A Survey on Joint and Distributed Routing for 802.16 WiMAX Networks
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011 A Survey on Joint and Distributed Routing for 802.16 WiMAX Networks N.Ananthi, Dr.J.Raja, Easwari Engineering College, Anna University, Chennai. Trichy. Email:email@example.com Email:firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract---The growing demand for last mile broadband access is resulted with performance as good as to conventional cable, DSL or T1 from the increased growth of speedy multimedia services for mobile, networks. residential and little business customers. Technologies based on 802.16 WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access) ensures to offer The frequency required for the operation of IEEE 802.16 in high data rates in long distance and afford multimedia services and are expected to act as key issue for high speed broadband services. The technique case of Line-of-Sight (LOS) is 10 to 66 GHz, whereas, for non for building multi-hop mesh is provided by IEEE 802.16 WiMAX standard. Line-of-Sight, operating frequency is 2 to 11 GHz. Orthogonal This can be act as high speed wide-area wireless network and can afford better frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is utilized in the wireless coverage up to 5 miles with Line of Sight (LOS) transmission inside physical layer in order to support adaptive modulation and the bandwidth of around 70 Mbps. As the wireless environment varies unexpectedly, routing in wireless network is challenging work. There are coding. Based on the condition of channel, this can afford a several demands for IEEE 802.16 WiMAX routing like delay, long data rate up to 134 Mbps per base station for each channel of transmission scheduling, increasingly stringent Quality of Service (QoS) 28 MHz. An IEEE 802.16 network contains Base Station (BS) support, load balance and fairness restrictions. The aim of this survey is to and multiple Subscriber Stations (SSs). The Base Station acts analyze some of the routing protocols proposed by various authors for IEEE 802.16 WiMAX networks. as a gateway for the Subscriber Stations to the external network, and each SS acts as an access point that aggregates Keywords---IEEE 802.16, Routing Algorithm, Wireless mesh networks, traffic from end users in a several geographical area. Scheduling. Most of the nodes are either stable or minimally movable in I. INTRODUCTION case of community wireless networks. This lead to the focus of routing protocol in improving the capacity of network or I N present telecommunications, networking and services are varying in a rapid way to support next generation Internet user environment. Wireless networks will play a significant the performance of individual transfer, rather than focusing on movement of nodes of decreasing the power consumption. role in supporting next generation Internet. Wireless The major problem faced by such network lies in the loss in broadband networks are being increasingly deployed and used the full capacity because of interference among multiple in the last mile for extending or enhancing Internet concurrent transmissions. There are also certain basic connectivity for fixed and/or mobile clients situated on the difficulties in routing in wireless networks. Routing model has edge of the wired network. to support in both short time scales and long time scales. A better wireless routing protocol has to support equally for WiMAX is considered as an important wireless technology stability in long term route and accomplish opportunistic and involved in several probable applications in case of high performance for shore term route. The robustness against a data rate, greater network coverage, strong QoS capabilities wide spectrum of soft and hard failures should be attained by and cheap network deployment and maintenance costs. This is the Wireless routing which ranging from transient channel estimated to support many business applications which require outages, links with intermediate loss rates, from several the support of quality of service. WiMAX can be modified to channel disconnections, nodes under denial-of-service (DOS) apply in different modes such as point-to-multipoint (PMP) or attacks, and failing nodes. So challenges in routing protocol Mesh mode based on applications and network investment. are to deal with both these problems. At the same time, it should support large node population by modifying itself to The vast increasing user demand for faster connection in Web necessary extent. The random routing is provided in IEEE and VoIP services has lead to the progress of new broadband 802.16 protocol in which parents are selected in random with access technologies in the current days. In the year 2004, a the help of SSs while building the tree. This paper presents IEEE 802.16 standard which is generally called as WiMAX is some of the routing techniques proposed by different author finalized in order to provide last-mile fixed wireless for 802.16 WiMAX networks. broadband access in the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) 189 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011 II. LITERATURE SURVEY Kuran et al.,  given a Cross-Layer Routing-Scheduling in Konark  proposed a routing and scheduling algorithm of IEEE 802.16 mesh networks. For the Internet Protocol-based IEEE 802.16 mesh backhaul network for radio resource fourth-generation (4G) wireless communication systems, management (RRM). The resource allocation concerned in broadband wireless access networks will be a fundamental IEEE 802.16 mesh backhaul network is investigated by the component that is a part convergent and pervasive networking author. The multipath routing is the major issue considered architecture. One of the major active techniques for broadband here in order to utilize the resources of wireless radio wireless access is IEEE 802.16 Mobile WiMAX. There are efficiently and hence providing spectral efficiency. The main several challenges for the mixing of WiMAX and next- characteristic of scheduling technique is to permit the dynamic generation broadband networks such as diverse operational dispatching of data blocks. This is based on the condition of environment, increasingly stringent QoS support, present buffer and the condition of route without knowing the power/coverage limitations and capacity boundaries. The demand in traffic. Hence it is helpful for heterogeneous traffic possible solution to this problem is the mesh operation mode load which is supported by IEEE 802.16 Network which is a of IEEE 802.16. A cross-layer routing-scheduling scheme in strong candidate in Wireless Networking characteristics. The IEEE 802.16 mesh networks is proposed by the author in this load demand information of application layer and the work. This technique uses the distributed and centralized interference information of PHY layer are utilized by routing scheduling capabilities of IEEE 802.16 link layer in mesh protocol. The routing protocol is designed in order that the mode and routing in network layer together in order to least mean path interference should be provided from the perform the operation optimally. This technique is based on multiple hops. The scheduling technique is designed in order the techniques of IEEE 802.16 protocol. The experimental that it should find the maximum number of concurrent results pointed out that this method can considerably progress transmission which satisfies the Signal- to- interference plus the improvement in the network performance particularly in noise ratio (SINR) limitations. In both the techniques, the case of a congestion in the Internet part of the traffic at the iterative allocation continues until there is no unallocated cost of a minor burden on the intranet traffic in the form of a capacity request. slight increase in the end-to-end delay. Kaarthick et al.,  presented an adaptive routing algorithm to Shiying  proposed a joint admission control and routing in support distributed services in WiMAX. For stationary and IEEE 802.16-based mesh networks. In WiMAX-based mobile hosts, IEEE 802.16 is considered as a cost effective metropolitan area mesh networks, the quality of service (QoS) solution to Internet broadband access in the recent years. The provisioning techniques are considered in this paper. The WiMAX network can be enabled with distributed services in connection admission control (CAC) and routing concern in order to support several customers in the WiMAX network the design and operation of wireless multihop mesh networks efficiently. An adaptive routing technique is proposed by the is studied by the author and proposes a joint connection author for calculating the bandwidth guaranteed paths with the admission control and the routing technique for various help of disciplined flooding and proxy setup to provide service classes with the intention to maximize the overall distributed services in IEEE 802.16e. The performance of the revenue from all agreed connections. Connection-level QoS algorithm can be computed with the help of AODV technique limitations such as handoff connection dropping probability which act as a benchmark algorithm. The evaluation of this can be fixed within a threshold. By providing different reward technique is based on the following four metrics: rates, multiple service classes can be arranged according to their importance. Then the optimal CAC policies can be • Route discovery time obtained by applying the optimization techniques. The • Delay optimality criterion is considered as the long-run average • Total errors sent reward. The proposed technique can maximum revenue • Total packets dropped obtainable by the system under QoS constraints and the author Susana et al.,  put forth hybrid WiFi-WiMAX network shows that the optimal joint policy is a randomized policy. routing protocol. The growth of multihop routing protocols is This indicates that the connections are admitted to the system supported by the proliferation of Wireless Local Area with some prospect when the system is in definite states. Networks (WLANs). In addition, the requirement to cover larger areas has led to the development of fresh standards for Wan  given an interference aware routing and scheduling in Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMANs). A new WiMAX Backhaul Networks with Smart Antennas. A smart routing technique is developed by the author in order to adaptive antenna can be used for intended communications combine WLANs and WMANs which will results in better and interference suppression as it can offer multiple Degrees interconnectivity. of Freedom (DOFs). Network throughput can be appreciably 190 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011 enhanced by more efficient spatial reuse by combining smart mainly applied to approach Triton, a proposed 802.16-based antennas in a WiMAX system. Routing and scheduling in (WiMAX) maritime wireless access mesh network. Most WiMAX backhaul networks along with smart antennas are probably the trace-based analysis out shows that, while the considered by the author. Full concern for interference impact stationary nodes are most commonly selected in the route and DOF availability is offered by the proposed method which selection, then the rate of change between the routes to the properly defines the Interference-aware Tree Construction gateway nodes is seems to get reduced by 23.3% and the Problem (ITCP) for routing. Next, for resolving the problems average time taken for which routes between a node and a in polynomial time the technique is proposed. In case of gateway remains valid is gradually spikes to 31%. The author scheduling¸ the proposed technique initially provides a described that it is quite important to take the expected traffic polynomial-time, optimal technique for a particular case in patterns for designing the routing pattern for a specific system. which the number of DOFs in every node is sufficient to The network topology will not affect the expected traffic, so neglect all potential secondary interference. Finally, for that reduction of overheads is done. scheduling problem effective heuristic algorithm is proposed by the author. Ben-Jye Chang et al.,  discussed about Adaptive competitive on-line routing algorithm for IEEE 802.16j Jin et al.,  put forth a routing and packet scheduling for WiMAX multi-hop relay networks. IEEE 802.16j is a relay throughput maximization in IEEE 802.16 Mesh Networks. based approach which is based on the IEEE 802.16e standard, The difficulty of maximizing the system throughput in IEEE and WiMAX has proposed this standard. This is mainly for 802.16 broadband access networks with mesh topology is widening the service area of Base Stations (BSs) and to considered in this paper and the results are provided. At first, improve the signal strength quality i.e., received signal the simplified linear network is taken in account with only strength (RSS) quality. The main advantages of IEEE 802.16j uplink traffic and presents a optimal scheduling technique. are the expense for building IEEE 802.16 WiMAX networks The author initiates an analytical result on the length of the is comparably low and much compatible with existing schedule. The difficulty in routing and packet scheduling in WiMAX standards. Diverse features on mobility and relay general topology is then taken into account by the author and range deliberately reveals that the, Relay Station (RS) can be provides its NP completeness. The proposed method also grouped up into three types: Fixed RS (FRS), Nomadic RS offers an ILP formation for this difficulty. The author (NRS) and Mobile RS (MRS). There are different types of proposes techniques that find routes and schedules of packet RSs in relay-based WiMAX network. The routing path among transmissions in general mesh topologies depend on the a Mobile Station (MS) and the MR-BS are the two important optimal algorithm for linear networks. factors to construct efficient relay-based WiMAX and find out an optimal solution. The author thus propose an IEEE 802.16j- A Routing Metric and Algorithm for IEEE 802.16 Mesh conformed relay-based adaptive competitive on-line routing Networks is provided by Ntsibane . The high speed data approach, in which the selection of a multihop optimal path is rates over large distances and multimedia services are done in terms of link bandwidth, path length and channel facilitated by the technologies that are based on 802.16. Also, condition. This proposed paper significantly outperforms other this technology is likely to provide the high speed broadband approaches in Fractional Reward Loss (FRL), which is delivery even beyond the current 3rd Generation wireless deliberately shown in numerical results. technologies. The mesh mode which utilizes this technique has the capability of escalating the coverage well beyond the cities Al-Hemyari et al.,  stated a Centralized scheduling, and into the rural areas that are presently not served by routing tree in WiMAX mesh networks. IEEE 802.16 came conventional techniques. The author considers the potential of into picture since there is a lot of demand for high speed the mesh mode and provided a routing technique which is internet access service in last few years. So IEEE 802.16 appropriate for coordinated distributed scheduling. working group have provided a broadband wireless access (BWA) for developing the worldwide interoperability for Nazari et al.,  proposed case for mobility- and traffic-driven microwave access. (WiMAX) standard is used for wireless routing algorithms for wireless access mesh networks. Here metropolitan area networks (MANs) in order to provide a the author has presented a new technique in order to develop broadband wireless over a miles, easy deployment, and high routing algorithms in which the author idea attempt to speed data rate for large spanning area. Single channel single understand the characteristics of network (i.e. network transceiver scheme in WiMAX mesh network is implemented connectivity, mobility and rate of modification of the here for obtaining an efficient routing and collision free topology) and the patterns of expected traffic for a specific centralized scheduling (CS) algorithms, which is used to mobile scenario before the start of the design algorithm, which introduce the cross layer concept between the network layer deals with the optimization of routing performance. This paper 191 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011 and media access controller (MAC) layer. The authors secondary interference that occurs in the network. The proposed method has improved the system performance with parameters of interference, hop-count, and number of children respect to scheduling length, channel utilization ratio (CUR), for every node, spatial reuse, fairness, load balancing, quality and the throughput of the system while compared to other of services (QoS) and node identifier (ID) are considered. The system. results of analysis obtained shows that this proposed algorithm significantly improves the length of scheduling and the Qassem et al.,  had a look on Cross-layer routing and channel utilization ratio (CUR). scheduling for IEEE 802.16 mesh network. In recent years, requiremant for high-speed internet access and multimedia Xiaohua Jia  illustrated a distributed algorithm of delay- service has increased greatly. The IEEE 802.16 defines the bounded multicast routing for multimedia applications in wide wireless broadband access technology called WiMAX area networks. The author considers the solution to attain the (Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access) which good route in a wireless network and for the performance aspires to facilitate the broadband wireless network for wide measure for routing technique the spectral efficiency is range of distance, easy deployment, and high speed data rate applied. The merging of different perspectives from for large spanning area. In this paper, the author propose an networking and information theory in the design of routing Energy/bit Minimization routing and centralized scheduling technique is considered as the main aim of this study. With the (EbM-CS) based algorithm to multi-transceiver in WiMAX help of distributed manner, it is very hard to find the optimum mesh network (WMN), which introduces the cross-layer route with the maximum spectral efficiency. The author concept between the layers of MAC and network. The results presents two suboptimal alternatives such as approximately show that the proposed algorithm has improved in terms of ideal- path routing (AIPR) technique and the distributed performance with aspect of system throughput. spectrum efficient routing (DSER) technique which is motivated by information-theoretic analysis. The Al-Hemyari et al.,  described the Constructing Routing approximately ideal- path routing technique needs the location Tree Centralized Scheduling using Multi-Channel System in information and it discovers the path to estimate an optimum 802.16. The IEEE 802.16 standard describes WiMAX regular path. The distributed spectrum efficient routing is (worldwide interoperability for microwave access) mesh based on Bellman-Ford or Dijkstras algorithms which are network, using the base station (BS) as a coordinator for highly suitable for distributed implementations. The spectral centralized scheduling. This paper mainly comprises of a efficiencies of approximately ideal- path routing technique and centralized scheduling algorithm by building up a routing tree the distributed spectrum efficient routing for random networks in WiMAX mesh network, this will introduces the cross-layer approach is higher than that of nearest-neighbor routing in the concept between the media access controller (MAC) and the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime and that of single-hop network layers. Here consideration is done for interference, routing in the high SNR regime. In the temperate SNR regime, hop-count, spatial reuse and quality of services (QoS) the spectral efficiency of distributed spectrum efficient routing guarantee. The author states that, each node has one technique is up to twice that of nearest-neighbor or single-hop transceiver and can be tuned between multiple channels for the routing. user concern, which discard the secondary interference. This work greatly shows that this algorithm improves the length of Jilin Le et al.,  put fourth DCAR: Distributed Coding- scheduling, channel utilization ratio (CUR) and average Aware Routing technique in Wireless Networks. The usage of transmission scheduling. network coding is interested in recent year in order to enhance the performance of wireless networks. For example, the author Al-Hemyari et al.,  explained about constructing routing proposed COPE which is a practical wireless coding system tree for centralized scheduling using multi-channel single that illustrates the achievement of throughput gain by network transceiver system in 802.16 mesh mode. To obtain coding. Still, COPE has two basic limitations: centralized scheduling, The WiMAX mesh networks based on IEEE 802.16 standard was developed. Here base station act as • The coding opportunity is crucially reliable on the a coordinator for obtaining scheduling. But mostly, established routes interferences from transmission of the neighboring nodes • COPE is restricted within a two-hop region in coding within mesh network cannot be avoided. By constructing the structure. routing tree with multi-channel single transceiver system in To overcome these limitations, the author proposes certain the network the interference can be reduced completely. In suitable techniques. Especially, the author proposes the this algorithm, there is a facility so that each node has one distributed coding-aware routing (DCAR) technique that transceiver that can be tuned to any of the channels, which provides user decides. This scheme is used for eliminating the 192 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011 • The detection for existing paths between a given algorithm and chooses an optimal next h-hop routing path source and destination independently in grid-based distributed multi-hop routing • The detection for possible network coding protocol. Grid-based distributed multi-hop routing protocol opportunities over much extensive network region. balances energy consumption well, thus guides to a high data delivery ratio, low transmission delay and prolonged network The capability to discover high throughput paths is very low in lifetime that are shown in the simulation results. conventional techniques, whereas, the distributed coding- aware routing technique possesses the potential to discover Yamamoto et al.,  demonstrate the analysis of distributed high throughput paths with coding opportunities. The route selection scheme in wireless ad hoc networks. The limitations of COPE technique is overcome by the DCAR analyses are carried on the capacity region of ad hoc networks technique which can detect the coding opportunities on the by means of optimal routing or scheduling. The network entire path. A new routing technique known as coding-aware obtained will be scalable because the distributed network routing metric (CRM) is proposed by the author in order to control techniques can be implemented without centralized increase the performance comparison between coding-possible information. Alternatively, the network performance can be and coding-impossible paths. highly degraded by selfish nodes. The network capacity will be the mainly affected performance factor. Depending on the Honggang Wang et al.,  given Interplay between Routing distributed route selection by means of game theory, the and Distributed Source Coding in Wireless Sensor Network. author attempts to examine the acquired network capacity In applications like real time target tracking and environment region. Experimental results shows that even with optimal monitoring, the coding for multiple correlated sensors are routing every rational selfish node cannot find a unique route related by the mission-driven wireless sensor networks (WSN) under the assumption that node know not only their own end- with the advancement in distributed source coding (DSC). The to-end throughput, but also of all other nodes as a result of major potential opportunities in association with sensor their own. networks are offered by the features of these DSC applications. For enhancing the network performance, this Tzu-Chieh Tsai et al.,  shows Routing and Admission technique makes use of multirate transmissions. The author Control in IEEE 802.16 Distributed Mesh Networks. One of studied the techniques for interplay optimization between the challenging issues in wireless mesh networks is QoS. Here routing and DSC in WSN. Then a new multirate based routing the author propose a new routing method by using SWEB as technique for mission-driven DSC applications is proposed metrics system that is well-suited in IEEE 802.16 distributed, that significantly extends the lifetime of network. The and coordinated mesh mode. Token bucket mechanism is proposed technique implements the rate assignment depends proposed for the usage of an admission control algorithm. For on the residual energy. In order to satisfy the end-to-end controlling the traffic pattern in the information path, token transmission rate constraint, information precision bucket is used and this helps to estimate the bandwidth requirement and the energy constraints in the network for required by a connection. The hop count and delay DSC, the proposed technique utilizes a joint rate and energy requirements of real-time traffics are taken into account for scheduling mechanism. Experimental results show that the estimating the bandwidth. Delay requirements of real-time proposed multirate based routing scheme achieves traffics are the main concern for TAC designing, and avoid the significantly longer network lifetime when compared to the starvations of low priority traffics. With the proposed routing conventional techniques. techniques, the admission control algorithm and the inherent QoS support for the IEEE 802.16 mesh mode, a QoS-enabled Wenjun Liu et al.,  proposed a Grid-Based Distributed environment can be established. At last, extensive simulations Multi-Hop Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. are performed to validate the algorithms, and show good The main factors to consider while designing the wireless performance results. sensor network routing technique are high delivery ratio with low energy consumption and transmission delay. A grid-based Yajun Li et al.,  projected a novel routing algorithm in distributed multi-hop routing protocol (GDRP) is proposed by distributed IEEE 802.16 mesh networks. The author had, the author for designing the wireless sensor network. At a time proposed a novel distributed routing algorithm for IEEE only one node is chosen as grid head per grid and the other 802.16/WiMAX based mesh networks. Here this algorithm is nodes carry out grid head tasks by dynamically rotating them. not designed to eradicate the traffic delay completely; instead The inter-grid communication utilizes the multi-hop routing this will provide routes for traffic flows with have minimum pattern for reducing the consumption of energy by grid heads. end-to-end delays, so that traffic can be avoided. It says that According to the routing cost, distance and residual energy of the proposed algorithm is incorporated into the medium access neighboring grid heads, every grid head performs a distributed control (MAC) layer to avoid traffic in the path. Each node 193 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011 have a separate work to determines the next-hop nodes is free  Kaarthick. B, Nagarajan. N, Raguvaran.E, Raja Mohamed. A and Saimethun. G “Adaptive Routing algorithm to support Distributed from traffic or not, if it finds the traffic in the path, then the Services in WiMAX”. information is allotted to next free path, else the information  Susana Rivera Ibanez, Raul Aquino Santos, Victor Rangel Licea, Arthur Edwards Block and Miguel Angel García Ruiz, “Hybrid WiFi-WiMAX and attempts to forward packets in the very earliest slots. In Network Routing Protocol”, Electronics, Robotics and Automotive addition to this algorithm, another one mechanism called loop Mechanics Conference, 2008. cancelation is proposed to avoid being trapped in path loops  Mehmet S. Kuran, Gurkan Gur, Tuna Tugcu and Fatih Alagoz, "Cross- Layer Routing-Scheduling in IEEE 802.16 Mesh Networks". and thus guarantees the accessibility of the author’s algorithm.  Shiying Zhang, "Joint Admission Control and Routing in IEEE 802.16- Thus the result reveals that the proposal system can Based Mesh Networks".  Shen Wan, "Interference Aware Routing and Scheduling in Wimax considerably reduce the delay of traffic flows and also achieve Backhaul Networks with Smart Antennas". load balance to a certain degree.  Fanchun Jin, Amrinder Arora, Jinho Hwang and Hyeong-Ah Choi, "Routing and Packet Scheduling for Throughput Maximization in IEEE 802.16 Mesh Networks". Saha et al.,  put an idea of routing in IEEE 802.16 based  Ntsibane Ntlatlapa, "A Routing Metric and Algorithm for IEEE 802.16 distributed wireless mesh networks. Now- a-days Wireless Mesh Networks", Third International Conference on Broadband Communications, Information Technology & Biomedical Applications, mesh networks play a vital role in the field of 2008. telecommunication and network. Due to dynamic channel  Nazari and B. Su Wen, “A case for mobility- and traffic-driven routing condition and lack of infrastructure Routing in distributed algorithms for wireless access mesh networks”, European Wireless Conference (EW), pp: 437 – 443, 2010. wireless mesh networks is seems to be a challenging fact in  Ben-Jye Chang, Ying-Hsin Liang and Shin-Shun Su, “Adaptive the area of networking. Here the author has introduced a new competitive on-line routing algorithm for IEEE 802.16j WiMAX multi- hop relay networks”, IEEE 20th International Symposium on Personal, technique which provides the traffic distribution over a Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, pp: 2197 – 2201, 2009. multiple path which helps in avoiding the delay of data in  Al-Hemyari. A, Noordin. N. K, Ismail. A, Khatun. S, Tahir. Y. H and Qassem. Y. A, “Centralized scheduling, routing tree in WiMAX mesh transmission path. The transmission delay over multiple hops networks”, International Conference on Innovations in Information can be calculated by applying queuing analysis on the Technology, pp: 539 - 543 2008.  Qassem. Y. A, Al-Hemyari. A, Chee Kyun Ng and Noordin. N. K, intermediate nodes over the routes, and the analytical model is “Cross-layer routing and scheduling for IEEE 802.16 mesh network”, proposed to calculate such transmission delay. Simulation is IEEE 9th Malaysia International Conference on Communications carried out to support the analytical results for reducing the (MICC), pp- 670 – 673, 2009.  Al-Hemyari. A, Ng. C. K, Noordin. N. K, Ismail. A and Khatun. S, delay in the network. “Constructing Routing Tree Centralized Scheduling using Multi- Channel System in 802.16”, 6th National Conference on Telecommunication Technologies 2008 and 2008 2nd Malaysia III. CONCLUSION Conference on Photonics. NCTT-MCP, pp: 183 – 187, 2008. This survey reviewed a lot of routing protocols for WiMAX  Al-Hemyari. A, Chee Kyun Ng, Noordin. N. K, Ismail. A and Khatun. S, “ Constructing routing tree for centralized scheduling using multi- based networks. Routing in WiMAX is an active area of channel single transceiver system in 802.16 mesh mode”, IEEE research in which many techniques have been proposed that International on RF and Microwave Conference, RFM 2008, 192 – 196, 2008. are facilitating to increase the throughput, minimizing the  Xiaohua Jia, “A distributed algorithm of delay-bounded multicast delay and offer further robustness over wireless channel. This routing for multimedia applications in wide area networks”, IEEE/ACM survey presents the advantages and disadvantages of different Transactions on Networking, pp: 5297 – 5305, Vol: 6, 2008.  Jilin Le, Lui. J. C. S and Dah-Ming Chiu, “DCAR: Distributed Coding- routing algorithms for 802.16 WiMAX networks. This helps Aware Routing in Wireless Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Mobile in choosing the best suited routing protocol for WiMAX Computing, Vol: 9, pp: 596 – 608, 2010.  Honggang Wang, Dongming Peng, Wei Wang, Sharif. H and Hsiao- networks. The various challenges for the routing in WiMAX Hwa Chen, “Interplay Between Routing and Distributed Source Coding are delay, long transmission scheduling, increasingly stringent in Wireless Sensor Network”, IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC '07, pp: 3776 – 3781, 2007. Quality of Service (QoS) support and load balance and  Wenjun Liu, Yue Sun, Jiguo Yu and Baoxiang Cao, “A Grid-Based fairness limitations. All these challenges are not satisfied by Distributed Multi-Hop Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks”, IEEE/IFIP International Conference on Embedded and Ubiquitous many of the conventional routing techniques. With this Computing, EUC '08, pp: 330 – 336, 2008. analysis, the joint and distributed routing protocol can achieve  Yamamoto. K and Yoshida. S, “Analysis of distributed route selection all the qualities mentioned above. So the joint and distributed scheme in wireless ad hoc networks”, 15th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, routing protocol can be utilized in 802.16 WiMAX network to PIMRC 2004, pp-584 - 588 Vol.1, 2004. improve better routing when compared to the conventional  Tzu-Chieh Tsai and Chuan-Yin Wang, “Routing and Admission Control in IEEE 802.16 Distributed Mesh Networks”, IFIP International techniques. Conference on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks, WOCN '07, pp: 1 – 5, 2007. 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