A Survey on Joint and Distributed Routing for 802.16 WiMAX Networks

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A Survey on Joint and Distributed Routing for 802.16 WiMAX Networks Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                    (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                    Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011



           A Survey on Joint and Distributed Routing for
                    802.16 WiMAX Networks
              N.Ananthi,                                                                             Dr.J.Raja,
              Easwari Engineering College,                                                           Anna University,
              Chennai.                                                                               Trichy.
              Email:nandhura@gmail.com                                                               Email:rajajanakiraman@gmail.com


Abstract---The growing demand for last mile broadband access is resulted               with performance as good as to conventional cable, DSL or T1
from the increased growth of speedy multimedia services for mobile,                    networks.
residential and little business customers. Technologies based on 802.16
WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access) ensures to offer                   The frequency required for the operation of IEEE 802.16 in
high data rates in long distance and afford multimedia services and are
expected to act as key issue for high speed broadband services. The technique
                                                                                       case of Line-of-Sight (LOS) is 10 to 66 GHz, whereas, for non
for building multi-hop mesh is provided by IEEE 802.16 WiMAX standard.                 Line-of-Sight, operating frequency is 2 to 11 GHz. Orthogonal
This can be act as high speed wide-area wireless network and can afford better         frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is utilized in the
wireless coverage up to 5 miles with Line of Sight (LOS) transmission inside           physical layer in order to support adaptive modulation and
the bandwidth of around 70 Mbps. As the wireless environment varies
unexpectedly, routing in wireless network is challenging work. There are
                                                                                       coding. Based on the condition of channel, this can afford a
several demands for IEEE 802.16 WiMAX routing like delay, long                         data rate up to 134 Mbps per base station for each channel of
transmission scheduling, increasingly stringent Quality of Service (QoS)               28 MHz. An IEEE 802.16 network contains Base Station (BS)
support, load balance and fairness restrictions. The aim of this survey is to          and multiple Subscriber Stations (SSs). The Base Station acts
analyze some of the routing protocols proposed by various authors for IEEE
802.16 WiMAX networks.
                                                                                       as a gateway for the Subscriber Stations to the external
                                                                                       network, and each SS acts as an access point that aggregates
Keywords---IEEE       802.16, Routing Algorithm, Wireless mesh networks,               traffic from end users in a several geographical area.
Scheduling.
                                                                                       Most of the nodes are either stable or minimally movable in
                      I.           INTRODUCTION                                        case of community wireless networks. This lead to the focus
                                                                                       of routing protocol in improving the capacity of network or
I  N present telecommunications, networking and services are
   varying in a rapid way to support next generation Internet
user environment. Wireless networks will play a significant
                                                                                       the performance of individual transfer, rather than focusing on
                                                                                       movement of nodes of decreasing the power consumption.
role in supporting next generation Internet. Wireless                                  The major problem faced by such network lies in the loss in
broadband networks are being increasingly deployed and used                            the full capacity because of interference among multiple
in the last mile for extending or enhancing Internet                                   concurrent transmissions. There are also certain basic
connectivity for fixed and/or mobile clients situated on the                           difficulties in routing in wireless networks. Routing model has
edge of the wired network.                                                             to support in both short time scales and long time scales. A
                                                                                       better wireless routing protocol has to support equally for
WiMAX is considered as an important wireless technology                                stability in long term route and accomplish opportunistic
and involved in several probable applications in case of high                          performance for shore term route. The robustness against a
data rate, greater network coverage, strong QoS capabilities                           wide spectrum of soft and hard failures should be attained by
and cheap network deployment and maintenance costs. This is                            the Wireless routing which ranging from transient channel
estimated to support many business applications which require                          outages, links with intermediate loss rates, from several
the support of quality of service. WiMAX can be modified to                            channel disconnections, nodes under denial-of-service (DOS)
apply in different modes such as point-to-multipoint (PMP) or                          attacks, and failing nodes. So challenges in routing protocol
Mesh mode based on applications and network investment.                                are to deal with both these problems. At the same time, it
                                                                                       should support large node population by modifying itself to
The vast increasing user demand for faster connection in Web                           necessary extent. The random routing is provided in IEEE
and VoIP services has lead to the progress of new broadband                            802.16 protocol in which parents are selected in random with
access technologies in the current days. In the year 2004, a                           the help of SSs while building the tree. This paper presents
IEEE 802.16 standard which is generally called as WiMAX is                             some of the routing techniques proposed by different author
finalized in order to provide last-mile fixed wireless                                 for 802.16 WiMAX networks.
broadband access in the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)


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                                                                                                                  ISSN 1947-5500
                                                       (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                       Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011


              II.        LITERATURE SURVEY                               Kuran et al., [4] given a Cross-Layer Routing-Scheduling in
Konark [1] proposed a routing and scheduling algorithm of                IEEE 802.16 mesh networks. For the Internet Protocol-based
IEEE 802.16 mesh backhaul network for radio resource                     fourth-generation (4G) wireless communication systems,
management (RRM). The resource allocation concerned in                   broadband wireless access networks will be a fundamental
IEEE 802.16 mesh backhaul network is investigated by the                 component that is a part convergent and pervasive networking
author. The multipath routing is the major issue considered              architecture. One of the major active techniques for broadband
here in order to utilize the resources of wireless radio                 wireless access is IEEE 802.16 Mobile WiMAX. There are
efficiently and hence providing spectral efficiency. The main            several challenges for the mixing of WiMAX and next-
characteristic of scheduling technique is to permit the dynamic          generation broadband networks such as diverse operational
dispatching of data blocks. This is based on the condition of            environment,       increasingly    stringent   QoS      support,
present buffer and the condition of route without knowing the            power/coverage limitations and capacity boundaries. The
demand in traffic. Hence it is helpful for heterogeneous traffic         possible solution to this problem is the mesh operation mode
load which is supported by IEEE 802.16 Network which is a                of IEEE 802.16. A cross-layer routing-scheduling scheme in
strong candidate in Wireless Networking characteristics. The             IEEE 802.16 mesh networks is proposed by the author in this
load demand information of application layer and the                     work. This technique uses the distributed and centralized
interference information of PHY layer are utilized by routing            scheduling capabilities of IEEE 802.16 link layer in mesh
protocol. The routing protocol is designed in order that the             mode and routing in network layer together in order to
least mean path interference should be provided from the                 perform the operation optimally. This technique is based on
multiple hops. The scheduling technique is designed in order             the techniques of IEEE 802.16 protocol. The experimental
that it should find the maximum number of concurrent                     results pointed out that this method can considerably progress
transmission which satisfies the Signal- to- interference plus           the improvement in the network performance particularly in
noise ratio (SINR) limitations. In both the techniques, the              case of a congestion in the Internet part of the traffic at the
iterative allocation continues until there is no unallocated             cost of a minor burden on the intranet traffic in the form of a
capacity request.                                                        slight increase in the end-to-end delay.

Kaarthick et al., [2] presented an adaptive routing algorithm to         Shiying [5] proposed a joint admission control and routing in
support distributed services in WiMAX. For stationary and                IEEE 802.16-based mesh networks. In WiMAX-based
mobile hosts, IEEE 802.16 is considered as a cost effective              metropolitan area mesh networks, the quality of service (QoS)
solution to Internet broadband access in the recent years. The           provisioning techniques are considered in this paper. The
WiMAX network can be enabled with distributed services in                connection admission control (CAC) and routing concern in
order to support several customers in the WiMAX network                  the design and operation of wireless multihop mesh networks
efficiently. An adaptive routing technique is proposed by the            is studied by the author and proposes a joint connection
author for calculating the bandwidth guaranteed paths with the           admission control and the routing technique for various
help of disciplined flooding and proxy setup to provide                  service classes with the intention to maximize the overall
distributed services in IEEE 802.16e. The performance of the             revenue from all agreed connections. Connection-level QoS
algorithm can be computed with the help of AODV technique                limitations such as handoff connection dropping probability
which act as a benchmark algorithm. The evaluation of this               can be fixed within a threshold. By providing different reward
technique is based on the following four metrics:                        rates, multiple service classes can be arranged according to
                                                                         their importance. Then the optimal CAC policies can be
     • Route discovery time                                              obtained by applying the optimization techniques. The
     • Delay                                                             optimality criterion is considered as the long-run average
     • Total errors sent                                                 reward. The proposed technique can maximum revenue
     • Total packets dropped                                             obtainable by the system under QoS constraints and the author
Susana et al., [3] put forth hybrid WiFi-WiMAX network
                                                                         shows that the optimal joint policy is a randomized policy.
routing protocol. The growth of multihop routing protocols is
                                                                         This indicates that the connections are admitted to the system
supported by the proliferation of Wireless Local Area
                                                                         with some prospect when the system is in definite states.
Networks (WLANs). In addition, the requirement to cover
larger areas has led to the development of fresh standards for           Wan [6] given an interference aware routing and scheduling in
Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMANs). A new                       WiMAX Backhaul Networks with Smart Antennas. A smart
routing technique is developed by the author in order to                 adaptive antenna can be used for intended communications
combine WLANs and WMANs which will results in better                     and interference suppression as it can offer multiple Degrees
interconnectivity.                                                       of Freedom (DOFs). Network throughput can be appreciably


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                                                                                                    ISSN 1947-5500
                                                        (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                        Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011


enhanced by more efficient spatial reuse by combining smart               mainly applied to approach Triton, a proposed 802.16-based
antennas in a WiMAX system. Routing and scheduling in                     (WiMAX) maritime wireless access mesh network. Most
WiMAX backhaul networks along with smart antennas are                     probably the trace-based analysis out shows that, while the
considered by the author. Full concern for interference impact            stationary nodes are most commonly selected in the route
and DOF availability is offered by the proposed method which              selection, then the rate of change between the routes to the
properly defines the Interference-aware Tree Construction                 gateway nodes is seems to get reduced by 23.3% and the
Problem (ITCP) for routing. Next, for resolving the problems              average time taken for which routes between a node and a
in polynomial time the technique is proposed. In case of                  gateway remains valid is gradually spikes to 31%. The author
scheduling¸ the proposed technique initially provides a                   described that it is quite important to take the expected traffic
polynomial-time, optimal technique for a particular case in               patterns for designing the routing pattern for a specific system.
which the number of DOFs in every node is sufficient to                   The network topology will not affect the expected traffic, so
neglect all potential secondary interference. Finally, for                that reduction of overheads is done.
scheduling problem effective heuristic algorithm is proposed
by the author.                                                            Ben-Jye Chang et al., [10] discussed about Adaptive
                                                                          competitive on-line routing algorithm for IEEE 802.16j
Jin et al., [7] put forth a routing and packet scheduling for             WiMAX multi-hop relay networks. IEEE 802.16j is a relay
throughput maximization in IEEE 802.16 Mesh Networks.                     based approach which is based on the IEEE 802.16e standard,
The difficulty of maximizing the system throughput in IEEE                and WiMAX has proposed this standard. This is mainly for
802.16 broadband access networks with mesh topology is                    widening the service area of Base Stations (BSs) and to
considered in this paper and the results are provided. At first,          improve the signal strength quality i.e., received signal
the simplified linear network is taken in account with only               strength (RSS) quality. The main advantages of IEEE 802.16j
uplink traffic and presents a optimal scheduling technique.               are the expense for building IEEE 802.16 WiMAX networks
The author initiates an analytical result on the length of the            is comparably low and much compatible with existing
schedule. The difficulty in routing and packet scheduling in              WiMAX standards. Diverse features on mobility and relay
general topology is then taken into account by the author and             range deliberately reveals that the, Relay Station (RS) can be
provides its NP completeness. The proposed method also                    grouped up into three types: Fixed RS (FRS), Nomadic RS
offers an ILP formation for this difficulty. The author                   (NRS) and Mobile RS (MRS). There are different types of
proposes techniques that find routes and schedules of packet              RSs in relay-based WiMAX network. The routing path among
transmissions in general mesh topologies depend on the                    a Mobile Station (MS) and the MR-BS are the two important
optimal algorithm for linear networks.                                    factors to construct efficient relay-based WiMAX and find out
                                                                          an optimal solution. The author thus propose an IEEE 802.16j-
A Routing Metric and Algorithm for IEEE 802.16 Mesh                       conformed relay-based adaptive competitive on-line routing
Networks is provided by Ntsibane [8]. The high speed data                 approach, in which the selection of a multihop optimal path is
rates over large distances and multimedia services are                    done in terms of link bandwidth, path length and channel
facilitated by the technologies that are based on 802.16. Also,           condition. This proposed paper significantly outperforms other
this technology is likely to provide the high speed broadband             approaches in Fractional Reward Loss (FRL), which is
delivery even beyond the current 3rd Generation wireless                  deliberately shown in numerical results.
technologies. The mesh mode which utilizes this technique has
the capability of escalating the coverage well beyond the cities           Al-Hemyari et al., [11] stated a Centralized scheduling,
and into the rural areas that are presently not served by                 routing tree in WiMAX mesh networks. IEEE 802.16 came
conventional techniques. The author considers the potential of            into picture since there is a lot of demand for high speed
the mesh mode and provided a routing technique which is                   internet access service in last few years. So IEEE 802.16
appropriate for coordinated distributed scheduling.                       working group have provided a broadband wireless access
                                                                          (BWA) for developing the worldwide interoperability for
Nazari et al., [9] proposed case for mobility- and traffic-driven         microwave access. (WiMAX) standard is used for wireless
routing algorithms for wireless access mesh networks. Here                metropolitan area networks (MANs) in order to provide a
the author has presented a new technique in order to develop              broadband wireless over a miles, easy deployment, and high
routing algorithms in which the author idea attempt to                    speed data rate for large spanning area. Single channel single
understand the characteristics of network (i.e. network                   transceiver scheme in WiMAX mesh network is implemented
connectivity, mobility and rate of modification of the                    here for obtaining an efficient routing and collision free
topology) and the patterns of expected traffic for a specific             centralized scheduling (CS) algorithms, which is used to
mobile scenario before the start of the design algorithm, which           introduce the cross layer concept between the network layer
deals with the optimization of routing performance. This paper

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and media access controller (MAC) layer. The authors                   secondary interference that occurs in the network. The
proposed method has improved the system performance with               parameters of interference, hop-count, and number of children
respect to scheduling length, channel utilization ratio (CUR),         for every node, spatial reuse, fairness, load balancing, quality
and the throughput of the system while compared to other               of services (QoS) and node identifier (ID) are considered. The
system.                                                                results of analysis obtained shows that this proposed algorithm
                                                                       significantly improves the length of scheduling and the
Qassem et al., [12] had a look on Cross-layer routing and              channel utilization ratio (CUR).
scheduling for IEEE 802.16 mesh network. In recent years,
requiremant for high-speed internet access and multimedia              Xiaohua Jia [15] illustrated a distributed algorithm of delay-
service has increased greatly. The IEEE 802.16 defines the             bounded multicast routing for multimedia applications in wide
wireless broadband access technology called WiMAX                      area networks. The author considers the solution to attain the
(Worldwide Interoperability Microwave Access) which                    good route in a wireless network and for the performance
aspires to facilitate the broadband wireless network for wide          measure for routing technique the spectral efficiency is
range of distance, easy deployment, and high speed data rate           applied. The merging of different perspectives from
for large spanning area. In this paper, the author propose an          networking and information theory in the design of routing
Energy/bit Minimization routing and centralized scheduling             technique is considered as the main aim of this study. With the
(EbM-CS) based algorithm to multi-transceiver in WiMAX                 help of distributed manner, it is very hard to find the optimum
mesh network (WMN), which introduces the cross-layer                   route with the maximum spectral efficiency. The author
concept between the layers of MAC and network. The results             presents two suboptimal alternatives such as approximately
show that the proposed algorithm has improved in terms of              ideal- path routing (AIPR) technique and the distributed
performance with aspect of system throughput.                          spectrum efficient routing (DSER) technique which is
                                                                       motivated      by     information-theoretic     analysis.    The
Al-Hemyari et al., [13] described the Constructing Routing             approximately ideal- path routing technique needs the location
Tree Centralized Scheduling using Multi-Channel System in              information and it discovers the path to estimate an optimum
802.16. The IEEE 802.16 standard describes WiMAX                       regular path. The distributed spectrum efficient routing is
(worldwide interoperability for microwave access) mesh                 based on Bellman-Ford or Dijkstras algorithms which are
network, using the base station (BS) as a coordinator for              highly suitable for distributed implementations. The spectral
centralized scheduling. This paper mainly comprises of a               efficiencies of approximately ideal- path routing technique and
centralized scheduling algorithm by building up a routing tree         the distributed spectrum efficient routing for random networks
in WiMAX mesh network, this will introduces the cross-layer            approach is higher than that of nearest-neighbor routing in the
concept between the media access controller (MAC) and the              low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime and that of single-hop
network layers. Here consideration is done for interference,           routing in the high SNR regime. In the temperate SNR regime,
hop-count, spatial reuse and quality of services (QoS)                 the spectral efficiency of distributed spectrum efficient routing
guarantee. The author states that, each node has one                   technique is up to twice that of nearest-neighbor or single-hop
transceiver and can be tuned between multiple channels for the         routing.
user concern, which discard the secondary interference. This
work greatly shows that this algorithm improves the length of          Jilin Le et al., [16] put fourth DCAR: Distributed Coding-
scheduling, channel utilization ratio (CUR) and average                Aware Routing technique in Wireless Networks. The usage of
transmission scheduling.                                               network coding is interested in recent year in order to enhance
                                                                       the performance of wireless networks. For example, the author
Al-Hemyari et al., [14] explained about constructing routing           proposed COPE which is a practical wireless coding system
tree for centralized scheduling using multi-channel single             that illustrates the achievement of throughput gain by network
transceiver system in 802.16 mesh mode. To obtain                      coding. Still, COPE has two basic limitations:
centralized scheduling, The WiMAX mesh networks based on
IEEE 802.16 standard was developed. Here base station act as               •    The coding opportunity is crucially reliable on the
a coordinator for obtaining scheduling. But mostly,                             established routes
interferences from transmission of the neighboring nodes                   •    COPE is restricted within a two-hop region in coding
within mesh network cannot be avoided. By constructing the                      structure.
routing tree with multi-channel single transceiver system in
                                                                       To overcome these limitations, the author proposes certain
the network the interference can be reduced completely. In
                                                                       suitable techniques. Especially, the author proposes the
this algorithm, there is a facility so that each node has one
                                                                       distributed coding-aware routing (DCAR) technique that
transceiver that can be tuned to any of the channels, which
                                                                       provides
user decides. This scheme is used for eliminating the

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                                                                                                   ISSN 1947-5500
                                                       (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                       Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011


    •   The detection for existing paths between a given                algorithm and chooses an optimal next h-hop routing path
        source and destination                                          independently in grid-based distributed multi-hop routing
    •   The detection for possible network coding                       protocol. Grid-based distributed multi-hop routing protocol
        opportunities over much extensive network region.               balances energy consumption well, thus guides to a high data
                                                                        delivery ratio, low transmission delay and prolonged network
The capability to discover high throughput paths is very low in
                                                                        lifetime that are shown in the simulation results.
conventional techniques, whereas, the distributed coding-
aware routing technique possesses the potential to discover             Yamamoto et al., [19] demonstrate the analysis of distributed
high throughput paths with coding opportunities. The                    route selection scheme in wireless ad hoc networks. The
limitations of COPE technique is overcome by the DCAR                   analyses are carried on the capacity region of ad hoc networks
technique which can detect the coding opportunities on the              by means of optimal routing or scheduling. The network
entire path. A new routing technique known as coding-aware              obtained will be scalable because the distributed network
routing metric (CRM) is proposed by the author in order to              control techniques can be implemented without centralized
increase the performance comparison between coding-possible             information. Alternatively, the network performance can be
and coding-impossible paths.                                            highly degraded by selfish nodes. The network capacity will
                                                                        be the mainly affected performance factor. Depending on the
Honggang Wang et al., [17] given Interplay between Routing
                                                                        distributed route selection by means of game theory, the
and Distributed Source Coding in Wireless Sensor Network.
                                                                        author attempts to examine the acquired network capacity
In applications like real time target tracking and environment
                                                                        region. Experimental results shows that even with optimal
monitoring, the coding for multiple correlated sensors are
                                                                        routing every rational selfish node cannot find a unique route
related by the mission-driven wireless sensor networks (WSN)
                                                                        under the assumption that node know not only their own end-
with the advancement in distributed source coding (DSC). The
                                                                        to-end throughput, but also of all other nodes as a result of
major potential opportunities in association with sensor
                                                                        their own.
networks are offered by the features of these DSC
applications. For enhancing the network performance, this               Tzu-Chieh Tsai et al., [20] shows Routing and Admission
technique makes use of multirate transmissions. The author              Control in IEEE 802.16 Distributed Mesh Networks. One of
studied the techniques for interplay optimization between               the challenging issues in wireless mesh networks is QoS. Here
routing and DSC in WSN. Then a new multirate based routing              the author propose a new routing method by using SWEB as
technique for mission-driven DSC applications is proposed               metrics system that is well-suited in IEEE 802.16 distributed,
that significantly extends the lifetime of network. The                 and coordinated mesh mode. Token bucket mechanism is
proposed technique implements the rate assignment depends               proposed for the usage of an admission control algorithm. For
on the residual energy. In order to satisfy the end-to-end              controlling the traffic pattern in the information path, token
transmission     rate    constraint,    information   precision         bucket is used and this helps to estimate the bandwidth
requirement and the energy constraints in the network for               required by a connection. The hop count and delay
DSC, the proposed technique utilizes a joint rate and energy            requirements of real-time traffics are taken into account for
scheduling mechanism. Experimental results show that the                estimating the bandwidth. Delay requirements of real-time
proposed multirate based routing scheme achieves                        traffics are the main concern for TAC designing, and avoid the
significantly longer network lifetime when compared to the              starvations of low priority traffics. With the proposed routing
conventional techniques.                                                techniques, the admission control algorithm and the inherent
                                                                        QoS support for the IEEE 802.16 mesh mode, a QoS-enabled
Wenjun Liu et al., [18] proposed a Grid-Based Distributed
                                                                        environment can be established. At last, extensive simulations
Multi-Hop Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks.
                                                                        are performed to validate the algorithms, and show good
The main factors to consider while designing the wireless
                                                                        performance results.
sensor network routing technique are high delivery ratio with
low energy consumption and transmission delay. A grid-based             Yajun Li et al., [21] projected a novel routing algorithm in
distributed multi-hop routing protocol (GDRP) is proposed by            distributed IEEE 802.16 mesh networks. The author had,
the author for designing the wireless sensor network. At a time         proposed a novel distributed routing algorithm for IEEE
only one node is chosen as grid head per grid and the other             802.16/WiMAX based mesh networks. Here this algorithm is
nodes carry out grid head tasks by dynamically rotating them.           not designed to eradicate the traffic delay completely; instead
The inter-grid communication utilizes the multi-hop routing             this will provide routes for traffic flows with have minimum
pattern for reducing the consumption of energy by grid heads.           end-to-end delays, so that traffic can be avoided. It says that
According to the routing cost, distance and residual energy of          the proposed algorithm is incorporated into the medium access
neighboring grid heads, every grid head performs a distributed          control (MAC) layer to avoid traffic in the path. Each node

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                                                                                                   ISSN 1947-5500
                                                           (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                           Vol. 9, No. 2, February 2011


have a separate work to determines the next-hop nodes is free                [2]    Kaarthick. B, Nagarajan. N, Raguvaran.E, Raja Mohamed. A and
                                                                                    Saimethun. G “Adaptive Routing algorithm to support Distributed
from traffic or not, if it finds the traffic in the path, then the                  Services in WiMAX”.
information is allotted to next free path, else the information              [3]    Susana Rivera Ibanez, Raul Aquino Santos, Victor Rangel Licea, Arthur
                                                                                    Edwards Block and Miguel Angel García Ruiz, “Hybrid WiFi-WiMAX
and attempts to forward packets in the very earliest slots. In                      Network Routing Protocol”, Electronics, Robotics and Automotive
addition to this algorithm, another one mechanism called loop                       Mechanics Conference, 2008.
cancelation is proposed to avoid being trapped in path loops                 [4]    Mehmet S. Kuran, Gurkan Gur, Tuna Tugcu and Fatih Alagoz, "Cross-
                                                                                    Layer Routing-Scheduling in IEEE 802.16 Mesh Networks".
and thus guarantees the accessibility of the author’s algorithm.             [5]    Shiying Zhang, "Joint Admission Control and Routing in IEEE 802.16-
Thus the result reveals that the proposal system can                                Based Mesh Networks".
                                                                             [6]    Shen Wan, "Interference Aware Routing and Scheduling in Wimax
considerably reduce the delay of traffic flows and also achieve                     Backhaul Networks with Smart Antennas".
load balance to a certain degree.                                            [7]    Fanchun Jin, Amrinder Arora, Jinho Hwang and Hyeong-Ah Choi,
                                                                                    "Routing and Packet Scheduling for Throughput Maximization in IEEE
                                                                                    802.16 Mesh Networks".
Saha et al., [22] put an idea of routing in IEEE 802.16 based                [8]    Ntsibane Ntlatlapa, "A Routing Metric and Algorithm for IEEE 802.16
distributed wireless mesh networks. Now- a-days Wireless                            Mesh Networks", Third International Conference on Broadband
                                                                                    Communications, Information Technology & Biomedical Applications,
mesh networks play a vital role in the field of                                     2008.
telecommunication and network. Due to dynamic channel                        [9]    Nazari and B. Su Wen, “A case for mobility- and traffic-driven routing
condition and lack of infrastructure Routing in distributed                         algorithms for wireless access mesh networks”, European Wireless
                                                                                    Conference (EW), pp: 437 – 443, 2010.
wireless mesh networks is seems to be a challenging fact in                  [10]   Ben-Jye Chang, Ying-Hsin Liang and Shin-Shun Su, “Adaptive
the area of networking. Here the author has introduced a new                        competitive on-line routing algorithm for IEEE 802.16j WiMAX multi-
                                                                                    hop relay networks”, IEEE 20th International Symposium on Personal,
technique which provides the traffic distribution over a                            Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, pp: 2197 – 2201, 2009.
multiple path which helps in avoiding the delay of data in                   [11]   Al-Hemyari. A, Noordin. N. K, Ismail. A, Khatun. S, Tahir. Y. H and
                                                                                    Qassem. Y. A, “Centralized scheduling, routing tree in WiMAX mesh
transmission path. The transmission delay over multiple hops                        networks”, International Conference on Innovations in Information
can be calculated by applying queuing analysis on the                               Technology, pp: 539 - 543 2008.
                                                                             [12]   Qassem. Y. A, Al-Hemyari. A, Chee Kyun Ng and Noordin. N. K,
intermediate nodes over the routes, and the analytical model is                     “Cross-layer routing and scheduling for IEEE 802.16 mesh network”,
proposed to calculate such transmission delay. Simulation is                        IEEE 9th Malaysia International Conference on Communications
carried out to support the analytical results for reducing the                      (MICC), pp- 670 – 673, 2009.
                                                                             [13]   Al-Hemyari. A, Ng. C. K, Noordin. N. K, Ismail. A and Khatun. S,
delay in the network.                                                               “Constructing Routing Tree Centralized Scheduling using Multi-
                                                                                    Channel System in 802.16”, 6th National Conference on
                                                                                    Telecommunication Technologies 2008 and 2008 2nd Malaysia
                   III.         CONCLUSION                                          Conference on Photonics. NCTT-MCP, pp: 183 – 187, 2008.
This survey reviewed a lot of routing protocols for WiMAX                    [14]   Al-Hemyari. A, Chee Kyun Ng, Noordin. N. K, Ismail. A and Khatun. S,
                                                                                    “ Constructing routing tree for centralized scheduling using multi-
based networks. Routing in WiMAX is an active area of                               channel single transceiver system in 802.16 mesh mode”, IEEE
research in which many techniques have been proposed that                           International on RF and Microwave Conference, RFM 2008, 192 – 196,
                                                                                    2008.
are facilitating to increase the throughput, minimizing the                  [15]   Xiaohua Jia, “A distributed algorithm of delay-bounded multicast
delay and offer further robustness over wireless channel. This                      routing for multimedia applications in wide area networks”, IEEE/ACM
survey presents the advantages and disadvantages of different                       Transactions on Networking, pp: 5297 – 5305, Vol: 6, 2008.
                                                                             [16]   Jilin Le, Lui. J. C. S and Dah-Ming Chiu, “DCAR: Distributed Coding-
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