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Chapter 15 Social Psychology

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					                 Chapter 15: Social Psychology


Multiple-Choice Questions
Introduction
  1. The scientific study of the way in which thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of one                  589
         individual are affected by the real, imagined, or inferred characteristics or behavior of             C, c
         others is known as ______ psychology.                                                                 Old
         a. environmental                          c. social
         b. cognitive                              d. interpersonal

        2 yr.: 60% r = .33

Social Cognition
  2. Cognitive social psychologists call ready-made categories concerning people ______.                590
        a. hypotheses                            c. schemata                                                   C, c
        b. formal operations                     d. rationales                                                 Old

        2 yr.: 74% r = .29

  3. Which of the following is NOT true of schemata?                                          590-591
***     a. They allow us to negate the primacy effect.                                            F, a
        b. They allow us to make inferences about people.                                         Old
        c. They play a crucial role in how we interpret and remember information.
        d. They lure us into remembering things about people that we never actually observed.

  4. The extent to which the first information we receive about someone influences our                  591
***      impression of that person more than later information is called ______.                        C, d
         a. the phi phenomenon                    c. the recency effect                                        Old
         b. the halo effect                       d. the primacy effect

        2 yr.: 91% r = .35;     2 yr.: 86% r = .30

  5. When the expectations of one person bring about the expected behavior in another                   591
***     person, the expectation has become a(n) ______.                                                        C, d
        a. attribution                          c. response characteristic                                     Old
        b. primary drive                        d. self-fulfilling prophecy

        2 yr.: 47% r = .15;     4 yr.: 58% r = .34




                                                          462
  6. Lisa's friends have told her that Virginia is not very popular. Jane's friends have told her 591
         that Virginia is well liked. Both Lisa and Jane are assigned to work with Virginia on a                 A, b
         class assignment. Which of the following is the MOST likely outcome?                                    Old
         a. Lisa will like Virginia, but Jane will not.
         b. Jane will like Virginia, but Lisa will not.
         c. Both Jane and Lisa will like Virginia equally well.
         d. There is not enough information given in this situation to make a prediction as to
              who will better like Virginia.

  7. John's friends told him that Mary was the homecoming queen last year. Al's friends told              591
***      him that Mary was not invited to any of her friends' parties last year. Both John and Al                A, a
         take Mary out on blind dates. Which of the following is the MOST likely outcome?                        Old
         a. Mary will be more friendly toward John than toward Al.
         b. Mary will be more friendly toward Al than toward John.
         c. Mary will be very friendly toward both Al and John.
         d. Mary will not be friendly to either Al or John.

         2 yr.: 54% r = .24

  8. In the Rosenthal (1968) study, teachers were told that some children were “bloomers.”       591
          Over the next year, ______.                                                                F, b
          a. neither the bloomers nor the regular children made significant gains in test scores     New
          b. the bloomers made significant gains in test scores when compared to a control
              group
          c. the bloomers showed surprising decreases in test scores when compared to a control
              group
          d. both the bloomers and the regular children made equally significant gains in test
              scores

  9. The effect of teachers’ high expectations for students causing them to perform better in             591
         class and increase their performance on standardized tests is called the ______ effect.          C, c
         a. Barnum                                 c. Pygmalion                                                  New
         b. halo                                   d. primacy

 10. The “Pygmalion Effect” refers to findings that ______.                                               591
         a. students’ expectations of themselves affect their classroom performance                              C, c
         b. students’ relationships with their parents affect their classroom performance                 Old
         c. teachers’ expectations of students affect students’ classroom performance
         d. peer ratings of students correlates highly with classroom performance

 11. Research indicates that teachers’ expectations of students ______.                                   591
         a. has little or no effect on student performance                                                F, d
         b. only positively affects the top student performers in a given class                                  Old
         c. only negatively affects the poorest student performers in a given class
         d. can have a powerful positive or negative effect on student performance

 12. Research suggests that the primacy effect can be weakened if ______.                                 591
***      a. people are encouraged to believe their first impressions                                             F, c
         b. people are trained in sensory perception techniques                                                  Old
         c. people are warned to be wary of their first impressions
         d. people are later given information that is only partially consistent with their first
             impressions




                                                         463
 13. A set of characteristics believed to be shared by all members of a social category is a        592
***      ______.                                                                                                 C, d
        a.   unifying trait                      c.   primacy effect                                     Old
        b.   perception                          d.   stereotype

        2 yr.: 78% r = .39

 14. A special kind of schema based on almost any distinguishing feature is a ______.              592
         a. unifying trait                      c. primacy effect                                        C, d
         b. concept                             d. stereotype                                            Old

        4 yr.: 82% r = .26

 15. Stereotypes can easily become the basis for ______.                                           592
***      a. primary drives                        c. self-fulfilling prophecies                          F, c
         b. negating the primacy effect           d. the development of unifying traits                  Old

        4 yr.: 39% r = .25

 16. Research in which males talked on the phone to females they were led to believe were        592
         either attractive or unattractive found that the ______.                                    F, d
         a. males’ conversation style was the same whether or not they believed the female to        Old
              whom they were talking was attractive
         b. males were more cold and reserved in their conversation with females they believed
              were unattractive, but it had little or no impact on females’ conversational style
         c. males were more warm, friendly, and animated in their conversation with females
              they believed were unattractive, but it had little or no impact on females’
              conversational style
         d. males were more cold and reserved in their conversation with females they believed
              were unattractive and the females reacted with a cool distant manner

 17. People are more likely to apply stereotyped schemata in a(n) _______ and when they are        592
         ______ a goal.                                                                                  F, a
         a. structured; pursuing                  c. structured; not pursuing                            New
         b. unstructured; pursuing                d. unstructured; not pursuing

 18. Judgments about whether a behavior is more revealing about a person or a situation have 593
         been studied under the heading of ______.                                                       C, b
         a. the primacy effect                  c. cognitive dissonance                                  Old
         b. attribution theory                  d. locus of control

 19. According to Heider, we usually attribute someone's behavior ______.                          593
        a. to external causes only                                                                       F, c
        b. to internal causes only                                                                 Old
        c. to either internal or external causes, but not both at the same time
     d. to internal and external causes at the same time

 20. An influential attribution theory was developed by ______.                                    593
         a. Snyder                                c. Kelley                                              F, c
         b. Luchins                               d. Milgram                                             Old

 21. According to Kelley, we rely on ______ kinds of information to draw conclusions               593
        about the causes of behavior.                                                                    F, b
        a. two                                  c. four                                                  Old
        b. three                                d. five

                                                     464
 22. Which of the following is NOT one of the kinds of information Kelley believed we use          593
        to draw conclusions about the causes of behavior?                                                F, a
        a. frequency                            c. consistency                                           Old
         b.   distinctiveness                     d.   consensus

         2 yr.: 55% r = .29

 23. To the extent that a behavior occurs only when a particular event also occurs, we tend to 593
***      attribute the behavior to that event. This is an example of ______.                                C, b
         a. frequency                               c. consistency                                          Old
         b. distinctiveness                         d. consensus

 24. The extent to which a behavior is the same whenever the presumed cause of the              593
***      behavior is present affects our attributions of the behavior. This exemplifies ______.             C, c
         a. frequency                               c. consistency                                          Old
         b. distinctiveness                         d. consensus

 25. The degree to which other people behave the same way as one person behaves in a                 593
***      situation affects our attributions of that person's behavior. This is an example of ______.     C, d
         a. frequency                                c. consistency                                      Old
         b. distinctiveness                          d. consensus

 26. Research indicates that we tend to attribute our own actions to ______ factors and the           594
***      behavior of others to ______ factors.                                                              F, a
         a. situational; personal                  c. situational; situational                        Old
         b. personal; personal                     d. personal; situational

         2 yr.: 63% r = .26

 27. The tendency to give too much emphasis to personal factors when accounting for other             594
***      people's actions is called ______.                                                                 C, c
         a. the primacy effect                  c. the fundamental attribution error                        Old
         b. defensive attribution               d. the Peter principle

 28. The tendency of people to place too much emphasis on personal factors when                       594
         accounting for other people’s actions and too little emphasis on personal factors when             C, c
         accounting for our own actions is known as ______.                                                 Old
         a. the primacy effect                   c. the actor-observer effect
         b. the recency effect                   d. the self-serving bias

 29. According to attribution theory, people ______ for good situations and ______ for bad            594
***     ones.                                                                                               F, c
        a. take credit; take credit                                                                   Old
        b. deny responsibility; deny responsibility
        c. take credit; deny responsibility
        d. deny responsibility; take credit

         4 yr.: 90% r = .27

 30. The tendency to explain our successes according to our personal abilities and attribute          594
***      our failures to forces beyond our control is called ______.                                        C, b
         a. the primacy effect                    c. the fundamental attribution error                      Old
         b. defensive attribution                 d. self-delusional thought

         4 yr.: 64% r = .35;    2 yr.: 47% r = .06

                                                        465
 31. The tendency to explain our successes according to our personal abilities and attribute          594
***      our failures to forces beyond our control is called ______.                                        C, b
         a. the primacy effect                    c. the fundamental attribution error                      Old
         b. the self-serving bias                 d. the actor-observer effect
 32. Bad things happen to bad people and good things happen to good people, according           594
***      to ______.                                                                                   C, a
         a. the just-world hypothesis           c. the Peter principle                                Old
         b. the Premack principle               d. the reciprocity model

         2 yr.: 78% r = .41;   4 yr.: 88% r = .14

 33. Betty went to the dentist to have a filling replaced. Kim, however, found out she needed   594
         root canal work. According to the just-world hypothesis, ______.                             A, d
         a. Kim has a genetic predisposition towards poor teeth                                       Old
         b. Kim must have disliked Betty
         c. Betty is a lucky person
         d. Betty has taken better care of her teeth than Kim

         2 yr.: 57% r = .07

 34. A racing driver whose car skids off the road in an important event is MOST likely to       594
         attribute his performance to ______.                                                         A, b
         a. errors in judgment on his part                                                            Old
         b. slick conditions on the asphalt
         c. his late-night partying on the previous evening
         d. problems he is having in his personal life

         2 yr.: 90% r = .39

 35. A racing driver who wins an important event is MOST likely to attribute her                594
         performance to ______.                                                                       A, c
         a. errors in judgment by other drivers                                                       Old
         b. good conditions on the track
         c. his nearly flawless performance in the event
         d. being very lucky in this particular event

 36. Research has found that Japanese students studying in the United States usually            594
         attribute their successes to ______ sources and their failures to ______ sources.            F, b
         a. internal; internal                    c. internal; external                               Old
         b. external; internal                    d. external; external

 37. The most important factor in interpersonal attraction is ______.                           595
***      a. proximity                             c. attractiveness                                   F, a
         b. similarity                            d. reciprocity                                      Old

 38. The term psychologists use for how close two people live to each other is ______.          595
         a. propinquity                         c. proximity                                          C, c
         b. reciprocity                         d. complementarity                                    Old




                                                    466
 39. Barbie and Ken just moved into a housing development. They are MOST likely to be           595
         attracted to ______.                                                                         A, c
         a. people in other housing developments                                                      Old
         b. people who do not live in housing developments
         c. their next-door neighbors
         d.   people who live in adjacent buildings

         2 yr.: 87% r = .19

 40. Researchers have found that we expect physically attractive people to be ______.                    595
         a. selfish                             c. available                                                    F, b
         b. kind                            d. arrogant                                                  Old

 41. We tend to ______ attractive people more than we do less attractive people.                   595
         a. obey                                c. like                                                         F, c
         b. dislike                             d. ignore                                                       Old

 42. Most of us associate ______ with good personality traits, intelligence, and happiness.        595
        a. attractiveness                       c. old age                                                      F, a
        b. youth                                d. wealth                                                       Old

 43. Studies on similarity and attractiveness have found that ______.                                    596
***      a. the more similar two people are, the stronger the attraction between them                           F, a
         b. similarity appears to be unrelated to attraction                                                    Old
         c. complementarity is a more powerful influence on attraction than similarity
         d. the more similar two people are, the weaker the attraction, because of boredom

         4 yr.: 78% r = .37;     2 yr.: 77% r = .18;     4 yr.: 60% r = .31

 44. Attraction that is based on opposite interests or personality characteristics that balance          596
         or complete each other is called ______.                                                        C, c
         a. proximity                               c. complementarity                                          Old
         b. rewardingness                           d. reciprocity

         2 yr.: 79% r = .23;     4 yr.: 53% r = .10

 45. Which of the following illustrates complementarity?                                                 596
        a. a dominant woman marries a submissive man                                                            C, a
        b. a girl marries the boy next door                                                                     Old
        c. two tennis players become good friends
        d. a girl and a boy who both like jogging fall in love

         2 yr.: 72% r = .31

 46. Roberta is shy, but she falls in love with Sven, who is very outgoing. This illustrates the         596
        effect of ______.                                                                                       A, b
        a. similarity                              c. proximity                                                 Old
        b. complementarity                         d. reciprocity

         2 yr.: 76% r = .18

 47. Increases in rewarding behavior affect attractiveness more than constant rewarding                  596
***      behavior according to ______ theory.                                                                   C, a
         a. gain-loss                              c. reciprocity                                               Old
     b. complementarity                       d. proximity

                                                           467
 48. Felix meets and talks with Sheila at three successive parties. At the first party, Sheila's         596
***       comments to Felix were relatively neutral. Since then, her comments have grown                        A, b
          steadily warmer to the point of overt flattery. Felix finds that as Sheila's flattery          Old
          increases, so does his attraction to her. This is an example of ______.
          a. complementarity                         c. proximity
          b. reward theory                           d. similarity
 49. Felix meets and talks with Sheila at three successive parties. At the first party, Sheila's     596
***       comments to Felix were relatively neutral. Since then her comments have grown steadily         A, a
          colder to the point of rudeness. Felix finds that as Sheila's hostility grows, so does his     Old
          dislike of her. This is an example of ______ theory.
          a. gain-loss                              c. reciprocity
          b. complementarity                        d. propinquity

 50. Felix meets and talks with Maria and Nina at three successive parties. Nina's comments            596
***       to Felix are extremely flattering at all three parties. Maria's comments to him were             A, c
          relatively neutral at the first party, but have grown steadily warmer, to the point of overt     Old
          flattery, at the last two parties. Felix will probably ______.
          a. like neither Nina or Maria                c. like Maria more than Nina
          b. like Nina more than Maria            d. like both Maria and Nina equally

         2 yr.: 70% r = .36

 51. Felix meets and talks with Maria and Nina at three successive parties. Nina's comments               596
***       to Felix are overtly derogatory at all three parties. Maria's comments to him were                     A, b
          relatively neutral at the first party, but have grown steadily colder, to the point of overt           Old
          rudeness, at the last two parties. Felix will probably ______.
          a. like neither Nina or Maria                c. like Maria more than Nina
          b. like Nina more than Maria            d. like both Maria and Nina equally

 52. The reward theory of attraction is based on the concept of ______.                                   596
         a. proximity                              c. homogamy                                                   F, b
         b. exchange                               d. mutuality                                                  Old

 53. The tendency to like others who have expressed a liking for us is called ______.               596
***      a. complementarity                     c. proximity                                                     C, b
         b. exchange                            d. propinquity                                                   Old

 54. After hearing that Milton likes her, Cindy finds herself noticing all of his attractive              596
***      qualities and growing more attracted to him. This is an example of ______.                       A, b
         a. complementarity                        c. proximity                                                  Old
         b. exchange                               d. reciprocity

         2 yr.: 48% r = .17

 55. A relationship is based on ______ when what one person gets out of it is equal to what               597
         the other person does.                                                                                  F, d
         a. homogamy                           c. proximity                                                      Old
         b. mutuality                          d. equity

 56. When, in a relationship, the exchanges between partners are consistently unfair, the one             597
        who loses feels ______ and the one who gains feels ______.                                               A, c
        a. guilty; superior                      c. cheated; guilty                                              Old
        b. cheated; powerful                 d. unworthy; powerful


                                                       468
 57. The quality of genuine closeness and trust achieved in communication with another                    597
         person is called ______.                                                                                C, b
         a. propinquity                           c. reciprocity                                                 Old
         b. intimacy                              d. synergy

 58. Intimate communication is based on the process of ______.                                            597
          a. proxemics                          c. self-disclosure                                               F, c
         b.   kinesics                             d.   deindividuation                                      Old

 59. When someone reveals too much, too soon in communicating with someone else, the                   597
        other person is likely to ______.                                                                    F, d
        a. speed up the pace at which he or she reveals information                                          Old
        b. listen more and further explore what has been revealed
        c. continue the relationship as if nothing had happened
        d. withdraw and stop communicating

Attitudes
 60. A relatively stable organization of beliefs, feelings, and behavior tendencies toward             598
         something or someone else is a(n) ______.                                                           C, a
         a. attitude                                c. cognition                                             Old
         b. archetype                               d. affect

 61. An attitude has ______ major components.                                                          598
         a. two                               c.        four                                                 F, b
         b. three                             d.        five                                                 Old

 62. Which of the following is NOT one of the three major components of attitudes?                     598
***     a. evaluative beliefs                   c. feelings                                                  F, b
        b. goals                                d. behavioral expectancies                                   Old

         4 yr.: 64% r = .32

 63. Roberta is trying to decide whether or not to vote for a political candidate. In her              598
***     opinion, he is not qualified for the position, but she agrees with his political positions.          A, a
        Also, she trusts him and likes his decisive personality. In fact, she likes him so much        Old
        she sent a small donation to his campaign. Her opinion that the candidate is not
        qualified represents the ______ component of her attitude toward him.
        a. evaluative belief                       c. feeling
        b. intuition                               d. behavioral tendency

 64. Roberta is trying to decide whether or not to vote for a political candidate. In her              598-599
***     opinion, he is not qualified for the position, but she agrees with his political positions.        A, c
        Also, she trusts him and likes his decisive personality. In fact, she likes him so much        Old
        she sent a small donation to his campaign. Her trust of the candidate represents the
        ______ component of her attitude toward him.
        a. belief                                  c. feeling
        b. intuition                               d. behavioral tendency




                                                         469
  65.    Roberta is trying to decide whether or not to vote for a political candidate. In her                598-599
***      opinion, he is not qualified for the position, but she agrees with his political positions.         A, d
         Also, she trusts him and likes his decisive personality. In fact, she likes him so much       Old
         she sent a small donation to his campaign. Her sending a donation to the campaign
         represents the ______ component of her attitude toward him.
         a. belief                                  c. feeling
         b. intuition                               d. behavioral tendency
 66. The tendency for an individual to observe a situation for cues about how he or she                   599
         should react is called ______.                                                                          C, a
         a. self-monitoring                       c. situational narcissism                                      Old
         b. self-efficacy                         d. a reaction formation

 67. People who are ______ on self-monitoring are especially likely to override their               599
         attitudes and behave in accordance with others expectations.                                            F, d
         a. reactive                             c. low                                                          Old
         b. nonreactive                          d. high

 68. Before speaking or acting, Sally examines a situation for cues of how she should react,              599
         and then tries to meet the demands of the situation rather than act on her own feelings.                A, d
         She is probably a ______ self-monitor.                                                                  Old
         a. reactive                              c. low
         b. nonreactive                           d. high

 69. Sally knows her own mind. She consistently expresses her beliefs and acts on those                   599
         beliefs with little regard for the constraints imposed by the situation. She is probably         A, c
         a ______ self-monitor.                                                                                  Old
         a. reactive                                 c. low
         b. nonreactive                              d. high

 70. Many of our most basic attitudes ______.                                                             599
        a. are innate                                                                                            F, c
        b. come from what we learn in school                                                                     Rev
        c. come from early, direct personal experience
        d. are inherited

         2 yr.: 82% r = .32

 71. ______ is an unfair, intolerant, or unfavorable attitude toward another group of people.             600
***      a. Oppression                             c. Discrimination                                             C, b
         b. Prejudice                              d. Conformity                                                 Old

 72. ______ is an act taken toward one group that is unfair when compared with our                  600
***      behavior toward other groups.                                                                           C, d
         a. Bigotry                              c. Prejudice                                                    Old
         b. Oppression                           d. Discrimination

 73. Prejudicial beliefs are virtually always ______.                                                     600
         a. flexible                               c. impersonal but logical                              F, b
         b. stereotypes                            d. learned in adolescence                                     Old




                                                        470
 74. Luther operates a small nightclub that specializes in soul music and features up and                 600
***      coming African-American singing groups. He actively discourages white couples from                      A, b
         coming in and always gives them the worst seats if they insist on being admitted.                       Old
         Luther's behavior is BEST described as ______.
         a. prejudice                              c. ambiguous
         b. discrimination                         d. oppression

         2 yr.: 76% r = .40
 75. Ralph, a white student who grew up in Maine, is about to enter the University of                600
         Southern California on an athletic scholarship. He is aware that many of his teammates          A, a
         will be black and assumes that they will dislike him and ostracize him. Ralph's attitude is Old
         BEST described as an example of ______.
         a. prejudice                             c. ambiguity
         b. nonconformity                         d. discrimination

         2 yr.: 71% r = .38

 76. The tendency for a person with stereotyped beliefs about a particular group of people to       600
         make internal attributions for their shortcomings and external attributions for their            C, c
         successes is called the ______.                                                                  New
         a. actor-observer effect                  c. ultimate attribution error
         b. Peter principle                        d. self-serving bias

 77. Many white Americans believe that differences in income levels between white and               601
        black Americans are due to a lack of ability or low motivation on the part of blacks, not         A, c
        to lack of opportunity. These beliefs are an example of ______.                                   New
        a. actor-observer effect                  c. ultimate attribution error
        b. correspondence bias                    d. self-serving bias

 78. The frustration theory asserts that discrimination and prejudice result from ______.           601
         a. displaced aggression                                                                          C, a
         b. passive-aggressive personality traits                                                         Old
         c. conformity to social norms
         d. the superiority of one group over another

 79. Pete has a Ph.D. in the performing arts, but he has been working at odd jobs for years         601
***      to barely survive. He has had little success as an actor and resents the fact that success     A, a
         has eluded him. He blames his failure on the fact that he is a heterosexual in what he     Old
         believes is a homosexual dominated business. His resentment has blossomed into a full-
         blown hatred of homosexuals. The development of Pete's prejudice is BEST explained
         by the ______ theory of prejudice.
         a. frustration-aggression                 c. interpersonal conflict
         b. conformity                             d. hostility/ aggression

 80. Many northern cities in the United States have experienced several waves of               601
        immigration, each wave depositing large numbers of people who soon began competing         A, b
        with already established groups for jobs. The theory that would BEST explain prejudice     Old
        against the latest wave of immigrants in these terms would locate the origin of the
        prejudice in ______.
        a. interpersonal conflict                 c. genetic predisposition
        b. frustration-aggression                 d. stereotyping




                                                   471
 81. One who is blamed and punished for problems he or she did not cause is a(n) ______.            601
         a. bigot                              c. enabler                                                 C, d
         b. pariah                             d. scapegoat                                               Rev

 82. The more cotton prices declined in the South from 1882-1930, the more lynchings of             601
***      blacks occurred. This observation supports the theory that prejudice and discrimination          A, d
         are caused by ______.                                                                            Old
         a. stereotyping                         c. interpersonal conflict
         b. genetic predisposition               d. frustration/aggression
 83. Which of the following personality types is MOST likely to be prejudiced?                       601
        a. altruistic                            c. egalitarian                                             F, b
        b. authoritarian                         d. intellectual                                            Old

 84. A personality pattern characterized by rigid conventionality, exaggerated respect for     601
         authority, and hostility toward those who defy society's norms is called a(n) ______.     C, d
         a. Type A personality                     c. dominant personality                              Old
         b. reactionary personality                d. authoritarian personality

 85. Jean, who is black, eats in a college cafeteria where she has never seen white and black       601
         students sit at the same table. She has always had white and black friends, but at school,     A, c
         she chooses not to sit with her white friends for meals. This prejudicial behavior is due      Old
         to ______.
         a. stereotyping                            c. conformity
         b. inexperience                            d. scapegoating

 86. Prejudice and discrimination directed at a particular racial group is called ______.            601
         a. secularism                             c. harassment                                            C, b
         b. racism                                 d. focused attention                                     Old

 87. Any group of people who feel a sense of solidarity and exclusivity in relation to               602
        nonmembers is ______.                                                                               C, a
        a. an in-group                           c. an out-group                                            New
        b. a support group                       d. a dominance hierarchy

 88. Any group of people who is viewed by the dominant social group as being competitors,            602
        enemies, or different and unworthy of respect is ______.                                            C, c
        a. an in-group                          c. an out-group                                             New
        b. a support group                      d. a dominance hierarchy

 89. When members of a group perceive themselves as different and superior to members of             602
        out-groups, they are engaging in ______.                                                            C, b
        a. self-serving bias                   c. correspondence bias                                       New
        b. in-group bias                       d. external attribution

 90. Each of the following is a promising strategy for reducing prejudice and discrimination         602
         EXCEPT ______.                                                                                     F, d
         a. recategorization                      c. improving contact between groups                       Old
         b. controlled processing                 d. increasing competition between groups

 91. Which of the following works BEST to reduce racial prejudice?                                   603
***     a. education                          c. contact                                                    F, d
        b. competition                        d. cooperation                                                Old

        2 yr.: 25% r = -.01

                                                      472
 92. Contact between members of two groups can work to undermine prejudicial attitudes         603
         if each of the following conditions are met EXCEPT ______.                                         F, a
         a. the groups should come together to engage in healthy competition                                Old
         b. group members must have equal status
         c. people must have one-on-one contact with members of the other group
         d. social norms encourage contact

 93. With the end of the Cold War, the dominant form of war has become ______.                       603
         a. territorial acquisition             c. major power confrontation                         F, c
         b. interethnic conflict                d. holy war                                                 New
 94. Each of the following is one of the psychological forces art work in escalating                     604
         interethnic conflict EXCEPT ______.                                                                   F, b
         a. propaganda                            c. shared collective memories                                New
         b. intergroup cooperation                d. personal and social identity

 95. The communication model of persuasion identifies ______ key elements people use to                  605
         change attitudes and behavior.                                                                        F, c
         a. two                               c. four                                                          Old
         b. three                             d. five

 96. Each of the following is identified by the communication model of persuasion as a key               605
         element in changing people’s behaviors EXCEPT ______.                                                 F, d
         a. the source                             c. characteristics of the audience                          Old
         b. the medium of communication            d. the context

 97. We are MOST likely to change our attitudes toward a certain make of automobile if             605
        ______.                                                                                                A, b
        a. our friends like the car                                                                            Old
        b. a friend, who is a mechanic, likes the car
        c. the president of the auto firm endorses the car
        d. someone in the family owns the car

 98. Credibility of the source is the most important to attitude change when ______.                     605
***      a. we are not interested in the message itself                                                        F, a
         b. we have some interest in the message                                                               Old
         c. we have already bought the product being discussed
         d. we are about to buy the product being discussed

 99. A college student majoring in music would probably react MOST favorably to a piece                  605
         of music if she knew that ______.                                                                     A, c
         a. high school students liked it                                                                      Old
         b. college students reacted favorably toward it
         c. a noted contemporary composer liked it
         d. her music appreciation professor liked it

100.     People are more likely to tune in to messages that are ______ their beliefs rather than               606
         ones that are ______ their beliefs.                                                                   F, b
         a. nonsupportive of; supportive of                                                                    Old
         b. supportive of; nonsupportive of
         c. related to; unrelated to
         d. unrelated to; related to




                                                      473
101.     People are more likely to pay attention to messages that are ______ of their beliefs and              606
         ______ in their approach.                                                                             F, b
         a. supportive, predictable               c. nonsupportive; predictable                                Old
         b. supportive, novel                     d. nonsupportive; novel

102.     Which of the following statements is true?                                                            606
***      a. The greater the level of fear in a message, the more effective it will be in changing              F, d
            attitudes.                                                                                         Old
         b. A one-sided argument is more persuasive than a two-sided argument.
         c. Fear has not been properly investigated as a factor in attitude change.
         d. Too much fear in a message can create such fear in the receiver of the message that
            the message has little effect.
103.   The message MOST likely to result in attitude change is a message with ______.                   606
***    a. moderate fear from a highly credible source                                                   A, a
       b. moderate fear from a moderately credible source                                               Old
       c. high fear from a highly credible source
       d. high fear from a moderately credible source

       2 yr.: 33% r = .44

104.   It is generally better to ______ when trying to change someone's opinion.                        606
       a. present only your side of an argument                                                         F, d
       b. present only criticisms of the opposing viewpoint                                       Old
       c. present only criticisms of your side of an argument
       d. present both sides of an argument

105.   The most powerful method of changing people's opinions is usually ______.                  606
       a. a written argument                c. a media presentation                                     F, d
       b. second-hand "word of mouth"       d. personal contact                                         Old

106.   Door-to-door salespeople rely on the power of ______ to help sell their products.                606
       a. personal contact                    c. media preselling                                       F, a
       b. intimidation                        d. snob appeal                                            Old

107.   The factors that are often MOST difficult to control in changing attitudes involve the           606
       ______.                                                                                          F, c
       a. clarity of the message                                                                        Old
       b. personal attributes of the message
       c. characteristics of the audience
       d. situation in which the message is presented

108.   Which of the following people is going to be the MOST likely to have his or her attitude         606
       changed by a persuasive message?                                                                 A, d
       a. A person who has a weak commitment to present attitudes, the attitudes are shared             Old
           by others, and the attitude was learned in college and young adulthood.
       b. A person who has a strong commitment to present attitudes, the attitudes are not
           shared by others, and the attitude was learned from the family in early childhood.
       c. A person who has a strong commitment to present attitudes, the attitudes are shared
           by others, and the attitude was learned in college and young adulthood.
       d. A person has a weak commitment to present attitudes, the attitudes are not shared
           by others, and the attitudes were learned in college and young adulthood.




                                                       474
109.   Which of the following people is going to be the LEAST likely to have his or her                 606
       attitude changed by a persuasive message?                                                        A, b
       a. A person who has a weak commitment to present attitudes, the attitudes are shared             Old
             by others, and the attitude was learned in college and young adulthood.
       b. A person who has a strong commitment to present attitudes, the attitudes are shared
             by others, and the attitude was learned from the family in early childhood.
       c. A person who has a strong commitment to present attitudes, the attitudes are shared
             by others, and the attitude was learned in college and young adulthood.
       d. A person has a strong commitment to present attitudes, the attitudes are not shared
             by others, and the attitudes were learned in college and young adulthood.

110.   Attitude change increases with the discrepancy between the message and the beliefs of            606
***    the audience only when ______.                                                                   F, c
       a.   the audience has high self-esteem                                                       Old
       b.   the message is extremely fearful
       c.   the sender of the message is an expert
       d.   the audience is fully committed to its beliefs

111.   It would be MOST difficult to produce change in attitude in an audience that is        606
***    composed of ______.                                                                          A, a
       a. highly intelligent people who have high self-esteem                                       Old
       b. highly intelligent people who have low self-esteem
       c. people with average intelligence who have high self-esteem
       d. people with average intelligence who have low self-esteem

112.   It would be LEAST difficult to produce change in attitude in an audience that is       606
***    composed of ______.                                                                          A, d
       a. highly intelligent people who have high self-esteem                                       Old
       b. highly intelligent people who have low self-esteem
       c. people with average intelligence who have high self-esteem
       d. people with average intelligence who have low self-esteem

113.   It would be MOST easy to produce change in attitude in an audience that is composed of 606
       people with ______ self-esteem and they are presented with a message that is ______.       A, b
       a. low; simple                         c. high; simple                                     Old
       b. low; complex                        d. high; complex

114.   It would be MOST difficult to produce change in attitude in an audience that is        606
       composed of people with ______ self-esteem and they are presented with a message             A, c
       that is ______.                                                                              Old
       a. low; simple                         c. high; simple
       b. low; complex                        d. high; complex

115.   In attempts to change attitudes, people with ______ are more easily influenced than    606
***    others.                                                                                      F, a
       a. low self-esteem                       c. low achievement need                             Old
       b. high self-esteem                      d. high achievement need

116.   According to Aronson (1999), the most effective means of changing attitudes, especially 606
       important attitudes, behaviors, or lifestyle choices is ______.                             F, d
       a. fear                                    c. personal contact                              New
       b. expertise                               d. self-persuasion




                                                  475
117.   Cognitive dissonance theory was developed by ______.                                         607
       a. Kelley                             c. Festinger                                           F, c
       b. Milgram                            d. Hall                                                Old

118.   Whenever a person has two contradictory cognitions at the same time, a state of        607
***    ______ exists.                                                                               C, c
       a. cognitive congruence               c. cognitive dissonance                                Old
       b. nonreciprocity                     d. identity diffusion

       4 yr.: 80% r = .18

119.   Which of the following would result in cognitive dissonance?                                 607
       a. Wearing glasses is dignified; a respected political leader wears glasses.                 A, c
       b. Dresses are feminine; Brittany Spears wears dresses.                                      Old
       c.   Pink shirts are effeminate; Russell Crowe wears pink shirts.
       d.   Orange juice is healthy; I love orange juice.

       2 yr.: 93% r = .27

120.   A way to reduce cognitive dissonance is to ______.                                                 607
***    a. decrease the number of consonant elements in a dissonant behavior                        A, d
       b. offer the person a small bribe or reward for engaging in the dissonant behavior                 Old
       c. make the discrepant behavior occur in such a way that the person feels responsible
          for it
       d. offer the person a large bribe or reward for engaging in the dissonant behavior

121.   Which of the following would result in cognitive dissonance?                                       607
       a. Smoking is bad for my health; I love to smoke.                                                  A, a
       b. Exercising is healthy; I love to exercise.                                                      Old
       c. Dresses are feminine; Nicole Kidman wears dresses.
       d. Profanity is childish; my father uses profanity.

122.   Joe has never trusted doctors; however, after his heart attack, he finds himself dependent     607
***    on them. Because Joe MUST trust doctors with his health, what will he probably do to           A, b
       reduce the dissonance between his feelings of mistrust for doctors and his realization     Old
       that only they can help him now?
       a. Joe will not allow the doctors to help him.
       b. Joe will admit that if you have a serious medical problem, doctors can actually help
            you to survive.
       c. Joe will not be able to overcome his dissonance.
       d. Joe will justify his mistrust of doctors by believing they cannot really help him.

123.   Tom rationalizes that his illicit use of marijuana is permissible because the drug is not          607
       particularly habit-forming and therefore should not be prohibited by law. Tom's             A, a
       rationalization serves to ______.                                                                  Old
       a. reduce his cognitive dissonance
       b. increase his cognitive dissonance
       c. reduce his fear of being caught
       d. increase his acceptance by his pot-smoking friends




                                                   476
124.   Both Ruth and Mike oppose abortion. However, a researcher offers Ruth $3 and Mike                  608
***    $300 to write an essay on reasons why abortion should be legalized. Both Ruth and                  A, a
       Mike comply with this request. The MOST likely outcome is that Ruth will experience                Old
       ______.
       a. more cognitive dissonance than will Mike
       b. less cognitive dissonance than will Mike
       c. the same amount of cognitive dissonance as Mike
       d. no cognitive dissonance at all, but Mike will

125.   Both Ruth and Mike oppose abortion. However, a researcher offers Ruth $3 and Mike                  608
***    $300 to write an essay on reasons why abortion should be legalized. Both Ruth and                  A, b
       Mike comply with this request. The MOST likely outcome is that ______.                             Old
       a. Ruth's attitude will change less than Mike's will
       b. Ruth's attitude will change more than Mike's will
       c. both Ruth's and Mike's attitudes will change
       d.   neither Ruth's nor Mike's attitude will change

Social Influence
126.   The process by which others individually or collectively affect one's perceptions,               608
       attitudes, and actions is called ______.                                                         C, b
       a. group dynamics                        c. proxemics                                            Old
       b. social influence                      d. kinesics

127.   All the shared ideas, beliefs, values, and goods, both tangible and intangible, produced         608
       in a society are collectively known as ______.                                                   C, d
       a. the gross national product             c. collective worth                                    Old
       b. society                                d. culture

128.   A belief that most members of a society accept as "fact" and self-evident is known as            609
       ______.                                                                                          C, c
       a. a social more                        c. a cultural truism                                     Old
       b. a cultural norm                      d. a cultural assimilator

129.   A shared idea or expectation of how one should behave in various situations is called a          609
       ______.                                                                                          C, b
       a. folkway                             c. cultural truism                                        Old
       b. norm                                d. cultural assimilator

130.   Brian is taught to understand the values of the Japanese by explaining to others the             609
       reasons behind some of their customs and practices. This technique of helping Brian to           A, b
       learn and respect a different culture is known as a ______.                                Old
       a. social enhancer                         c. cultural truism
       b. cultural assimilator                    d. normative technique

131.   A cultural assimilator teaches by ______.                                                        609
       a. direct experience                    c.    example and explanation                            F, c
       b. role playing                         d.    brainstorming                                      Old

132.   A behavioral rule shared by a whole society is called a ______.                                  609
       a. folkway                              c. cultural norm                                         C, c
       b. cultural more                   d. cultural truism                                      Old




                                                     477
133.   Laws are typically based on ______.                                                              609
       a. folkways                                   c. cultural mores                                         F, d
       b. cultural truisms                      d.   cultural norms                                     Old

134.   To conform is to yield to ______.                                                                610
       a. cognitive dissonance                  c.   social norms                                       F, c
       b. secondary processes                   d.   response cues                                      Old

135.   Voluntarily yielding to social norms, even at the expense of one's own preference, is      610
       called ______.                                                                                   C, b
       a. obedience                             c. submission                                           Old
       b. conformity                            d. compliance

136.   ______ is a response to pressure exerted by often unstated group norms.                          610
       a. Conformity                           c. Obedience                                             C, a
       b. Compliance                           d. Deindividuation                                       Old
137.   Experiments showing the effects of group pressure on conformity were conducted by              610
       ______.                                                                                        F, a
       a. Asch                                c. Milgram                                              Old
       b. Luchens                             d. Singer

       2 yr.: 40% r = .11

138.   Asch's studies showed that overall conformity to group pressure occurred about                 610
       ______ percent of the time.                                                                    F, b
       a. 5                                    c. 65                                                  Old
       b. 35                                   d. 95

139.   Asch found that the likelihood of conformity increased with group size until ______      610
       confederates were present.                                                                     F, b
       a. three                                c. five                                                Old
       b. four                                 d. six

140.   If one confederate broke from the perfect agreement of the majority, Asch found that           610
       conformity was ______ percent.                                                                 F, c
       a. 5                                    c. 25                                                  Old
       b. 15                                   d. 35

141.   Conformity tends to be higher when a task is ______.                                     610
       a. easy                                c. clearly defined                                      F, b
       b. ambiguous                           d. moderately difficult                                 Old

142.   Which of the following is LEAST likely to increase an individual's conformity to group         610
       behavior?                                                                                      F, a
       a. The person feels accepted by the group.                                                     Old
       b. The person is of relatively low status in the group.
       c. The person expects to interact with the group.
       d. The person is attracted to the group.

143.   Which of the following individuals is generally MOST likely to conform to group norms?     611
       a. A person from an individualist, industrialized culture.                            A, d
       b. A person from an individualist, agricultural culture.                                   Old
       c. A person from a collectivist, industrial culture.
       d. A person from a collectivist, agricultural culture.

                                                    478
144.   ______ is a change of behavior in response to the explicit request of someone else.            611
       a. Conformity                           c. Obedience                                           C, b
       b. Compliance                           d. Deindividuation                                     Old

145.   The most famous study of the foot-in-the-door effect was conducted by ______.                  611
       a. Kelley                              c. Freedman and Fraser                                  F, c
       b. Asch                                d. Milgram                                              Old

146.   The tendency of people to comply with a second, larger request after complying with a          611
***    first, small request is called the ______ effect.                                              C, b
       a. lowball                                 c. door-in-the-face                                 Old
       b. foot-in-the-door                        d. response cue

       2 yr.: 60% r = .29

147.   People who solicit by telephone hoping to make a sale often start out by making a simple 611
       request or question to which you are likely to agree. This is an example of the ______.      A, c
       a.   lowball effect                      c.   foot-in-the-door effect                             Old
       b.   primacy effect                      d.   door-in-the-face effect

148.   A dealer persuades a customer to buy a new car by reducing the price to well below that        612
***    of his competitors. Once the customer has agreed to buy the car, the terms of the sale         A, a
       are shifted, by lowering the value of the trade-in and requiring the purchase of expensive Old
       extra equipment. Now the car costs well above the current market rate. This is an example
       of the ______ procedure.
       a. lowball                                c. foot-in-the-door
       b. primacy                                d. bait and switch

       2 yr.: 71% r = .32

149.   Marie recently bought a stereo system that was promoted at an extremely low price by a          612
***    national chain. However, she did not realize that the stereo came without many key              A, a
       components that are usually standard equipment. When she bought all of the usually          Old
       standard parts, the stereo cost her more than its regular market price at other stores. She
       has been a victim of the ______ procedure.
       a. lowball                                c. foot-in-the-door
       b. bait and switch                        d. door-in-the-face

150.   The tendency of people to comply with a second, lesser request after refusing a first,     612
***    larger one is called the ______ effect.                                                           C, c
       a. lowball                              c. door-in-the-face                                       Old
       b. foot-in-the-door                     d. bait and switch

       2 yr.: 60% r = .36;   4 yr.: 20% r = .46

151.   A person asks you to counsel delinquent youths at a detention center for two years.               612
***    When you refuse, she then asks you if you could supervise the youths during a trip to             A, d
       the zoo. She is using the ______ effect.                                                          Old
       a. lowball                               c. foot-in-the-door
       b. primacy                               d. door-in-the-face

       2 yr.: 25% r = .35




                                               479
152.   ______ is compliance with a command.                                                       612
***    a. Altruism                     c. Obedience                                               C, c
       b. Conformity                        d. Deindividuation                                           Old

153.   Social influence in its most direct and powerful form is known as ______.                         612
       a. compliance                             c. deindividuation                                      C, d
       b. conformity                             d. obedience                                            Old

154.   The person who conducted the most well-known research on obedience is ______.                     612
       a. Asch                              c. Luchens                                                   F, b
       b. Milgram                           d. Kelley                                                    Old

155.   Jean has always been taught not to make waves. She has often used this principle in      612
       order to get along more easily with other people. If Jean were a subject in Milgram's    A, d
       experiment, she would probably ______.                                                        Old
       a. respond correctly only to those items that her fellow subjects responded correctly to
       b. respond to Milgram's demand for conformity with anticonformity
       c. be among the learners who receive presumably near-lethal shocks for giving
            incorrect answers
       d.   be among the teachers who gave presumably near-lethal shocks to learners who gave
            incorrect answers

156.   Mitchell has a strong aversion to obeying authorities just because of their status and        612
       power. He always tries to act in accordance with his own beliefs. As a subject in        A, b
       Milgram's experiment, Mitchell would be MOST likely to ______.                           Rev
       a. respond correctly to only those items that his fellow subjects responded correctly to
       b. refuse to respond to Milgram's command for conformity
       c. be among the learners who receive presumably near-lethal shocks for giving
           incorrect answers
       d. be among the teachers who gave presumably near-lethal shocks to learners who gave
           incorrect answers

157.   People are MOST likely to obey orders ______.                                                      613
       a. if they are not supervised                                                                      F, c
       b. if their victim is in the same room                                                             Old
       c. when a great amount of power is vested in the person giving the order
       d. when someone else on their own level refuses to obey the orders

       2 yr.: 77% r = .24

158.   Executions by firing squad illustrate that ______.                                          613
       a. obedience is much greater when there is shared responsibility for the act                       A, a
       b. obedience is a function of rewardingness                                                        Old
       c. obedience drops sharply when the victim is in the same room
       d. obedience is a function of unstructured conflict

       2 yr.: 81% r = .37

Social Action
159.   ______ occurs when people respond as anonymous parts of a larger group.                            614
***    a. Altruism                      c. Identity diffusion                                      C, d
       b. Social facilitation                d. Deindividuation                                           Old



                                                     480
160.   Deindividuation partly explains ______.                                                     614
       a. mob behavior                         c.   social facilitation                                   F, a
       b. altruistic behavior                  d.   nonconformity                                         Old

       4 yr.: 43% r = .17

161.   In a mob, one dominant and persuasive individual can often convince people to act                  614
       through the ______ effect.                                                                         C, a
       a. snowball                            c. primacy                                                  Old
       b. lowball                             d. door-in-the-face

       2 yr.: 74% r = .23

162.   As a member of a fraternity, Jack is not concerned with the welfare of the people                  614
       pledging to the fraternity; if they cannot handle the pranks and embarrassing tasks, they          A, d
       do not have to join. However, as a person, Jack does not approve of playing practical              Old
       jokes on people. As a fraternity member, Jack appears to undergo ______.
       a. identity diffusion                      c. deinstitutionalization
       b. stereotyping                            d. deindividuation
       4 yr.: 80% r = .33;    2 yr.: 63% r = .53

163.   Urged on by his trouble-making friends, John robs a bank. When the police arrest him              614
       for the robbery, John expresses shock that he could have done such a thing. Through        A, d
       his hasty commitment to his "friends," John has undergone the process of ______.                  Old
       a. identity diffusion                   c. deinstitutionalization
       b. desocialization                      d. deindividuation

164.   Behavior directed at helping others with no thought or expectation of personal gain is            614
       called ______ behavior.                                                                           C, c
       a. deindividuated                        c. altruistic                                            Old
       b. diffused                              d. reciprocal

165.   The most important situational variable in altruism is the ______.                                614
***    a. weather                               c. presence of other people                              F, c
       b. time of day                           d. ambiguity of the situation                            Old

166.   The tendency for an individual's helpfulness in an emergency to decrease as the number            614
       of bystanders increases is called ______.                                                         C, c
       a. the risky shift phenomenon            c. the bystander effect                                  Old
       b. groupthink                            d. the inertia paradigm

167.   In one experiment, ______ percent of subjects who were alone responded to a taped                 614
       "emergency" in the next room, and ______ percent of subjects who were in a room with              F, c
       a stranger who did nothing responded to the emergency.                                            Old
       a. 7; 7                                c. 70; 7
       b. 7; 70                               d. 70; 70

168.   Altruistic behavior is MOST likely to occur if ______.                                            615
       a. you feel guilty and uncertain                                                                  F, d
       b. your values are dissimilar to those of the other person                                 Old
       c. there are others present
       d. you feel personally responsible for the other person

       4 yr.: 71% r = .24;    2 yr.: 46% r = .33

                                                    481
169.   We are MOST likely to help in an emergency ______.                                                615
***    a. if the situation is ambiguous                                                                  F, b
       b. if we feel that our values and personality are similar to the other person's                   Old
       c. when we feel guilty
       d. when there are others around who are passive and refuse to get involved

       2 yr.: 62% r = .43

170.   A person ______ is MOST likely to be altruistic.                                           616
       a. in a good mood                    c. who fears attention                                       F, a
       b. in a bad mood                     d. who fears ridicule                                        Old

171.   A person is MOST likely to engage in altruistic behavior if he or she has a ______ fear           616
       of embarrassment and a ______ need for approval.                                                  F, b
       a. low; low                           c. high; low                                                Old
       b. low; high                          d. high; high

172.   A person is LEAST likely to engage in altruistic behavior if he or she has a ______ fear          616
       of embarrassment and a ______ need for approval.                                                  F, c
       a. low; low                           c. high; low                                                Old
       b.   low; high                          d.   high; high

173.   Compared to people from an individualist culture, people from a collectivist culture are   616
       ______ likely to help others when minor assistance is needed and ______ likely to help     F, b
       others in an extremely urgent situation.                                                   Old
       a. equally; equally                      c. equally; more
       b. more; equally                         d. more; more

174.   The tendency of groups to consistently propose a more daring course of action than         616
       that proposed by group members working alone is called ______.                             C, d
       a. polarization                         c. groupthink                                      Old
       b. bipolar disorder                     d. risky shift

       2 yr.: 65% r = .36

175.   The tendency of individuals to become more extreme in their attitudes as a result of       616
***    group discussion is known as ______.                                                       C, a
       a. polarization                        c. groupthink                                       Old
       b. bipolar disorder                    d. risky shift

       2 yr.: 41% r = .22

176.   Which of the following is NOT one of the factors described by Steiner as influencing       618
       the effectiveness of a group?                                                              F, b
       a. nature of the task                 c. resources of group members                        Old
       b. status of the task                 d. interaction of group members

177.   The person likely to exert the MOST influence on a group is one with ______.               618
       a. high status                         c. high creativity                                  F, a
       b. high stability                      d. high problem-solving ability                     Old

       2 yr.: 7% r = .37




                                                     482
178.   The tendency of people to exert less effort on a task when working in a group than when    618
       working individually is called ______.                                                     C, c
       a. groupthink                            c. social loafing                                 Old
       b. social conformity                     d. malingering

179.   When a group exerts such strong pressure to conform that it prevents people from           618
***    expressing critical ideas, the group is suffering from ______.                             C, c
       a. deindividuation                         c. groupthink                                   Old
       b. risky shift                             d. polarization

180.   According to Janis, groupthink ______.                                                     618
***    a. is an effective way to solve a problem                                                  C, b
       b. leads to amiability taking precedence over judgment                                     Old
       c. is an alternative to individual psychotherapy
       d. can succeed only in large, cohesive groups

       2 yr.: 44% r = .29

181.   The factor most likely to determine whether groupthink becomes a problem for a group is    618
       its ______.                                                                                F, d
       a. size                                 c. intellect                                       Old
       b.   status                              d.   cohesiveness

182.   The disastrous decisions made in such historical events as the Watergate cover-up, the             618
***    Challenger disaster, and the Bay of Pigs invasion were due primarily to ______.             A, c
       a. risky shift                           c. groupthink                                             Old
       b. polarization                          d. altruism

       2 yr.: 35% r = .25

183.   According to the ______ theory, leaders are phenomenal people who would have led                   618
       any nation at any time in history.                                                                 C, c
       a. royalist                            c. great person                                             Old
       b. elitist                             d. common person

184.   A noted scientist argues that Ghandi, Roosevelt, Lincoln, and Napoleon were                        618
       extraordinary individuals who would probably have emerged as powerful leaders at any               A, d
       time or place in history. This scientist is a proponent of the ______ theory.                      Old
       a. genetic endowment                        c. elitist
       b. common person                            d. great person

       2 yr.: 75% r = .41

185.   Transactional theory holds that ______ in determining who shall lead.                              618
       a. a number of interacting factors are important                                            C, a
       b. military factors are important                                                                  Old
       c. potential leaders' personalities are the most important
       d. the power and dynamism of a few extraordinary individuals is important

186.   Fiedler's contingency model of leadership is based on the ______ view of leadership.        618
       a. evolutionary                         c. great person                                            F, d
       b. revolutionary                   d. transactional                                         Old




                                                      483
187.   The effectiveness of either a task-oriented leader or a relationship-oriented leader               619
***    depends on factors such as the nature of the task and the leader's relationship with the           C, b
       group, according to the ______ model.                                                              Old
       a. great person                           c. situational
       b. contingency                            d. evolutionary

188.   A noted scientist argues that the type of task being undertaken, the dynamics existing             619
***    between the leader and the group, the leader's ability to exercise power over the group,           A, d
       and leadership style all contribute to the effectiveness of a leader. This scientist is a          Old
       proponent of the ______ model.
       a. autocratic                              c. eclectic
       b. great person                            d. contingency

189.   Which of the following is NOT one of the factors that determine the effectiveness of a             619
***    leader's style, according to the contingency model?                                                F, a
       a. the size of the group                                                                           Old
       b. the ability to exercise power over the group
       c. the relationship between the leader and group members
       d. the nature of the task

190.   The Japanese management model ______.                                                              619
       a. ignores both the task-oriented and relationship-oriented management styles               F, d
       b.   focuses on the relationship-oriented management style at the expense of the task-              Old
            oriented style
       c.   focuses on the task-oriented management style at the expense of the relationship-
            oriented style
       d.   combines the task-oriented and relationship-oriented management styles into a
            single overall management style

191.   Industrial/organizational psychology is concerned with ______.                                      620
       a. personal problems of employed people                                                             C, b
       b. behavior in organizational settings                                                              Old
       c. strategies for founding an economically successful business
       d. the effects of industrialization on the environment

192.   In the Mayo study of workers at the Hawthorne plant, ______.                                  620
       a. productivity improved as lighting was increased                                                  F, d
       b. productivity improved as lighting was decreased                                                  Old
       c. productivity improved only when lighting was adjusted to a very restricted, but
            comfortable range
       d. productivity improved no matter what was done to the lighting conditions

193.   The principle that subjects will alter their behavior because of the attention they receive         620
***    from researchers, rather than from any specific experimental change is ______.                      C, c
       a. the primacy effect                      c. the Hawthorne effect                                  Old
       b. placebo effect                          d. the Mayo effect

       2 yr.: 69% r = .29;    4 yr.: 75% r = .20




                                                     484
194.   Gil works as a manager in a large industrial plant. He is trying to decide how to get the           620
***    most productivity from his workers. Which of the following work arrangements is MOST                A, b
       likely to do this?                                                                                  Old
       a. have them work alone on an assembly line
       b. have them work in small, autonomous groups
       c. have them work in large, impersonal groups
       d. have them work one-to-one with a manager

       2 yr.: 59% r = .05

195.   Gil works in a large automotive plant. He is assigned to a small group of workers who               621
***    produce an entire car, rather than repeatedly performing one job on an assembly line.               A, d
       His group is given a quota to meet but decides for itself how to best meet the quota. Gil           Old
       is part of a(n) ______.
       a. process work group                     c. flexible function group
       b. work response group                    d. autonomous work group

196.   Which of the following is true?                                                         621
***    a. The more a position allows a worker to communicate with others, the more satisfied       F, a
          the person is likely to be.                                                              Old
       b. The less a position involves communicating with others, the more satisfied the
          person is likely to be.
       c. The more a position forces a worker to control others, the more satisfied the person
            is likely to be.
       d.   Communication and control have not been correlated to worker satisfaction on the job.

Box: On the Cutting Edge: Beauty and Privilege
197.   ______ have more positive traits than unattractive children and adults.                          597
       a. Neither attractive children nor adults                                                        F, d
       b. Attractive children, but not attractive adults                                                New
       c. Attractive adults, but not attractive children
       d. Attractive children and adults

198.   Research on the universality of attractiveness have found that _______.                   597
       a. standards of what is beautiful vary greatly from culture to culture                           F, d
       b. there appear to be no major cultural differences in what people define as                     New
           beautiful, but there are racial and ethnic differences
       c. there appear to be no major ethnic or racial differences in what people define as
           beautiful, but there are dramatic cultural differences
       d. there is strong evidence of a generally universal standard for what people define as
           beautiful

199.   Studies of what people see attractive in men’s faces find that ______ prefer men with a          597
       feminine-looking face.                                                                           F, a
       a. both men and women                    c. women, but not men                                   New
       b. men, but not women                    d. neither women nor men

200.   Scientific research has found that each of the following is true EXCEPT ______.                  597
       a. beauty is in the eye of beholder                                                              F, a
       b. people judge and treat others with whom they interact based on attractiveness                 New
       c. beauty is more than just skin deep
       d. people from different cultures generally agree on who is beautiful



                                                    485
Box: Highlights: Altruism and the Holocaust
201.   People who risked their lives to save persecuted Jews from the Holocaust shared one       615
       specific characteristic: ______.                                                          F, a
       a. they saw their behavior as normal, not heroic                                                 Old
       b. they all came from powerful, wealthy families
       c. they were all highly educated
       d. they tended to come from working-class families

       2 yr.: 82% r = .25

202.   Which of the following is NOT true of morally motivated rescuers of Jews during World            615
       War II?                                                                                          F, d
       a. They often harbored intense anti-Nazi attitudes.                                              Old
       b. They saw their behavior as normal, not heroic.
       c. Religious beliefs were important to most of them.
       d. They tended to help only people they personally knew and liked.


True-False Questions
203.   Schemas can lure us into remembering things about people that never             T     F          591
       really occurred.                                                                                 T
204.   When our expectations bring about the expected behavior in another              T   F       591
       person, our expectations have become a self-fulfilling prophecy.                            T

205.   A stereotype is a special kind of schema.                                       T   F       592
                                                                                                   T

206.   Unlike schemas, stereotypes cannot become the bases for self-fulfilling         T   F       592
       prophecies.                                                                                 F

207.   The tendency to give too much emphasis to personal factors when                 T   F       594
       accounting for other people's actions is called the fundamental attribution                 T
       error.

208.   Teachers are more likely to assume responsibility for their students’           T   F       594
       successes than their failures.                                                              T

209.   The most important factor in determining attraction is proximity.               T   F       595
                                                                                                   T

210.   Physically attractive people are happier than physically unattractive people.   T   F       595
                                                                                               T

211.   Reciprocity refers to opposites attracting.                                     T   F       596
                                                                                                   F

212.   People “keep score” in their interactions with others.                          T   F       596
                                                                                                   T

213.   Beliefs, feelings, and behavior tendencies are all components of                T   F       598
       attribution.                                                                                F

                                                     486
214.   Prejudice and discrimination are basically the same.                            T   F       600
                                                                                                   F

215.   Frustration is a major source of prejudice.                                     T   F       601
                                                                                                   T

216.   We all learn stereotypes about others in our culture.                           T   F       601
                                                                                                   T

217.   Blacks and whites have similar views of how blacks are treated in our           T   F       602
       society.                                                                                    F

218.   The first step in persuasion is to seize and retain the audience’s attention.   T   F       605
                                                                                                   T

219.   People are more likely to attend to supportive messages than to                 T   F       606
       nonsupportive messages.                                                                     T

220.   A message with extreme fear content is more likely to change a person's         T   F       606
       attitude than one with moderate fear content.                                           F

221.   Cognitive dissonance exists whenever a person has two contradictory             T   F       607
       cognitions at the same time.                                                                T

222.   Cultural norms appear to be inherited.                                          T   F       609
                                                                                                          F

223.   Most cases of uniformity are cases of conformity.                                    T   F         610
                                                                                                          F

224.   Asch conducted the first studies on conformity.                                      T   F         610
                                                                                                          T

225.   Compliance is a change in behavior in response to the specific command               T   F         611
       of someone else.                                                                                   F

226.   Getting a person to comply with a small request in order to later attempt to T       F       611
       get them to comply with a larger request is called lowballing.                                     F

227.   Compliance with a command is called conformity.                                      T   F         612
                                                                                                          F

228.   Milgram is known for his studies on obedience.                                       T   F         612
                                                                                                          T

229.   An example of deindividuation is mob behavior.                                       T   F         613
                                                                                                          T

230.   Many altruistic acts are directed at strangers and are made                          T   F         614
       anonymously.                                                                                       T

231.   There is a single personality trait that determines who is helpful and who           T   F         616
       is not.                                                                                            T



                                                    487
232.   Members of collectivist cultures are more likely than members of                     T   F         616
       individualist cultures to help strangers.                                                          F

233.   The tendency of a group to take a more daring course of action than                  T   F         617
       its members would take individually is called groupthink.                                          F

234.   The key factor in the phenomenon of groupthink is the cohesion of                T   F       618
       the group.                                                                                         T

235.   According to the great person theory, social and economic factors                    T   F         618
       largely determine who will rise to leadership at a given place and time.                           F

236.   Small, cohesive work groups are more productive than large, impersonal               T   F         621
       ones.                                                                                              T


Essay Question
237.   Identify and describe the factors that influence the formation of impressions about                590-592
***    people.                                                                                            Old

238.   Identify and discuss the three factors influencing attribution as described by Kelley.             593-594
***    Also, compare and contrast three types of errors in attribution.                             Old

239.   Identify and define at least five factors that influence attraction to others.                     595-598
***                                                                                                       Old
240.   Identify the three major components of attitudes. Also, summarize research findings on             598-600
***    the relationship between attitudes and behavior on the development of attitudes.                   Old

241.   Define and explain the differences between prejudice and discrimination. Identify at least         600-603
***    three sources of prejudice and present methods through which prejudice can be reduced.             Old

242.   Summarize research findings on the causes of interethnic violence and ways to reduce it.           603-604
                                                                                                          New

243.   Summarize the research on attitude change, identifying at least five factors that influence 604-607
***    the effectiveness of efforts to change people's attitudes.                                      Old

244.   Explain Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance. Also, discuss factors affecting                607-608
***    cognitive dissonance and methods for reducing it.                                                  Old

245.   Explain what social and cultural influence are. Also discuss the similarities and                  608-609
       differences among norms, cultural norms, cultural truisms, and cultural assimilators.        Old

246.   Compare and contrast conformity, compliance, and obedience, and identify the factors               609-613
***    that affect each of them.                                                                          Old

247.   Define deindividuation and explain its role in processes such as mob behavior.                     613-614
***                                                                                                       Old

248.   Define altruism and discuss the factors that tend to increase or inhibit the occurrence      614-617
***    of altruistic behavior.                                                                          Old



                                                    488
249.   Describe the factors influencing group decision making and the effectiveness of groups.            617-618
***                                                                                                       Old

250.   Compare and contrast the various theories of group leadership, summarizing the               618-619
***    research supporting or refuting each theory.                                                     Old

251.   Explain the purpose and functions of industrial/organizational psychology. What is the             619-621
***    Hawthorne effect and how does it complicate the work of I/O psychologists? Finally,                Old
       what are the findings of I/O researchers regarding the role of communication and group
       decision making in the workplace?
489

				
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