Christian Practitioner by gjjur4356


									                                                   Spring 2007


      F A I T H   A N D   P R A C T I C E
      A Joint Publication of CMDS and EMAS

and the
                                       FOCUS, Spring 2007   1
                        N e w s b i t s

    New Contact Information
                                                for CMDS and EMAS
                       CMDS National Office
                       Unit B, 246 Main Street
                      Steinbach, MB R5G 1Y8
                            Tel: 204-326-2523
                            Fax: 204-326-3098
                      Toll-free: 1-888-256-8653
                                   Ellen Watson
                                 Director of Administration
                                                              EMAS National Office
                       Roger Gingerich MD
                      CMDS Executive Director                30–5155 Spectrum Way
                                 Mississauga, ON L4W 5A1
                        Tel: 204-346-0578                        Tel: 905-625-4457
                                                                 Fax: 905-625-1812
                             Marilyn Wieler
                                                             Toll-free: 1-866-648-0664
                           Executive Assistance     

EMAS seeking part-time Director of Development
Following the recent joint decision of EMAS and CMDS to separate their office and administrative
functions, the Board of EMAS has chosen to form a leadership team consisting of a Director of
Administration, a Director of China Projects and a Director of Development. We are very pleased that
Ellen Watson has accepted the position of Director of Administration and Dr. Walter Woo, the Director of
China Projects. We are now seeking to fill the position of Director of Development.

This position will initially be a 2-day per week commitment with responsibility for existing team support
and encouragement, and the development of new projects around the world. The Director of
Development will also be responsible for the communications strategy of EMAS and the development and
nurturing of relationships with EMAS partners both overseas and within Canada.

If you or someone you know is interested in this position, please see the EMAS website at or contact Ellen Watson at the EMAS National Office for more information, 905-

2     FOCUS, Spring 2007                                                     News Items Continued on page 9
                                  Focus                                    Magazine
                                                Spring 2007, Volume 27, Number 2

FOCUS MAGAZINE EDITORIAL BOARD                   In this issue
R. Wayne Elford, MD, Calgary, AB                 FEATURE ARTICLES
Francis Christian, MD, Edmonton, AB                War and the Christian Doctor      Paul Duchastel, MD CCFP          6
EDITORIAL BOARD                                    Human Conflict                    Francis Christian, MD           16
Rita Dahlke MD, Calgary, AB
Dan Hardock, Calgary, AB
Michelle Korvemaker MD, Dorchester, ON           DEPARTMENTS
Pauline Loney, Ajax, ON
Sally Patrick, Ottawa, ON
Shalea Piteau, student, Vancouver, BC
EX-OFFICIO:                                       Francis’ Editorial                 Francis Christian, MD            4
John Palmer, DDS, Abbotsford, BC                  Letters to the Editor              Donald Gibson                   10
President, CMDS                                                                      Randy Friesen, MD               10
Bob Henderson MD, Warkworth, ON,
EMAS Chair
                                                 FAITH IN A CTION
FOCUS MAGAZINE IS PUBLISHED BY                    Service in the Desert              Richard L. Klingler, MD          12
Christian Medical and Dental
Society of Canada                                EMAS I NTERNATIONAL
EMAS Evangelical Medical Aid Society              Risk Ransom & Response             Sally Patrick, MSW              14

PRODUCTION AND DESIGN                            O PINION
Odette Britton, Toronto, ON
                                                  The Iraq War and Christian Faith   Joseph L. Cumming, MPhil        19
FOCUS is published regularly. Material for
publication should be submitted to the
                                                  Just War, As It Was and Is         John Patrick, MD                23
Editor. We encourage all readers to
participate as we endeavour to make this a       C REATIVE E XPRESSION
truly national Canadian Christian expression
as well as a medium for exchange of                You Are There for Me              Geoff Saroea, MD                25
news concerning CMDS and EMAS
activities at home and around the world.         O PPORTUNITY FOR S ERVICE
Contributions are welcome from graduates
and students, particularly those in medicine      Missions Opportunities             Shalea Piteau                   18
and dentistry. Subscriptions are available at
$20 per year.
                                                 R EADERSHIP S URVEY
Publications Mail Agreement No 2295938
                                                   Reading Focus                     Rita Dahlke, MD                 26
FOCUS articles reflect the beliefs and
interpretation of the authors and do not         N EWS I TEMS
necessarily reflect the official positions
of CMDS or EMAS.
                                                   Newsbits                                                            2
                                                   From the desk of the CMDS
 Cover Image          Norman Bethune,              Executive Director                Roger Gingerich, MD               8
                      pioneer Canadian             Newsflash—Order of Canada                                           9
                      thoracic surgeon &
                      battlefield innovator,
                      originator of the
                      mobile blood trans-                     Our websites have moved. Please visit:
                      fusion & treatment          OR
                      unit. Forerunner of
                                                                                                        FOCUS, Spring 2007   3
                      today’s MASH units.

                                    he latest issue of the           and describes an interpretation of
                                    Canadian Association of          the “just war” theory, originally
                                    General Surgeons (CAGS)          attributed to St. Augustine.
                             Newsletter landed on my desk last
                             week. Latest in a series of             Our other official language—
                             solicitations by our armed forces,      French, is one of the several
                             the headline on its front page was      attributes that make us uniquely
                             bold and catchy: “Your Country          Canadian. How fitting then, that we
                             Needs You.” General surgeons            should find representation for this
                             were desperately in demand, and         beautiful language in Focus
                             were being implored to sign up for
                                                                     magazine. Focus has many French
                             duty in Afghanistan.                    readers and CMDS has many
     Editorial               Physicians of course, have a role       bilingual and French members.
                                                                     Paul Duchastel's article appears in
                             completely compatible with their
                             calling in a time of war—they           both English and French for the
                             provide succor and help to the          first time in Focus and addresses
                             injured, the sick and the needy on      the burning issue of how any
                             and off the battlefield. Such has       physician and especially a Christian

    English and              been the experience of Col. Klingler,
                             a U.S. army physician, whose article
                                                                     physician should conduct
                                                                     himself/herself in a time of war.
                             appears later in this issue.            War brutalizes and desensitizes

    French for               War, however, is a profoundly
                             moral issue, as the opinion article
                                                                     even the ordinary citizen, and
                                                                     physicians do not escape its
                             by Joseph Cumming of Yale               influence. As the Lancet and New
                                                                     England Journal of Medicine
the first time               University points out—people are
                             killed in the thousands, most of        pointed out to us,1,2,3 physicians
                             them innocent bystanders, civilians     have been implicated as
                             and non-ideologically driven            participants/facilitators in torture in
         in Focus            soldiers. It behooves the Christian
                             physician to have his or her own
                                                                     Iraq and Cuba. Whilst such conduct
                                                                     met with wide condemnation from
                             strong, moral position on this          the international medical
                             powerful moral issue—just as most       community, Paul Duchastel's article
                             of us at CMDS have our own,             will serve as a guiding light and
                             clear, pro-life views on abortion.      beacon to Christian physicians
                                                                     involved in the relief of suffering in
                             We cannot de-Christianize those
                                                                     a time of war.
                             who differ from us and whilst Focus
     Dr. Francis Christian   magazine will not sit on the fence      This editor has a personal story to
     is a surgeon in         in one of the profound moral issues     relate. Whilst intensely studying the
     Edmonton, a CMDS        of our time, it is nevertheless         New Testament as a medical
     member and a            committed to providing a forum for      student, I became a pacifist for a
     member of the Focus                                             time. Only for a time, because as I
                             differing (and sometimes opposite)
     Editorial Board.                                                learned more and more of the
                             viewpoints from fellow Christians.
                             Only thus can we make the               horrors and terrors of the
                             magazine lively, interesting,           Holocaust, I was convinced that
                             practical and current. John             Hitler had to be stopped.
                             Patrick's article is placed alongside   It is a sobering fact, however, that
                             the article by Joseph Cumming,          early Christians completely
4     FOCUS, Spring 2007

eschewed war, as the selection of        are some of the questions that I
quotations in the “Human Conflict”       hope you will contemplate as you
article will show. This is to be         read this issue of Focus.
expected, from leaders of the early
                                         The old, well loved hymn “Crown
                                                                                  Can Christians
Church, who sought to follow the
commands of Jesus literally and
                                         Him with Many Crowns” has this
                                                                                  be pro-life and
completely. Thus, “love your
enemies,” actually meant exactly         “Crown Him the Lord of peace,            pro-war at the
that to the early Christians.
Nowadays, new recruits to the
                                         Whose power a scepter sways
                                         From pole to pole, that wars may
                                                                                  same time?
armed forces are taught the              cease, and all be prayer and praise.
equivalent of: “your duty is not to      His reign shall know no end, and
love the enemy. But to kill the poor     round His piercèd feet
bastard.”4 The Augustinian “just
war” theory makes killing an             Fair flowers of paradise extend, their
exceptional recourse, under very         fragrance ever sweet.”
strict conditions. Christians cannot     Or, the prayer of E. Stanley Jones,
glibly march to war or indeed talk       the great missionary to India, could
glibly of the horrors of war. Our        be our prayer too:                       REFERENCES:
battle is a timeless one for Truth and                                            _____________
Peace and winning people for             “O Christ, I know where I should
Jesus, but not fought with cudgels,      begin. I should begin at Thee. Like      1. Abu Ghraib: its legacy for military
                                         Peter, when I take my eyes off              medicine. Miles SH. The Lancet–
swords and cannon.                                                                   Vol. 364, Issue 9435, 21 August
                                         Thee, I sink into the moral morass
Life, after it is born, is as precious                                               2004, Pages 725–729
                                         of the hour. Help me to see Thee;
as life in the womb. So can              then I shall see clearly the moral       2. How complicit are doctors in abuses
Christians be pro-life and pro-war at    issues of the passing hour. Help me         of detainees? Leader, The Lancet–
the same time? Or is this oxymoron       to see war clearly. Amen.” 5                Vol. 364, Issue 9435, 21 August
a fitting description of many who are                                                2004, Pages 637–638
“Old Testament Christians,” and not                         Amen indeed!
                                                                                  3. Doctors and Torture: NEJM Volume
“New Testament Christians?” These
                                                                                     351:415–416 , July 29, 2004

                                                                                  4. Personal communication from
                                                                                     infantry commander, who was
      Editorial Post-Script                                                          paraphrasing Gen. Patton's speech:
       Francis Christian...                                                          “--------------Now I want you to
                                                                                     remember that no bastard ever won the guest editor for this edition of Focus. During the                  a war by dying for his country. You
       transitional period for the recruitment of a new CMDS and                     won it by making the other poor
       EMAS executive director and a new Focus editor, both boards                   dumb bastard die for his country.”
       have adopted the pattern of “rotating guest editorship among                  (Gen Patton to the United States
       members of the editorial board.”                                              Third Army–May 31, 1944)

                                                                                  5. E. Stanley Jones in the daily reader,
       During this interim phase...
                                                                                     “The Way.”
       Ellen Watson, Odette Britton and myself will continue to
       provide the technical, formatting and layout support.

       Wayne Elford, Editor in Chief

                                                                                     FOCUS, Spring 2007          5
                                                                                    War and the
                                                                      Christian Doctor

                                                           La guerre et le
                                                    médecin chrétien
                                                                                     Paul Duchastel, MD CCFP

    The Christian physician has no enemies.                      War and the Christian Physician
    Le médecin chrétien n'a pas d'ennemis.                         The Christian physician follows the Great Physician,
                                                                 Jesus of Nazareth. Whatever theology, ritual or
                                                                 denomination, he/she accepts the teachings of the Master
    War and the Doctor                                           on Peace, but especially on Grace. C.S. Lewis said that
      As Hippocrates antedated Christ, it is fitting to start    what characterized Christianity was Grace. In “What's so
    with the construct of the doctor—any doctor—and the          amazing about Grace?” Philip Yancey tells us that grace
    question of war. The oath of Hippocrates, which most of      is given freely to every one. Therefore also to our
    us take on graduating, posits that whatever we do must       enemies. To accept grace also implies the passage,
    be for the benefit of the patient not the doctor.            “Forgive us our offenses as we forgive those who have
                                                                 offended us.”
      The Latin admonishment “primum non nocere” posits
    that we shall first “do no harm.” These are the parameters     The Christian physician has no enemies, everyone is
    of our actions as physicians and surgeons.                   under God's grace and he/she should reflect this attitude
                                                                 with everyone including patients, collaborators and
      WAR, a three-letter word, has been a human activity of     superiors. Nobody deserves grace hence nobody can be
    primordial importance since the beginning of time.           judgmental. The Christian physician therefore lives to
    Unfortunately, technology has made war horrible in the       the high humanistic ideal of Hippocrates but also radiates
    past 100 years.                                              grace to all—non-judgmental ever.
      Most people detest and oppose war but have no                He/she carries on his/her work knowing full well that
    recourse when government propaganda presents war as          God is the one who dispenses grace and if he/she radiates
    necessary and yes, even “glorious.” And any criticism of     grace, he/she is participating in God's work of grace.
    the war is a “lack of solidarity with our troops.”           Jesus healed the Romans and the Jews, the tax collectors
      The physician, in bringing succor and his/her art to       and the prostitutes, the woman married five times and the
    combatants and non-combatants, allies and enemies,
    presents an image of humanism at its highest. When
    Henri Dunant founded the Red Cross in 1901, this was
    the ideal. And bombing Red Cross, Red Crescent, or Red
    Star is considered a crime against humanity. So the
    physician whether in or out of uniform, follows the
    dictates of needs and does not discriminate against
    anyone, giving preference to the weakest. His/her
    vocation is to suffering humanity.

    Paul Duchastel is a member of CMDS and a
    generalist physician practicing in Toronto, ON.
6   FOCUS, Spring 2007 preference to the
   weakest. His/her vocation
    is to suffering humanity.
adulterous woman, the lepers (modern leprosy is HIV),
the rich and the poor, He asked His father to forgive the
Romans and the Jews and each of us who crucified him.
Have we forgiven the “enemy?” Have we forgiven
ourselves and let grace transform our lives?

The Christian Physician as Prophet
                                                              qui la présente comme nécessaire et même comme
   When I went to Washington at the beginning of The          glorieuse! Toute critique de la guerre est dénoncée
International Coalition of Physicians against nuclear War     comme « un manque d'appui envers nos troupes. »
in March 1981, we were presented with the medical
model: War as a disease, nuclear war as the terminal            Le médecin, apportant l'aide de son art aux
illness for the planet. (The group won the Nobel Peace        combattants et aux non-combattants, aux alliés et aux
prize in 1985).                                               ennemis, présente la plus haute image de l'idéal
                                                              humaniste. Voilà l'idéal proposé par Henri Dunant, en
  But a medical model cannot save you from despair.           fondant la Croix-Rouge en 1901, au point tel que de
Only grace can. The world needs grace to have the hope        bombarder un hôpital portant la Croix-Rouge, le
that we can trust our neighbours, so that we do not need      Croissant-Rouge ou l'Étoile Rouge constitue un des pires
weapons or armies or missiles.                                crimes de guerre. Ainsi le médecin, militaire ou civil,
   The world needs hope that people will help each other      cherche les besoins et traite tous sans égards à la
if they are living in grace. The world needs the Good         condition, donnant la préférence aux plus faibles.
News. The Christian physician can reflect that hope in        Sa vocation le tourne vers l'humanité souffrante.
the positive attitude of grace and in adopting a lifestyle
that needs no weapons. The Christian physician,               La guerre et le médecin chrétien
knowing what needs to be done, does it, and thus is a           Le médecin chrétien suit le grand Médecin—Jésus de
model for patients, collaborators, children, friends. Even    Nazareth. Indépendamment de toute théologie personnelle,
when they do not agree, they learn it can be done. Thus       de tout rituel ou de toute affiliation dénominationnelle, le
does the physician become a Prophet of Grace.                 médecin chrétien accepte les enseignements de Jésus sur la
                                                              paix et surtout sur la grâce. « La chrétienté se caractérise
                                                              par la grâce » a dit C.S. Lewis.
                                                                Dans son livre, « What's so Amazing about Grace, »
La guerre et le médecin                                       Philip Yancey nous dit que la grâce est donnée
                                                              GRATUITEMENT à TOUS. Donc aussi à nos
  Le serment d'Hippocrate, bien avant le Christ, nous         « ennemis. » Accepter la grâce c'est d'accepter le passage
oblige à faire tout ce qui est nécessaire pour le bien du     « Pardonnez-nous nos offenses comme nous pardonnons
patient; bien plus, le diktat latin « primum non nocere »     à ceux qui nous ont offensé. » Le médecin chrétien n'a
nous impose une obligation de ne jamais nuire au patient.     pas d'ennemis car tout le monde à recours à la grâce de
Voilà les paramètres que nous avons juré de respecter         Dieu et il/elle reflétera cette attitude avec tous ses
comme médecins et chirurgiens.                                patients, ses collaborateurs et ses supérieurs.
  La guerre—activité humaine de plus haute importance            Personne ne mérite la grâce, donc personne ne peut
à l'humanité depuis les débuts des temps. Une activité        juger un autre. Ainsi le médecin chrétien accomplit
que le Livre de L'Ecclésiaste banalise en disant : « Il y a   l'idéal humaniste élevé d'Hippocrate mais rayonne la
un temps pour la guerre, et un temps pour la paix. » Le       grâce de Dieu à tous. Jamais il/elle ne juge. Le médecin
texte implique une NORMALITÉ pour ce cycle. Hélas,            chrétien accomplit son travail sachant très bien que Dieu
depuis 100 ans, la technologie guerrière est devenue          seul dispense la grâce et que son reflet de la grâce
HORRIBLE.                                                     souligne sa participation à l'œuvre de grâce de Dieu.
  La plupart des gens ont horreur de la guerre, mais ont
peu de recours devant la propagande gouvernementale                                                  (Suite en page 8)
                                                                                                       FOCUS, Spring 2007    7
            from fromofthe                   ...
                 the desk the CMDS Executive Director                     desk
"The Way Forward"                          There is something about         Thus, before we know it, a unit of time has moved past
                                           the wilderness that never      us with the speed of a seasonal change like spring turning
CMDS in 2010                               ceases to inspire me.          into summer or noticing that your children have grown
                                           Manitoba and North             out of their clothes. Where did the time go?
                               Western Ontario have many such
                                                                            No one should be surprised when we read in the
                               areas. The glacial shield attracted me
                                                                          scripture that a day is like a thousand years to our Lord.
                               so strongly that I willingly left the
                                                                          He lives in a realm where time has lost its power.
                               populated region of my birth, and
                               without a second thought, moved to         Goals to reach for
                               an area where I could immerse myself
                               in this vast, beautiful, vibrant wilder-      But time is real here in the realm of our lives. Thus we
                               ness. One of my greatest joys is           need to make the most of it. As your new Executive
                               sitting quietly and observing nature as    Director, I am acutely aware of time slipping through my
                               it ignores and then surrounds and          fingers! Unless I am careful, months could go by without
                               finally engulfs me. It is at this point    significant progress or direction.
                               that I am reminded that nature is like       I have had the privilege of speaking at several venues
                               time. It is busy, and vibrant, and real.   articulating the goals I have set out to achieve based on
                               But unless one stops and notices, it       the mandate of the Executive Committee and the aims of
                               will silently move away until one day      the Constitution. In broad strokes, these goals are to
                               it is gone.
                                                                                                           Continued on page 24

La guerre                                                                 médecins contre la guerre nucléaire en mars 1981, à
et le médecin chrétien                                                    Washington, DC, le Professeur Étienne Lebel et moi
                                                                          étions sceptiques à l'idée que la guerre était une maladie
Suite de la page précédente                                               et la guerre nucléaire la maladie terminale et que le
                                                                          modèle médical allait sauver le monde. (Ce groupe se vit
                                                                          octroyer le prix Nobel de la paix en 1985).
                                          Le médecin                        Le modèle médical ne peut vous sauver du désespoir.
                                           adopte un                      La grâce seule peut le faire. Le monde a besoin de grâce
                                                                          pour avoir l'espoir de pouvoir avoir confiance en ses
                                          train de vie                    voisins, afin que nous n'ayons nul besoin d'armes,
                                                                          d'armées ou de missiles. Le monde a besoin de croire en
                                         qui nécessite                    la capacité des gens a surmonter ces problèmes par la
                                                                          grâce. Le monde a besoin de la Bonne Nouvelle. Le
                                         aucune arme.                     médecin chrétien reflète cet espoir par une attitude d'être
                                                                          en grâce.
              Jésus guérit des Romains et des Juifs, des collecteurs        Le médecin adopte un train de vie qui nécessite aucune
           d'impôts et des prostituées, une femme mariée cinq fois        arme. Le médecin chrétien, sachant ce qu'il/qu’elle doit
           et la femme adultère, les lépreux (en moderne les              faire, le fait et devient ainsi un modèle pour ses patients,
           sidatiques), les riches et les pauvres; il demande à Son       ses collaborateurs, ses enfants et ses amis. Même s'ils ne
           père de pardonner à Ses tortionnaires romains et juifs et      sont pas d'accords, ils apprennent que c'est faisable.
           à nous aussi pécheurs. Leur avons nous aussi pardonnés,
           nous sommes nous pardonnés pour laisser la grâce                 Ainsi le médecin chrétien devient un prophète
           transformer notre vie?                                         de grâce.
           Le médecin chrétien comme prophète
             Lors de la fondation de la Coalition internationale des      Paul Duchastel est membre de CMDS et médecin
                                                                          généraliste à Toronto, ON.
     8    FOCUS, Spring 2007
                         N e w s f l a s h

Dr. Bob Stephens
Awarded the Order                                                                                                Dr. Bob
                                                                                                                 speaking with

of Canada
                                                                                                                 the Governor

                                                                                         Order of

         r. Bob Stephens, the former Executive                                           medal
         Director of both CMDS and EMAS was
         awarded membership in the Order of                  Bob and his late wife, Ruth, left Toronto in 1950 and
Canada at Government House on May 4th 2007. The           built Nyankunde Hospital in northeastern Congo. Over
Order of Canada recognizes outstanding achievement        time this hospital grew to be a major referral centre
                                                          serving over five million residents of that part of the
and service in various fields and is Canada's highest
                                                          country. In 2002, the hospital was totally destroyed in the
honour for lifetime achievement. Bob's award is for       tribal war that raged in that region of what was then
voluntary work in health care. He says that he            Zaire. (See previous issue of Focus.) After returning from
accepts the award on behalf of all the “unsung            Africa in 1960, many mission organizations referred
heroes” who devote their lives to the physical and        prospective and returning missionaries to Bob for health
spiritual healing of those less fortunate in the world.   care and training. Seeing this need, he then founded the
                                                          Missionary Health Institute in Toronto which remains
  Dr. Bob, who held leadership positions in both EMAS     active today. Bob has also served as the Founding Chair
and CMDS for two decades after his return from what       of the Editorial Board for the newsletter of the College of
was then the Belgian Congo, was the Chairman of the       Family Physicians of Canada.
Board of EMAS for many years. In 1985, when both
CMDS and EMAS were looking for an Executive                 Bob is the kind of leader who leads by doing. He has
Director, Bob retired from full-time practice to assume   undertaken many mission trips to China, Cuba, Africa,
the joint-position.                                       the Caribbean and Eastern Europe under the auspices of
                                                          EMAS. He is a true “servant leader.” After 14 trips to
                                                          China, he was granted honourary citizenship in
                                                          recognition of his contribution to public health in that
                              Alfred Chan, Ian Ma         country. Bob has also been on the Board of Health
                              & Bob Stephens.             Partners International, chairing their medical committee.
                              First Ningxia               He developed the original Physicians Travel Pack,
                              mission 1987                familiar to many physicians who now take them on their
                                                          mission trips abroad.
                                                            Bob's only regret is that his lifelong partner Ruth, who
                                                          died in 2006, is not beside him to share in the honour that
                                                          he sees as jointly theirs. “She'd be thrilled…she was my
                                                          right hand and supported me in everything I did.” To
             Living Water                                 Bob and Ruth we all say,
            Project, clean                                       “Congratulations, and well done!”
           water flowing in
          each household.
                                                          Dr. Bob Stephens can be reached at:
                                                                                                    FOCUS, Spring 2007    9
                                                                               your us
                                                                                 We would appreciate
                                                                                    your feedback.
                                Letters                                        We’d really like to hear your
                                                                               comments on the articles in
                                   to the                                      Focus. Please send us a quick
                                                                               e-mail at:
                                                                                  or send your letter to our
                                                                                      National Office.

     Re: Focus, Winter 2007 Issue                                              actually perform for the
     Practitioners and Personal Relationships—Balancing Real Life              individual? What accountability
                                                                               measures are in place?
     Just a comment that I felt like sharing when I read this number—It is
     a real blessing when God's children are prepared to open their lives      Competition is not, ipso facto,
     in fellowship to explain how our Lord has dealt with them, or helped      the best or only motivation
     them in some of life's difficult times. Thank you.                        towards good performance (but
                                                                               it is one very effective way). I
                                                             Donald Gibson
                                                                               recall marveling at Russians
                                                                               who stood in line for hours to
                                                                               get a loaf of bread. The reason
                                                                               was simple: the system neither
                                                                               rewarded success, nor punished
                                                                               failure. Our healthcare system
     Re: Focus, Fall 2006 Issue                                                now makes people wait in line
     Governing Health—The Ethics of Medicare, by David Swann                   for months for necessary
                                                                               procedures. Surely some
     First, I thank Dr. Swann for         profits, or from the endless
                                                                               accountability is in order.
     making the effort to apply           healthcare workers' pursuit of
     himself and his faith to the         higher wages and greater             The evil of corporate and
     interface between the physician      benefits (i.e., personal profit),    individual greed manifests itself
     and the system. This interface       needs to be debated.                 in our society on an almost daily
     becomes interaction in the lives                                          basis; however, it is easily
                                          Third, I think he is naive in
     of many physicians every day                                              matched by the perversity of
                                          assuming that political control
     as we pursue the meaning of                                               political influence! Recent
                                          over the administration of
     glorifying our Creator through                                            personal experiences come to
                                          healthcare brings about better
     our work.                                                                 mind. Example 1: A local MLA
                                          accountability than corporate
                                                                               (provincial government rep.)
     Second, I acknowledge that           control. In the corporate model,
                                                                               admits that funding formulas for
     business principles gravely          one can shop around for better
                                                                               health regions are determined,
     threaten to overtake the real        care, if one is dissatisfied. In a
                                                                               not by the data, but by the
     business of medicine. Whether        monopolistic model, such as
                                                                               number of reps the region has
     the greatest threat comes from       Canada's, the consumer has no
                                                                               in the government caucus.
     the endless insurance                ability to do so. What incentive
                                                                               Example 2: A cancer treatment
     companies (pursuit of corporate      is there for the system to
                                                                               agency (with a monopoly on
10   FOCUS, Spring 2007
cancer care) has waiting times         security and advancement are          fascism, serve us better in
for treatment that fall well           achieved through budget               healthcare than it has in
outside recognized guidelines,         reduction; performance                politics?
but because admitting this             benchmarks almost never take
                                                                             I encourage my brother to seek
publicly would be politically          into account factors important to
                                                                             solutions that respect both
damaging, it refuses to release        either physicians or their
                                                                             collective and individual rights,
data on waiting times. Example         patients (i.e., wait times for
                                                                             in balance. I encourage him to
3: Patients who call their MLA         care, access to resources,
                                                                             recognize that large for-profit
get their waiting times for cancer     security of services, etc.) The
                                                                             corporations are not the only
care shortened. (Etc., etc.)           physician's only recourse
                                                                             alternative to the present
                                       becomes political involvement,
Is there any way to put into                                                 government monopoly. Many
                                       because that is where the big
words the utter anguish and                                                  community-based organizations
                                       decisions are made. A corollary
frustration such manipulation                                                (such as, historically, the
                                       follows: any critique of the
promotes among caring                                                        churches) could run healthcare
                                       present system constitutes
providers? How do I answer a                                                 (perhaps an economic model
                                       critique of government, and is
patient who confronts me                                                     would be the credit unions),
                                       therefore a political statement.
because, three months after I                                                providing the accountability to
                                       Thus all change becomes
referred her for cancer                                                      minority groups and individuals
                                       politically threatening.
treatment, she still has no                                                  which seems so lacking in our
confirmed start date for adjuvant      I encourage Dr. Swann to              present system.
therapy, knowing that she is           continue to seek to apply Micah
now outside the window when            6:8 in the political sphere.
such treatments are most               However, I believe that an                          Randy Friesen, MD
effective?                             exclusive focus on “legislated
                                       equality” constitutes a form of
There are moments when the                                                      See Fall ‘07 issue of Focus
                                       communism. Will communism,
thought of a cold-eyed                                                         for David Swann’s response.
                                       now almost universally
corporate monster coming to
                                       recognized as a shortcut to
town warms my heart (at least I
would know the bottom line with
those folks, whereas with the            Focus Editorial Policy
politicos, one never seems to
know who makes the big                   Focus: Faith and Practice Magazine
decisions, or why. It seems that a joint publication of the Christian Medical and Dental Society
short of bold political stands, the      (CMDS) and the Evangelical Medical Aid Society (EMAS) both of
current “system,” like all large         whom have Statements of Faith that hold to an orthodox Christian
systems, ignores issues outside          understanding of Jesus Christ and essential Biblical truths.
its own set of priorities.               Our readers are students, practitioners, retired health care
                                         professionals and others concerned with contemporary issues
Dr. Swann's model assumes the
                                         relating to Christianity and health care.
integrity of the political process.
It denies the reality of the             The purpose of Focus
compassionate physician (which  to act as a forum in which Christian health care
I strive to be), who finds that his      professionals may exchange information and experiences to
greatest obstacle in providing           encourage one another in the integration of their Christian faith
timely care is “politics.” Political     and practice.
reputations and voter                    For more information on our policy, please go to:
sensibilities outweigh clinical
and ethical concerns.
At the administrative level, job                                                               FOCUS, Spring 2007   11
     Faith in Action

       in the Desert
     Excerpts from the
     journal of an army
     medical corpsman.
                          by Richard L. Klingler, MD

     There are many Christians who
     serve in the Canadian, U.S. and
     other armed forces. The Editor's
     own father was a Christian Naval
     surgeon. The present chief of the
     British army, Sir Richard Dannatt
     is an openly professing Christian.

     Col. Klingler is a U.S. army
     physician who has served two              One by one, all members of the       Force Protection info was given—
     tours in Iraq. As his story shows,      battalion encircled our small “Band    suddenly, the desiccated saliva in
                                             of Brothers” and cluster of convoy     my throat grew to a dry, furry mass
     the work of God is being
                                             vehicles—they had, without being       the size of a tennis ball; swallowing
     powerfully carried forward even         ordered, chosen to wish us safe        failed to ameliorate the choking
     in one the grimmest, most terrible      passage on our sojourn to Iraq. As     sensation.
     places on earth—the battlefield.        the Chaplain prayed, we all
                                             wondered if our souls were ready
                                                                                    As the Chaplain prayed,

         t was 3:00 a.m. Although the        should HE request an inventory of
         sun's rays had retreated hours      our lives.                              we all wondered if our
         before, its hot breath refused to      My army unit was being tasked
     dissipate from the steppes of           for a mission in Iraq. That morning,
                                                                                    souls were ready should
     Kuwait's Ad Dibdibah plain. The
     heat attacked us from all sides.
                                             I prepared to move out with a small    HE request an inventory
                                             lead element that was to recon-
     Airborne sandy powder hung above        noiter an area where the main body           of our lives.
     us and dimmed lights as if in a         would relocate to—our destination
     London fog.                             was Ad Diwaniyah, Iraq. This was         Why was I there—in Kuwait—
                                             south of Babylon where civiliza-       and now heading for Iraq???
     Richard L. Klingler MD LTC MC USAR      tion had begun.                        Collectively, that question was
     COL. U.S. Army Medical Corps              Intelligence briefings warned that   infecting us all. In retrospect, I
     U.S. Army 310th MP Battalion            insurgents had been active along the   believe God had had a hand in my
     Ad Diwaniyah, Iraq                      route we were to travel. Appropriate   being allowed to serve, in the
12   FOCUS, Spring 2007
                                                                                   Faith in Action

military, in a time of war. Although
a 9mm pistol hung from my belt,
HE allowed me to serve HIM, and
the Army, without it ever leaving its
sand encrusted holster.
   The sun, a most unwelcome fiery
orb, soon began its westward migra-
tion, and our vehicles, pregnant with
supplies, groped the sizzling hard-
ball with the speed of a glacier. Each
glance, from right to left, recorded a
cerebral picture as vivid as a 10
billion pixel image…..charred tank
skeletons, gun emplacements that
had lost their duels with “smart
bombs,” breached sandy berms and
towns with masses of children            high-tech as it got. The battalion        fly infested cells that reeked.
acknowledging us with smiles and         medics were tapped to minister to         Individuals from Al Queda, Hamas,
thumbs up gestures.                      wounded Iraqis, and Islamic               Baath Party, along with street crim-
                                         insurgents, in the city prison.           inals were all crammed into swel-
                                                                                   tering cells. All seemed to have an
Working out of a canvas                     Upon arriving at our destina-
                                                                                   eclectic array of maladies—
                                         tion—Camp Edson—the U.S.
                                                                                   infected bayonet/ gunshot wounds,
 M-5 aid bag was as                      Marines greeted us and did all they
                                                                                   abscesses, burns and festering,
                                         could to assist us in our mission.
  high-tech as it got.                   Soon, a dedicated Iraqi physician
                                                                                   maggot laden sores.
                                         showed up at the compound gate               Administering whatever antibiotics
  Although I was tasked to keep our      and asked for our assistance. The         we had to the sick would have
battalion's health in check, my real     city hospital was critically low on       triggered a peer review investigation,
job was waiting for me up the road.      medicine and supplies. After              in the U.S.; however, there, by God's
My itinerary was prepared by GOD,        visiting the local hospital, I realized   hand, no matter what was used
and the Army afforded the venue.         that GOD was again involved in my         afforded improvement; and the
Serving in a fixed base, air-            odyssey.                                  wounds healed. Despite the heat,
conditioned “C.A.S.H” hospital                                                     sweat, filth and flies, seeing the
                                           Although not officially sanctioned,
(where everyone wore daily fresh                                                   prisoners' smiles, on our daily rounds,
                                         the medics “procured” a huge cache
fatigue uniforms) was NOT TO BE.                                                   made me believe that what was being
                                         of medical supplies. Daily, we made
Instead, I was to travel, eat, sleep                                               done, as crude as it seemed, was
                                         our way to the hospital where the
and suffer with a line unit. Working                                               appreciated—again, GOD was there.
                                         medicines were received with smiles
out of a canvas M-5 aid bag was as       of biblical proportions. That Iraqi         My tour of duty eventually came
                                                      hospital was choked by       to a close. My exit from Iraq was in
                                                      a sea of desperate           the belly of a Marine helicopter.
                                                      souls—limbless, weak,        After lift off, I gazed down at the
                                                      filthy and dying;            barren, lifeless-appearing desert and
                                                      looking into their eyes      reflected on my mission—I was
                                                      told vivid stories about     blessed to have served my country,
                                                      how miserable things         fellow soldiers and the wounded
                                                      had been.                    enemy. Somehow I know that our
                                                                                   efforts made a difference.
                                                          Work at the prison
                                                       was grueling, hot, frus-      (Since this article was written,
                                                       trating and endless.        Col. Klingler has been back to Iraq
                                                       Within     its     sand     for a second tour of duty.)
                                                       coloured walls were
                                                                                                      FOCUS, Spring 2007     13
     EMAS International

                                                                                       Missions work
                                                                                          in times of
                                                & Response
        Zaïrean refugee                                                                     by Sally Patrick, MSW

     An overview of the                       Today the Canadian military, the US      theft of personal and mission funds.
                                              military and others all offer medical    In none of these situations did I have
     development of the EMAS                  aid in war torn areas whilst at the      an emergency response plan in place.
     emergency response plan.                 same time being involved in the          Today, ten years later, such a plan is
                                              conflict itself. Mission teams no        imperative. Most aid agencies are

               issions and conflict do not    longer stand clearly apart from          quite clear in their refusal to pay
               seem to fit well together;     military action when offering            ransoms in hostage taking events but
               or do they? Have you ever      medical aid. We may still know and       we can and must do more to protect
     wondered what happens to mission         feel that we are neutral but in the      our mission teams.
     teams in war zones? The need for         countries where we work there will
                                                                                         We believe in prayer. We know that
     medical aid, clean water, shelter and    be those who identify us with the
                                                                                       God directs our going out and our
     the gospel becomes acute, even           aims and behaviour of the military.
                                                                                       coming in. We know that all things
     overwhelming. Public response            We cannot avoid antagonism and
                                                                                       work together for good to those who
     increases tenfold in times of crisis     hostility even whilst offering aid to
                                                                                       are called according to his purpose,
     and missions are compelled to            all in need.
                                                                                       that nothing happens by chance and
     continue their work, often relocating      In many areas, as we double our        that God knows our every need. Yet,
     to areas of greatest need and danger.    efforts to meet the need and bring in    we may also face situations of
     It has been said that catastrophes and   more aid, our mission teams become       extreme danger where the outcome is
     war enable many aid organizations        more of a target. Each year              uncertain in human terms.
     to survive because of donor              thousands of robberies, hold-ups
     generosity at such times. EMAS does                                                  EMAS has an operational frame-
                                              and break-ins occur on mission
     not usually work in war zones and                                                 work for emergency situations. The
                                              compounds. According to a United
     yet we believe that, as an overseas                                               information provided to the EMAS
                                              Nations Report, 22–40 aid workers
     mission organization, we need to be                                               National Office and the precautions
                                              are killed each year around the
     prepared for emergencies.                                                         taken with our teams result in an
                                              world whilst on duty. This figure
                                                                                       organized, efficient response to
       The nature and perception of           does not include road accidents.
                                                                                       emergencies. Team protection is
     missions has changed over the last         Africa remains the riskiest part of    obviously our priority as is the
     twenty years. It used to be possible     the world in which to work. During       protection of EMAS as an organiza-
     to guarantee protection for mission      the eight years from the late 1980s to   tion. Our future work depends very
     teams because they were known to         1996, I was involved in many             much on how we deal with an emer-
     be politically neutral. This option of   emergency situations in Central          gency on the field involving a
     neutrality is no longer open to us.      Africa, including a coup in Burundi,     mission team. EMAS mission teams
                                              the Rwandan refugee situation in         are required to carry more than one
     Sally Patrick, an aid worker, is         Congo, being shot at, vehicle            cell phone per team. Medical insur-
     an EMAS representative on the            accidents and break downs,               ance is essential, although we
     Focus Editorial Board.                   bombardment, almost daily military       recognize that insurance may be
14   FOCUS, Spring 2007                       hold-ups, military interrogation and     cancelled in some areas of the world
                                                                      EMAS International

today. We ask mission teams to            outbreak of hostilities. Before depar-
assign one team member to the             ture, there will be a profile of each
pastoral care of the team, a task that    host country at the National Office,
becomes of paramount importance           giving details of the terrain, political
during an emergency.                      situation and security risks the team
                                          is likely to meet. These country
  More travellers overseas die in
                                          profiles are maintained by the
road accidents than from any other
                                          National Office and remain in
cause of death. Car maintenance is a
                                          Canada. They are verified by the
problem in most parts of the world
                                          team leader before departure. In
and so we ask our teams to check
                                          addition, the team leader provides
the state of their vehicle's tires                                                                          Stuck in Chad
                                          the National Office with each team
before undertaking a journey in
                                          member's personal information,
their host country. We ask that they                                                 team leader is usually the person
                                          including passport details, insur-
look at the wheel nuts every day                                                     who alerts the National Office of an
                                          ance,     and     itineraries.     This
since they frequently loosen on poor                                                 emergency and maintains communi-
                                          information is specific to the mission
roads. A valid driver's licence and                                                  cation throughout the emergency
                                          trip in progress.
vehicle insurance is taken for                                                       and response plan. He/she is the
granted in Canada, but most of the                                                   person to communicate advice and
world is less able to afford such                                                    direction from the National Office
things; hence the standard of driving                                                to the mission team. Any type of
competence is variable.                                                              emergency necessitates an analysis
                                                                                     of the crisis in the light of the data
   It is easy to neglect team orienta-
                                                                                     given to the National Office prior to
tion in the host country. As a safety
                                                                                     departure. An appropriate response
measure, it is always beneficial to
                                                                                     level is then determined—red for
study a local map, however out of
                                                                                     high alert, orange for moderate, and
date, and essential to know in which
                                                                                     yellow for low alert. Each level has
direction the team is travelling, how
                                             Communication is a key element          its required action. It is always
many hours the journey is expected
                                          to an efficient emergency response.        essential that every team member
to take, and where to find the nearest
                                          Cell phones and the Internet have          complies with the response plan. A
hospital en route. In remote areas, a
                                          revolutionised team missions, but in       curfew may be necessary or it may
first aid kit, extra engine oil and
                                          remote areas we can easily be out of       be necessary to re-locate and re-
brake fluid are a must! The Canadian
                                          range of such things. The GPS satel-       evaluate the situation. Finally the
Embassy or consulate can help in
                                          lite system can be rented quite            emergency response plan may call
emergencies, but only if they know
                                          cheaply before departure and is            for evacuation.
there are Canadians in the country! It
is easy to register on-line.              invaluable. Where cell phones can            Emergencies always come with a
                                          be used, it is important to know           cost. As missions people, we are
  If they have the necessary infor-       whose cell phone works where! A            very good at responding to other
mation, the EMAS National Office          telephone cascade to use in an emer-       people's needs. However, after an
will also help in an emergency,           gency is something to organize             emergency in the field, we ourselves
whether it is a road accident or an       before leaving the country. The            need a supportive de-briefing
                                                                                     process on return to Canada. De-
                                                                                     briefing is part of the EMAS
                                                                                     emergency response plan and is
                                                                                     required for each team member. We
                                                                                     recognize that thorns in the flesh
                                                                                     need to be removed. In the same
                                                                                     way, shock, loss and fear can be
                                                                                     minimized in a well organized
                                                                                     emergency response plan and with
                                                                                     the help of our God whose nature is
                                                                                     always to have mercy.

                               Tents in Zaïre, 1994                                                     FOCUS, Spring 2007    15
                                                                         Teachings from the
                                                                        New Testament and
                                                                      early Christian fathers

                                                      By Francis Christian, MD

            arly Christians completely eschewed war, until the   to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on
            time of Constantine (AD 313). The quotations         the just and on the unjust.”
            below are arranged in chronological order. The
     quotations from the New Testament (KJV) therefore           The Arrest of Jesus—Matt. 26:50–52
     appear first.                                               (See also Mark 14:43–50; Luke 22:47–53;
                                                                 John 18:3–11.)
     Teaching about Revenge—Matt. 5:38–42
                                                                    “And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus
     (See also Luke 6:29–30.)
                                                                 stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, and struck a
       “Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an      servant of the high priest's, and smote off his ear. Then
     eye, and a tooth for a tooth: But I say unto you, That ye   said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his
     resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy      place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with
     right cheek, turn to him the other also. And if any man     the sword.”
     will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him
                                                                   The following quotations are taken from “A Dictionary
     have thy cloak also. And whosoever shall compel thee to
                                                                 of Early Christian Beliefs: A Reference Guide to More
     go a mile, go with him twain. Give to him that asketh
                                                                 Than 700 Topics Discussed by the Early Church
     thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not
                                                                 Fathers,” edited by David W. Bercot (Peabody, MA:
     thou away.”
                                                                 Hendrickson, 1998).
     Love for Enemies—Matt. 5:43–45
                                                                 Ignatius of Antioch
     (See also Luke 6:27–28, 32–36.)
                                                                 (35–110 AD)
        “Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love
                                                                    (Ignatius was the Bishop of Antioch. He is believed to
     thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy. But I say unto you,
                                                                 have been taught by one or more of the original twelve
     Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to
                                                                 disciples of Jesus, likely the apostle John. After Ignatius
     them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully
                                                                 was arrested and while being transported to Rome to be
     use you, and persecute you; That ye may be the children
                                                                 martyred in the Colosseum, he wrote seven letters, six
     of your Father which is in heaven: for He maketh His sun
                                                                 letters to churches (Ephesus, Magnesia, Tralles, Rome,
                                                                 Philadelphia, and Smyrna) and one letter to Polycarp.)
     Dr. Francis Christian is a surgeon in Edmonton,                “Take heed, then, often to come together to give thanks
     a CMDS member and a member of the Focus                     to God, and show forth His praise. For when ye assemble
     Editorial Board.                                            frequently in the same place, the powers of Satan are
                                                                 destroyed, and the destruction at which he aims is
                                                                 prevented by the unity of your faith. Nothing is more
16   FOCUS, Spring 2007
                                                                “We used to be filled with war, mutual slaughter, and
                                                              every kind of wickedness. However, now all of us have,
                                                              throughout the whole earth, changed our warlike
                                                              weapons. We have changed our swords into plowshares,
                                                              and our spears into farming implements.”
                                                                Later in his book, in the chapter, “How Early
                                                              Christianity Was Corrupted,” Bercot (pages 124–126)
                                                              describes what happened after Christianity had been
                                                              implicitly endorsed as the state religion by Emperor
                                                              Constantine in 313 A.D. (Edict of Milan):
                                                                 “The church was like a naïve young girl who had been
                                                              suddenly swept off her feet by a rival suitor. The world
                                                              wanted to be friends with the church, and the church saw
precious than peace, by which all war, both in heaven         no harm in reciprocating...However, the world's
and earth, is brought to an end.”(110 A.D., The Epistle       friendship utterly gutted the very soul of the church...One
of Ignatius to the Ephesians, Chapter XIII)                   of the immediate effects of the church's friendship with
                                                              the world was that it began adopting the world's
Polycarp (69–155 AD)
                                                              methods...For example, the church changed its methods
   (Polycarp was Bishop of Smyrna and is considered one       of coping with persecution and government oppression.
of the apostolic fathers. His writings are some of the        In the past, Christians had to hide or flee from
earliest writings of the Church fathers that have survived.   persecution. They refused to physically fight their
He was the leading Christian figure in the Roman              persecutors or retaliate against them. However, the
province of Asia in the middle of the second century A.D.     crowds of unregenerate persons who had bloated the
In Ephesus, he was a disciple of the Apostle John, who        church weren't about to meekly accept death, torture, or
appointed him to be Bishop of Smyrna. Polycarp's              oppression.
teaching of Jesus' pre-existence and incarnation are
indicative of John's influence. Polycarp was burned at the       For example, when Constantine's son sent one of his
stake for his faith.)                                         generals to Constantinople to depose the church's
                                                              bishop, the congregation formed a
   “He who raised Him up from the dead will raise up us       mob. That night when the general
also, if we do His will, and walk in His commandments,        was asleep, the mob set his lodging
and love what He loved, keeping ourselves from all            house on fire. When he finally ran
unrighteousness, covetousness, love of money, evil            out of the house, dazed and
speaking, falsewitness;” “not rendering evil for evil, or     coughing from the smoke,
railing for railing, or blow for blow, or cursing for         they pounced on him. Then
cursing, but being mindful of what the Lord said in His       they dragged him through
teaching: ‘Judge not, that ye be not judged; forgive, and     the cobblestone streets
it shall be forgiven unto you; be merciful, that ye may       of the city and
obtain mercy; with what measure ye mete, it shall be          savagely beat him to
measured to you again;’and once more, ‘Blessed are the        death. This was no
poor, and those that are persecuted for righteousness'        isolated case; it
sake, for theirs is the kingdom of God.’ (The Epistle of      was the normal
Polycarp to the Philippians, Chapter II)”                     response of
                                                              the fourth
Justin Martyr (100–165 AD)                                    century
  (Justin Martyr was a Palestinian philosopher who was        church
converted to Christianity, which he described as “the         to
only sure and worthy philosophy.” One of the most
venerated of early Christian philosophers, he traveled to
Rome where he wrote several apologies against both
pagans and Jews, combining Greek philosophy and
Christian theology. He was eventually martyred.)                                            Continued on next page.
   “We who formerly murdered one another now refrain
from making war even upon our enemies.”                                                               FOCUS, Spring 2007    17
          Opportunity for Service

                  Missions Opportunities
                   Missions Opportunities
                     Missions Opportunities
      Graphic by Shalea Piteau

                                                                                      In January 2007, the Focus
                                                                                   Editorial Board decided to
                                                                                   initiate a new department, enti-
                                                                                   tled “Missions Opportunities.” In
                                                                                   retrospect this decision was
                                                                                   timely, because the new execu-
                                                                                   tive director of CMDS, Dr. Roger
                                                                                   Gingrich, has had a number of
                                                                                   missions experiences and is
                                                                                   networking with several organi-
                                                                                   zations that can offer the CMDS
                                                                                   membership a range of options
                                                                                   for medical or dental mission
                                                                                   involvement. (Progress has been
                                                                                   made, but no agreements have
                                                                                   been signed yet.) The accompa-
                                                                                   nying graphic provides a visual
                                                                                   image of the kinds of opportuni-
                                                                                   ties that may be listed in future
                                                                                   editions of Focus.
                                                                                   For information on these missions
                                                                                   opportunities, please contact the
                                                                                   CMDS National Office.

Human Conflict                    governmental oppression. The character      References:
Continued from previous page      of Christianity had changed!”               1. A Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs: A
                                                                                 Reference Guide to More Than 700
                                    To summarize, the words of Cadoux
                                                                                 Topics Discussed by the Early Church
                                  from the definitive work on the subject
                                                                                 Fathers, edited by David W. Bercot
                                  of early Christians and war ring as true
                                                                                 (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1998).
                                  today, as when they were first written:
                                                                              2. The Catholic Encyclopedia. Herbermann,
                                     "It is quite true that the Christian        Pace, Pallen et al. The Encyclopedia
                                  Church stands in a very different posi-        Press Inc. Also, online at:
                                  tion from that in which she stood in the
                                  first three centuries of our era. But the   3. C. John Cadoux: The Early Christian
                                  question is, ‘Is there anything in that        Attitude to War: A Contribution to the
                                  difference, is there anything in our           History of Christian Ethics. London:
                                  modern conditions, which really invali-        Headley Bros. Publishers, 1919. Also,
                                  dates the testimony against war as the         entire book online at: http://oll.libertyfund.
                                  early Christians bore it, and as Origenes      org/Texts/Cadoux0358/ChristianWar/0305
                                  defended it?’"                                 _Bk.html
    18    FOCUS, Spring 2007

                         The             Iraq War
                            Christian Faith

Despite the fact that Christian religious leaders had
spoken out publicly about the moral implications of                        by Joseph L. Cumming, MPhil

the proposed war, there appears to have been a
failure of decision-making shaped by principles of                                  During the months before the
                                                                                 commencement of hostilities, the
Christian faith.                                                                 Pope repeatedly made clear his
                                                                                 opposition to the war, and just two

    t scarcely needs to be said that      making about war would be shaped       weeks before the Pew survey he
    decisions about war are               by Christian faith.                    sent Pio Cardinal Laghi to
    profoundly moral decisions. A            Nonetheless, in March 2003,         Washington to make an
decision to send troops into war is,
in effect, a decision to kill a
                                          during the week before the U.S.        Ash Wednesday appeal
                                                                                 to President Bush against
                                                                                                                We believe
                                          commenced hostilities in Iraq, only
significant number of people              10% of Americans considered their      the     war.     Vatican       that war or
including (given the reality of                                                  spokespersons repeat-
modern warfare) many unarmed
                                          religious beliefs to be the most
                                          important influence in shaping their   edly      stated     that      violence is
civilians. The Christian “just war”
theory argues that, in certain limited
                                          opinions about the war. Among          “pre-emptive war” did
                                                                                 not satisfy the moral
                                          those who regularly attend religious
circumstances, a decision not to          services the percentage was only       conditions for a “just         always the
send troops into war may be                                                      war.” During the months
tantamount to a decision to allow
                                          slightly higher—17%. Only one
                                          third of Americans reported that       before the war the World       worst
many unarmed civilians to be killed
by someone else. Historic Christian
                                          religious leaders had had at least     Council of Churches
                                                                                 took a similar position.
                                                                                                                solution for
                                          some influence on their views on the
pacifism      rejects    even     this    war, and only 11% reported that        On March 12 the WCC            resolving
justification for war. In either case,                                           delivered to the U.N.
the decision is clearly one of the
                                          religious leaders had been highly
                                          influential. By contrast, 53% of       Security Council a             conflict.
most important moral decisions a          Americans said that friends and        strongly-worded anti-
Christian can make, and we might          family had influenced their views      war declaration which similarly
expect that Christian decision-           on the war, and 43% said that          denounced pre-emptive war as
                                          political    commentators        had   “immoral.” The Eastern Orthodox
                                          influenced them. These are the         Patriarchs and the Archbishop of
Joseph L. Cumming MA. MPhil               results of a nationwide survey         Canterbury were similarly unani-
(Yale), MDiv is an ordained               conducted March 13–16, 2003 and        mous in their opposition to the war.
Church minister (Assemblies of            published on March 19 by the Pew          Contrary to reporting in the secu-
God) and Director of the                  Forum on Religion and Public Life.     lar press, evangelical leaders, with a
Reconciliation Program of Yale            Military hostilities commenced on      few high-profile exceptions, were
University Divinity School.               March 20.
                                                                                                    FOCUS, Spring 2007    19

                                                 God.” Needless to say, the tradi-           This accords with empirical
                                                 tional     “peace       churches”        research conducted by Ralph
                                                 (Mennonites, Quakers, etc.) also         Premdas on the relationship
                                                 strongly opposed the war.                between       the     church      and
                                                                                          intercommunal conflicts in a
                                                    Nonetheless Americans in March
                                                                                          number of countries around the
                                                 2003 (just before the war) favoured
                                                                                          world. Premdas found “that the
                                                 U.S. military action in Iraq by a
                                                                                          inter-communal antipathies present
                                                 nearly 2:1 ratio. Clearly either
                                                                                          in society at large are reflected in
                                                 Christian religious leaders failed to
                                                                                          the attitudes of churches and their
                                                 get their message through to
                                                                                          adherents.” Though clergy often
                                                 ordinary believers in the pews, or
                                                                                          seek to play a role in reconciliation,
                                                 their arguments failed to persuade.
                                                                                          “the reconciling thrust quickly
                                                 In my own informal surveying of
         mostly opposed to the war. On                                                    evaporates after the initial effort.”
                                                 American Christians before the war,
         February      24th     the     World                                             This is due to the “inter-locking
                                                 I found that most were unaware of
         Evangelical Alliance issued a state-                                             relations of church and cultural
                                                 the extent to which high-ranking
         ment titled “Current Threat of War                                               section,” so that both clergy and
                                                 international Christian leaders of
         in Iraq,” in which they stated that                                              ordinary believers are often
                                                 nearly all traditions opposed the
         “We believe that war or violence is                                              “trapped within the claims of their
                                                 war. Most American Christians were
         almost always the worst solution                                                 own ethnic or cultural community.”
                                                 dependent on the secular news
         for resolving conflict. Insofar as it   media to inform them, and these             However, to say that American
                                 is possible,    media reported only sparsely on          Christians' faith failed to determine
     Clearly either              all paths to
                                                 Christian religious opposition to the    their view of the Iraq war does not
                                                 war. Many Evangelicals were              tell the whole story. More difficult
          Christian              should be       completely unaware of the anti-war       to document, but more troubling
 religious leaders               and all pos-
                                                 statements of prominent Evangelical
                                                 leaders, and even some otherwise
                                                                                          theologically, is the question of
                                                                                          whether influence may actually
failed to get their              sible means
                                 should be
                                                 well-educated Catholics I spoke          have gone in the opposite direction.
                                                 with were unaware of the Pope's          That is, we must ask whether
message through                  used     for    opposition to the war.                   American Christians showed any
        to ordinary              any     con-       The Pew data suggest that failure
                                                                                          tendency to change their religious
                                                                                          beliefs under the influence of their
                                                 to communicate was indeed a
   believers in the              flict.” The
                                 largest         problem. Only 21% of Americans
                                                                                          patriotic political convictions about
                                                                                          the war.
     pews, or their              Pentecostal     who regularly attend religious
                                 denomina-       services reported that the clergy at       A superficial example of this can
arguments failed                 tion in the     their local place of worship had         be found in people's interpretation
                                                 taken a stand for or against the war.    of chapters 13 and 17 of the Book of
      to persuade.               U.S.,
                                 Church of
                                                 14% of local clergy took an anti-war     Revelation. This would be
                                 God       in    position, and 7% took a pro-war          humorous if it were not being used
         Christ, wrote to President Bush on      position, while 75% of local clergy      to give religious justification for
         January 23rd that “Failure to sat-      either took no position or did not       war. Tolstoy's War and Peace
         isfy these criteria renders the war     speak about the war at all. These        documents how many Russian
         aims, strategies and tactics, at a      data would suggest not so much that      Orthodox Christians in 1812 were
         minimum, morally suspect and per-       ordinary believers rejected the pleas    convinced that Napoleon was the
         haps morally unacceptable in the        of their local clergy, but rather that   Beast after they devised a way to
         eyes of the church universal and        the local clergy did not pass on the     add up the letters in his name to
         under the gaze of a just and holy       pleas of the senior leadership of        produce 666. Other Christians
                                                 their religious communities.             during World War II pointed out that
    20   FOCUS, Spring 2007

                                         more difficult to justify pre-emptive    occurred without serious reflection
                                         war on the grounds of the centuries-     by its advocates about its implica-
                                         old “just war tradition” itself.         tions for future conflicts. That is, if
                                                                                  a nation is morally justified in God's
                                            Most Christian leaders who
                                                                                  eyes in invading another nation
                                         supported the Iraq war cited
                                                                                  which has neither threatened it nor
                                         Augustine as the father of the “just
                                                                                  attacked it, solely on the grounds
                                         war” tradition which they seek to
                                                                                  that its leadership sincerely believes
                                         follow. But Augustine wrote, “A
                                                                                  (contrary to the opinion of other
                                         'just war' is justified only by the
                                                                                  nations) that that nation will attack
                                         injustice of an aggressor.” It seems
                                                                                  in the future with WMDs, then it
                                         clear from context that Augustine
                                                                                  would seem that the North Korean
                                         meant that the aggressor must have
                                                                                  leadership would be justified in
                                         already committed the aggression
                                                                                  invading the U.S. A variety of
if A=100, B=101, C=102, etc., then       which justifies the war, and that that
                                                                                  nations would be justified in
H+I+T+L+E+R=666.             Various     aggression must be ongoing. War
                                                                                  invading Israel. India and Pakistan
Protestant and Orthodox Christians       waged pre-emptively in order to
                                                                                  would be justified in invading each
through the centuries have               prevent        anticipated     future
                                                                                  other. There has not been serious
suggested that the Pope is the Beast     aggression does not seem to be part
                                                                                  Christian reflection by pro-war
since (Old) Rome is the “city on         of the picture. Similarly the official
                                                                                  Christians on the implications of
seven hills.” In the months before       Catholic position on “just war”
                                                                                  such a moral standard, nor on its
the 1991 Gulf War a number of            allows only for wars of “lawful self-
                                                                                  conditions or limitations.
Christian groups began circulating       defence once all peace efforts have
audio tapes and articles arguing that    failed.” The Catholic definition of        Furthermore, I am not aware of
the “Babylon” referred to in             legitimate self-defence here requires    any prominent Christian leaders
Revelation is none other than…           that “the damage inflicted by the        from outside the U.S. who endorsed
Babylon! Iraq under Saddam               aggressor on the nation or               the Iraq war. Is it possible, as
Hussein is the Beast. The wildly         community of nations must be             Premdas suggested (see above), that
popular Left Behind series (first        lasting, grave and certain.”             the American leaders who endorsed
book: 1996) also took the position       Gaudium et Spes continues,               the war were “trapped within the
that eschatological Babylon will be      “However, it is one thing to wage a      claims of their own ethnic or
located in modern Iraq, though they      war of self-defence; it is quite         cultural community?” Is it possible
did not connect this with Saddam         another to seek to impose                that the claims of their cultural
Hussein. I have personally               domination on another nation.” It is     community were so compelling that
encountered several American             difficult to see how pre-emptive war     they were persuaded even to modify
Christians who felt they should          can be made to fit this tradition        their traditional Christian religious
support the war because Iraq =           without fundamentally altering it.       beliefs?
eschatological Babylon.                     Yet those Christian leaders who         These two issues (interpretation
   Another example of influence          supported the Iraq war
going in the opposite direction may      attempted to do just that.
be in the interpretation of the          They argued that the
“traditional Christian 'just war'        “just war” theory must
theory.” Considerations of space         be understood to allow
prevent a full consideration here of     for pre-emptive war to
whether pre-emption of anticipated       prevent future attacks
future attacks with weapons of mass      with weapons of mass
destruction might justify one nation     destruction, even if the
in invading another nation which         nation to be invaded has
has not yet attacked it. Though one      not yet launched an
might argue that new realities           attack. This profound
require a revision of the tradition to   reconstruction of the
allow for pre-emptive war, it seems      “just war” tradition has

                                                                                                     FOCUS, Spring 2007     21

                                                                   and    in    other     Christians throughout the Islamic
                                                                   Islamic nations.       world. Just yesterday, for example,
                                                                                          an Iraqi Islamist militant group
                                                                      The effect of the   pledged to attack local Iraqi
                                                                   Iraq     war      on   Christians if the U.N. does not lift
                                                                   Christians        in   the U.S. siege of Falluja (one
                                                                   Islamic nations has    wonders how the U.N. could
                                                                   been little short of   possibly do so). The militant group
                                                                   disastrous.            said that they would destroy
                                                                   Muslims widely         churches, assassinate or kidnap
                                                                   consider the war to    priests, and target local Christians.
                                                                   have      been     a   Increased       violence     against
       of eschatological prophecy and            “Christian” war against Islam, and       Christians in the West Bank and
       interpretation of the traditional “just   local Christians have borne the          Gaza in the last year has accelerated
       war” theory) are just two examples        brunt of the resultant Muslim            the rapid decline of the 2,000-year-
       among others which might be exam-         hostility. Persecution of Christians     old Christian community in
       ined to consider whether American         has increased almost everywhere in       Palestine which is now threatened
       Christians' religious beliefs have        the Muslim world, and foreign            with extinction.
       been influenced by their patriotic        Christian workers have been driven
       emotion in time of war. The reader        from a number of Muslim countries           Christians are not the only
       may disagree with my analysis of          by expulsion, murder or credible         religious group that has been
       one or both questions, or may think       death threats.                           targeted in response to the war.
       that another question would provide                                                Several months ago the World
                                                    President Bush's lapsus linguae in    Evangelical Alliance issued a
       a better example. However,
                                                 which he referred to the war on          “Religious Liberty Prayer Posting”
       Premdas's research would seem to
                                                 terror as a “crusade” has been           describing the dramatic rise since
       suggest that American Christians
                                                 reported again and again in the          last year in murders and rapes of
                        alone, talking only
                                                 Muslim press. Muslims were not
    Muslims             with our fellow-
                                                 persuaded by assurances that the
                                                                                          Iraqi Mandaeans at the hands of
                        Americans, will not                                               Islamist militants. The WEA report
      widely            be able to answer
                                                 President (whose Christian faith is
                                                 well-known among Muslims) did
                                                                                          expresses concern that the
                        these questions ade-                                              Mandaean community may be
   consider             quately. Ephesians
                                                 not mean it the way it sounded.          facing “genocidal intentions”
                                                 They were more persuaded by
  the war to            2–3 suggests that it
                                                 statements of certain prominent
                                                                                          toward a “final solution.”
                        is only through a
have been a             multinational,
                                                 televangelists (widely reported in
                                                 the Muslim press) giving Christian
                                                                                            Clearly there is a serious problem
                                                                                          here. If Christians want the world to
                        multi-ethnic univer-
 “Christian”            sal church that the
                                                 religious endorsement to the war.        take our Christian faith seriously,
                                                 Muslims were also not comforted          then it is imperative that we
war against             many-coloured wis-
                                                 by assurances that the President's       ourselves take that faith seriously
                        dom of God can be
       Islam            adequately known,
                                                 use of the word “crusade” was a
                                                 one-time slip which would not be
                                                                                          enough to let it determine our views
                                                                                          and actions on war, and not merely
                        and it is only                                                    use it to validate decisions we have
                                                 repeated. Their worst fears seemed
       together with all the saints (from all                                             made for reasons which have
                                                 confirmed when the chairman of the
       nations and all ages) that we may                                                  nothing to do with Jesus Christ.
                                                 Bush-Cheney re-election campaign,
       fully grasp the multidimensional
                                                 Marc Racicot, wrote just last month        This article was written in 2004,
       love of Christ. That is, if we wish to
                                                 that the President is “leading a         and is used with the kind permission
       consider these questions in an
                                                 global crusade against terrorism.”       of Joseph Cumming.
       authentically Christian way, then we
                                                 This too was reported widely in the
       must listen to the voices of believers                                               His personal testimony and story
                                                 Muslim press.
       in Christ from other nations—espe-                                                 can be found on his web site:
       cially believers in the Middle East          Such events have fuelled a sharp
  22   FOCUS, Spring 2007                        rise in attacks and threats against

                                 “Just War”
                                  As It Was
                                     and Is
               First Things Journal, January 2005,
                         by James Turner Johnson
     A Précis
     by John Patrick, MD

What are the requirements                      normative wisdom. Since then it has             Aquinas is a good place to start
                                               evolved differently into Catholic,            because he was working with 150 years
of a “just war?”                               Protestant, secular and military thought.     of Christian thought and engaging with
                                                                                             Augustine. Aquinas has been the
   Just a concept from the               Protestants have become more utopian
                                                                                             reference point for subsequent Christian
Middle Ages that developed in order to         in their approach to human institutions
                                                                                             scholars. Augustine listed the goods of
link responsible government and                and thus more pacific. Catholic theory
                                                                                             the political community for which the
political community. The roots of this         has been increasingly tied to
                                                                                             sovereign was responsible, namely,
theory are found in Jewish, Greek and          developments in international secular
                                                                                             order, justice and peace. Aquinas lists the
Roman thought and first appeared in            law. Only in the last forty years has there
                                                                                             requirements of "Just War" as sovereign
the West in Augustine's City of God.           been some recovery of the "Just War"
                                                                                             authority, just cause and right intention.
The first systematic account was by            tradition within Catholic thinking and
Gratian in the 12th Century and the            that has been paralleled by the growth of
first theological form by Aquinas in           "the competing Catholic peace                   “But put on the Lord
the 13th Century. Elaborations on the          tradition" with more secular tendencies
theory followed.                               to view all war as immoral. The rather         Jesus Christ, and make
                                               utopian investment in the United Nations
  The primary idea was of a just order
                                               has also belittled the "Just War" theory.
                                                                                                no provision for the
and peace within and between political
communities. The biblical root is                Nevertheless there needs to be on-          flesh, to fulfill its lusts.”
Romans 13:14. "Just War" can only be           going discussion about the proper use of
                                               force in the service of justice, peace and
                                                                                                 (Romans 13:14)
waged by public authority for public
good. For Aquinas it required sovereign        order. The amoral concepts of
authority, just cause rightly defined, right   sovereignty, developed after the Treaty          War is “just” because it is informed
interests and the goal of peace. There         of Westphalia (1648), have led to ideas       by love for the community and not by
were limitations on who may be attacked        of national sovereignty which have            private ends. Force can be used only by
and on the weapons that may be used.           protected tyrants and allowed the             a sovereign authority. Aquinas notes two
                                               oppression and murder of citizens by the      just causes for war from Augustine: the
  In the early modern times this concept                                                     recovery of what has been unjustly taken
                                               millions (Stalin, Pol Pot, Mao, Saddam
was refined by Catholics like Suarez and                                                     and the punishment of evil. Self-defence
                                               Hussein, Mobutu, etc.) We desperately
Protestants like Luther and the Puritan,                                                     by the State is included. The “Just War”
                                               need to re-introduce a moral dimension.
Ames. "Just War" was viewed as                                                               theory starts with the common good and
                                               The somewhat naïve view of peace of
                                               some religious groups seems hardly to         works down. Modern theory starts with
James Turner Johnson is Professor
                                               recognize that the maintenance of peace       self-defence.
of Religion at Rutgers University and
author of several books on the histor-         between and within states has always            Right intention involves careful
ical development and contemporary              required political struggle and the use of    thought about the evils of war which can
use of the "Just War" tradition.               legitimate force.
                                                                                                      FOCUS, Spring 2007      23

                                            changes was the spectre of nuclear war       allowed Stalin, Mao, Pol Pot, Mobutu,
                                            but this approach fails to recognize that    Kim Il Jong, etc. to terrorize their
                                            the problem lies with the morality of        people. A return to moral over
                                            those who fight not with the weapons.        prudential criteria is long overdue.
                                               Others, like the Quaker, James               Further comment on the “Just
                                            Childress, have tried to develop a “Just     War” theory can be seen in Iraq:
be accepted only for the re-establishment   War” theory based on a prime facie duty      Then and Now, by Georg Weigel in
of peace and not for retribution and        of benevolence. His theory is also           First Things, April 2006.
cruelty. (This aspect was given insuffi-    flawed because of its failure to
cient thought in Iraq.)                     recognize the morality of those who
                                            start wars.
   Recently the U.S. Catholic bishops
invented the phrase, “presumption             The hope in the United Nations is
against war” in order to make war a         naïve because the United Nations lacks
very special case. They have also placed    cohesion, accountability and a military
prudential requirements above the           command system. No-one can imagine
classical concerns about the state of       that without these Hitler would have
heart and mind of instigators and           been stopped or Kuwait liberated from
soldiers. Finally, they seem naively to     Saddam Hussein. The problems in the
trust the United Nations more than the      world since World War II have been as
State! In fairness, it ought to be          much to do with the absence of moral
recognized that the motivation for these    criteria in the definition of states which

"The Way Forward"
CMDS in 2010                                  Consider giving of your Time, your
                                                                                         Take part in world missions.
                                            Talents or your Treasures.
Continued from page 8
                                            · Your Time: Please keep in touch with         can be done without money. I would
encourage each member to:                     the National Office. Help us coordi-         love to visit your chapter, and show the
                                              nate efforts between the National            medical students the opportunities
· present a positive witness of our Lord;     Office, the Local Chapters and the           CMDS can provide for them, and to
· help each other mature in Christ;           Student Ministries. Volunteer your           find medical mission opportunities for
                                              time to keep CMDS strong. We need            the varied interests of our membership.
· understand the duty and privilege we
                                              your time!                                   This can only occur if you donate. We
  have to participate in World Wide
  Missions. (Please review our missions     · Your Talents: Join an "Advisory              need your help!
  page elsewhere in this magazine for         Group" to help the National Office           Time is moving on. Inertia is real. Our
  more on this point.)                        understand how to best promote the         God is asking us to be prepared to answer
                                              goals listed above. I am asking for 4-6    (Col. 4:6), always ready to respond (1
                                              people with an interest in each of the     Pet. 3:15), and always working in the
   Be a positive witness.                     following       categories:    Student     Kingdom (1 Cor. 15:58).
                                              Ministries, Chapter Growth, and
  These are the broad strokes of the          Medical Missions. If you have organi-                          Dr. Roger Gingerich
painting God has begun. I want to ask         zational skills, please e-mail me, and                           Executive Director
you to consider how you can be used by        offer to join an Advisory Group. We                                         CMDS
God to fill in the fine strokes. The          need your expertise!                                 
painting God has begun will be              · Your Treasures: Consider giving a
beautiful, touching many lives through        sizable donation to help the National      Join us by giving of your Time,
our organization.                             Office build strong programs. Nothing      your Talents or your Treasures.
      24     FOCUS, Spring 2007
            Creative Expression

You Are                                                         When I feel low
                                                           Your Word cheers me

                                                               When I fall down

There                                                             You lift me up                  When I want to give up
                                                                                                        You give me hope
                                                              When I feel weak
                                                           You give me strength                      When I feel insecure
                                                                                             Your name is a strong tower
For Me                                                          When I get sick
                                                               You raise me up                          When I feel lonely
                                                                                                      You are close to me
                                                               When I get stuck
                                                                 You pull me up      When my eyes are moist with tears
                                                                                                  Your arms surround me
                                                           When I have worries
              by Dr. Geoff Saroea
                                                             You give me peace            When situations look impossible
                                                                                      You make a way where there was
                                                           When I feel burdened
                                                                                                                    no way!
                                                             You make me light
                                                                When I am hurt
                                                                You comfort me        Geoff Saroea is a doctor, speaker,

                                                                                     writer and evangelist. Forward your
                                                                                     comments to:

Peace starts with a smile.                                       The task ahead of us is never as great
                                                                 as the power behind us.
God doesn’t call the qualified, He qualifies the called.
                                                                 The will of God never takes you to where
                                                                 the grace of God will not protect you.
God promises a safe landing, not smooth sailing.
                                                                 We don’t change the message,
If God is your co-pilot, swap seats.                             the message changes us.
                          ~~                                                         ~~
Don’t give God instructions, just report for duty.               You can tell how big a person is
                                                                 by what it takes to discourage him/her.
                                                                                     ~~        FOCUS, Spring 2007    25
            Readership Survey

Reading Focus...
What were your                                            The distribution of the sections read is as follows:

                      by Rita Dahlke, MD

In November 2006, an electronic
questionnaire was sent to approximately
1,300 members of CMDS regarding Focus
magazine. About 133 completed
responses were received. This 10%
response rate was considered reasonable
for a marketing survey. Therefore the
information will be passed on to the
Editorial Board. The following summarizes
the information received.

                                                                   Focus Readers Read

Time spent reading Focus                        From the responses received,         care should be taken not to put
50% indicated that they had read some of the    no one felt they had wasted          others down. Rather, we should
fall 2006 issue of Focus. The time they spent   their time reading Focus. 75%        seek to promote understanding
reading it was an even three-way split:         stated that the fall edition was     and acceptance between CMDS
                                                comparable to others and 15%         members of every age and
Less than 15 minutes             33%
                                                felt it was outstanding. In the      denomination..
15–60 minutes                    33%            section on quality indicators,
                                                                                     Suggestions for material
More than 60 min.                33%            positive responses were
                                                                                     included book and movie
                                                overwhelmingly chosen. “Needs
                                                                                     reviews, and a section on
                                                improvement” was selected by
Readership groups                                                                    opportunities for service, not
                                                the reader only 4% of the time
The type of individuals who had read                                                 only with EMAS, but other
                                                for writing, 10% for layout and
some of this edition were:                                                           mission organizations as well.
                                                design and 13% for Christian
                                                                                     For future topics we were asked
MD/DDS members                   64%            teaching and encouragement.
                                                                                     to look at what is happening
Students/residents               20%            The comment section informed         with Medicare and trends in
                                                us that several readers would        society that would help us better
EMAS participants                9%
                                                like to see a regular section on     understand our patients and
Non-members                      3%             Faith in Practice. They found it     perhaps assist us with finding a
Family/friends                   1%             helpful to hear of how other         way to reach out to colleagues.
                                                clinicians navigated the “ethical
                                                                                     Thank you very much to all of
                                                minefields” of modern practice
Rita Dahlke is a member of the Focus                                                 you who took the time to fill out
                                                and that “hot topics” should not
Editorial Board, a CMDS member and the                                               the questionnaire. The
                                                be avoided. We were cautioned
medical coordinator of the Calgary Urban                                             information received will be
                                                that Focus should not be used
Project Society (CUPS).                                                              used to continue improving
                                                as a personal soap box and that
                                                                                     Focus for our members.
     26     FOCUS, Spring 2007
            FOCUS, Spring 2007
                     CMDS National Conference

                                          Putting Faith Into Action
                                             CMDS—Impacting our World.

                                                                                                         May 15-18, 2008
                                                                                                              A Spiritual Retreat
                                        “For we are God's                                                      in Canmore, AB
                                        workmanship, created in
                                        Christ Jesus to do good
                                        works, which God prepared                                              Rev. Sunder Krishnan
                                        in advance for us to do.”
                                        (Eph. 2:10)
                                                                                                               Radisson Hotel
                                                                                                             511 Bow Valley Trail
                                                                                                          Canmore, AB T1W 1N7
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