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									Green & Sustainable Building Policy:
Case Study Analysis for Public Decision Makers




Prepared for:                            Prepared by:

Mithūn Architects +Designers +Planners   Scott Andrews
Pier 56                                  Mabel Boateng
1201 Alaskan way, Suite 200              Shelly Fank
Seattle, WA 98101-2913                   Christina Hoefsmit
                                         Hillary Smith

May 2007
Executive Summary
In partnership with Mithūn Architects +Designers +Planners we have created a Policy
Recommendation Guide toolkit for legislating green/sustainable building. This document
evaluates various national and international cites, with ranging populations, and the approach
each has taken in implementing green/sustainable building on both government and private
developments and their resulting successes. Potential uses of this resource are varied and
designed to be used by the U.S. Cascadia Green Building Council, the Seattle Planning
Commission, and/or other municipal agencies and public decision makers. Objectives of this
document include:

       Utilize city case studies to examine what regulatory and incentive based techniques have
        been attempted to encourage or enforce sustainable building practices.
       Define sustainable building characteristics and benefits.
       Define common terminology frequently used in the field of green building and
        sustainability.
       Give general conclusions about effective enforcement and incentive strategies in
        regulating sustainable building at a community level.
       Provide recommendations for various community models to better integrate
        (LEED) or other sustainable building standards.
       Address issues of financial feasibility and scalability.




Acknowledgements:
Many thanks to Marshall Foster, Sean Cryan, and Bert Gregory of Mithun; Marni Kahn of the
Cascadia U.S. Green Building Council; Callie Ridolfi and Colin Wagoner of Ridolfi Inc.; Greg
Williams of SRG Partnership, Inc.; Dale Morse of the University of Oregon; Ashley Zawrotny
with the City of Scottsdale, AZ; Lucia Athens with the City of Seattle, WA; Tracy Mitchell of
Seattle Biomedical Research Institute; and David Tetta, Tim Trohimovich, and Jim Shellooe
with the University of Washington Environmental Law and Regulation program for their
generous donation of time and resources.




Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                            i
Table of Contents
Executive Summary ........................................................................................................................ i
Acknowledgements: ........................................................................................................................ i
Table of Contents ........................................................................................................................... ii
History of Green Building ............................................................................................................. 1
   Green Building in the United States.......................................................................................... 1
   Green Building Internationally ................................................................................................. 3
Green building Characteristics and Techniques .......................................................................... 5
Benefits ........................................................................................................................................... 7
Terminology ................................................................................................................................... 8
National Examples ....................................................................................................................... 10
   Chicago, Illinois ....................................................................................................................... 10
   Denver, Colorado ..................................................................................................................... 13
   Eugene, Oregon ....................................................................................................................... 16
   Kansas City, Missouri .............................................................................................................. 18
   New York City, New York ........................................................................................................ 20
   Portland, Oregon...................................................................................................................... 22
   San José, California................................................................................................................. 24
   Santa Monica, California ........................................................................................................ 26
   Scottsdale, Arizona .................................................................................................................. 28
International Examples ............................................................................................................... 30
   London, England ..................................................................................................................... 30
   Melbourne, Australia ............................................................................................................... 33
   Vancouver, Canada .................................................................................................................. 35
Recommendations ........................................................................................................................ 37
Conclusions .................................................................................................................................. 40
Appendix A: Professional Credentials ........................................................................................ 41
Appendix B: Photo Credits .......................................................................................................... 47




Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                                                           ii
History of Green Building
Green Building in the United States
Green building, despite a relatively short history, has transformed the very nature of the way
American’s build today. Currently the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
Green Building Rating System, the most recognized rating system for green building has
certified over 6,000 projects in 28 countries.1

“Green building” is not a new idea, but a return to the concepts of many traditional building
techniques, using locally available materials and resources in designs adapted to maximize the
advantages of climate and geography. With standardization through the 1930’s of mechanized
building systems requiring large electrical loads, (like air conditioning) building designs no
longer needed to be site efficient if they could connect to a large power grid. Throughout the
1970’s, driven by skyrocketing energy prices these building practices in the United States started
to be question by forward-thinking environmentalists such as Rachel Carson and Ralph Knowles.

The concept gathered momentum, and in 1987 the UN World Commission on the Environment
and Development provided a name for this wave of thinking - “sustainable development.” The
definition of sustainable development came to mean development that “meets the needs of the
present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”2 The
term’s definition was purposely vague to include emerging and yet unknown technologies and
practices that would meet the goal of sustainable development. It allows and encourages
innovation on various fronts including building materials, and water/energy use. Many European
countries and a few U.S. cities followed suit legislating increased building efficiency
requirements. There was some application of alternative energy technologies, like solar power
however, most efforts were focused on better insulation and increased electrical power load
efficiency, and few of the system paradigms themselves were challenged. The legacy of these
building experiments was the ability to decrease energy use by 50-80% with building design, but
better insulated buildings also decreased indoor air quality causing respiratory health effects and
leaving the ever increasing power demand of the modern building unquelled.

Unfortunately, when power prices again dropped, many of the advances in building efficiency
were dropped for standard “to code” building practice and continuing research in efficient
building and energy technologies staggered in the U.S. In the current economic and political
climate, with the threats of global warming and terrorism, the Zeitgeist again demands
examination of the way we design and interact with our built environment. As builders and
consumers change the way they think about the building envelope, there is a tremendous
opportunity to positively impact the economy, the environment, and the human communities
buildings contain.

Increased interest in cities’ desires to participate in green building has resulted in an expanse of
sustainable construction research throughout the United States and abroad. This has been driven

1
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership_in_Energy_and_Environmental_Design
2
    http://www.greenbuilding.com/greenHistory.html


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                            1
by community initiative, industry groups such as the American Institute of Architects, and as part
of municipal participation in the U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement to the Kyoto
Accord. Various rating systems and regulatory programs were started to encourage, enforce, or
educate about sustainable building throughout United States; these included the Green Building
Challenge and LEED, which has become, by far, the most recognized advisor on green building
standards.

On June 3, 1999 before Bill Clinton left office, he made this statement about sustainable
building.
        “As the single largest consumer of energy in our country, the federal government
should be leading the way. That is why today I am directing all federal departments and
agencies to take steps to markedly improve the energy efficiency of our buildings. With
new technologies and contracts with private companies, the federal government will cut
its greenhouse gas emissions by 30 percent. That is the equivalent of taking 1.7 million
cars off the road. By taking these steps, we will also save the taxpayers over $750
million a year when they are fully implemented.”3
President Clinton had been addressing sustainable development since 1993 when he established
The President’s Council on Sustainable Development (PCSD) through Executive Order 12852.
The function of the PCSD is three fold: 1) to advise the President on matters involving
sustainable development. “Sustainable development” is broadly defined by PCSD as economic
growth that will benefit present and future generations without detrimentally affecting the
resources or biological systems of the planet; 2) to develop and recommend to the President a
national sustainable development action strategy that will foster economic vitality; and 3) to
provide a chairperson or chairpersons whom may, from time to time, invite experts to submit
information to the Council and may form subcommittees within the Council to review and report
to the Council on the development of national and local sustainable development plans. 4

Clinton continues this commitment through the Clinton Foundation Global Energy Efficiency
Building Retrofit Program5 which involves 5 global banks financing retrofitting of existing
buildings in 16 international cities with energy efficient technologies which are performance
guaranteed by the 4 largest world energy service companies. More than $5 billion are currently
dedicated to this program, which more than doubles the existing global market for green
building.

Today, the advantages of green building are starting to be recognized by consumer, builders, and
governments alike. However, green building has not been regulated consistently throughout the
United States or the world. More than half of the world’s population currently resides within an
urban area, a significant shift in civilization’s history.6 This shift correlates to a change in the
world’s energy consumption; urban areas account for 3/4 of the world’s energy consumption. In
the United States alone, buildings consume 12% of the potable water, 39% of the primary

3
  http://clinton4.nara.gov/WH/New/html/19990603.html
4
  http://clinton1.nara.gov/White_House/EOP/pcsd/info/executive-order.html
5
  http://www.clintonfoundation.org/051607-nr-cf-pr-cci-president-clinton-announces-landmark-program-to-reduce-
  energy-use-in-buildings-worldwide.htm
6
  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4561183.stm


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                      2
energy, and 70% of the electricity generated. This accounts for 48% of the total energy
consumption and 40% of the green house gasses generated, more than either the industry or
transportation sectors. The majority of this energy is derived from non-renewable highly
polluting coal fire power plants. Embodied energy of the building materials account for 8% of
this energy use however, the remaining 40% can be decreased through the implementation of
better building design with existing and emerging technologies.7

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change by 2035, 75% of all buildings will
either have been rebuilt or will have undergone renovations.8 This fact alone shows the
tremendous impact green building can have over a relative short period of time not only in the
way buildings are constructed but also in the protection of our environment.

Green Building Internationally
Throughout the world, countries are employing various practices and techniques to achieve green
and sustainable buildings through a panoply of national and local regulations and rating systems.
Developed in 1994 by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC)9, the LEED rating
system was developed for sustainable building primarily within the United States and has been
utilized in over 28 countries. Furthermore, it has been used as a model for other countries to
develop there own rating system to accommodate their specific needs.

A popular model which competes with the LEED rating system in world use is the British
BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environment Assessment Method) system.
Developed and launched in 1993 it is the United Kingdom’s premier environmental assessment
tool for buildings. Like LEED, projects earn a certain amount of points/credits which then
translate into a ranking ranging from “Excellent” to “Poor”. In addition to having different
rating tools for different building types, BREEAM is regularly updated to take advantage of new
research, emerging technologies, and changing practices and regulations10 such as the Energy
Performance Directive for building issued by the European Union.

Stemming from the European Union’s commitments under the Kyoto protocol, this Directive,
effective in 2003 mandates that all member states must 1) develop a method to measure a
buildings energy performance; 2) set minimum energy requirements for new buildings and major
renovations; 3) implement an energy performance certificate program for buildings to be shown
to buyers/tenets; and 4) ensure inspection of specific boilers and air conditioning systems.11

Australia’s sustainable building rating system, Green Star, is one example of a system based on
LEED and the British BREEAM rating systems.12 Created by the Green Building Council of
Australia (GBCA), it was launched in the early part of this century as Australia’s comprehensive,
voluntary, national rating system for environmentally sustainable buildings. Similarly to LEED,

7
  http://www.architecture2030.org
8
  http://www.envne.org/Publications/ENE%20Climate%20Roadmap/ENE%20Climate%20Change%20Roadmap%
    20Summary.pdf
9
  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leadership_in_Energy_and_Environmental_Design
10
   http://www.ccinw.com/sites/breeam_pages.html?site_id=16&section_id=119
11
   http://www.estif.org/132.0.html
12
   http://www.gbcaus.org/gbc.asp?sectionid=90&docid=954


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                        3
a project earns a certain amount of credits which translate into a certification level. A project can
achieve anywhere from one to six stars with four stars representing project which incorporate
“Best Practice” five stars representing “Australia Excellence” and six stars earning “World
Leadership”.13 Green Star’s rating tools are specifically tailored to a buildings use. Current
rating tools are available for office buildings, office interiors, and office as built with newly
launch pilot tools for educational facilities, healthcare facilities and shopping centre design.
Other rating tools in development are multi-unit residential, industrial and public buildings.14

In other parts of the world sustainable building is just entering the mainstream. Many countries
such as China, Israel, New Zealand, Germany and Greece are just beginning to establish green
building councils and looking at ways to incorporate green building practices. Some countries
have either adopted already established rating systems such as LEED (Canada, Mexico, India) or
BREEAM (Hong Kong), or have developed their own unique rating system to meet their needs;
France (HQE), Korea (Korean Green Building Standard), Singapore (Green Mark), Japan
(CASBEE), Taiwan (Ecology, Environment, Waste Reductions and Health) and the United Arab
Emirates (under development).15




13
   http://www.gbcaus.org/gbc.asp?sectionid=88&docid=952
14
   http://www.gbcaus.org/gbc.asp?sectionid=89&docid=953
15
   The Dollars and Sense of Green Buildings 2006 by Green Building Council of Australia


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                            4
Green building Characteristics and Techniques
There are many successful local and nationwide programs for green building. While each
program has regionally adapted goals, and implementation styles the most commonly cited green
building program in the U.S. is the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)
Green Building Rating System. As a result of its comparative ease of documentation and
flexible adaptation to differing building uses, it is the preferred use by numerous cites and the
federal government and has become the most visible and paramount rating system for green
building. LEED project registrations have increased 50% in 2006 and certified LEED projects
increased nearly 70% in 2006. Due to its national recognition it was decided to use LEED
characteristics and techniques when defining the major considerations and goals of green
building for this case study assessment. Below are the 6 major characteristics and techniques
used in LEED certification:16
         Sustainable Sites
         Water Efficiency
         Energy and Atmosphere
         Materials and Resources
         Indoor Environmental Quality
         Innovation and Design Process

SUSTAINABLE SITES
According to LEED, sustainable sites must be chosen in such a way to minimize their
development footprint. Environmentally sound site selection includes building near public and
alternative transportation access while encouraging limited automobile use. Stormwater quantity
and quality must also be controlled, while keeping the disruption of natural hydrology to a
minimum. If the chosen site is over an existing natural area, LEED encourages the conservation
and restoration of the existing natural areas, protecting sensitive lands and plants. This includes
minimizing the development footprint by leaving as much open space undeveloped as possible
while helping to keep or restore the natural biodiversity of the area and integrating the building
with the lands natural topography.

In order to maintain nighttime visibility and minimize the impact on nocturnal environments the
light emanating from the site must be minimal. Prevention and reduction of heat pockets and
urban island heat effects (thermal gradients from build and non-build areas) should be addressed
in order to minimize impact on microclimate and human and wildlife habitat. LEED also
encourages builders to repair and rehabilitate contaminated sites such as brownfields.

WATER EFFICIENCY
Water efficiency does not include any prerequisites but rather includes three major concepts: (1)
the use of water efficient landscaping; (2) the use of innovative wastewater technologies; and (3)
an overall reduction in water use by 20-30%. With water efficient landscaping an owner of
property will limit or eliminate the use of potable water for landscaping irrigation. This can be
done by planting native species (e.g. xeriscape), and capturing and reusing wastewater. There

16
     Note: Some of the characteristics apply solely to new projects. For example a sustainable site can not be chosen
     for a remodel of an existing building.


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                              5
are many available wastewater technologies including low-flow plumbing, and collection of rain
water in order to reduce generation of wastewater and the demand for potable water. Where
municipal codes and climates allow, technologies like Living Machines are available to make
buildings entirely off-grid in water use by collecting and recycling all building water used
including greywater and blackwater (sewage).

ENERGY & ATMOSPHERE
The energy and atmosphere requirement refers to the amount of energy used in constructing and
maintaining the building as well as the reduction of harm to the ozone layer. There are three
requirements to meet LEED standards. The first requirement addresses the building’s energy
related systems verifying that they are installed, calibrated and perform according to the owner’s
project requirements. Design and construction documents are then reviewed to makes sure they
incorporate reduced energy use, lower operating costs, and utilize on-site renewable energy.

The second requirement requires that minimum energy performance standards are covered.
Meaning, the builder must comply with the U.S. Department of Energy standard process for
commercial energy code determination. Lastly, the builder must manage Zero use of CFC-based
refrigerants (ozone depleting substances) in new base building HVAC&R systems.


MATERIALS & RESOURCES
Only one major requirement exists for materials and resources; the storage and collection of
recyclables. Additional mitigation can be achieved by diverting 50% or more waste from
disposal, as well as reusing 5-10% of the building materials. Builders are also encouraged to use
recycled materials and local products in order to minimize transportation (gas) cost and lessen
the embodied energy cost of materials.


INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY
The minimum requirement for indoor environmental quality is that a project achieves minimum
indoor air quality (IAQ) performance. This can be achieved through proper ventilation and the
use of non-toxic materials. Use of low-emitting carpet and paint is encouraged along with the
supplementation of natural for artificial light where feasible. Studies indicate the quality of IAQ
directly affects a person’s health and work quality.


INNOVATION & DESIGN PROCESS
Up to four credits can be awarded in this category which rewards designers for their creativity
and innovation in the application of green building technologies and practices. The category was
created to recognize the creation of new and emerging technologies and practices not currently
embodied within the other five categories. Currently, there are two ways to achieve credits in
this category: “1) by reaching a new credit threshold or; 2) through the implementation of
sustainable design approaches outside those defined by the LEED scope.”17


17
     http://www.archenergy.com/_edr-leed/html-pages/LEEDIDSummary.htm


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                           6
Benefits
There are many benefits for participating in green building. The following section breaks up the
benefits by economic, social, health and environmental issues.

Economic Benefits
   Reduced operational and maintenance costs
        o Reduced electricity costs (decrease in heating and air conditioning)
        o Reduced water bills
   Improved resale value
   Increased worker productivity
   Greater durability, longer life-cycle

Social Benefits
   Increased sense of pride
   Increased safety and comfort
   Decreased use of natural resources (e.g. trees)
   Improved city reputation

Health Benefits
   Increased indoor air quality
        o No solvent adhesives used
        o Increased ventilation
        o Decreased exposure to products containing formaldehyde
   Increased natural light (studies state that natural light makes people happier)

Environmental Benefits
   Decreased use of natural resources
       o Increased use of recycled materials
       o Increased density encouraged
       o Avoids building on untouched lands
   Reduced CO2 emissions
       o Energy reduction and use of clean, alternative energy
       o Local sources utilized for building materials
   Reduced water use
   Stormwater
       o Decreased stormwater run off
       o Decreased processing costs
       o Green Roofs provide on-site storm water treatment
   Decreased use of Hazardous Waste
       o Decreased use of toxic materials
       o Decreased use of volatile carbons
       o Promotes cleanup of brownfields
       o Use of no ozone CFC-based refrigerants


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                        7
Terminology
Common terminology used throughout this report includes:

Brownfields: lands previously used for commercial and/or industrial purposed that have
environmental contamination and can be reused once remediation occurs.

Embodied Energy: a calculated quantity of energy required to manufacture and transport a
product or service to the point of use and eventual decomposition.

Environmental Footprint: amount of natural resources an object would use in order to support
itself.18

Green/Sustainable Building: the practice of increasing the efficiency and reducing the impacts
that buildings have on the natural environment and human health.

Greenroof/Ecoroof: a roof of a building that is either partly or wholly covered in vegetation,
usually plants that are native to the geographic location of the building.

Green Star: Australia’s nationally accepted rating tool for high performance green buildings.

Heat Island Effect: the marked differences between urban and suburban temperatures that are
on average 2 to 10°F hotter than nearby rural areas due to the reduction of vegetation and the
increase in covered surfaces.19

LEED: “The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Green Building Rating
System™ is the nationally accepted benchmark for the design, construction, and operation of
high performance green buildings. LEED gives building owners and operators the tools they
need to have an immediate and measurable impact on their buildings’ performance. LEED
promotes a whole-building approach to sustainability by recognizing performance in five key
areas of human and environmental health: sustainable site development, water savings, energy
efficiency, materials selection, and indoor environmental quality. LEED provides a roadmap for
measuring and documenting success for every building type and phase of a building lifecycle.”20

    LEED-AP: LEED certified Accredited Professionals. Professionals who pass the LEED
     exam proving them to be experts in the LEED building practices, and rating system.

    LEED-NC: “LEED for New Construction and Major Renovations is a green building rating
     system that was designed to guide and distinguish high-performance commercial and
     institutional projects, with a focus on office buildings. Practitioners have also applied the
     system to K-12 schools, multi-unit residential buildings, manufacturing plants, laboratories
     and many other building types.”21
18
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecological_footprint
19
   http://www.epa.gov/heatisland/
20
   Taken directly from http://www.usgbc.org/
21
   http://www.usgbc.org/


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                            8
    LEED- EB: LEED for Existing Buildings maximizes operational efficiency while
     minimizing environmental impacts. It provides a recognized, performance-based benchmark
     for building owners and operators to measure operations, improvements and maintenance on
     a consistent scale. LEED for Existing Buildings is a road map for delivering economically
     profitable, environmentally responsible, healthy, productive places to live and work.

    LEED- Platinum: the top certification available for LEED.

    LEED-Gold: the second highest certification available for LEED.

    LEED-Silver: the third highest certification available for LEED.

    LEED-Certified: (formerly called “Bronze”) the least stringent certification available for
     LEED.22

Sustainability: providing for the present without compromising future generations abilities to
provide for themselves.

Triple Bottom Line: describes taking people, planet, and profit into account on any personal,
social or economic decision. In other words, true cost accounting can only be properly addressed
when the environmental and social impacts are added into the traditional economic framework. 23

Tipping Fees: the cost of disposing waste at transfer station or landfill

Urban Heat Islands: metropolitan areas which are significantly warmer than their
surroundings.24

Xeriscaping: refers to landscaping in ways that do not require supplemental irrigation. It is
especially popular in areas were fresh water is not easily accessible.




22
   http://www.usgbc.org/
23
   http://www.thetriplebottomline.net/
24
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urban_heat_island


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                             9
National Examples
Chicago, Illinois

Demographics and City Distribution
The city of Chicago, also known as the “Windy City”, is
a sprawling city built along the southwestern shores of
Lake Michigan approximately 579 feet above sea level.
Incorporated in 1837, Chicago is currently one of the
fastest growing cities. According to the 2005 Census
Bureau the city has a population of 2,873,790 people
with a density of 12,604/sq. mi. It remains the largest city within the state of Illinois and the
entire Midwest. It’s the third-most populous city in the U.S.25

Chicago’s Green Building History
Green building in Chicago began in 1999 with the decision to turn Chicago’s most notorious
brownfield site, now the Chicago Center for Green Building, into a model of sustainability. This
was done utilizing the highest green building standards at the time, LEED Platinum.26 Since
then Chicago has been progressive in its steps toward sustainability and green building through
leading by example; testing out green building practices and technologies on city building or
through city funded programs such as “Green Homes for Chicago” and the “Green Bungalow
Initiative”.

Chicago began incorporating green building practices and technologies in city buildings in 2002.
In 2005, Chicago published its Green Building Agenda identifying barriers to green building,
necessary actions needed to overcome these barriers, and actions to promote green building and
technologies as competitive and financially reasonable alternatives to current building practices.

Regulation Strategies
In 2001, the Chicago City Council passed the Chicago Energy Conservation Code, an
amendment to the Municipal Code of Chicago, establishing minimum energy conservation
standards for new construction and renovations. The code encourages a 10-20% reduction in
energy and allows for the use of state of the art technologies and construction methods.27

In 2004, the Chicago Standard was announced adopting selected points from the LEED Green
Building Rating system applicable to building in Chicago. In, addition, it required all municipal
building to be designed to meet LEED certification or higher.28




25
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago,_Illinois
26
   http://egov.cityofchicago.org/city/webportal/portalEntityHomeAction.do?entityName=Chicago+Center+for+
    Green+Technology&entityNameEnumValue=161
27
   http://egov.cityofchicago.org/webportal/COCWebPortal/COC_EDITORIAL/Energy_Conservation_Code.pdf
28
   http://egov.cityofchicago.org/webportal/COCWebPortal/COC_ATTACH/ChicagoStandard.pdf


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                  10
Currently the City of Chicago is working on a Stormwater Management Ordinance. This
ordinance would be an amendment to the Municipal Code of Chicago requiring “regulated
developments to control the volume of stormwater leaving the development and the rate at which
it leaves”. The Stormwater Management Ordinance has been drafted and is expected to be
effective January 1st 2008.29

Successes30

                                                  Chicago Center for Green Building:
                                                  Originally built in 1952, this site was designated a
                                                  brownfield in 1995 due to illegal dumping activities
                                                  of the previous owners. Designated a clean site in
                                                  1999, building design began resulting in the first
                                                  municipal building as well as the first renovation in
                                                  the county to be awarded the highest certification
                                                  level for green building; LEED Platinum.


       Chicago has currently has: 1) 35 LEED rated buildings either completed or under
       construction: 2) energy efficiency retrofits on over 15 millions sq ft of city facilities saving
       3,360,995 kilowatt-hours of electricity and removing 2,389 tons of air pollutants; 3) the 2005
       Green Building Agenda and the 2006 Environmental Action Agenda; and 4) over 25 LEED
       Accredited Professionals on city staff. In 2005 100% of new municipal buildings sought
       LEED certification.

Incentive Based Strategies
Chicago employs a number of incentive based strategies geared primarily towards the private
sector, in order to promote green building practices and technologies. Successes can be seen
through the Green Roof Initiative and the Green Roof Grants Program. Together, these
programs have provided guidelines and financial assistance for the construction of green roofs
and have inspired both private and public sectors to develop and implement green-roofs.

Through the city’s funding of Green Homes for Chicago and the Chicago Green Bungalow
Initiative the city demonstrated that green building practices and technologies were not only
feasible in the development of affordable green residential housing but also financially beneficial
with annual savings ranging from $575 to $1050 on energy costs alone.

In addition, one of the most successful incentive programs is the development of the Green
Permitting Process which provides expedited permits to green designed projects in a fraction of
the time it normally takes to obtain building permits. This process saves developers both time
and money and has waived over $300,000 in consultant review fees to date.




29
     http://egov.cityofchicago.org/webportal/COCWebPortal/COC_EDITORIAL/StormwaterManagmentOrdinance.pdf
30
     http://egov.cityofchicago.org/webportal/COCWebPortal/COC_EDITORIAL/2006_Environmental_Action_Agend
      a_Energy_and_Green_Building.pdf


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                 11
Successes31
         19 expedited permits provided through the Green Permitting Process
         237 units of affordable green housing funded by the city
         200 green roof projects totaling three million square feet developed from the Green Roof
          Initiative.
         Green Homes for Chicago and the Chicago Green Bungalow Initiative.
         Green Roof Grants programs, provides financial support to help with the costs of
          constructing green roofs.
         GreenWorks Award - bi-annual awards program created to recognize outstanding
          examples of green building in Chicago’s private sector.




31
     http://egov.cityofchicago.org/webportal/COCWebPortal/COC_EDITORIAL/2006_Environmental_Action_
      Agenda_Energy_and_Green_Building.pdf


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                12
Denver, Colorado

Demographics and City Description
Denver is a sprawling city located on the base of the
Rocky Mountains. The climate of the Mile High City is
arid with ample amounts of sun (over 300 days).
Denver’s Metro Area population is approximately 2.5 million with a density of 3,642/sq. mi. and
growing.32 Denver is heavily invested in green building and hosted the Greenbuild International
Conference and Expo in 2006.

Denver’s Green Building History
Denver has experienced great success with green building, especially residential green building.
In 1997, the Colorado Government funded a comprehensive green building program that focused
specifically on residential green building. This program financially supported various
organizations and programs including the most successful program, the Denver Metro
Homebuilder Association's "Green Built" program. This incentive based program provides
substantial public relations, builder training, and a home rating system. The success of Green
Built can also be attributed to its substantial efforts to involve not just architects but builders,
contractors, and consumers. By 2006, Green Built had become the leading residential green
building program in the nation with over 30,000 houses implementing green building tactics
throughout the Denver metro area.33

In 2005, a bill created by the Colorado Greening Government Coordinating Council,
implemented statewide Legislation adopting and incorporating LEED-EB and LEED-NC
practices for all state funded buildings. Since its implementation 28 buildings in Colorado and
Denver have become LEED-NC and LEED-EB certified. 34
                                                    Denver’s Justice Center Complex
                                                    Denver's planned Justice Center complex will
                                                    incorporate green building techniques such as
                                                    using environmentally-friendly refrigerants,
                                                    minimizing the use of non-renewable
                                                    resources and waste production,
                                                    incorporating natural lighting, and
                                                    landscaping with drought-tolerant native
                                                    plants




Regulation Strategies
In 2005, the Colorado legislature passed a bill requiring all state funded buildings throughout
Colorado to incorporate LEED-EB and LEED-NC practices. The LEED-NC certification


32
   http://www.denver.org/
33
   www.builtgreen.com
34
   http://www.state.co.us/oemc/rebuildco/services/highperformance/leed_cost/Summary.pdf


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                               13
requires that all government funded New Construction fulfills the LEED certification, while the
LEED-EB requires existing buildings to incorporate environmentally responsible changes.

An example of Denver’s push for green building can be seen in the voter passed Justice Center
shown on the previous page.

Successes
Colorado boasts 28 LEED certified projects:
 131 LEED registered projects (220% more than 2005)
 1,100 LEED APs (25% more than 2005)
 369 members of the U.S. Green Building Council (75% more than 2005)35

Additional successes are presented in a study done by the Governor’s Department of Energy
which interviewed eleven Colorado LEED-NC projects in 2006. The study examined if the net
present value of energy savings alone could offset the additional costs of becoming LEED-NC
certified (on average an additional 1 to 6% on top of the construction cost). The study found that
in 7 of the 9 projects (2 had insufficient data) the energy savings resulting from green building
practices offset the additional cost of construction, which averaged 2% premium over code
construction costs. Additional benefits included operational and maintenance savings, reduced
water consumption and related waste water fees, reduced tipping fees, increased productivity and
decreased vacancy rates.

In addition, all construction companies cited increased occupant satisfaction and public relations
value. In the end, the majority of construction companies that have used LEED standards in the
past, plan to continue using LEED on future projects, which is perhaps the biggest success of
Denver’s LEED certification program.36

Incentive Based Strategies
In 1997, the Governors Office of Energy Management and Conservation (OEMC) launched Built
Green Colorado whose purpose is helping building owners identify energy saving opportunities
and turn them into a reality. This program has been unbelievably successful, remaining the
largest residential green building program in the nation. The program focuses on bringing
builders of every size (139 builders as of 2006) together to educate, focus and create green
buildings. A key component to Built Green’s success is its connection with sponsors which
include private companies, retail stores, non-profits, and individuals. Sponsors participate in
order to achieve better relations with builders, and to encourage the use of their products in green
building.37

Built Green has enlisted various organizations to help increase the incentives for homeowners to
purchase more efficient homes. One example is Fannie Mae which provides various mortgages
to homeowners who want to buy Fannie Mae products that maximize efficiency of energy and
water, while increasing indoor air quality.

35
   http://chapters.usgbc.org/colorado/documents/AbouttheChapter.pdf
36
   http://www.state.co.us/oemc/rebuildco/services/highperformance/leed_cost/Summary.pdf
37
   www.builtgreen.com


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                          14
Successes
Denver has the most successful residential green building program in the nation with over 30,000
houses implementing green building techniques and priorities. Several measurements of their
success include:
    Over 30,000 houses have implemented green building techniques
    41% of Denver new home buyers are aware of Built Green
    139 builders participate in the program and 50 sponsors support the program




Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                      15
Eugene, Oregon

Demographics and City Description
The city of Eugene is located about 60 miles from
the Oregon coast, and at the south end of the Willamette Valley. Eugene is the third largest city
in Oregon at a population of 148,595 in 2006 with an estimated growth rate of 4.8%.38 The rainy
season brings 50.9 inches of rain a year and has a mean annual temperature of 52.1°F. The city
prides itself as being “The World's Greatest City of the Arts & Outdoors.”39 In 2006, Eugene
was named the top Green City in America by the Green Guide, a premier consumer resource and
magazine for green living.40

Eugene’s Green Building History
In 2003, the City of Eugene released a draft of a citywide Sustainable Building Policy that
requires the city to use LEED-NC as a guideline for all new city-funded construction but does
not require certification.

The city of Eugene is proud of its sustainability practices ranging from paper recycling to energy
management to green building. Numerous voluntary green building programs exist including
Northwest Ecobuilding Guild, Green Building Demonstration Project, and the Green Building
Advisory Committee. The city has also directed a lot of support and regulation towards the
prevention of sprawl, increase of urban development, and the increase of public transportation.

Regulation Strategies
Unlike the majority of cities discussed in this report, the city of Eugene does not require LEED
standard certifications on any of its city-funded construction but rather uses LEED-NC as a
guideline.41 Additionally, the city is using LEED-EB as an assessment tool for existing
buildings, while looking to certify already qualified green buildings that have gone through
building retrofits. Whether or not the builder/contractor/owner is trying to achieve EB
certification they are encouraged to apply as many EB and NC prerequisites possible.42

Successes
Some of Eugene’s successes include:
    The city boasts four registered public building projects including: a hospital, courthouse,
      business complex, and public library.43
    The Wayne L. Morse Courthouse has been rated by the AIA association as one of the top
      ten green projects of 2007.

38
   www.citytowninfo.com
39
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eugene,_Oregon
40
   http://www.thegreenguide.com/doc/113/top10cities
41
   Growing the Green Building Industry in Lane County; Written in 2003 by Naoka Atsusaka
42
   http://www.aia.org/static/state_local_resources/adv_sustainability/Green%20Rating%20Systems/Cities%20using
    %20LEED.pdf
43
   Sustainable, High Efficiency Lighting Integrated with Daylighting: Lillis Business Complex at the University of
    Oregon School of Business; Published by the Seattle-based Lighting Design Lab, this webpage describes why the
    organization considers Lillis a "notable lighting location."


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                       16
        The city’s courthouse and business complex has become 40% more energy and water
         efficient.
                                                     Wayne L. Morse United States Courthouse
                                                     Eugene’s Courthouse was rated by the AIA
                                                     (American Institute of Architects) association
                                                     as one of the Top Ten Green Projects for
                                                     2007. The building reduces the water and
                                                     energy use by more than 40% through
                                                     reduced irrigation combined with waterless
                                                     urinals and low-flow toilets, and faucets. As
                                                     well as, the use of extensive day lighting,
                                                     shading, high-performance glazing, efficient
                                                     electric lighting, displacement ventilation,
                                                     and radiant-floor heating and cooling.
Incentive Based Strategies
The city of Eugene has directed a lot of support and regulation towards the prevention of sprawl,
increase of urban development, and the increase of public transportation. This can be seen in the
push and emergence of alternative modes of transportation (walk, bike). Additional education
has also been used for integrated pest management and a stormwater program. The Green
Building Advisory Committee is still discussing and deciding on the incentives they would like
to provide for builders, consultants, and buyers. Below are some of the examples the Green
Building Advisory plans to provide:
     No-cost consultation will be provided during the permitting and development review
        processes through local and state requirements for which the city has review and approval
        authority.
     Fees will be waived for required pre-application meetings.
     The building permit process will be expedited by completing reviews and providing
        feedback to the applicant within 14 working days of submittals.
     Advertising and marketing tools will be provided through the use of photographs,
        illustrations and text. Marketing tools will describe project factors including sustainable
        community planning, design, development and construction; barriers and opportunities
        for sensitive site development and buildings with healthier indoor air, energy efficiency
        and resource efficiency; and financial and process lessons.44

Successes
As individual Eugene residents have been using green building it is hard to quantify the
successes of green building in Eugene. Individuals around Eugene have embraced green
building techniques through the following means:
     Homes have taken advantage of Portland General Electrics program Earth Advantage.
       Solar Panels have been present in Eugene since the 1970’s and have been used for
       heating pools, houses, and the ventilating systems45




44
   http://www.eugene-or.gov/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_2_173682_0_0_18/Demo%20Project%20
    Outline.pdf
45
   Growing the Green Building Industry in Lane County; Written in 2003 by Naoka Atsusaka.


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                 17
Kansas City, Missouri

Demographics and City Description46
Kansas City, Missouri is the “Heart of America”
located near the geographic and population centers of
the United States, where the Missouri and Kansas
Rivers intersect in generally flat delta valleys
bordered to the north and south by glacial cut cliffs. Incorporated in 1850, Kansas City
experienced growth post Civil War that continues today with a population of approximately
445,000 and a density of 1,408/sq. mi.

Kansas City’s Green Building History47
In 2006, an environmental department was added to city government by Mayor Ken Barnes in
order to consolidate and coordinate previously disconnected environmental efforts. Since then
there have been efforts to increase sustainable building and development practices in Kansas
City. This city’s government leads by example; participating in the U.S. Mayors Climate
Protection Agreement with the Kyoto Accord. Kansas City requires new city buildings meet
LEED Silver certification and the current city hall is being redeveloped using the LEED Existing
Buildings pilot module.
                                                                   Kansas City Science and Technology Center
Regulation Strategies
Successes
        Public transit growth
        Voluntary 10,000 Rain Gardens initiative
        Water quality
        Kansas City Science and Technology Center
        Government funding of new buildings requires
         LEED silver certification                                 Opened in May of 2003 on a previous
                                                                   brownfield site, this building is a model of
Incentive Based Strategies                                         efficiency performing better then predicted.
                                                                   Certified LEED Gold, this building has won
The majority of Kansas City’s initiatives remain purely            numerous awards and illustrates the
voluntary and driven by public interest and cooperation            feasibility of green building practices and
by resident industry leaders such as Bob Berkebile of              technologies in a laboratory setting.
BNIM architecture. The city helps maintain its excellent
water quality with the voluntary participants of the 10,000 Rain Gardens Program, which helps
manage stormwater runoff and historic flooding from public, industry, and private development.
46
   http://www.sustainlane.us/city_study_18%20Kansas%20City.jsp
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_City,_Missouri
47
   http://www.sustainlane.us/city_study_18%20Kansas%20City.jsp
    http://www.epa.gov/greeningepa/facilities/kansascity-lab.htm
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_City%2C_Missouri
    http://www.rainkc.com/home/index.asp
    http://www.earthday.net/UER/report/mo_kansascity.html
    http://www.bnim.com


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                               18
Water recovery and management are showcased in the Kansas City Science Center and
educational building which is LEED Gold Certified, and which has recieved numerous
sustainable building awards. Rain Garden swales clean water of pollutants and slow flow with
bacterial or plant systems. Currently there are plans to increase current density the city plans to
add to the mass transit capacity and the redevelopment of downtown including entertainment and
sports centers as well as redevelopment of residential and commercial space in existing buildings
however, there are no sustainable or green building requirements, recommendations, or
incentives in place for this expected growth. The Homebuilders Association of Greater Kansas
City has a voluntary program based on LEED certification levels.

Successes
In the absence of a regulatory structure supporting sustainable building, Kansas City ranks a
surprising sixteenth in the nation in LEED buildings.




Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                           19
New York City, New York

Demographics and City Description48
New York City is positioned at the harbor junction of the
Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean on the northeast
coast. The five boroughs contained within the city are
positioned on three islands with very little land mass of
the city upon the mainland. Much of this land is
reclaimed tidelands and filled wetlands. New York has
been the most populous city in the U.S. since 1835, and
became the most populous city in the world in 1925. It remains one of the most populated cities
with over 8 million residents, a density of 26,720 /sq mi and 40 million tourists annually.

New York City’s Green Building History49
In many ways New York City was required to have a sustainable design before the concept
existed. Its geographic water boundaries and population density made efficient land use
necessary rather than optional much sooner than in the many sprawling U.S. cities unhindered by
seemingly endless mass of undeveloped land. With some of the world’s first skyscrapers, New
York City was one of the earliest areas to develop vertically, increasing urban density in
previously unimaginable ways. Since the 1800s the city has regulated water collection and reuse
with rooftop water towers on all buildings greater than six stories. New York maintains a long
history of dedicated parklands and urban green space which was part of the city planning since at
least 1857, with the designation of Central Park.

Regulation Strategies
In 2005 Local Law 86 was enacted, requiring many Department of Design and Construction
(DDC) projects to achieve LEED Silver Certification and exceed water and energy code
efficiency requirements. In addition to Local Law 86 all DDC projects must start with an
environmental meeting to discuss practices and technologies to help lower the projects
environmental footprint.50,51

In 2006 PLANYC 2030 rolled out; an initiative to reduce New York City’s green house
emissions by the year 2030. Contained within the plan are building permit requirements for the
reclamation of brownfields, creation of sustainable housing, and access to park land.52




48
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_City
49
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_tower
   http://www.sustainlane.us/city_study_6%20New%20York%20City.jsp
   http://www.dec.ny.gov/
   http://www.nyc.gov/html/ddc/html/ddcgreen/ll86.html
50
   An environmental footprint is the amount of natural resources an object will use in order to support itself.
51
   http://www.nyc.gov/html/ddc/html/ddcgreen/
52
   http://www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/home/home.shtml


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                             20
Successes
        Executive Order 111 creating NYSERDA                                   Freedom Tower
        Local Law 86
        PlaNYC 2030

Incentive Based Strategies
Green building strategies are encouraged at both the city and
state level but there seems to remain a dearth of enforceable
regulation to guide these principles. In 1999, the Department
of Design initiated optional green building guidelines. In
2001, Governor George Pataki signed Executive Order 111
“Green and Clean State Buildings and Vehicles” which
encourages but does not require sustainable design in state
funded buildings and increased energy efficiency in existing
facilities. Voluntary participation has resulted in $700
million of new green building construction, relatively small
in proportion to construction impact.53

The city continues to attempt to influence sustainable
building with publicly funded projects including green
designs such as the wind powered Freedom Tower for the
rebuilt World Trade Center area.54 In addition attempts are
being made to increase enforcement strategies as incentive strategies are slow to incite
significant change in building practices.

Successes
        Green Building Tax Credit Program, started in 2000 and updated in 2005, details
         standards a project must meet to qualify for a tax credit.55




53
   http://www.nyserda.org/programs/exorder111.asp
    http://www.nyserda.org/programs/State_Government/exorder111guidelines.pdf
54
   http://www.gothamgazette.com/article/20040105/200/817
55
   http://www.dec.ny.gov/energy/218.html


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                           21
Portland, Oregon

Demographics and City Distribution
Portland is located in the northwest corner of Oregon.
The two major rivers around Portland are the Columbia
River and the Willamette River, a tributary of the
Columbia. Portland is roughly sixty miles inland from
the cost of the Pacific Ocean. Mount Hood, part of the Cascade Mountain Range, lies east of this
metropolis. Close to two million people live in Portland and its surrounding metro area with a
resulting density of 3,939 /sq mi.56

Portland’s Green Building History
Portland is known as a forward thinking city when it comes to matters of the environment.
Portland’s push toward sustainable building designs and practices started in 1994 led by the
citizen based volunteer group, Sustainable Portland Commission.57 In September of 1999, the
City Commissioner Dan Saltzman, put forth the Green Building Options Plan for City Council
review with the help of the City Council, Portland Energy Office, and the Sustainable Portland
Commission. In 2000, the Energy Office merged with the Solid Waste and Recycling Division
to form the Office of Sustainable Development (OSD).

The need for green building in Portland can be summed up with the following quote from City
Commissioner Dan Saltzman,
       “Cities all over the world are doing this sort of pioneering, but in small stages.
       Portland has the potential to pull it all together. I want to see green buildings with
       the capacity for energy and water conservation, reduced stormwater runoff and
       on-site energy production become an integral part of every new plan in Portland.
       . . . building giant concrete slabs with no thought whatsoever to the environmental
       impact has got to stop.”58

Regulations Strategies
In January 2001, the City Council Adopted the Green Building Policy. The policy states that
“the City of Portland shall incorporate green building principles and practices into the design,
construction, and operations of all city facilities, city-funded projects, and infrastructure projects
to the fullest extent possible.”59 It goes on to state that these projects shall meet the “Certified”
level of Portland LEED Green Building Rating System, a system based on the US Green
Building Council’s LEED Rating System. In the spring of 2005 the policy was updated to
further specify that construction projects of city-owned facilities meet LEED Gold certification.
The policy update also requires design and construction of all new city-owned facilities to
include an ecoroof.60

56
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portland,_Oregon
57
   http://www.portlandonline.com/OSD/index.cfm?c=42248&a=126515
58
   http://www.portlandonline.com/saltzman/index.cfm?c=27319&a=10003
59
   Green Building Policy, Binding City Policy, BCP-ENB-9.01
60
   Green Building Policy Update, Binding City Policy, BCP-ENB-9.02


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                            22
Successes
       In 2005, Portland had 49 LEED registered buildings, more than any other city in the U.S.,
        the majority of which are privately owned projects.
       The Gerding Theater at the Armory was built in 1891 and was listed on the National
        Register of Historic Places in 2000. The theater was renovated in 2000 and was awarded
        the LEED Platinum designation.

                                        Gerding Theater at the Armory
                                        On the National Register of Historic Places, the
                                        Gerding Theater at the Armory was renovated in
                                        2000. It achieved the highest LEED standard,
                                        Platinum and illustrating that historic and sustainable
                                        architecture can coexist.



Incentive Based Strategies
In 2001, the Green Investment Fund (GIF) was set up by City Commissioner Dan Saltzman.
This fund allocated $800,000 to be dispersed as grants to help fund the newly implemented
Green Building Policy. When the grants ran out, the GIF was renewed for $2.5 million to be
allocated to green building projects over a five-year time frame. Portland has also implemented
the Business Energy Tax Credit (BETC) for buildings which meet LEED silver certification.




Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                             23
San José, California

Demographics and City
Distribution
San José is part of the nearly
continuous urban metropolis located
just south of San Francisco Bay in northern California approximately 67 feet above sea level. It
is 48 miles south of San Francisco and 40 miles south of Oakland. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie
to the west and the Diablo Mountain range is to the east. Two rivers run through the city, the
Coyote and the Guadalupe. San José is the third largest city in California next to Los Angeles
and San Diego. The city has a population of roughly 950,000 people with a density of 5,216/sq
mi. and is still expanding.61

San José’s Green Building History
As early as 1994, San José was thinking about sustainability when they released the San José
2020 General Plan. This is the official policy guidance document which describes future
development of the city. The 2020 General Plan included a strategy to become a more
sustainable city. In late 1998, after community-initiated pleas, a Green Building Taskforce was
assembled with the approval of the city council. Green Building Taskforce members were
appointed by the mayor and were comprised of working professionals within the building,
housing, and community sectors. Their mission was to develope a Green Building Policy that
could be adopted by the City of San José. The adoption of a Green Building Policy came to
fruition in 2001 and was later updated in 2007 requiring stricter standards on new construction of
municipal buildings.

Regulations Strategies
Within the San José 2020 General Plan was the Sustainable City section stating San José’s desire
to become a more environmentally and economically sustainable city. This plan defined a
sustainable city as being “designed, constructed, and operated to minimize waste, efficiently use
its natural resources and to manage and conserve them for the use of present and future
generations.”62 In 2001, when the city council adopted the Green Building Policy the city came
forth with more detailed policies on sustainability. In 2007, the Green Building Policy was
updated and required “all new municipal buildings over 10,000 square feet to be constructed to
achieve LEED Silver level certification at a minimum, with a goal of reaching LEED Gold or
Platinum certification.”63

The Green Building Policy was created in response to public desire for more sustainable living
and design within their community. The city adopted these measures demonstrating its
commitment to the environment. San José has set forth goals of protecting, conserving, and
enhancing its regions environmental resources. It has also adopted policies to showcase its

61
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Jose,_California
62
   San Jose 2020 General Plan, http://www.sanjoseca.gov/planning/gp/2020_text/Pdf_version/2004/GPChp3
    _Jan2004.pdf
63
   http://www.sanjoseca.gov/esd/natural-energy-resources/gb-policy.htm


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                   24
commitment to the San José economy, with the idea that increased green building and
sustainable development will save money for the taxpayers by reducing operation costs over time
from city funded developments.

Incentive Based Strategies
The City continues to meet with community members, the Green Building Task Force and
workgroups to come up with incentives and educational programs. Two accomplishments upon
which the city prides itself and currently boasts include:
                                                           Adobe West Tower Headquarters
    The West Valley Branch Library was the
       nation’s first Green Library.
    The Adobe West Tower headquarters
       building in downtown was the first
       commercial office building to receive
       LEED Platinum.




Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                     25
Santa Monica, California

Demographics and City Distribution
The City of Santa Monica is located just south of Los Angeles
along the California coast on Santa Monica Bay. With the
Pacific Ocean and the city of Los Angeles as neighbors it is a
confined city with a population of 96,500 people and a density
of 10,178/ sq. mi.64

Santa Monica’s Green Building History
In 1994, Santa Monica adopted its first Sustainable City Program as a foundation to create a
more sustainable way of life. This program was expanded in 2003 to the Santa Monica
Sustainable Plan, a comprehensive plan with specific targets and goals to becoming a more
sustainable city. Part of Santa Monica’s drive towards sustainability includes the use of green
building. Since 2003 green building design and construction guidelines have been developed
which included both recommended and required practices to reduce life-cycle environmental
impacts associated with construction activities.

Regulation Strategies
                                                                      Civic Center Parking Garage
The core of Santa Monica’s green building revolves
around the city’s Green Building Design and
Construction Guidelines. These guidelines were
developed over a three year period with the goal of
facilitating green building without forcing excessive cost
or burden on the public and private sectors. The resulting
product was a series of recommended and required
practices in the areas of Building Site and Form,
Landscaping, Transportation, Building Envelope and
Space Planning, Building Materials, Water Systems,
Electrical Systems, HVAC Systems, Control Systems,            With 290,000 sq ft, 816 parking stalls and $1.5
                                                              million worth of photovoltaic panels this is the
Construction Management, and Commissioning. These
                                                              nation’s first sustainable solar powered parking
practices were specifically geared towards the new            structure and anticipated to be the nations first
construction of:65                                            LEED certified parking garage. The solar panels
     Institutional and commercial Offices                    are forecasted to pay for themselves in 17 years,
     Light Industrial Buildings                              generating $90,000 a year in electricity.
     Commercial Retail Buildings
     Multi-Family Residences
     Hotels and Motels

The regulatory mechanism for the Green Building Design and Construction Guidelines is via the
revisions of Santa Monica’s municipal code.66 While these practices are not geared towards
residential and special use developments many of the practices are applicable.

64
     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Santa_Monica,_California
65
      http://smgreen.org/introduction/introduction.html


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                              26
Successes
          Stormwater Management Performance Ordinance – requires a 20% reduction in urban
           runoff for new developments and renovations as well as an Urban Runoff Mitigation
           Plan.
          Green Building Ordinance – adopts stricter standards for commercial and large
           residential project then California’s Title 24 performance targets.67
          Virginia Avenue Park; first LEED certified park in the U.S.68

Incentive Strategies69
Santa Monica has many incentive and educational programs to encourage the use of green
building practices and technologies. One successful program gives top priority of plan checks to
projects that are registered LEED certified and can provided proper documentation. This speeds
the project through the approval process saving developers money and time by allowing the
construction process to begin sooner. Additionally, projects can qualify for one of two grants
that the City of Santa Monica has developed for green projects:
     LEED Green Building Grants Program provides financial assistance to LEED certified
        buildings with the amount of monetary assistance dependent on the level of LEED
        certification the building achieves.
     The Innovative Technologies Grant Program covers 50% of construction costs on new or
        renovation construction that involves cutting edge energy efficiency or urban runoff
        mitigation technologies, up to $5000.

For those projects not required to comply with Santa Monica’s green building guidelines the city
has developed the Residential Green Building Guide and the Green Building Affordable
Checklist as guidance on green building practices. The Residential Green Building Guide is an
extensive manual providing information on attributes, practices and resources on green building
for homeowners. The Green Building Affordable Checklist helps developers and homeowners
identify ways to incorporate green building practices into their projects wherever possible.

Successes70
     Santa Monica Main Library              Apollo Alliance survey found Santa Monica has the
                                             most certified green building per capita in the nation.
                                            The Green Business Certification provides consumers
                                             with information on which business are utilizing green
                                             practices.
                                            Sustainable Quality Awards recognize businesses and
                                             organizations which implement sustainable practices.
                                            The newly renovated National Resource Defense
     Santa Monica’s Main Library,
     opened in 2005, was designed for        Council office building in Santa Monica achieved
     LEED Silver but achieve LEED            LEED Platinum level certification.
     Gold rating.

66
   http://smgreen.org/requirements/projectrequirements.html
67
   http://smgreen.org/requirements/cityordinances.html
68
   http://www.smgov.net/epd/news/pdf/Library_LEED_Gold.pdf
69
   http://www.greenbuildings.santa-monica.org/mainpages/whatsnew.htm
70
   http://www.smgov.net/epd/index.htm


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                            27
Scottsdale, Arizona

Demographics and City Description
Scottsdale is located in the Salt River Valley, sandwiched
between the Sonoran Desert and the McDowell Mountain Range.
Scottsdale lies with the city of Phoenix to the west, Tempe to the
south, Fountain Hills to the east, and Paradise Valley to the
northwest. Scottsdale is considered “The West’s Most Western
Town.” According to the 2005 Census Bureau the city has a
population of 226,000 people with a density of 1,227/sq mi.71

Scottsdale’s Green Building History
In 1998, Scottsdale created Arizona’s first green building program. The residential green
building program was strictly incentive and education based and proved to be a good match with
Scottsdale due to the arid climate. The green program building highlighted the environmental
impacts of building on the Sonoran Desert and the ability for green building to achieve energy
and water savings and increase indoor air quality while protecting the natural environment.

In 2005, Scottsdale became the first city in the nation to adopt the Gold Standard for LEED. The
resolution required all new city buildings to achieve the certification, while any remodel and
renovations were to include LEED standards where feasible. Immediately several city sponsored
buildings were built to be LEED Gold certified including a senior center and the Arizona State
University Scottsdale Center (Sky Song)72

Regulation Strategies
                                                        Arizona State Universities Scottsdale
                                                        Center (SkySong), shown on the left, is
                                                        the largest commercial project in Arizona
                                                        that meets the standards for LEED
                                                        certification.

Successes
          Creating and enforcing LEED – Gold standards for 1.2 million square feet of commercial
           building. The biggest LEED certified building in the state of Arizona.
          Enforces the most arduous of all LEED standards, Gold, on all new and remodeled city
           owned buildings.
          First city in the nation to adopt the Gold Standard in LEED building for all municipal
           buildings.




71
     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottsdale,_Arizona
72
     http://www.ci.scottsdale.az.us/greenbuilding


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                               28
Incentive Based Strategies73
The Scottsdale green building program provides incentives, education and events for builders,
developers, and consumers to participate in green building. The program focuses on six
environmental impacts areas (site use, energy, indoor air quality, building materials, solid waste,
and water) and provides assistance with each one of them.

When any of the six environmentally sound strategies are put into action the city assigns a
building anywhere from 1 -150 points which are publicly displayed. Examples of some of the
incentives that are provided for builders are:
     Green projects get priority plan review allowing builders to receive building permits in
        half the time.
     Construction job site signs are provided by the green building program advertising a
        companies’ commitment to the long- and short-term health of humans and the
        environment.
     The program provides a directory of participating builders and designers that is
        distributed at public events increasing participating companies advertising and visibility.
     Certification from the city noting the superior environmental quality and planning of all
        green building.
     Free admission to lecture series, workshops, and special events.
     A home owner’s manual is given out to all participants.
     Recognition on the city web site and in local news media.

Additional incentives are provided for residential customers including:
    Utility Incentives: participants receive a rebate of $3 for each DC Watt of rated solar
       electric power installed in the grid-tied application up to 10,000 Watts.
    State of Arizona Tax Breaks and Credits: through the state of Arizona anyone using and
       producing additional power is able to participate in the following programs:
        a. Personal Income Tax Credit
        b. Sales Tax Exemption Expenditures
        c. Solar Energy Property Tax Exemption
    Federal Tax Credits: participants that use solar energy are eligible for a personal Income
       Tax Credit

Successes
Since 1998, Scottsdale has issued more than 900 green building permits. In 2005, astoundingly,
33% of all single-family residential building permits adhered to the city’s green building
program standards. This success has been achieved by an aggressive marketing and media
campaign. Several measurements of their success include:
 In 2005, 33% of all single-family residential permits adhered to the city’s green building
   policies showing a 21% increase permits from the 2004.
 A survey conducted by the National Association of Home Builders found that half of the
   Scottsdale real estate buyers wanted to incorporate green building features into their home.



73
     http://www.scottsdaleaz.gov/greenbuilding/


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                          29
International Examples
London, England

Demographics and City Description
London covers 609 square miles, encompassing the
Thames Valley (a floodplain), the Thames River,
and a multitude of rolling hills. Approximately 8.5
million people live in London creating a population
density of 8,215/sq mi (3,172/km²). London has a
temperate climate and is one of the driest European cities with a mere 22.98 inches of rain a
year.74

London’s Green Building History
According to the UK Green building council, UK construction accounts for approximately “50%
of total greenhouse gas emissions, with the production of materials accounting for a further
10%.”75 Working with the US Green Building Council, the UK has started to implement green
building techniques in both commercial and residential buildings.

The government in London is making strides towards increased green building techniques but
has not yet established regulations requiring green building. Rather the government hopes to
lead by example developing various green buildings throughout the city.

Government Built Buildings
                                            London City Hall

                                                      The London City Hall is a voter
                                                      approved building that uses green
                                                      techniques such as natural ventilation,
                                                      bore hole water cooling, heat recovery,
                                                      site selection and displacement
                                                      ventilation system. The energy
                                                      consumption is also less than half of a
                                                      normal building.
Successes
Several successes are sited below:
   London City Hall has proven to reduce the use of electricity by 50% and become a tourist
    attraction encouraging further green building in government sponsored buildings.
   In 2006, the government announced a proposal to make all new homes in England carbon
    neutral by 2016.76

74
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London#Geography_and_climate
75
   http://www.ukgbc.org/page.jsp?id=11
76
   http://www.ukgbc.org


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                           30
Zero Carbon House Movement
In London and the UK there has been an increasing movement for zero carbon houses. As of
2007, UK homes account for 27% of the UK's greenhouse gas emissions.77

                             Zero Carbon Block of Flats in East London78 79


                                                       Solar panels and wind turbines are used in
                                                       various houses throughout London to create
                                                       zero carbon houses. Other techniques include
                                                       low energy appliances, bicycle storage,
                                                       recycling and compost facilities, connection
                                                       to alternative transportations.



Business Built Buildings
Several companies around London have taken steps in pushing for green building. The push has
not come with incentives from the government but instead from the simple reduction of energy,
gas, and water bills. Below are some examples:

                                        Swiss Re. London Building80

                                        Swiss Reinsurance Company, one of the world's largest
                                        reinsurance companies, decided to build London’s “first
                                        green skyscraper” due to their company’s deep concerns
                                        about the effects of global warming (e.g. hurricane Katrina)
                                        on insurance companies. The building uses up to 50% less
                                        energy than an average building and implements other green
                                        building techniques such as light wells, and artificial and
                                        natural lighting.


                          Time Inc.’s IPC Media Building (Blue Fin Building)81

     Time Inc held a competition for architects to create a green
     building that is also a major attention getter. The Blue Fin
     Building meets both the requirements by requiring 35% less
     energy than the average 56-story building. The building has
     also shown that they are reducing their building costs by as
     much as 25%. This is made possible through the use of
     aluminum fins blocking and reflecting heat, windows for
     natural lights, and the use of recyclable materials.

77
   http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/consumer/caring/article.html?in_article_id=417916&in_page_id=511
78
   http://www.thisismoney.co.uk/consumer/caring/article.html?in_article_id=417916&in_page_id=511
79
   http://society.guardian.co.uk/communities/story/0,,1971125,00.html
80
   http://www.swissre.com
81
   http://www.timewarner.com/corp/citizenship/environment/green_design/index.html


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                  31
                                          Successes
                                             
                                           A group of 36 leading companies have joined the UK
                                           Green Building Council including British Land, Hanson,
                                           Arup, MacAlpine and Barratt Homes
                                        The 2007 UK Green Building Council Ecobuild trade
                                           show doubled in size from 2006 (13,400 people)
                                           showing a growing interest in improved, greener
                                           building materials.82
        In recognition of Ecobuild’s stature in the UK and in support of the newly-launched UK
         Green Building Council, 2008 will see the World Green Building Council hold its annual
         International Congress at Ecobuild next year.83




82
     http://business.guardian.co.uk/story/0,,2022802,00.html
83
     http://www.innovationsforthebuiltenvironment.co.uk/


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                       32
Melbourne, Australia

Demographics and City Description
Melbourne is located along the southern edge of
mainland Australia around Port Phillip Bay which is
connected to the Pacific Ocean. Founded in 1835 as
a small pastoral settlement along the Yarra River it
flourished rapidly into Australia’s premier city with the discovery of gold in the 1850’s and
became seat of the nations capital from 1901 to 1927 when the capital moved to its present day
location in Canberra. Today, Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria with a population of
roughly 3.7 million and a density of 479/km²; second only to the city of Sydney.84

Melbourne’s Green Building History85
Green building is relatively new in Australia and hence new to Melbourne; however, this hasn’t
precluded Melbourne from making great strides towards sustainability and the implementation of
green building practices. While the formal practice of green building is new to Australia the
concept of sustainability dates all the way back to 1992 with the National Strategy for
Ecologically Sustainable Development. Since then, numerous national polices have been
implemented addressing conservation of natural resources and sustainability.

Green building in its present form in Australia began in 2000 with the Sydney Olympics as the
“Green Games”. In an effort to provide an integrative framework and a national environmental
rating system for buildings the Green Building Council of Australia (GBCA) was form in 2002
by industry and government agencies. In the short time span since their inception they have
become the nations leading authority on Green Building creating the Green Star rating system
presently used throughout Australia.

Melbourne has becoming a leading city on the green building front in Australia through
amendments to the city’s Municipal Strategic Statement, changes to its Local Planning Policy
Framework and the construction of several sustainable and Green Star rated buildings.86

Regulation Strategies87
Melbourne’s Zero Net Emissions by 2020 Strategy is the primary guidance Melbourne uses to
promote green building. Under this strategy Melbourne developed the Melbourne Planning
Scheme Amendment C60 which amended its Local Planning Policy and Municipal Strategic
Statement making key changes to promote sustainable and green building practices.

An important portion of this amendment is Clause 22.19, Environmentally Sustainable Office
Buildings, which mandates “new office buildings with a gross floor area of more than 5,000

84
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melbourne
85
   Dollars and Sense of Green Building in 2006, http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/rsrc/PDFs/CH2/DollarsandSense
    ofGreenBuildings.pdf
86
   http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/info.cfm?top=195&pg=1422
87
   http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/info.cfm?top=195&pg=1422


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                   33
square meters must achieve a four star rating under the Green Building Council of Australia’s
Green Star rating tool or equivalent”. It also stipulated such buildings must achieve certain
ratings on energy and water efficiency.

Successes                                                                  Council House 2 (CH2)
Melbourne boasts the creation of innovative and iconic
structures throughout Melbourne such as the Council House
2 (CH2) featured on the right. This 10-story office building
was opened in August 2006 and was Australia’s first
building to achieve 6 Green Stars, the most prestigious rank
in the Green Star Rating System.88 Through its design and
incorporation of sustainable technologies it is anticipated that
it will take 11 years for the sustainability features to pay for
themselves.89

Incentive Based Strategies
Much of the green building to date has been through the use
of incentive based strategies which have primarily focused
on awareness and education about green building practices
and technologies. One such program implemented in 2004
and currently under review is the GreenSaver Program. This
program partnered the City of Melbourne, City West Water and Easybeinggreen for the purpose
of helping residents reduce their water and energy bills. Benefits of this program include:90
     a water and energy assessment for their homes
     a range of energy and water-saving devices free of charge
     advice and information on household environmental actions
     an invitation to two environmental workshops

Another innovative solution can be seen in the implementation of the Sustainable Melbourne
Fund. Started in 2004, this fund invests in projects providing both environmental and economic
benefits to both residents and the city of Melbourne. All profits are recycled back into the fund
to perpetuate investment in environmentally responsible projects.91

Successes
        Community Service Grants Program in the Area of Environment and the Melbourne
         Sustainability awards recognizing individuals and businesses commitment to the
         environment.
        Public fact sheets have been developed with tips on water efficiency and stormwater
         management.
        Sustainability Street Program – provides training for members of the community to
         promote ownership in creating a sustainable community.

88
   http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/info.cfm?top=171&pg=1933
89
   Dollars and Sense of Green Building in 2006, http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/rsrc/PDFs/CH2/DollarsandSense
    ofGreenBuildings.pdf
90
   http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/info.cfm?top=218&pa=2582&pg=1602
91
   http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/info.cfm?top=218&pg=1611


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                   34
Vancouver, Canada

Demographics and City Distribution
Vancouver is located along the south-western coast
of British Columbia lies between the Pacific
Ocean, the Strait of Georgia to the east and the
Coast Mountains to the west. Settled in the 1860’s it remained a small lumber mill town until
the completion of the transcontinental railway which opened the city to rapid growth which still
continues today. The Vancouver metropolitan area currently hosts a population of roughly 2.2
million people with a density of 13,602/sq mi.92

Vancouver’s Green Building History
Green building is the natural progression of the concept of sustainability that Vancouver has
been working towards since 1990 with the Clouds of Change recommendation to decrease
carbon dioxide emissions by 20%. Through the years Vancouver has embarked on a mission to
the environment by increasing their commitment to sustainability. This is evident through the
city’s Official Community Plan (2002) which had sustainability as a central theme. Since the
beginning of this century the Vancouver council has approved numerous code revisions and
programs to support green building. A key program was passed in 2004, which required LEED
Gold certification for all civic buildings greater than 500 square meters.93 Just recently in April
of 2007, the council endorsed recommended changes to the city’s zoning guidance to improve
environmental performance of all buildings.94

Regulation Strategies
Vancouver has implemented various regulatory measures facilitating and/or mandating the use of
green building practices and green technologies. Some of the most recent regulations came from
the city council in 2005. The first measure mandated LEED Gold certification and 30% energy
improvements for all civic buildings and LEED Silver for all building in the Southeast False
Creek (SEFC) development. Further more in March of that same year it mandated LEED Gold
for the Olympic Athlete’s Village in the SEFC and that at least one project had to be LEED
Platinum.95


                                                   Thunderbird Winter Sports Centre
                                                   The new winter sports center, one of many building
                                                   being developed for the 2010 Olympic Game to
                                                   meet LEED certification. This one is designed to
                                                   attain LEED Silver certification.




92
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vancouver
93
   http://vancouver.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/20051103/documents/pe5.pdf
94
   http://vancouver.ca/ctyclerk/cclerk/20070517/documents/pe4.pdf
95
   http://www.city.vancouver.bc.ca/olympicvillage/green.htm


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                               35
Successes
        The development of Southeast False Creek (SEFC) is a model of a sustainable
         community and the site of the Olympic Village for the 2010 games.96
        The Silva, Canada’s first LEED certified high-rise is currently under construction.

Incentive Based Strategies
The University of British Columbia (UBC) signed onto the 1990 Talloires Declaration (TD), a
ten-point action plan making sustainability and environmental literacy an integral part of all
aspects of each college and university that has signed on. It was the first official commitment by
tertiary education to environmental sustainability and at present has been signed by over 300
educational institutions.97

UBC has spearheaded the sustainability movement among Canadian universities by consistently
being at the top of its class, leading by example with is sustainable measure. UBC has won
numerous awards and continues its commitment to sustainability with its “Sustainability Street”;
the “world’s first closed-loop system of water recycling and re-use that integrates stormwater
management, wastewater treatment and ground source heating.”98

BuildSmart was started in 2003 by the Greater Vancouver Regional District as a resource for
industry on sustainable building and design. It carries out this mission through education and the
provision of tools to help businesses implement green practices and technologies. It has been
nationally recognized in Canada for its contribution and dedication to sustainable building.99

Successes
        Energy retrofits on the University of British Columbia cut costs by $2 million each
         year.100
        In 1997, UBC became Canada's first university to adopt a sustainable development
         policy.
        BuildSmart awarded the 2005 Sustainable Community Award in recognition of its efforts
         to further the use of green building and sustainability within the City of Vancouver.




96
   http://www.city.vancouver.bc.ca/olympicvillage/index.htm
97
   http://www.ulsf.org/programs_talloires.html
98
   http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/sustainabilitystreet/news.html
99
   http://www.gvrd.bc.ca/BUILDSMART/about.htm
100
    http://www.sustain.ubc.ca/


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                          36
Recommendations
Through the process of analyzing the various strategies used in different cites within the United
States and around the world there have been a number of programs and practices that have stood
out as successful in their implementation of green building. Below is a list of recommendations
that if implemented and utilize properly will increase both the feasibility and incentives of green
building.

       Federal, state and local government agencies need to partner with building trade
        associations and others to institute educational programs for builders, public
        employees, government, and consumers.

With green building still in its infancy it is imperative to educate industry and government
personnel as well as consumers as to the specifics of green building, what it is, what the goals
are, and the benefits it provides. By making green building both relevant and profitable it
encourages participation and adherence. Colorado’s Built Green program and Chicago’s various
outreach programs are shining successes of how the education of stakeholders has increased
awareness of green building and created a market where green building is sought out and valued.

       Local and state government agencies need to lead by example by applying green
        building practices and LEED standards to municipal and publicly funded new
        construction and renovations.

The majority of municipalities’ researched have in place some type of regulatory mechanism
mandating municipal and publicly funded building to meet some level of LEED certification.
Some statues require LEED certification while others require projects to be designed to meet
LEED certification while not actually going through the certification process. Either way, this
stance sets the field for future development throughout the city as developers interested in
municipal contracts must become familiar with green building practices and technologies in
order to be awarded government contracts. It creates a market that through consistent
application of green building in the public sector will hopefully transfer into the private sector as
the construction industry becomes more familiar with creating green buildings.

       The construction industry needs to be rewarded for their participation with green
        building.

Through recognizing the construction industry for their innovation and use of green building you
provide them with a sense of ownership and accomplishment; giving them incentive to continue
using green building in all their construction projects. Many cities such as Chicago, Melbourne,
and Santa Monica all have award programs that recognize buildings, businesses and industry for
their achievements and participation in green building and sustainability. These programs mark
the recognized party as a leader in a growing niche market, making them more visible and
desirable. Colorado has taken the unique approach by providing signage on construction sites
stating that the project is a green project and the construction firm is using green building
practices. In this way they provide free advertising and the construction firm reaps the benefits
of being associated with green building practices.


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                           37
       Local governments need to partner and assist the construction industry to identify,
        overcome and understand regulatory and cost barriers.

Currently the two barriers to the implementation of green building are regulatory and cost. Both
create disadvantages that can be a huge deterrent to the use of green building. Local
governments can overcome those barriers by working with construction industry to come up with
solutions that provide incentives rather then deterrents for the implementation of green building
particularly for strategies like certified wood which provides environmental benefit s but lacks a
direct life cycle payback.. Australia took that approach in the development of their Green Star
rating system, by meeting with representatives of the building industry to determine what would
be beneficial and work for them in terms of creating a green building scheme. Chicago is
currently examining their code and working with the building industry to identify ways to make
green building more desirable from the building end.

       In order to have a successful residential program education effort needs to be
        developed to provide information on the advantages of green building, the reduced
        energy/water costs, as well as the increase in re-sale value.

Green building is still a new concept and many people have no concept of what green building
actually is. By creating an effective outreach and educational campaign for the public you
increase awareness and give them the knowledge and resources to make informed decisions
about green building. Denver leads the nation in the number of green residential homes which is
a direct result of their effort towards informing the public about green building. Santa Monica
has also made strides in the form of published checklist, guides and resources for homeowners
on how to green their homes.

       Local governments should implement incentives such as an expedited permitting
        process for buildings designed to achieve LEED certification.

The permitting process can be a long and arduous one costing the developers time and money as
they wait for the approval of permits. Developers at the Seattle 2007 Living Future Conference
estimated that 80-90% of the cost premium associated with green building is due to permit and
variance delays. Cities such as Chicago, Santa Monica and Scottsdale that have implemented an
expedited permitting process for projects incorporating green building methods or buildings
designed to achieve LEED certification have seen an increase in the amount of green building in
the private sector. This service provides huge incentives to developers as they save money on
consulting fees and reduce the amount of time they have to wait before starting construction.

       Removal of financial barriers

Green building can increase the cost of construction and, depending on the technologies
implemented, those added costs can be sizeable. Providing tax incentives and grant programs
that defray some of the cost of green building has two benefits 1) it helps reduce the financial
burden on the contractors making it more economically feasible to use green building practices;
and 2) it provides incentives to use green building even if the added cost of green building are
not that great. Examples where tax incentives have worked can be seen in both New York City



Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                        38
and Portland which offer tax credits to certain types of building. Chicago, Portland, and Santa
Monica all have grant programs which offer assistance to projects that qualify. Melbourne,
Australia, has a unique program, the Sustainable Melbourne Fund, which invests in green
projects. The profits cycle back into the fund to be reinvested in future sustainable projects.

       Updating municipal codes to allow for the use of sustainable systems and practices

A cities municipal and building codes set minimum standards that buildings must achieve. They
also dictate what allowable practices are and set various requirements. Sometimes the municipal
code has provisions which are outdated and actually provide a hindrance to the use and
implementation of green building. Therefore, local governments need to reexamine their
municipal codes to identify hindrances to and incorporate allowances for green building practices
and technologies. Santa Monica has already made changes to their codes and Chicago is
currently in the process of evaluating theirs.

       Green Mortgages

Green Mortgages are another tool to raise awareness of green building within the public. These
mortgages provide favorable terms to business and individuals use green technologies and
practices in their construction or remodel. In Colorado, Fannie Mae provides green mortgages to
those lenders purchasing products that maximize efficiency of water and energy, and improve
indoor quality.

       Most effective means for green building would be at a municipal level to allow for
        flexibility and site specific buildings.

Perhaps the key realization in the green building movement is that green building needs to be
focused locally. Green building is extremely geographic and site specific in that what works in
New England may not be relevant to building in California. For the full potential of green
building to be realized, to achieve success, and to enter into mainstream building the bulk of
green building regulation needs to come at the local government level. By keeping it local you
provide allowances for the unique conditions found within each city. This is precisely what
Chicago did when it created its Chicago Standard; mandating LEED certification using credits
that were relevant to building in Chicago. The Green Building Council of Australia did the same
thing when it developed its Green Star rating system, taking the relevant components from the
LEED and BREEAM rating system to create something to address their specific needs and
concerns.




Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                        39
Conclusions
With over 70% of the currently built environment being rebuilt or undergoing major renovation
by 2035 green building has the opportunity to make a significant impact in the way buildings are
developed in a short period of time. The full potential of green building can only be realized
with the leadership of federal, state and local municipalities and their commitment to green
building for publicly funded buildings. Additionally, these municipalities must work with
industry and local communities to develop meaningful and successful incentive based programs
demonstrating the practicality, economic feasibility and benefits of green building. Such
methods have proven successful in the cities examined within this document and countless other
cities around the world. The time of implementation is now for a more sustainable and
environmental sound future.




Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                      40
Appendix A: Professional Credentials




Green and Sustainable Building Policy   41
                                         Scott Andrews
    4522 Brooklyn Ave NE #111            Seattle, WA 98105          206-303-7070       andrews.scott@gmail.com

Education
B.A., Environmental Studies - Ecology and Conservation, University of Washington, 2004
B.A., Earth and Space Science, University of Washington, 2004

Certificate Program in Environmental Law and Regulation, University of Washington, 2006 (present)
Certificate Program in Wetland Science and Management, University of Washington, 2006 (present)

Mr. Andrews is an environmental scientist with over one year of experience in environmental consulting, including
site investigation and remediation pursuant to state and local regulations, construction inspection, report preparation,
and data management. Scott is experienced in performing environmental site assessment tasks, and follow-up
investigative site work, including soil and groundwater sampling; data management, analysis and tabulation;
regulatory review; and remediation monitoring of ground water monitoring wells, and excavation programs. Scott
has extensive experience in stormwater monitoring and treatment systems concerning pH and turbidity levels, and
reviewing and making changes to Best Management Practices (BMPs) for construction sites. He has comprehensive
experience in collecting and managing groundwater analysis data and gas monitoring for solid waste facilities.



Experience
Environmental Scientist – Kleinfelder, Seattle, WA Feb. ’06 to present
 Collect and manage groundwater analysis data and gas monitoring for four solid waste facilities
 Conduct site inspections and report to Ecology for stormwater discharge and BMPs while working with the
   contractors to improve site conditions
 Prepare quarterly and annual report documents on groundwater and stormwater projects
 Assist in collecting historical data for Phase I ESAs

Americorps Member – EarthCorps, Seattle, WA. Feb. ’05 – Dec. ‘05
 Implemented Salmon Habitat Restoration, Erosion Control and Analyses, Hydrological Assessment,
   Remediation, Rehabilitation of trails, and many other restoration techniques
 Monitored and Assessed restoration sites both Qualitatively and Quantitatively and filed daily work logs
 Worked with a large number of government and private agency contact
 CrewLed 20+ volunteer events ranging from 12-600 people

Americorps Member – EarthCorps, Seattle, WA June ’04 – Sept. ‘04
 Designed and Implemented Planting Plans for restoration sites
 Watered and Maintained over 20 different restoration sites throughout King County
 Determined Survival Assessment on restoration sites
 Installed drip irrigation systems


Certifications

Certified Erosion and Sediment Control Lead (CESCL)
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response Standard (HAZWOPER)




Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                             42
Mabel B. Boateng                                                           (206) 789-1377
312 NW 85th Street
Seattle, Washington 98117

OBJECTIVE: Certificate Program in Environmental Law and Regulation

SKILLS AND QUALIFICATIONS
    Computer literate-Excel, Word Perfect,
    Power Point, and Microsoft Office
    Administrative and clerical experience
    Accounting and Financial Knowledge
    Data Entry
    Customer Service Skill
    Working Knowledge of Spanish
    Familiar with office equipment including ten key, copy machines, and fax machines

EDUCATION
Certificate Program in Environmental Law and Regulation                           Present
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

Postgraduate Diploma in Law                                                     2001-2002
The College of Law of England and Wales, London, England

Bachelor of Business Administration, Accounting (BBA)                           1989-1997
Inter-American University of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rico

EMPLOYMENT HISTORY
Ballard Goodwill Retail Store, Production Worker                                  Present

Office Clerk, University of Washington                                     December 2003
 Filed documents by locations and pulled document when requested.
 Searched for document and e-mail them.
 Enter location numbers into documents

Fiscal Specialist 1, University of Washington                        April to October 2003
 Receiving and prepared invoices for batching
 Entered data into the document logging module in PAS
 Solved Problems as necessary

Receptionist, Christian Alliance Housing, London                                2000-2002
 Greeted and provided information to Visitors and residents
 Processed rent payments
 Interacted with a variety of international students

Deputy Manager, Mabbek Painting Enterprises                                     1999-2000
 Responded to operation requirements to ensure exemplary service
 Supervised and delegated staff duties
 Managed inventor control and ordered supplies



Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                        43
                                              Shelly Fank
                                      Quality Assurance Officer
                                   shellyf@frontiergeosciences.com

Summary:
         Shelly Fank participates in all aspects of the quality assurance program to help ensure
         reproducible, compliant, legally defensible data. As part of this program, she is responsible for
         documentation, records management, auditing, certification maintenance, and reporting. She
         implements corrective actions by operating inter-departmentally to find solutions to quality or
         compliance issues. She assists with project management and evaluation of regular studies,
         proficiency tests, support equipment calibration, lab facilities testing, monitoring quality control
         samples, and validation for high QA datasets and reports.

         She has more than five years of experience in the operational and administrative fields of science
         based organizations including academic, research, and commercial models ranging from a
         veterinary clinical diagnostic and teaching hospital to pharmaceutical and biomedical research. In
         addition to her responsibilities at Frontier Geosciences, she has completed functions in project
         management, purchasing, business development, information systems management, shipping
         and receiving, and research for unrestricted educational grants for doctor and patient programs in
         biomedical and pharmaceutical research.
         Ms. Fank also has more than seven years of management experience including workflow and
         training systems development, department budgeting, hiring, training, and supervising up to
         fifteen employees.

Education:
        BA, English, Louisiana State University 1999
        BA, Liberal Arts (Studio Art), Louisiana State University, 199
        0.3 CEU, Chemistry for the Non-Chemist: Part 1 Atoms & Molecules, ACS 2005
        0.5 Chemistry for the Non-Chemist: Part 2 Organic & Polymer Chemistry Concepts, ACS,
                 2005
        0.1 CEU, Basic (Communication) Skills Used in Auditing, QualityWBT Center for Education,
         2006
        0.1 CEU, Continual Improvement-What It Is and Why, QualityWBT Center for Education, 2006
        Systematic Problem Solving for Sustained Improvement; American Society for Quality; 2006
        0.2 CEU/CMP, Environmental Data Quality Management , Pacific Northwest Chapter Academy
         of Hazardous Materials Management/ Ecochem ; 2006
        0.6 CEU, Statistical Thinking: An Introduction, American Society for Quality/ LearnFirm; 2007
        1.5 CEU/ CLE, Tips and Traps in Employee Handbooks, Williams, Kastner&; Gibbs PLLC;
         2007
       1.5 CEU/ CLE, Managing Electronic Records for Success in Litigation and Business, Riddell
         Williams P.S.;2007
        9 CEU, Environmental Law and Regulation Certificate, University of Washington, anticipated
         completion 2007
       1.6 CEU, Concepts of Control Charts, American Society for Quality, anticipated completion 2007

Work Experience:
        Quality Assurance Officer, Frontier GeoSciences Inc., 2006-present
        Quality Assurance Deputy Officer/Coordinator, Frontier GeoSciences Inc., 2004-2006
        Office Manager, Frontier GeoSciences Inc., 2003
        Office Manager, HealthTalk Interactive, 2002
        Independent Contractor, various, 2000-2002
        Office Manager, Horton Lantz Marocco, 1999-2000



Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                      44
                                    CHRISTINA HOEFSMIT
10209 Marine View Drive S.W. Seattle, WA (206) 931-7493, 98146, choefsmit@comcast.net


BUSINESS EXPERIENCE:
Biologist
Widener & Associates, Everett WA                                                                   10/06-present
     Experience and capability in preparing NEPA, SEPA, and JARPA permit applications
     Prepare environmental documentation and reports
     Prepare OAHP documentation and applications

Biological Technician-Fisheries                                                                 04/2005-10/2005
USFS, Petersburg Supervisors Office, Petersburg, AK                                             05/2004-10/2004
       Completed Upstream Habitat Assessments (UA) on over 55 miles of headwater streams
        quantifying and qualifying fish habitat on the Tongass National Forest.
       Sampled streams for presence of salmonid and trout populations.
       Collected, summarized, and managed large sets of ecological data.
       Examined culverts as potential barriers to fish passage.
       Coordinated with district personnel and planned visits to remote field sites and district offices.

Research Assistant- University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand                    12/2004-02/2005
    Assisted doctoral candidate Laura Boren on her study of maternal Investment in New Zealand Fur
       Seals at the Ohau point breeding colony located in Kaikoura New Zealand.
    Attached VHF transmitters to 14 female fur seals.
    Conducted daily surveys of the colony for the presence/absence of known individuals identified
       through individual markings and tags.
    Conducted daily behavioral observations of 35 known pups.
    Mark-recapture study of pup production at three breeding colonies around New Zealand.

Biological Technician, Fisheries-Environmental Careers Organization                             02/2004-05/2004
BLM, Medford District, Medford, OR
       Operated six rotary screw smolt traps.
       Identified, measured, and marked Pacific Salmonid species.
       Managed large data sets that required keeping clear and accurate data.
       Operated 4-wheel drive vehicles in adverse conditions.


EDUCATION/TRAINING
   Environmental Law and Regulation Certificate                                             In progress
     University of Washington, Extension Program
   Bachelors of Science in Aquatic & Fishery Sciences
     University of Washington (GPA 3.79)                                                        12/2003




Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                               45
                                              Hillary Smith
                                          1323 Minor Ave Apt. A302
                                               Seattle, WA 98101
                                                 303-550-6498
                                         hillarysmith123@hotmail.com

Career Experience
Cascadia Consulting Group, Inc.             Seattle, WA                       2005-Present
Project Assistant for the Research and Analysis Team
 Create waste and recycling plans for multiple states and counties in the US
 Plan, overlook, and complete waste analysis for public and private clients
 Track and organize budgets and labor hours for multiple teams at Cascadia
 Brainstorm and develop scopes for future projects
 Fieldwork with multiple clients to determine environmental needs

AmeriCorps                                   Seattle, WA                         2004-2005
School Partnership Liaison at Islandwood: A School in the Woods
 Acted as a liaison between Islandwood and public and private schools through organizing, presenting, and
    selling the programs to teachers, parents, and students
 Planned and lead environmental education activities for 4 th-6th graders
 Built relationships with local organizations to help schools create successful service learning projects

Colorado Water Trust                     Denver, CO                           2003, Summer
Internship
 Liaison between Colorado Water Trust and Colorado Land Trusts
 Researched water rights and well permits for Land Trusts
 Examined and evaluated conservation easements
 Developed and implemented a survey for land trusts, to find better ways to conserve water

Solid Waste Committee                     Brunswick, ME                    2002-2004
Original Club Member
 Initiated policies with Sustainable Bowdoin on paper waste management
 Increased awareness and helped make education of environmental issues within the student body, community,
    and administration a top priority
 Implemented a heightened recycling plan on Bowdoin campus

Bowdoin College                            Brunswick, ME                      2002-2004
Academic Mentor
 Tutored Bowdoin College students on academic planning, time organization, and writing skills
 Edited and taught writing, while tutoring specifically Art History and Economic students

Education and Leadership
University of Washington                   Seattle, WA                         2006- Present
Certificate in Environmental Law and Regulation
Bowdoin College                            Brunswick, ME                       2000-2004
Major in Art History, Minor in Economics, and an additional specialty in Environmental Studies

   Heading up the Land use, Housing, and Urban Design Committee for Friends of Seattle
   Volunteer for World Affairs Council, and Bowdoin College
   National Sports and Conditioning All-American 2003
   Elected co-captain of varsity soccer team 2003
   Elected academic mentor for both the soccer and softball teams 2002-2004




Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                                        46
Appendix B: Photo Credits




Green and Sustainable Building Policy   47
The ACROS Fukuoka                                                                  Cover
http://www.metaefficient.com/archives/architecture-and-building/amazing-green-building-the-
acros-fukuoka.html
Bahrain World Trade Center                                                        Cover
http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/03/28/bahrain-world-trade-center-has-wind-turbines/
City of Chicago                                                                        9
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago
Chicago Center of Green Building                                                      10
http://www.cbe.berkeley.edu/mixedmode/ccgt.html
City of Denver                                                                        12
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:2006-07-14-Denver_Skyline_Midnight.jpg
Denver’s Justice Center Complex                                                12
http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/378/documents/Framework%20Plan%20Final%20.pdf
City of Eugene                                                                        14
http://www.eugene-or.gov/portal/server.pt
Wayne L. Morris United States Courthouse                                              15
http://www.aiatopten.org/hpb/overview.cfm?ProjectID=776
Kansas City                                                                           16
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_City,_Missouri
Kansas City Science and Technology Center                                             16
http://www.epa.gov/greeningepa/facilities/kansascity-lab.htm
City of Portland                                                                      18
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portland,_Oregon
Gerding Theater at the Armory                                                         19
http://chatterbox.typepad.com/portlandarchitecture/2006/09/touring_the_ger.html
City of San José                                                                      20
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Jose,_California
Adobe Tower Headquarters                                                              21
http://news.com.com/2300-11746_3-6157708-2.html?tag=ne.gall.pg
Santa Monica Sunset                                                                   22
http://www.santamonica.com/
Civic Center Parking Garage                                                      22
http://surfsantamonica.com/ssm_site/the_lookout/news/News-2007/March2007/03_28_07_
Sustainable_Parking_Structure.htm
Santa Monica Main library                                                             23
http://www.smpl.org/construction/gallery.htm


Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                                     48
Scottsdale Cactus                                                                24
www.scottsdale-az-relocation.com
Scottsdale Center (SkySong)                                                      24
http://www.skysongcenter.com/project_phases_photos.html
New York landscape                                                               26
http://wwp.new-york-usa.com/images/new-york-city.jpg
Freedom Tower                                                                    27
http://www.gothamgazette.com/article/20040105/200/817
Picture of London                                                                28
http://www.london.gov.uk/index.jsp
London City Hall                                                                 28
http://www.london.gov.uk/gla/city_hall/index.jsp
Zero Carbon Flat                                                                 29
http://society.guardian.co.uk/communities/story/0,,1971125,00.html
Swiss Re Building                                                                29
http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/green/reviewF.php
Windows of Blue Fin                                                              29
http://www.timewarner.com/corp/citizenship/environment/green_design/index.html
Blue Fin Building                                                                30
http://www.london-se1.co.uk/news/view/1937
Melbourne & Yarra River                                                          31
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melbourne
Council House 2(CH2)                                                             32
http://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/info.cfm?top=171&pg=1933
Vancouver Skyline                                                                33
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vancouver
Thunderbird Winter Sports Centre                                                 33
http://www.ubcproperties.com/initiatives-institutional.html




Green and Sustainable Building Policy                                              49

								
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