Docstoc

Cold War Division of Germany

Document Sample
Cold War Division of Germany Powered By Docstoc
					Cold War Division of
     Germany

HI136 History of Germany
                 Schedule
1. Germany in 1945 – die Stunde Null (zero
     hour)
2.   Occupation Policies
3.   The First Berlin Crisis
4.   The Second Berlin Crisis
5.   Conclusion
Liberation of the Concentration Camp Dachau
  ‘A badly managed disaster area’




Refugees arriving in Berlin, 1945   Black market raid in Berlin, 1945
        The Formal Division
Teheran Feb. 1943: Germany will be divided and occupied
London Sept. 1944: three zones envisaged (joined by
French in 1945)
Potsdam July 1945: Germany to be single economic unit,
but administered by zonal commanders meeting in Allied
Control Council
Officially, temporary situation pending peace treaty, but de
facto consolidation
1947 Economic Council appears in western zones as proto-
government
June 1948 separate currencies introduced
May 1949 Federal Republic of (West) Germany announced;
Oct. 1949 German Democratic Republic (East) follows
May 1955 FRG joins NATO; GDR joins Warsaw Pact
August 1961 Berlin Wall built cementing division
             Principles
Denazification
Democratisation
Demilitarisation
Decentralisation
Decartelisation
(Dismantlement)
         Soviet Occupation
Gradualist approach with creeping Sovietisation
(no one-party copy of USSR)
Lack of planning, but ‘smash and grab’ (Beria)
versus ‘reconstruction’ (Tyulpanov) factions
Mass rapes alienate women
Nationalisation of industry popular (77%
support), but dismantling of 30% of factories
unpopular (approx. 30%)
Land reform (popular among farmers, but set
unilateral precedent, upsetting western partners)
Refugees: USSR mainly blamed for inhumane
treatment of refugees, ca. 1.5 million die)
Norman Naimark, The Russians in Germany
  Revisionist views of Russia
Stalin’s perceived desire for a deal on Germany
(united but neutral)
Message to KPD leaders in June 1945 that
Germany would remain united
Brakes on separatist pressures from East
German leaders (June 1948)
National unity offers (March 1952 Stalin Notes);
was this to try to scupper FRG integration into
military bloc?
Rolf Steininger, Wilfried Loth, Stalin’s Unwanted
Child
                  French Occupation
                     Hopes for dismemberment of
                     Germany (Rhinelandia
                     International control of Ruhr
                     Oppose centralised institutions
                     Non-signatories to Potsdam (no
                     refugees allowed into French
                     Zone)
                     Punitive reparations from
General Koenig,      German industry and forestry
French               Only join Anglo-American Bizone
commander
                     in 1948
                   British Occupation
                        April 1946 British alarm at
                        communist-SPD merger in Soviet
                        Zone (bid for all-zone superparty?)
                        Mid-1946 British sterling crisis;
                        occupation becoming liability
                        Invite other occupiers to merge
                        zones (only US accept > Bizonia,
                        Jan. 1947)
                        Britain now seen as proactive & keen
Ernest Bevin, British   to encourage firmer line from
foreign secretary       Americans (Deighton, The
                        Impossible Peace)
                        Post-revisionist synthesis stresses
                        regional actors
     American Occupation
JCS 1067: no fraternisation; population to
be kept at subsistence level
May 1946: US halt reparations deliveries
to Soviet Zone
Byrnes’ speech (Sept. 1946): America
pledges to stay in Germany for long haul
1947 governor Clay blocks moves to
nationalisation of industry
Carolyn Eisenberg, Drawing the Line, for a
critical view of the Americans
Marshall Aid, June 1947-1952
West Germany as ‘locomotive’ to
economic recovery of western Europe
Internationalisation of economy to satisfy
French security worries
Renewed West German infrastructure of
Ruhr mines
Was it more psychological than real aid?
(Werner Abelshauser v. Christoph
Buchheim)
Cf dismantling policy in eastern Germany
              Schedule
1. Germany in 1945 – die Stunde Null (zero
     hour)
2.   Occupation Policies
3.   The First Berlin Crisis
4.   The Second Berlin Crisis
5.   Conclusion
Berlin: the quadripartite city
            Berlin: cont.
Liberated by USSR in April 1945 at cost of
100,000 casualties; western sectors
occupied July 1945
Formal access only recognised via air
Easy access to West via open border,
including U-Bahn or flown out of
Tempelhof
                           Berlin Airlift
                                        Soviet concerns at western
                                        preparations for separate West
                                        German state (London talks from
                                        Jan. 1948)
                                        Currency reform: June western
                                        Allies introduce deutschmark into
                                        western zones and West Berlin
                                        Soviets retaliate with closure of
                                        access to West Berlin
                                        General Clay organises airlift with
                                        political support from Mayor
                                        Reuter; despite difficulties in
                                        autumn 1948, tonnages rise in
                                        Nov.
American transport aircraft (‘raisin    Propaganda debacle for East
bomber’) lands at Tempelhof; note the   Western Allies move from being
children waiting for possible sweets    ‘victor powers’ to ‘protector powers’
thrown overboard
           Berlin: the Divided City
                                During blockade two city
                                governments
                                U-Bahn (West) & S-
                                Bahn (East)
                                Currency speculation
                                ‘Shopwindow Berlin’: Ku-
                                Damm as showcase of
Poster         ‘Beware RIAS     western standard of
               poison’:
showing
               communist
                                living
smuggling of
currency       anti-American    Espionage centre (CIA
between        poster warning   Berlin tunnel, human
sectors        of US
               broadcasts
                                intelligence)
                                Broadcasting: RIAS
                                American radio
              Schedule
1. Germany in 1945 – die Stunde Null (zero
     hour)
2.   Occupation Policies
3.   The First Berlin Crisis
4.   The Second Berlin Crisis
5.   Conclusion
                Refugees via Berlin & Inner-
                     German border
60,000
                                                                  Refugees via Berlin
                                         Sector
50,000                                   boundary                 Flown out on scheduled flights
                                         closure after
                                         17 June                  Flown out on Operation Stopwatch
40,000
                                                                  Refugees via Demarcation Line


30,000

                    Demarcation                                                  Khrushchev
20,000              Line closed                                                  ultimatum



10,000


    0
         1950


                 1951


                         1952


                                  1953


                                           1954


                                                    1955


                                                           1956


                                                                  1957


                                                                         1958


                                                                                 1959


                                                                                         1960


                                                                                                   1961
      Berlin Crisis, 1958-61
GDR’s desire for recognition by West
USSR’s hopes for peace treaties & removal of
atomic weaponry from FRG
Khrushchev ultimatum for West to leave West
Berlin within 6 months
Western intransigence & threat of nuclear
weapons to preserve West Berlin; but non-
intervention in East Berlin
Economic race to overtake West German
economy falters in 1960
Wall cheap alternative to subsidies by USSR
Conclusion: Division of Germany
Traditional interpretation: Soviet Union is
responsible
Revisionist interpretation: USA are mainly
responsible
Post-revisionist interpretation: both sides
are responsible

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:21
posted:3/8/2011
language:English
pages:23