Vibrating Molecules and the Secret of their Feelings Why music acts emotionally. The Striving Tendency Theory a n i e l a W i l l i m e k a n d B e r n d W i l l i m e k Music acts emotionally - who wanted to deny. But concrete statements about the emotional effect of music to win have always been a difficult exercise. And even the specialized dictionaries of our days leave us cold in the lurch when we talk about this issue want to find. So it must always remain insoluble mystery, the question of the cause of the emotional effect of music? Already for some time makes a new theory to be aware that finally light into the darkness of the previous music brings psychological research. The "Striving Tendency Theory" of the music theorist Bernd Willimek describes fairly accurately and reliably, which in the human psyche is going through when they oscillating air molecules is emotionally aroused. Similarly, she describes why the harmony, for example, sad, the other harmony, however joyous or other emotions in it. Numerous tests conducted at high schools in Baden-Wuerttemberg and Bavaria with over 1,000 volunteers so far have been carried out, confirmed the general validity of this theory. The central message of the Tendency Theory In its basic the Striving Tendency Theory says that listeners in the musical harmonies create an effect, as if they could perceive certain transactions of volition by identifying with them. These transactions of volition will be the musical opposite tonal tendencies. Whilst tendency tonal effects of music by various earlier theorists described, but did so in a way that they like to explain the emotional effect of music and also unusable by today's intelligence is wrong. Nor Ernst Kurth, the founder of music psychology, described the experience of a musical suspension as perception of a certain "tractive force", which set a tone for the resolution in a different tone drift. Bernd Willimek shows, however, that this old view, a wrong physical reasoning underlies: Not the experienced clay undergoes a change, if it a musical tension within the meaning Ernst Kurths surrounds. The musical tension causes much more that the music listener perceives itself changed. Namely, in a way, as though he identifying with a desire not to change the sounding tone. This principle can be an everyday example to illustrate. Let us just imagine first an empty suitcase and then a heavy suitcase. In the first imagination shows us a suitcase, we are from a neutral perspective view. If the suitcase in our idea becomes heavy, strange transformation places in us: We take the suitcases in hand to carry it. But not only that. We feel at once a will in us. Because we hold the suitcase in the idea with our effort will determine. So we originally wanted the weight of the suitcase imagine experience but ultimately a will with which we identify. Exactly what is happening now, if we are a "heavy" tone want to imagine. The sound that we imagine we will not really become heavy, such as Ernst Kurth said, but we let into our imagination with a will influence without us to make them aware. Nevertheless, we identify ourselves with this and will see him the emotional character of the sound. In this simple model is the content of this desire not to change the status of an actual situation (the tone – whatever it is in our imagination – should keep on). In this way we can describe the effect of all musical elements such as suspension or leading tone and the emotional character of musical harmonies. In short order would be the basic principle of the Striving Tendency Theory described. The practical application of the Strive Tendency Theory to musical Harmonies The cheerful Major - where there is only? The different emotional content of Major and Minor Moser’s music lexicon describes: "The distinction, Major sounds happy, sad minor, despite their earthiness much for himself" (Moser-music lexicon, 1955, page 794). We call it now no longer driving third, but we speak of the” identification with a will against the change in the third”, we get the following result: In a Major-tonic we identify ourselves with a willingness to deal with low-intensity directed against a change. Emotionally, we can this content will describe as "identification with a feeling of a sober agreed-being with the present." If we compare this statement now with the description of the major-tonic of the music theorist Gustav Gueldenstein: "It could be a symbol for the major-tonic choose the upright man. He is resting in itself, inasmuch as he does not outwards. He is in tension but, inasmuch as he constantly gravity has to overcome." (Theory of tonality," Schwabe & Co., page 39) Gueldenstein also describes desire content; emotionally seen a feeling of a sober-agreement corresponds with the present. The Ullstein music lexicon confirms this character of major-tonic also by them as "positive" means (Ullstein music lexicon, page 351). The major-tonic brings the feel of a sober "Agreed-being" expressed ... And sad sounds the final chord in minor - why does actually minor sad? But whence comes the mourning of the minor? In Moser’s music lexicon is the essence of parallel minor chord as a "minor turbidity of major described (page 793). For the purposes of this monistic view of the minor third is not as a separate interval, but a troubled leading- tone. The Ullstein music lexicon means the minor sound in this context as a "major down" (page 351). Even when we replace parallel minor of the idea of "driving effects" by the idea of "identification with a desire against a change," we get there is a clear result: The desire for a change, which we identified in the major-tonic, appears now "tarnished", "down". The feeling of agreed-being is tarnished to a feeling of non-agree-being. The effect of parallel corresponds to the statement "I do not want more." Would you say these words quietly, it sounds sad; you would say it loud, she sounds angry. This distinction is reflected in now resist the emotional impact of Who namely a first minor chord, and then quietly repeats slowly getting louder, it is possible in an impressive manner, a transformation of the expression of grief into anger experience. As we shall see, are for the other minor possibilities of expression. The sad effect of the minor variant is at this point in the Schubert song "The love color" clearly noticeable and lets the listener the sad end of the cycle "The Beautiful Mill-Girl" put history guess. If the Major Harmony meats us with deep Perplexity - the Secondary Dominant Chord Allows you to a kind of minor emotional negation of the major, then the language of music by the dominant connections of harmonies of further enriched. The special effect of a dominant harmony is that it not only affects themselves, but also the listener in anticipation of a resolution chord. These are the music theorists agree. In a dominant harmony we are witnessing is not just one harmony, but a second or more well in advance. We change the present descriptions of the dominant driving effects here too - as above derived - then are as follows: In the dominant function we identify ourselves with a desire against a change, whereby this change is characterized by the anticipated sound resolution. Even not musically trained listeners evaluate one and the same secondary dominant chord depending on the expected dissolution sound in a span of extreme "happy" to "painful" - even if they are not able to describe the resolution. Secondary dominant chords of minor tonics bring emotional distress expressed. From the Baroque era to the present era of pop music, they were - and still are - acting as an intensely irritable harmonies used. In the songs "The lotus flower" (with the words "her face pious flowers") and "Your Face" (with the words "from the pious eyes breaks") shows how expressing content Schumann ascribes this sound, but he uses it in exactly in those parts in songs, in which the visually witness listeners in the idea of a suffering at the moment being the highest perplexity in the eye looks. In the song "The lotus flower" (op. 25 / 7) Robert Schumann used the secondary dominant of the submediant minor as an expression of strong painful embarrassment - precisely those text location where the listener visually witnessed the suffering in the idea of looking into their eyes. Also in the song "Your Face" (op.127 / 2) by Schumann sounds the secondary dominant of the submediant in minor in one moment in which the listener visually witnessed a person suffering in the eye looks. When the Major Chords wear mourning - as the Dominant Harmony of a Minor Chord Major works such as Minor Volunteers in accordance confirmed, that the character of a perceived as a sad minor tonic chord also be maintained if the sound changes to its dominant major chord. This may initially sound strange, because one major harmonies otherwise not with "sadness" connects. But with our method can easily explain this result: We identify ourselves with a minor tonic chord with a feeling of non- agree-being and their major dominant chord - as explained above - with a will against the re-entry of the minor tonic, then emerges for the dominant chord a situation that - consistently - to follow can be described: When a dominant major of a tonic minor sounds, we identify ourselves with a feeling of "not being agreed with regard to a feeling of non-agree-being." The application of our theory of harmony on the follow dominant-tonic leads to a kind pleonasm (two statements, a content). So explained that the change of harmony dominant-minor tonic can convey only one emotional content, namely that of the minor tonic. Dominant major chords in the second bar of the prelude of "The Color love" from the cycle "The beautiful Mill-girl" sound as sad as the minor harmonies of the first bar, because their emotional effect take over. As the Sounds learned walking - the Dominant of the Major Tonic brings Movement into the Music An entirely different situation arises when repeated exchange tonic- dominant, if the tonic is a major tonic. We have it with a sequence of major chords to do. We also replace the traditional descriptions of drive effects from the description of volition content, we have emotional content, which is contradictory. Because the phase of tonic chord appears - as long as he sounds - as "wanted" from the perspective of the period in which the dominant sounds, but as "not wanted. Such a contradiction seems pointless initially, but it corresponds with the statement "I want, I do not want, I want, I do not want..." This inconsistency, however, the listener can remove by the idea of movement. For whoever wanders, for example, encounters at every step with the foot of a particular point of his journey from the moment he previously had sought. Arnold Feil says to Schubert's song "Walking" from the "Beautiful Mill-Girl” which, like countless other wandering songs by the harmony connection tonic-dominant idea of the movement created: "You can see the movement of such music is not implement lives in bodily movement, but they can somehow translate, they can be musically imagine, and therefore musically realize." (Arnold Feil: "Franz Schubert", 1975, Seite 58) (Arnold Feil: "Franz Schubert", 1975, page 58) The change of harmony tonic - dominant in the major is ideally suited to the idea of motion to create folk-song as in text above. Such one Day, so beautiful as it is today - the Major Subdominant as a Sound of Joy The consonant major subdominant chord takes place in the serious and light music as an expression of increased, unburdened mood use. The "Great Dictionary of Music" writes that the subdominant in major “readily to melodic high points is used." (The Great Dictionary of Music, Herder, Honegger and Massenkeil, 1982, 8 band, page 39) In Schubert's song cycle "The beautiful Mill-Girl" we find the consonant subdominant chord only to the few points of the 20 songs of the cycle ', the text describes the moment as the miller believes mistakenly, the heart of the mill-girl to have conquered. These are the two songs "Mine" and "Pause". Here, you can describe the emotional constitution of the miller as a "carefree". Even with subdominant sounds in songs in interviews test persons described passages, where the mood at the "warmest" and the "joyous" is. Since it is extremely difficult, to hear subdominant chords as dominant chords, because their resolution sound (the double subdominant) would be out of scale, it is in relation to the tonic with a very weak "striving” described. Arnold Feil describes the change as a tonic-subdominant "tension reduction from a normal voltage to a lower voltage" (“theory of tonality", page 40), Diether de la Motte called the subdominant as the "low-voltage distance to the center" ( "harmony", page 35) . We also replace the description "striving" by the idea of "identification with a desire against a change”, it results in the following situation: We identify ourselves at the subdominant chord with a desire against a change, but the intensity is vanishingly small. Such a feeling fit to moments of lightheartedness, which is about the intoxication or after a victory could set. The subdominant fits so perfectly to songs in merry round and will take place in the relevant literature also richest use (for example, the song "Such one day, so beautiful as it is today"). The subdominant is also very good for describing a carefree mood in children's songs (like "All my duckling"). In Hymns the subdominant can underline the emotional climax, including in Germany song when the melody of the upper octave goes down again, or in the following example, the old student song "Gaudeamus igitur": The major subdominant is often used at melodic high points, because it can express an increased, carefree mood. If it crackles with Tension - to Situations that require Courage, Aeolian Minor fits Appears minor tonic not alternating with the major dominant, but with the minor dominant, as in Aeolian minor is the case, the application of our method of emotional content, which at first glance seem contradictory. Because when the dominant of minor sounds, the listener identified with a "low-spirited" will (minor dominant chord) against a phase of the non-agreed-being (minor tonic). The expected non wanted state is therefore no resistance opposite. Such a content of volition would be only conceivable in a situation, in which a man did not continue any effort against a change, which he did not want. Such a man would probably be courageous, because it is an unintended change, which in any case requires overcoming. The theoretical derivation of the sonic character of this true harmony accurately connects with their emotional effect match. Because the connection minor tonic minor dominant is ideally suited to work with courage to express musical resources. It takes place in the movie music a thousand times use to exciting scenes to characterize. Just think of the preamble of the famous German television series "crime scene". Harmony also designed this connection the character of rock and pop music at Aeolian minor, which sounds very brave (Deep Purple, Santana). In the commercial esoteric meditation music harmony finds the same connection - in the piano field - use as an expression of oneself leaving traps in a meditative adventure. The courageous action of sounds to be here on a allowing new emotions and spiritual experiences relate. Aeolian minor does not sound sad, but more adventurous or brave. In "The Groove" (from "Rock Piano II", Juergen Moser) you can feel it. The Farewell doing so Hurt - the Major Subdominant with Major Seventh is a Sound of Wistfulness The major subdominant with great seventh is particularly suited to the melancholic mood of a farewell scene musically represent. How can I explain? With the major subdominant you can - as above derived - express a feeling of light heartedness. If also the major seventh sounds, then mingles in the consonants major sound a dissonance that you have strive character attributes. We now also exchange the notion of "striving" for the idea of identifying with a desire against a change. Then we can describe the effect of the whole sound as intertwining of two separate impressions describe. That would be one of the carefree mood of the subdominant other the identification with a desire against a change due to the impact of the big seventh. So an impression as if we sympathize with a soul could be in the moment of leave at once tried, to hold tight the moment. The character of the impermanence meddles in the mood to leave them for the listener in a wistful character appear The subdominant with great seventh finds harmony as a stimulus already in Johann Sebastian Bach plenty of use (in "Air", last harmony on the long first tone of melody) and stayed through all the eras to today's pop music (such as Elton John "Your Song", second vocal chord after the operation). In its typically melancholic effect, the major subdominant with great seventh appears in the song "Farewell the Forest" by Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy. When the Youth rebelled, the Minor Seventh was the great Hit The dominant seventh chord includes, according to the music theorist, two strongly striving tones, namely the third and the minor seventh. We also replace the description "striving” for the idea "identification with a will against a change“, so we find the act of identification with a desire against a change equal to one of two ways. This dual willingness “emotion-against-something” makes the character of the sound from dominant seventh chord. This takes place as an expression of resistance, braking, use. This braking effect is of listeners then adopted as a useful, if the previously dominant seventh without the idea of movement had generated. Which is why some rules of harmony, only the seventh of the already dominant sounding add. By adding the seventh, with its small braking effect, the character of a flowing movement of the dominant character in a step movement will be. (Hiking songs!). If the dominant seventh chord is introduced without preparation, appears the impression of a resistance braking effect on the listener sometimes incomprehensible why he considers the character of this sound as softness or tearful. Then one has the impression that someone has already slowed before the departure. Was quite different use the small seventh in the light music. Their emancipation to all three main functions created a new expression of resistance against the establishment. The Blues scheme sounds alone because of its harmonies cheeky and unruly. The impact effect of the former citizens startle anthem "Satisfaction" by the Rolling Stones results from the minor sevenths of tonic and subdominant. Would be here this seventh namely from the melody and remove them, for example, by a whole tone higher replace it or he would be the song at once deprived of his character revolt. The former citizens startle effect of the Rolling Stones song "Satisfaction" results musically from both the sevenths d flat and g flat. If the Loyalty keeps forever - the Sixte Ajoutee in Major expresses a Sense of warm Comfort from Strive characteristics of this sound by Diether de la Motte described as follows: "fifth and sixth as dissonance are pushing apart." (Diether de la Motte: "harmony", page 54) We go to the identification of the emotional nature of this sounds exactly the same way as in the other sounds and exchange this description of his "strive properties" from the description by one of these "striving" opposed willingness content. Then we have instead of a "divergence aspirations" on "stay together-do ". Through this reformulation, we have the character of this sound already found: It is an expression of witted togetherness, a sense of warm security. At the beginning of the Sonata op.31 No. 3 Ludwig van Beethoven expands the sound of the subdominant with Sixte Ajoutee in a single way over a length of three bars, and thereby gives him one for the whole plant characterizing role. We read the analysis of the music researcher Juergen Uhde, so we come to a striking consistency with our derivation. Because states that: "For a long time seemed to me in this 3.Sonate (compared to the 1st and burst in all areas of the imagination debauchery 2. Sonata) something like feeling in security being articulated to be..." Few lines previously investigated by Uhde the Sixte Aoutee leading back to the tonic cadence and presents the question: "Is such a return already journeying into the security?" (Juergen Uhde, "Beethoven's piano music", page 79, Publisher Philip Reclam Jun. Stuttgart). The subdominant with Sixte Ajoutee can express be a feeling of security, what at the beginning of the Sonata op 31 No 3 by Ludwig van Beethoven may be good lookalike. So lonely as never before - the Sixte Ajoutee in Minor stands for Lovesickness The Sixte Ajoutee Minor is in its emotional impact of her exactly the opposite of Sixte Ajoutee major. It takes place as an expression of painful loneliness, of lovesickness, use. An effective example is found in Schubert's cycle lovesickness "The Winter Journey", with the sound of this connection is opened ("Stranger, I am fed..."). How can we explain such an effect? We apply our method to this sound; the result is - as with the Sixte Ajoutee Major - even here the expression of stay together wool. Since the basic harmony now but a minor chord is, this expression appears before the emotional context of a non-agree-being. From the "do-stay together" is a bad combination “do-stay-together". This mood but fits to a broken friendship, to lovesickness. The Sixte Ajoutee Minor can express a feel of lovesickness. Franz Schubert opened with the sound his cycle "The Winter Journey", by nothing other than acts of lovesickness. The Neapolitan Sixth as a Symbol of Death A special feature of the painful Neapolitan Sixth lies in its strong contradictoriness. One is here the major chord, the other an aspiring described as a strong sound. Arnold Feil confirmed that the sound "cut dissonant sounds," although it is not in itself. ("Franz Schubert", page 70). That this double effect is actually corresponds to the general listening, it seems to show that the Neapolitan effect retroactively can easily rise from a sound, in the whole of his time as a normal major chord was heard. In this way, the music lexicon Moser noted (Volume II, page 856). We apply our method to this sound, the result is the contradictoriness from a feeling of Fine-being (major chord) and the identification with a desire to deal with extreme intensity against a change directed ("Striving”). Emotionally, this could sound as a mixture of feelings of "human-being-wool" and the painful experience of suffering designate.. Schubert uses this sound in the cycle "The beautiful Mill- Girl" and also very clearly if the text of the death or disappearance of one act. Diether de la Motte says about this sound: "It is important to remember that this chord yet to Bach time of intense action and expression of pain was reserved and not as pure chord misunderstood material may be" ( "harmony", page 90 ). Schubert uses the Neapolitan Sixth chord - as seen in the song "The hateful color" from the cycle "The beautiful Mill-Girl" - as a symbol of death. Since grabs us bare Horror - the Diminished Seventh Chord expresses total Desperation The diminished seventh chord is sound with several strong striving tones described. There are music theorists agree. We replace these descriptions of striving tones also here in our method, so we get the following result: When diminished seventh chord we identify us in several ways with a desire against a change. Thus an idea to a "safety-with-hands-and-feet- weirs" recalls. The emotional effect of this sound, however, depends on whether the expected tonic a major or a minor chord is. This may sound - when he played loud, and the tonic chord is a minor - the feeling of total despair generate. In the romance is like the sound of piano in the dynamic area and then has the effect of a melancholic brooding. Is a tonic major, the dominant diminished seventh chord also can get the character of a played despair within the meaning of coquetry. Robert Schumann uses this happy effect on the double dominant function if he childlike behavior musically distinguished wants. How this body from the song "The Crow" from the cycle "Winter Journey" by Franz Schubert shows, the diminished seventh chord can mediate a feeling of total despair. Miraculousness doing even when Augmented Chord - a Tone of Amazement As a typical feature of the augmented chord is the vagueness of existing strive-effects highlighted.). Diether de la Motte says: "Only the context decides whether at E-G sharp-C G sharp or C is dissonant (" harmony", page 88). The application of our method to this sound is as follows: Identification with a desire for a change cannot be clearly perceived. The listener takes the attitude of the questioner. This sound is used as an expression of oneself questioning of oneself, the wondering or amazement. In the movie music does the sound match if something miraculous happens. As example is the famous scene from the Kaestner filming "Lottie and Lisa” by Josef von Baky to mention, in which both twins until then nothing of the existence of the other knew, for the first time astonishment face. In the song "The Crow" from the cycle "Winter Journey" Schubert accompanied by augmented chords, the word "miracle". The sound is the first time in his dissonant effects not clearly. The augmented chord mediates a sense of miraculousness when his three chord tones - as seen in the song "The Crow" from the cycle "Winter Journey" - in the moment of her beginning in their consonance-dissonance-effect cannot be perceived clearly. The Whole Tone Scale gives us Wings - it does weightless Striving behavior of the sounds of the whole scale of the music theorists is fairly consistently described as extinct or nearly extinct. Diether de la Motte says this: "Every tone of the scale can be combined with any other; there is no resolution of dissonance. ("Harmony", page 250) Similarly, the simple application of our method to the sounds of whole tone scale: We can hardly identify us with a clearly addressed perceived willingness. The character of the whole tone scale corresponds to the idea of a floating in zero gravity and is a typical style of Impressionism funds. In the movie music find such sounds especially when used if conditions of weightlessness musically to be entertained, as in scenes under water, in space or - subjectively weightless - in a dream. In Impressionism the whole tone scale was used to the feeling of weightlessness to convey. In "Cloche travers les feuilles" from "Images" by Claude Debussy, so the idea of a through the air floating bell sound is generated. Because we fear - the Minor Sixth is the Anxiety Finally the example of the Minor sixth should show that it not only with full chords to express feelings, but already with a single interval. We play a minor sixth spontaneously; it may sound strange way to a feeling of anxiety producing. How can I explain? When searching for an answer to this question is that the effect of the timid sixth disappears when the expectation of the earpiece so affected that they are no longer in the dissolution of the upper intermittent down into the consonants fifth exists. This is done for example by preceding sounds, the sixth of the character of an incomplete major chord lend. The effect of the timid minor sixth must therefore be related to the expectation of the resolution in the fifth stand. Contact us back our initially derived method and describe the sound experience is not as "Striving" of the minor sixth to fifth, but as an identification with a will against the changing of the sixth to the fifth, the question arises as follows: What could make it to the fifth so bad was that when we identify with a will against the resolution in these sound a sense of anxiety feel? In search of the fifth character in literature, we find a quick explanation. The Moser-music lexicon leads examples where the fifth "horrible” or "bleak" sounds (Moser-music lexicon, page 1001). The Ullstein music lexicon identifies the sound effect of the fifth "spooky" (page 431). Take the description "spooky" by Ullstein, we may experience when listening to the minor sixth summarized as follows: In the minor sixth we identify ourselves with a desire against a change to a spooky situation. Who but with a desire against something ghostly identified, which identifies itself - simple words - with a sense of fear. This explains the effect of the timid minor sixth. The minor sixth can be a mood of anxiety to express The Strive Tendency Theory: A new Way of viewing Music The question of the emotional impact of musical harmonies is currently like never before. That Composers centuries before musical harmonies used in a way, as they Striving Tendency Theory corresponds to our true positive, but this finding represents a rich pool of Pure and material and a wealth of new opportunities for further research. We want to break a lance for one of the most exciting areas of the music viewing: The emotional reception of musical harmonies. If we can help it on a music theory comprehensible basis to do, we have achieved an important objective. Would be exciting all our investigations on other regions to expand: we would be happy to test our preference CD cultures imagine their roots in other musical traditions. To what extent, this one feeling for sound differentiation in the sense described above bring, would be for us an interesting question, to the answer we will continue to strive.