Chapter 12

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					               Chapter 12
     Transformations Around the Globe

                 Section 1
  China Responds to Pressure from the West

I.) China Resists Foreign Influence
    -the Chinese looked down on all foreigners
         A.) China Remains Self-Sufficient
              -healthy agricultural economy (rice, maize,
                 sweet potatoes, peanuts)
              -extensive mining and manufacturing
              -silks, high-quality cottons, and fine
         B.) The Tea-Opium Connection
              -southern port of Guangzhou only place
                 foreigners could do business
              -British imported millions of pounds of tea
                 from China
              -traded opium for the tea
                    -opium is a habit-forming narcotic
                       made from poppy plant
                    -Chinese became addicted
         C.) War Breaks Out
                    a.) Opium War
                         -British vs. Chinese
                       -China tried to stop Britain from
                          trading opium
                       -Chinese lost
                       -Treaty of Nanjuing--gave Britain
                          Hong Kong
                  b.) extraterritorial rights
                       -an exemption of foreign residents
                          from laws of a country

II.) Internal Problems Increase
         -1850=population of China=430 million
         -corruption in Chinese government
         -Chinese began to rebel against the Qing Dynasty
    A.) The Taiping Rebellion
         -Hong Xiuguan was leader
         -mainly southern peasants
         -Taiping government controlled southeastern

III.) China Wrestles with Reform
         -some wanted reform, others did not
    A.) The Dowager Empress Cixi Resists Change
         -Dowager Empress Cixi=ruled China from 1861
            to 1908
         -supported some reforms but not many
         -self-strengthening of military
       B.) Other Nations Step In
            a.) sphere of influence
                 -a foreign region in which a nation has
                    control over trade and other
                    economic activities
            b.) Open Door Policy
                 -U.S.A. proposed that China's "doors"
                    be open to all nations
                 -protected American trading rights and
                    China's freedom from colonization

IV.) Chinese Nationalism Grows
        -many Chinese started to demand strong reforms
   A.) The Boxer Rebellion
        -Society of Harmonious Fists (AKA: Boxers)
        -Boxers against Dowager Empress
        -sieged part of Beijing
        -multinational force defeated Boxers
        -strong sense of nationalism in China
   B.) The Beginnings of Reform
        -Chinese officials study different governments on
           a world tour
        -by 1917, established a full constitutional govt.
                      Section 2
                  Japan Modernizes
-Japan had very little contact with other nations

I.) Japan Ends Its Isolation
     A.) Facing the Demand for Foreign Trade
          -early 19th century, Westerns wanted Japan to
            open doors for trade
               a.) Treaty of Kanagawa
                     -Japan opened 2 ports for American
                     -U.S. set up an embassy in Japan
     B.) Reform and Modernization Under the
         Meiji Reign
          -Mutsuhito established a new government in
               a.) Meiji Era
                     -"enlightened rule"
          -best way to oppose Western imperialism was to
             adopt new ways
          -sent statesmen to Europe and North America
          -adopted the best of the West
          -by end of 20th century, the Japanese economy
             was modern
          -Japan was competitive
II.) Japanese Imperialism Grows
        -by 1890, Japan was the strongest military power
           in Asia
        -eliminated extraterritorial rights of foreigners
        -Japan became more imperialistic
   A.) Japan Attacks China
        -1876, Japan forced Korea to open 3 ports
        -China also was interested in Korea
              a.) Sino-Japanese War
                    -Japan drove China out of Korea
                    -Japan gained Taiwan and Pescadores
   B.) Russo-Japanese War
        -Russia vs. Japan
        -over Manchuria
        -Japan drove Russia out of Korea
        -Treaty of Portsmouth gave Japan the captured
           territories and kept Russia out of Manchuria
           and Korea
   C.) Korea Under Japanese Occupation
        -1905, Japan made Korea a protectorate
        -1910, Japan annexed Korea
              a.) annexation
                    -the adding of a region to the territory
                       of an existing political unit
        -Japanese were harsh rulers
        -Japan's repressive rule in Korea showed
           imperialism at its worst
                 Section 3
 U.S. Economic Imperialism in Latin America

I.) Latin America After Independence
        -poor, illiterate, who stayed in poverty
   A.) Colonial Legacy
        -workers went into debt
        -landowners got wealthier after independence
        -unequal distribution of land
        -no social and economic development
   B.) Political Instability
              a.) caudillos
        -nearly all Latin American countries were ruled
           by caudillos
        -reformers did not stay in office long
        -caudillos had little opposition
        -voting rights were restricted to only a few Latin

II.) Economies Grew Under Foreign Influence
   A.) Old Products and New Markets
        -economies depended on exports
        -advances in technology helped exports to grow
        -foreign nations benefited more from the
           increased trade
   B.) Outside Investment and Interference
        -government borrowed $$$$
        -often did not pay loans back
        -foreign countries gained control of industries
III.) The United States and Latin America
    A.) The Monroe Doctrine
         -President James Monroe
         -European countries stay out of American
    B.) Cuba Declares Independence
         -1868 Cuba declared independence
         -fought until 1878--gave up fight
               a.) Jose Marti
                    -returned to Cuba to fight for
                       independence in 1895
               b.) Spanish-American War
                    -4 months
                    -Cuba gained independence in 1901
                    -U.S. installed a military govt. in Cuba
                    -U.S. gained Puerto Rico, Guam, and
                       the Philippines
    C.) The Panama Canal Connects the Oceans
         -President Theodore Roosevelt
         -1903--Panama gained independence from
         -Panama gave U.S.A. 10-mile wide zone to build
            a canal
         -yellow fever, malaria, bubonic plague
         -opened in 1914
         -Latin America had become a crossroads of
            world trade
D.) Roosevelt Corollary
     -President Roosevelt
     -gave the U.S. the right to be "an international
       police power" in the Western Hemisphere
                   Section 4
             The Mexican Revolution

I.) Santa Anna and the Mexican War
         a.) Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
               -one of Latin America's most powerful
               -1833 became Mexico's president
    A.) The Texas Revolt
         -American citizens moved into Texas
         -Mexican territory
         -cheap land
         -follow laws of Mexico
         -Stephen Austin encouraged a revolt against
            Mexico in 1835
         -1836=Texas was independent
    B.) War and the Fall of Santa Anna
         -1845=U.S. annexed Texas
         -border dispute with Mexico
         -U.S. invaded Mexico in 1846
         -U.S. defeated Mexico
         -U.S. gained northern 1/3 of Mexico (California,
            American Southwest)

II.) Juarez and La Reforma
        a.) Benito Juarez
             -liberal reformer
             -worked to serve his country
    A.) Benito Juarez Rises to Power
         -reputation of honesty, integrity, hard work, good
    B.) Juarez Works for Reform
              a.) La Reforma
                   -liberal reform movement
                   -redistribution of land
                   -separation of church and state
                   -increased education
         -Juarez and Ponciano Arriaga
    C.) The French Invade Mexico
         -conservatives fought against liberals
         -3 year civil war
         -1858--Juarez became president
         -deep debt
         -1862--France took over Mexico
         -Mexico fought against France and in 1867
            France withdrew
         -1867--Juarez reelected as president
              -began rebuilding Mexico
              -peace, progress, reform
              -1872, Juarez died

III.) Porfirio Diaz and "Order and Progress"
    -1876=Diaz ousted the Mexican president
        -he terrorized people and ruled by fear
        -remained in power until 1911
        -Mexico seemed to be stable and prospering
IV.) Revolution and Civil War
    A.) Madero Begins the Revolution
               a.) Francisco Madero
                    -wanted democracy in Mexico
                    -armed revolution against Diaz
               b.) Francisco "Pancho" Villa
                    -leader of army in the north
               c.) Emiliano Zapata
                    -leader of army in the south
                    -"Land and Liberty"
    B.) Mexican Leaders Struggle for Power
         -November 1911, Madero was elected president
         -then Gen. Victoriano Huerta took over
         -revolutionary leaders overthrew Huerta
         -Venustiano Carranza took over
         -Zapata and Villa continued the civil war until
    C.) The New Mexican Constitution
         -new constitution adopted in 1917
         -Alvaro Obregon became President in 1920
               -supported reforms of the constitution
               -helped to unite the various regions and
                  peoples of Mexico
         -Institutional Revolutionary Party (IRP) kept
            peace and political stability