrade and repair (including dust control) Woolley Lagoon Road (an estimated 16
                million dollar project).
       4.       Upgrade footbridge at Woolley Lagoon (an estimated 2 million dollar project).
       5.       Construct Feather River Road and relocate shelter cabin (an estimated $350,000 project).
       6.       Use funding to construct and upgrade (with paved surface) community streets in Nome
                that provide access to King Island housing and community facilities used by King Island
                villagers (an estimated 5 million dollar project).
       7.       Construct helipad at the top of King Island and provide an access route from the village
                to the landing pad (an estimated 3 million dollar project).
       8.       Construct boardwalks on King Island that provide access to the homes (an estimated 4.5
                million dollar project).
       9.       Construct two marine facilities sites that include: boat landings, harbors, ports, barge
                landings, intermodal facilities, harbor master facilities, and breakwater structures. One at
                the possible mainland site and one at King Island to provide a transit system between the
                two locations and provide ports for a regional ferry system that would include King
                Island, Wales, and Diomede (an estimated 20 million dollar project).
       10.      Provide a public transportation system for King Islanders that live in Nome and need
                transportation to King Island camp sites, Teller, proposed marine facility sites, and
                transportation around Nome (a total estimate of $250,000)
       11.      Provide route staking, navigational upgrades, and shelters to inventory routes to improve
                safety during winter travel, prevent disorientation, and aid in rescue operations (an
                estimated $100,000 per mile of road to be staked).




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King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan


The King Island Native Community developed an updated list of inventory roads that the community
feels are needed over the next twenty years. These routes are a necessity for connecting communities,
allowing residents access to their lands and resources for economic growth, cultural development,
subsistence activities, and most of all enhancing public safety. The updated inventory list can be viewed
in Section 4.1.

Development and upgrades to King Island’s road system will subsequently increase cultural heritage,
improve sustainable economic opportunities, increase employment and self-sufficiency, and encourage
collaboration of efforts in various projects and programs. Overall, the goal is to improve the cultural,
economic and social well-being of the community.




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King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan

INTRODUCTION
Information was collected from tribal staff, the public, and Council members to assess transportation
goals for the community of King Island. The data was analyzed and is presented in this transportation
plan. Before finalization the Long Range Transportation Plan was made available to the public for
review and comment on February 1, 2007. A copy of the notice is included in Appendix D.

The goal of this transportation plan is to ensure that the improvements and development of roads allow
convenient and safe movement throughout King Island’s road system. This in turn will provide
improved access to subsistence areas, which increases economic and cultural growth. The focus of this
report is to identify important transportation routes and prioritize future transportation goals. General
information and summarized village history are included to provide context and a brief overview. For
more in-depth information about King Island, please visit Kawerak and Bering Straits tribal website at
www.kawerak.org/tribalHomePages/index.html.


1.0    GENERAL DESCRIPTION

       1.1    Location

              King Island is located 40 miles west of Cape Douglas in the Bering Sea, south of Wales.
              The island is primarily precipitous rock and is roughly 2.5 miles long, 1.5 miles wide and
              rises to an elevation of about 700 feet. The village is located on the steep mountainside of
              the south shore is most popularly known as Ukivok. It is approximately 35 miles from the
              mainland and 85 miles from Nome. King Island is within the Cape Nome Recording
              District and lies at approximately 64.969370 North Latitude, -168.06493 West
              Longitude (Sec. 18, T006S, R046W, Kateel River Meridian). For village location see the
              Road Inventory Maps in Section 4.2 (Figure 1).

       1.2    Background

              King Island was historically occupied by Eskimos who called themselves
              "Ugiuvangmiut." The Island was named by Captain Cook in 1778 for Lt. James King, a
              member of his party. During the 1900 the village was occupied by approximately 200
              Eskimos who achieved fame as hunters and ivory carvers, and lived in walrus-skin
              dwellings lashed to the face of the cliff. The King Islanders subsisted on walrus, seal,
              birds, berries and green plants. Every summer the entire population would travel to the
              mainland by kayak and umiak, and remain for a few months. Once Nome was founded,
              they customarily camped near town each summer to sell their intricate ivory carvings. In
              1937, Lt. Commander R.C. Sarratt reported that the village was comprised of 190
              residents, 45 houses, a Catholic Church, and a BIA school with electric lights, heat, and
              running water. During this time, the Navy Cutter Northland was transporting King
              Islanders to Nome for their annual summer trek. Beginning in the 1950s, fewer and fewer
              residents returned to the Island each September. In 1960, 49 residents were recorded by
              the U.S. Census. The final decline in population resulted from the closure of the BIA
              school. By 1964, all residents relocated to the mainland. Today, the King Islanders are
              residents of Nome throughout the year and only use the island as a summer gathering site.


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Long Range Transportation Plan

      1.3    Infrastructure

             The following sections in this report provide a brief overview of the village
             infrastructure. For more in-depth information about King Island please visit Kawerak and
             Bering Straits tribal website at www.kawerak.org/tribalHomePages/index.html.

             1.3.1 Transportation
                   Transportation has long-been an important issue to the Inupiat people of King
                   Island. Decades ago, inhabitants of the island traveled by boat to Nome every
                   summer. After planes were introduced to the public, several floatplane landings
                   were performed on the water surrounding the small land mass. Villagers travel to
                   the island during the summertime to hunt and harvest the natural vegetation. King
                   Island residents would like to install a modern and economically reasonable
                   transportation system for those visiting the island.

             1.3.2 Facilities and Utilities
                   King Island offers personal housing to villagers that visit the Island for seasonal
                   walrus hunting and greens and egg gathering. Water is hauled from a nearby
                   source and there is no central electric system and villagers use individual
                   generators. Wood is gathered and used for a source of heat. The fishing camp at
                   Sinuk (approximately 26 miles northwest of Nome) is a proposed site for King
                   Island’s future community and it is presently undeveloped. Cape Douglas is
                   another proposed relocation site however, shareholders

                    During most of the year, King Island community members are served by utilities
                    in the city of Nome. A well located at Moonlight Springs, near Nome, supplies
                    the community’s water needs. It is treated at the Snake River Power Plant and is
                    then stored in a 50,000-gallon tank. A million gallon tank provides a source of
                    backup in the case of an emergency. Water is heated, chlorinated and fluoridated,
                    and pumped to residences through a wooden utilidor. Water delivery is also
                    available to the public. About 95% of all residences located in Nome, including
                    King Islanders, have complete indoor plumbing. Construction on a six-phase
                    upgrade that will drill several additional wells, replace the water storage tank and
                    pumping station, and restore the 1960’s wooden utilidor distribution system and
                    concealed Arctic piping at Moonlight Springs began in 2002.

                    The city of Nome operates the town’s sewer system, which serves the residents of
                    King Island. Most homes are installed with a piped sewer transport system.
                    However, 5% of homes lack modern plumbing, such as a running sink, shower, or
                    flush toilet. Several homes throughout Nome, where King Islanders currently
                    reside, still use honey buckets, although hauling service is not provided. Refuse
                    collection services are provided by a contractor and hauled to a landfill on Beam
                    Road. The town provides a sewage lagoon, but does not have a community septic
                    tank.




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King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan

                    All electrical services in the residences of King Islanders are provided by Nome
                    Joint Utility Systems (NJUS). The city of Nome is the main utility operator and
                    uses diesel as the primary power source. The system has a capacity for
                    approximately 10,895 kilowatts. 16.1 cents is the average price per hour for one
                    kilowatt and the town retains a power cost equalization subsidy. Nearly all homes
                    within Nome, including the King Island housing, use fuel oil and kerosene in
                    order to heat their homes. A fraction of the community uses wood, electricity, or
                    piped gas.

                    The chief communications provider is General Communications, Inc. (GCI),
                    which supplies Nome’s cable, Internet access, and telephone service. Several
                    other telephone companies deliver telephone services. Mukluk Telephone
                    Company offers local and in-state telephone calls. AT&T Alascom and GCI
                    provide long distance calls.

             1.3.3 Schools and Health Care
                   In 1959, the BIA closed the school on King Island. Within the next decade,
                   families relocated and school age children attended school in Nome and other
                   communities. Today, Nome Public Schools is operated by the city and provides a
                   K-12 grade education for approximately 720 students. The city owns and
                   maintains two schools, the pool, and the district office.

                    The Norton Sound Regional Hospital, an Alaskan Native health organization,
                    offers health care and medical evacuation services to the King Island Community
                    and residents of Nome and outlying areas.

             1.3.4 Economy
                    King Island villagers have their own tribal office in Nome for their Native
                    Community members and Village Corporation staff to meet. King Island has
                    remained a federally recognized Tribe and separate organization within the
                    community of Nome. The King Island Corporation is exploring possible tourism
                    activity on the island that would include bird watching.

                    The economy of King Island is based on subsistence hunting, fishing, trapping,
                    and Native arts and crafts. Supplemented income by part-time wage earnings is
                    provided through the city, school, clinic, and local businesses in Nome.
                    Subsistence caught marine and land mammals are used by the members of the
                    community to make traditional native crafts, tourist trade, and other traditional
                    uses, even though numerous members are employed by various agencies in
                    Nome.

                    Residents maintain a subsistence lifestyle. Important staple foods include whale,
                    walrus, moose, reindeer, seal, caribou, clams, crab, salmon, and other fish. Eggs
                    and berries are also gathered and seal oil is used for storing greens, roots, and
                    meat as well as being a nutritional staple in the Native diet.




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King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan


                    Many residents sell artwork crafted from the subsistence resources. Ivory tusks
                    and teeth are used by the local artists who carve the ivory into figurines,
                    sculptures, tools, and jewelry. Seal and fox skins are used to make hats, mittens,
                    parkas and slippers.

             1.3.5 Housing
                   Dwellings on King Island are still used by subsistence hunters and other members
                   of the community throughout the spring hunting season and summer gathering
                   season. Homes are usually constructed of modern lumber and drift wood,
                   positioned on metal pipe or timbers supports. All housing units are situated
                   among the sheer, rock-strewn cliffs on the southern end of the island.

                    The Native American Housing Assistance and Self Determination Act
                    (NAHASDA) approved a $102,861 grant that eventually helped construct new
                    housing systems for King Island residents in Nome. Previously, there were fifteen
                    leased or rented homes designed especially for those originating from King
                    Island. A multipurpose facility for King Islanders was to begin in June of 2003,
                    but the current status of the construction is unknown.

      1.4    Soils and Topography

             Limited information indicates that King Island is very steep, with slopes dominantly
             greater than 12%; soils are generally well-drained thin soils with an acid surface layer,
             probably overlaying bedrock. Written accounts and photographs of island life indicate
             that the topography is extraordinarily steep, such that houses are shored by lashing
             directly to the cliffs.

             Sinuk, one of the possible future development sits, is a wet, alpine tundra covered area
             with low shrubs. The slopes are very shallow, contributing to poor drainage conditions.
             Located near the boundary between continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones,
             Sinuk is generally underlain by thin to moderately thick permafrost. There are reportedly
             significant coastal deposits of sand and gravel north of Sinuk, and the area is considered
             highly mineralized in gold, tin, tungsten, and other metals. There are however no known
             prospects or claims active. Cape Douglas is a second possible site for future relocation.
             The terrain is less swampy than the Sinuk site and closer to King Island, to which many
             villagers still return in the summer.

             In Nome, where King Island residents reside, at least six distinct geographic beaches
             exist on the coastal plain inshore from the present day beach. The beaches are overlain by
             a mantle of glacial till and outwash deposits between 50 and 60 feet thick. The coastal
             plain is an approximately four-mile wide stretch of poorly drained lowland, extending
             from Cape Nome to the hills just west of Cripple River. Bordering the coastal plain is a
             series of hills that were formed by folded and faulted inter-bedded schist and limestone.
             The soils along the hillsides are primarily rubble or gravel overlying shallow bedrock.
             These soils are typically well drained. The entire Seward Peninsula falls within the
             continuous permafrost zone. The permafrost is known to reach a thickness of up to 300
             feet.

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King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan


             The Nome region lies in the Arctic tundra vegetative zone. Vegetation is generally
             limited to lichens, shrubs, mosses, low bush berries, and grasses. There are few trees
             found in this region. The growing season ranges from 50 to 60 days. A layer of
             permanently frozen subsoil, consisting mostly of gravel and finer material, called
             permafrost exists. When water saturates the upper surface, bogs and ponds may form,
             providing moisture for plants. There are no deep root systems in the vegetation of the
             arctic tundra; however, there are still a wide variety of plants that are able to resist the
             cold climate.

      1.5    Climate

             King Island has a maritime climate when the Bering Strait is ice-free, usually from June
             to November. After the ocean freezes, there is an abrupt change to a cold continental
             climate. Average summer temperatures range from 40 to 50 Fahrenheit; winter
             temperatures range from –10 to 6 Fahrenheit. Annual precipitation is 10 inches,
             including 36 inches of snow.

             Norton Sound influences the climate and temperatures in Nome. During the ice-free
             months Nome experiences a maritime climate and a continental climate when the sound
             is frozen. January temperatures range from – 3 to 11 F; July temperatures are typically
             44 Fahrenheit to 65 Fahrenheit. The temperature extremes are – 47 Fahrenheit in the
             winter and 84 Fahrenheit in the summer. The average annual precipitation is 18 inches,
             with 56 inches of snowfall. The mean monthly wind speed is between nine and 12 mph.
             No weather data has been collected for Sinuk, but the area’s close proximity to Nome
             provides a good indication of could be expected.

             Although the entire seaward side of Nome is protected by a 3,350-foot-long sea wall of
             large granite boulders, there is still potential flooding in the community from surrounding
             rivers and coastal storm surges. As storms present the greatest hazard threats to Nome,
             projects mitigating damage from floods receive the highest priority in the Nome Hazard
             Mitigation Plan. Serious flooding occurred within the city on October 19, 2004 when
             storm wave action surged over the city seawall. Buildings on the beach side of Front
             Street were flooded; road damage occurred on the east end of Front Street, and in various
             sections on the Nome-Council Road.


2.0   REGULATION AND MASTER PLANNING OF TRANSPORTATION
      IMPROVEMENTS

      2.1    Regulation of Transportation Improvements

              Under state law, organized boroughs have authority for planning, platting, and land use
              regulation within their boundaries, or may delegate authority to incorporated
              communities. King Island Native Community is the local governing body. All projects
              completed in King Island are under the authority of the Federal, State or private
              landowner. 14(c) land conveyance work is still in process for King Island.

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King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan

             Land use requirements for specific road projects will vary depending on the project
             location. As applicable, road improvements are subject to federal and state regulations,
             community requirements, and private landowner approvals.

      2.2    Long Range Transportation Planning

             King Island Native Community analyzed their future transportation goals and prioritized
             which projects would benefit the community. A prioritized list of long term
             transportation road projects is shown below:

                 1.  Construct proposed subsistence and economic routes listed as updated inventory
                     in Section 4.1 (a total estimate of 271 million dollars).
                 2. Upgrades (including dust control) to the Nome-Teller Highway (a total estimate
                     of 19 million dollars).
                 3. Upgrade and repair (including dust control) Woolley Lagoon Road (an
                     estimated 16 million dollar project).
                 4. Upgrade footbridge at Woolley Lagoon (an estimated 2 million dollar project).
                 5. Construct Feather River Road and relocate shelter cabin (an estimated $350,000
                     project).
                 6. Use funding to construct and upgrade (with paved surface) community streets in
                     Nome that provide access to King Island housing and community facilities used
                     by King Island villagers (an estimated 5 million dollar project).
                 7. Construct helipad at the top of King Island and provide an access route from the
                     village to the landing pad (an estimated 3 million dollar project).
                 8. Construct boardwalks on King Island that provide access to the homes (an
                     estimated 4.5 million dollar project).
                 9. Construct two marine facilities sites that include: boat landings, harbors, ports,
                     barge landings, intermodal facilities, harbor master facilities, and breakwater
                     structures. One at the possible mainland site and one at King Island to provide a
                     transit system between the two locations and provide ports for a regional ferry
                     system that would include King Island, Wales, and Diomede (an estimated 20
                     million dollar project).
                 10. Provide a public transportation system for King Islanders that live in Nome and
                     need transportation to King Island camp sites, Teller, proposed marine facility
                     sites, and transportation around Nome (a total estimate of $250,000)
                 11. Provide route staking, navigational upgrades, and shelters to inventory routes to
                     improve safety during winter travel, prevent disorientation, and aid in rescue
                     operations (an estimated $100,000 per mile of road to be staked).

             King Island Native Community developed an updated list of inventory roads that the
             community feels are needed over the next twenty years and beyond. These routes are
             necessary for the residents to access their lands and resources for economic and cultural
             development, subsistence gathering stability, and to enhance surrounding public safety.
             Some of the traditional routes that were established along coastal shores are threatened by
             erosion and storm destruction. It is proposed that these historical routes be constructed as
             new roads and placed inland so that subsistence, economic, and cultural areas can still be
             accessed when the traditional routes become damaged beyond use. The complete
             inventory list can be viewed in Section 4.1.

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King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan


             The subsistence lifestyle causes residents to travel outside of the town limits to seek the
             resources they need. The areas important for subsistence needs can be many miles from
             the town itself. The routes listed in Section 4.2 are scattered throughout the Bering Straits
             Region and were established as subsistence routes used by the tribe during their
             migration to their current location. These traditional routes were used then and are still
             needed today for hunting and gathering. Constructing these routes will allow the
             community of King Island to continue their subsistence lifestyle. These roads will
             provide access to hunting and fishing locations, as well as traditional berry-picking and
             resource gathering areas. Providing the tribe with access to these destinations allows
             them to preserve their cultural way of life and increase their economic prosperity. All of
             the proposed growth and improvement projects that King Island envisions for their future
             are in some way connected to transportation. Constructing road systems will benefit the
             village by improving the cultural, economic, and social well-being of the community.
             Understanding the enormous role that resources, in particular subsistence, play in the
             lifestyle and culture of Alaskan Natives clearly makes the need for improved
             transportation a necessity. If the tribe’s traditional routes are not constructed, then
             economic and future opportunities that benefit the whole community are lost.

             In Alaska, the State’s perspective on subsistence refers to the practice of taking fish,
             wildlife or other natural resources for one's sustenance; either for food, shelter, or other
             personal or family needs. In reality, in the native culture subsistence is much more than
             that, it is part of who the Native Alaskans are; one does not exist without the other.

              Marine facilities and navigational improvements are also unique transportation needs
              within rural Alaska. Due to the limited road system, aircraft, and boats are transportation
              vessels that are common in this region. Barges carry annual supplies, construction
              material for most village projects, and fuel to each village. In the summer boats provide
              transportation to neighboring villages, lightering services, and access to subsistence
              resources. Improving and constructing marine facilities such as docks, boat harbors,
              ports, barge landings, and breakwater structures is an important part of transportation in
              the villages. The Figure in Section 4.2 has a proposed location for future marine facilities
              to serve the village.

              Navigational improvements such as navigational beacons and personal locater beacons
              (PLBs) will increase safety during both winter and summer travel. Some villages have
              voiced the need for devices such as these to aid in rescues and provide location markers.
              Beacons placed in towers or shelters bordering the coast can provide direction when
              travelers become disorientated or lost during whiteout conditions. PLB programs can be
              established at community hubs that would rent out individual PLB units and require
              users to file a travel plan. If a traveler is then lost or stranded the PLB could be activated
              and assist rescue teams with the travelers location. These improvements to the unique
              transportation needs in Alaska provide opportunities and increases public safety.




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King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan

              Winter transportation in the Bering Straits Region primarily consists of snowmachine
              travel over packed snow. This supports the mobility needs of village residents by
              providing the following: access to hunting and subsistence areas; a major transportation
              link between villages that enable people to visit relatives, friends, attend social
              gatherings, and transport goods; and access to Nome, the commercial and economic hub
              of the region. However, these routes often traverse through treacherous landscapes that
              offer little or no points of reference during bad weather. Ideally roads could be
              constructed that would be used throughout the year. However, it will take time to achieve
              this goal, and village residents expressed the need for temporary routes to be marked
              until permanent roads can be constructed at engineered locations. Villages identified
              tripod spacing requirements to be between 100-500 feet depending on the routes
              location.

      2.3    Comprehensive Transportation Planning

             A local economic development plan was prepared for King Island in 1999. The following
             goals for upgrading and expanding transportation infrastructure were identified in the
             plan:

                 1. Develop plan for constructing King Island’s transportation system.
                 2. Install a ferry boat system that would provide specific routes to Diomede, Teller,
                    Wales, Brevig Mission, and King Island.
                 3. Providing boardwalks on King Island to assist with the steep ascent to the
                    dwelling area.
                 4. Improve transportation modes to the island to promote tourism attractions such as
                    bird watching.

              RPKA, with Kawerak staff and village guidance, prepared a scoping report for the King
              Island Native Community. This report outlines short-term, first priority projects and
              provides approximate cost estimates. The Scoping Report for King Island Community
              Streets Project can be viewed in Appendix E of this Long Range Transportation Plan.


3.0   EXISTING TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

      The majority of King Island residents now live in Nome and travel on the paved community
      streets of the major community hub. The King Island Native Corporation owns a portion of land
      between Nome and Teller. King Island villagers wish to relocate to a proposed location site at
      either Cape Douglas or Sinuk camp. Within the area of traditional resource use there is a network
      of unimproved subsistence routes that lead to cabins, hot springs, seasonal camps, and
      subsistence areas that provide economic, recreational and cultural activities. By constructing
      roadways King Island residents now living in Nome would be connected to Teller, Solomon,
      Council, Pilgrim Hot Springs, traditional campsites along the existing highways, and the future
      village site.




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King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan


      3.1    Community Roadway System

             3.1.1 Community Roadway Map
                   There is approximately 207.7 miles of existing and proposed roads within King
                   Island’s inventory boundary. Accepted and updated inventory routes can be
                   viewed in the Community Roadway Map in Section 4.2 (Figure 1). A list of
                   accepted inventoried routes for King Island can be found in Appendix C.

      3.2    Right-of-Way and Road Ownership

             The 14(c) land conveyance work is still in process for King Island and any future
             townsite. Currently the State of Alaska as the trustee for a future city would own the
             public right-of-ways within the proposed townsite of King Island. The Alaska
             Department of Transportation and Public Facilities (ADOT&PF) owns a 200’ wide right-
             of-way for the Nome-Teller Road. The proposed roadways outside of the village may
             cross Federal, State, or private lands. In accordance with 25 CFR Part 170.443 all new
             roadways will be open to the public once built. The King Island Native Community,
             under 25 CFR Part 170, is considered a public authority and intends to own and maintain
             public access for any proposed roadways that are constructed.

             3.2.1 Geometric Elements
                   Any routes within the proposed townsite are narrow crudely pioneered routes with
                   no engineered design work. The average width is between 10 and 14 feet wide,
                   allowing for one direction of travel at all time. The existing unimproved
                   subsistence routes vary in width, but have an average travel way width of 10 feet.
                   Routes within Nome roadway system are generally wider at most locations and
                   vary in width from 14 to 24 feet.

             3.2.2 Utilities
                   There are no existing underground or above ground utilities at the original village
                   site and there are no existing utilities at the proposed relocation site. The City of
                   Nome has both underground and overhead utilities within its city limits and
                   within the portion of town that King Islanders reside. The subsistence and
                   economic routes within the inventory boundary are generally void of underground
                   or overhead utilities. Construction upgrades for these routes would be convenient
                   due to the absence of existing utilities.

      3.3    Existing Structural Characteristics

             3.3.1 Surfacing and Subbase Material
                   Presently there are no roadways on King Island; there are only boardwalks
                   connecting existing structures. The proposed future townsite and the unimproved
                   subsistence and economic routes belonging to King Island have no engineered
                   alignment or designated corridor. The road system in Nome is made up of either
                   gravel or unimproved earth roads with some paved streets. Sections of the
                   unpaved roads have ruts and potholes and are poorly drain.


                                            March 2007                                         Page 11
King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan

                    It is proposed that the streets within the future townsite of King Island be
                    constructed with the appropriate surface material to an adequate width. The
                    subsistence and economic routes would see less traffic than community routes and
                    it is recommended that they be constructed with a crushed gravel surface.
                    Woolley Lagoon Road and the Nome-Teller road are also in need of upgrades and
                    continual maintenance.

                    A major issue regarding road upgrades, specifically within town limits, is dust
                    control. Safety and health concerns for residents and pedestrians of all ages have
                    increased due to the excessive dust from the roadways. The village would like to
                    see a dust suppressant incorporated into any road construction within the
                    community of the proposed village site and any road upgrades within Nome that
                    provide service to King Island residents.

             3.3.2 Drainage
                   It is recommended that drainage for proposed routes and constructed subsistence
                   routes be sustained by culverts and ditches placed at definite locations to maintain
                   positive drainage throughout the community.

             3.3.3 Bridges
                   Currently there are no bridges within the original village site on King Island.
                   Structures may need to be constructed to provide safe passage through the
                   network of unimproved subsistence routes and at the future location site. Some
                   villagers have expressed the need for a bridge over Woolley Lagoon. Other areas
                   needing bridges within the inventory boundary would be identified during the
                   corridor identification process.

      3.4    User Characteristics

             3.4.1 Trip Generators
                   Traffic circulation on King Island involves foot traffic to other homes, the
                   facilities that are functioning in seasonal use, and water source locations. On the
                   mainland, trip generators outside of Nome include the Nome-Teller Highway. If
                   constructed, roadways would lead to the future village site. Subsistence and
                   economic routes scattered around the community are used throughout the year.

                    Design standards for roads are based on the amount of traffic use experienced
                    over a full day, or the Average Daily Traffic (ADT). The design parameters of a
                    road are established based on the type, speed, and amount of traffic that a
                    particular route generates. The ADT has not been counted for the updated routes.
                    A future update will provide traffic counts for King Island’s inventory.




                                            March 2007                                        Page 12
King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan


      3.5    Agencies Responsible For Maintenance

             The ADOT&PF maintains the Nome-Teller Road. King Island Native Community as a
             public authority will maintain any proposed roads that are constructed under the IRR
             program. The new highway bill (SAFETEA-LU) authorized a percentage of IRR dollars
             for maintenance. The King Island Native Community will utilize up to 25% of its annual
             construction funds for maintenance on proposed roadways it constructs.

      3.6    Construction Material Sources

             Construction material from commercial sources is widely available in Nome for area
             transportation projects. The Cape Nome Quarry provides some of the highest quality rock
             in western Alaska. Sand and gravel aggregate from the tailing piles of gold mining
             operations like Nova gold are also available. Although no material sites are known to be
             developed on King Island selections, the coastal area between Teller and Cape Douglas is
             reportedly rich in sand and gravel deposits. King Island Community will work with the
             Village Corporation to identify and develop any future sites


4.0 ROADWAY FACILITY NEEDS
      Transportation Needs Assessment
      An assessment of King Island’s transportation needs is based on the long range transportation
      goals listed in Section 2.2, the overall transportation goals listed in the comprehensive plan in
      Section 2.3, and general safety concerns. Priority status for each route is based on existing levels
      of service, proposed land use, economic and cultural development, subsistence activities,
      tourism, recreation, housing, commercial development, and health benefits. Section 4.1 provides
      a list of the updated inventory to be submitted, while Section 4.2 has a figure that gives the
      location and route identification of the updated inventory and current official BIA routes.

      Roads included in the 2007 inventory submittal are classified as one of the following road types.
      (1) Existing City Roads: existing roads within the city boundary that are established but in need
      of upgrades and improvements. (2) Existing State Roads: existing roads within the designated
      right-of-way owned by the State of Alaska. Roads under this classification usually include state
      highways and roads providing access to village runways and aprons. (3) Proposed Roads:
      proposed economic development and subsistence routes, including routes connecting
      neighboring villages and relocation sites. Proposed routes providing access to future facilities and
      development within the townsite would also fall into this classification. Route classification will
      be used in the coding process for imputing updated inventory into the BIA IRR system.




                                              March 2007                                         Page 13
King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan




                      4.1 2007 Updated Road Inventory List




                                  March 2007                 Page 14
King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan

                                 King Island Updated Inventory
                                    King Island, Alaska – E04253

            Route    Section
                                                     Route Name       Length (miles)
           Number    Number
   1        2000       10                             KIN2000             16.5
   2        2001       10                             KIN2001             9.7
   3        2002       10                         New Camp Road           17.7
   4        2003       10                             KIN2003             4.7
   5        2004       10                             KIN2004             6.6
   6        2005       10                             KIN2005             11.2
   7        2006       10                         Nome-Teller Hwy         9.4
   8        2007       10                        Feather River Road       1.3




                                            March 2007                      Page 15
King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan




                                 4.2 Road Inventory Maps




                                       March 2007          Page 16
                                               King Island
                                               POSSIBLE MARINE
                                               FACILITY SITE




                                                                                 2000
                                                                                                                                    05
                                                                                                                                  20
                                                                                                      20
                                                                                                        01




                                                                                               20




                                                                                                                                            200 6
                                                                                                 00
                                                                                                                    2004




                                                                                                                                  200
                                                                                                                                   5
                                                                 King Island Routes




                                                                                                                     03
                                                                                                                    20
                                                                                                                           1002
                                                                           POSSIBLE MARINE




                                                                                                                                                0009
                                                                           FACILITY SITE
       LEGEND
              KING ISLAND
              UPDATED ROUTES                                                                                                                    200
              UPDATED ROUTES FOR                                                                                                                       7
              OTHER VILLAGES
              ALREADY INVENTORIED ROUTES
1012          ROUTE NUMBER




                                                                                                             2002
                                                                                        1004




                                                                                                                                                           1009
                                                                                                                                         1001




        C o n s u l t in g E n g i n e e rs & S u r v e yo r s
King Island Native Community
Long Range Transportation Plan

REFERENCES
Alaska Department of Community, Commerce, and Economic Development (DCCED), Community
Profiles, available online at:
www.dced.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/cf_block.htm

Alaska Department of Community, Commerce, and Economic Development (DCCED), Rural Alaska
Project Identification and Delivery System (RAPIDS), available online at:
www.dced.state.ak.us/dca/commdb/cf_rapids.htm

Alaska Department of Community, Commerce, and Economic Development (DCCED), Alaska Economic
Information System, Nome Census Area: Economic Overview. Available online at:
 www.dced.state.ak.us/dca/aeis/aeis_home.htm

ADOT&PF, State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP), 2004-06

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Guidelines for Geometric Design
of Very Low-Volume Local Roads (ADT <= 400), 2001

Bering Straits Region Funding Summit, Nome Region Communities, Priority Project Descriptions, April
2001

BIA, Juneau Alaska Transportation Plan, BIA 1993, IRR Inventory Information, Maps from past
projects conducted by the BIA

Denali Commission, (Online) Programs: Transportation, available online at:
www.denali.gov/Section.cfm?Section=Transportation

Kawerak Inc., Local Economic Development Plan for King Island, January 1999

Kawerak Inc., Bering Straits Permanent Winter Trail Stake Plan, 1997

Land Design North, Nome Area Tourism Demand, Potential, and Infrastructure Study, October 2003

RPKA, Scoping Report for King Island Community Streets Project, April 2007

King Island Native Community and King Island Native Corporation. King Island, Alaska. General
information, recommendations and public meetings.

U. S. Department of the Interior, BIA. Juneau Area Transportation Plan, Nome Agency Report. Juneau,
Alaska. 1993.




                                             March 2007                                     Page 17
Appendix A:
ADOPTING RESOLUTION
                                                        King Island Native Community
                                                              Inventory Catalog

Route   Section      Route Name        POB Latitude   POB Longitude    POE Latitude    POE Longitude   Length   Ownership   Construction Need
2000      10           KIN2000          64.8548° N     166.4033° W      65.0474° N      166.6626° W     16.5       2                4
2001      10           KIN2001          64.8890° N     166.4127° W      64.9732° N      166.6303° W      9.7       2                4
2002      10       New Camp Road        64.6529° N     166.2196° W      64.8548° N      166.4033° W     17.7       2                4
2003      10           KIN2003          64.8577° N     166.3686° W      64.9128° N      166.3141° W      4.7       2                4
2004      10           KIN2004          64.8848° N     166.4262° W      64.9419° N      166.2566° W      6.6       2                4
2005      10           KIN2005          64.8832° N     166.1513° W      65.0185° N      166.2503° W     11.2       2                4
2006      10       Nome-Teller Hwy      64.8790° N     166.1451° W      65.0041° N      166.1657° W      9.4       3                2
2007      10      Feather River Road    64.8292° N     166.0825° W      64.8307° N      166.1251° W      1.3       2                4
    Appendix B:
MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING
       Appendix C:
EXISTING (ACCEPTED) IRR INVENTORY
                                                                                                                                                                    Filter Criteria
                                       Indian Reservation Roads Program
                                                                                                                                                      E        2007         04        253
                                           Inventory Data Sheet (ver2)
                                                                                                            For construction costs use             Itallicized fields are direct update data
                                                          FY 2007 Inventory                                   the Greenbook Report                     and bold fields are derived data.

                        Location ID       E04253        E04253        E04253        E04253       E04253           E04253         E04253         E04253          E04253
                            Region        Alaska        Alaska        Alaska        Alaska       Alaska           Alaska         Alaska         Alaska          Alaska
                           Agency          Nome          Nome          Nome          Nome         Nome             Nome           Nome           Nome            Nome
                       Reservation        King Isl      King Isl      King Isl      King Isl     King Isl         King Isl       King Isl       King Isl        King Isl
                       Road Name
Route Number                                0004          0009          1001          1002         1003             1004           1004           1009             1009
Section Number                                 10            10            10            10          10                15             20             10              20
10-Class Code                                   4             4             4             4           4                 4              4              2               2
15-Length of Section (mi) [999.9]            28.5           4.8          14.9           7.4                          19.5           48.0            7.5
18-Bridge Number [A15]                                                                             531E                                                            E421
19-Bridge Condition                                                                                    8                                                               9
20-Bridge Length (ft) [9999]                                                                        300                                                             181
32-County [999]                               180           180           180           180         180              180            180             180             180
33-Congressional District [99]                  01            01            01            01          01               01             01              01              01
7-State                                   02 - AK       02 - AK       02 - AK       02 - AK     02 - AK          02 - AK        02 - AK         02 - AK         02 - AK
8-Ownership                                      2             3             2             3           1                2              2               3               3
12-Construction Need Code                        2             2             2             2           4                2              2               2               2
11-Terrain Code                                  1             1             2             1                            1              1               1
25-Roadbed Condition Code                        2             0             1             2                            0              0               5
24-SCI (20 times the old PCI value)              0             0             0             0                            0              0              60
16-Surface Width (ft) [999]                     24             0            22            10                            0              0              28
13-Surface Type                                  1             0             9             1                            0              0               3
9-Federal Aid Code                               1             1                           1                            1              1               1
28-ROW Status                                    1             1            0              3          1                 1              1               3               3
29-ROW Width (ft) [999]                          0            30            0             25          0                30             30            100              100
BIA Share (%)                                 100         34.95           100         34.95         100              100            100           34.95              100
30-Additional Incidental Percent
17-Shoulder Width (Enter 0 for no s             0             0             0             0                             0                0            0
14-Shoulder Type
22-Existing ADT [9999999]                    100                                      150                                                         350
21-ADT Year [9999]                          2001                                     2001                                                        2001
23-% Trucks [99]                               0             0            25            0                               0                0         20
34-Owner Route Number [AAAAA]              CAPET          1009         KING1        WOLEY                                                       NOMET
ROADWAY_WIDTH                                 24            24            22           10                             24             24            28
TTAM Future ADT                              149            74            74          223                             74             74           520
TTAM ADS Number                               10            10            11           10                             10             10             4
TTAM Future Surface Type                       G             G             G            G                              G              G             P
35-Drainage Condition                          2             0             0            1                              0              0             2
36-Shoulder Condition                          0             0             0            0                              0              0             0
37/38 # RR XING/RR XING TYPE                 0/-           0/-           0/-          0/-                            0/-            0/-           0/-
39-ROW Utility Code                            0             2             0            0              0               2              2             0                  0
40-ROW Cost ($1000/mi) [99]                    0             0             0            0                              0              0             0
26-Level Of Maintenance                                                    1            1
27-Snow Ice Control                             6                                       6                                                             6
41-Begin Latitude (deg) [decimal]
42-End Latitude (deg) [decimal]
43-Begin Longitude (deg) [decimal
44-End Longitude (deg) [decimal]
45-Atlas Map Number [99]                       01                          01            01                                                          01               01
46-50 Grade/Sight/Curve/Stop/Safe      7 5 0 0 8     7 5 0 0 9     7 5 0 0 9     7 0 0 0 9                   7 5 0 0 9       7 5 0 0 9       7 5 0 0 0
51-Road Category                               Q             Y             W             Q                           Y               Y               Q
52-Year of Construction Change [9                                                                                                                  1965
Update Year                                 2001          2001          1990          2001         2001            2001           2001             2001          2001
                              Status    OFFICIAL      OFFICIAL      OFFICIAL      OFFICIAL     OFFICIAL        OFFICIAL       OFFICIAL        OFFICIAL       OFFICIAL
23-FEB-07                                                                                                                                                                                 Page 1 of 1
     Appendix D:
        MEETING NOTES
              &
      PUBLIC NOTICE FOR
LONG RANGE TRANSPORTATION PLAN
Appendix E:
 SCOPING REPORT
                                                            16515 Centerfield Drive, Suite 101
                                                            Eagle River, Alaska 99577
                                                            Phone (907) 694-2332
                                                            Fax (907) 694-1807



                               Scoping Report
DATE: April 30, 2007

TO:      J. Sean McKnight, P.E.

FROM: Brian Pederson, P.E, P.L.S.

RE:      King Island Projects


Introduction:
The abandoned village of Ukivok is located on southern side King Island, 75 miles
northwest of Nome. It lays at approximately 64°57’42.77” North Latitude and
168°04’11.56” West Longitude.

Kawerak Transportation identified a variety of projects for King Island in their
Transportation Improvement Plan. On September 25, 2005, a site investigation was
conducted with the purpose of defining the scope of the projects that the King Islanders
would like to complete.

Project Description:
Three different projects were identified to assistant the King Islanders in repatriation of
the village of Ukivok. The first was a community barge landing point, second was a
tramway to bring supplies up from the barge landing location on King Island, and the
third was to construct boardwalks throughout the village site. Generally all projects in
this location will be extremely expensive. There are no facilities at this site; therefore
before any project as presented below could be undertaken a camp would need to be set
up. This camp set up would include the installation of water and sewer, electrical, fuel
storage, waste disposal, cooking, and living quarters. Currently King Island and the
village of Ukivok is one of the most endangered historical sites in the country. Any work
contemplated on this site will require the approval of the State Historic Preservation
Officer. The three projects are described in the following:

   Barge Landing:
   The barge landing location at King Island is an opening at the base of a ravine. This
   location was the historical location that was used by the Bureau of Indian Affairs
   (BIA) ships that restocked the school and is still the most feasible location to land a
   barge. The upland staging area is very small and most likely will become inundated
   during storm events. Barge landing at Ukivok is minimal at best and can only be
   attempted during calm sea conditions, because the landing area has no protection from
   the incoming waves. In order to improve the landing location a bathometric survey
   would be needed to determine the water depth. Based on the vertical cliffs that
   surround the island, it can be assumed that the water is deep, which will increase the
   cost of the facility. The storm surge, wave set up, and significant wave height all
   needs to be determined as well as the run up on any structure that is placed on the
                                          Page 1
Project Scoping
King Island Projects

   shore. The wave fetch exceeds a thousand miles and can almost be considered
   infinite. Currently there are no materials sources on King Island therefore one would
   need to be developed or the material would have to be barged from Cape Nome.

   Tramway:
   There is significant vertical distance from the barge landing location and the village of
   Ukivok. Historically a tramway was used by the community to lift material from the
   beach to the village and portions of that system still remain today. A new tramway or
   crane would be needed to move materials from the staging area to the village. A
   second staging area would be needed at the village site to store goods lifted from the
   barge staging area. Significant work would be required to prepare and install a new
   tramway or crane, as there is no equipment at the village location or on the island to
   perform this work. All foundation and earth work would need to be done by hand or
   with small equipment that is of a size to be airlifted in with a helicopter.

   Community Boardwalks:
   The King Islanders requested that boardwalks be constructed throughout the village
   site. Based on the site visit, it will not be feasible or cost effective to provide a
   detailed design for boardwalks, but rather a typical section for different foundation
   scenarios, stairways, and construction criteria will be provided. This will allow for
   site specific construction to occur so the boardwalk fits the terrain and houses. The
   boardwalks are anticipated to be constructed out of a composite of materials which
   could include steel, fiberglass composite, and treated lumber. Due to the terrain, the
   boardwalks will not be able to be constructed in accordance with Americans for
   Disabilities Act.

Material Sources:
There are no local sources developed on the island for materials. A local material source
will need to be developed or all the materials will need to be imported from outside
sources. A materials source investigation will be required for the project.

Initial Project Estimate:
An estimate was not prepared for these projects. Additional work will be needed to be
completed during a feasibility study to determine if the project(s) are feasible and what
the estimated cost(s) would be. The magnitude of the remoteness in this case will
increase the cost of the project immensely.

Work Tasks Required:
The work tasks required for initial development of projects on King Island are
summarized in the following sections:

   Feasibility Study:
   A feasibility study will be needed to be completed to determine the cost verses the
   benefits of undertaking projects on King Island. This should be done in conjunction
   with a preliminary environmental assessment to identify issues and concerns.




                                          Page 2
Project Scoping
King Island Projects

   Surveying:
   Surveying will be required for all projects on King Island. Control monumentation
   needs to be established and topographic data collected. A hydrographic survey needs
   to be performed for the barge landing facility.

   Right-of-Way:
   Based on the survey work, easement documents will be prepared that document and
   reserve a public right-of-way easement. The preferred method of securing a right-of-
   way is through the use of an easement rather than a fee simple acquisition. Because
   the right-of-way acquisition required is using Kawerak transportation dollars, it will
   be considered a Federal undertaking. This requires that any easements that are
   acquired on real property follow the Uniform Relocation Assistant and Real Property
   Acquisition Policies Act.

   Geotechnical/Material Source Investigation:
   A geotechnical investigation will be required for some of the projects on King Island.
   A material source investigation will also be required to determine the types, quality,
   and availability of materials on the island.

   Environmental/Permits:
   A review under NEPA will be required for the project. The initial document that will
   be prepared is an Environmental Assessment; however the level of environmental
   documentation will need to be reviewed by the lead federal agency. A full gamut of
   permits will be required for this project, including the requirements for a public
   hearing.




                                        Page 3

				
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