Outsourcing Data Entry: An Overview An IMERGE Consulting Report by Arthur Gingrande, Partner Executive Summary Since the 1950’s, contracting data entry work to a service bureau has become accepted as a “best practice” in the data processing industry. However, outsourcing, as it has become known, is not as simple as merely shipping documents off to be digitized, especially in this age of increasing regulation. There are corporate and national security concerns as well as legislation governing health data and financial information. Add the rapidly changing global economy and uncertain political landscape in parts of the world, and it’s clear that any data entry outsourcing program – whether domestic, offshore or a combination of the two – must have built-in controls, a high degree of flexibility, and clearly established standards for accuracy and data integrity. The challenge is to minimize loss of control and accuracy when outsourcing data entry. This report examines key issues involved in outsourcing data entry today: Underlying factors driving the trend Different models of outsourcing being practiced by organizations Important criteria for selecting an outsourcing partner Benefits and risks, including hidden costs Enabling technologies and management controls that can assure the success of a program Cost comparison tables, located in the Appendix, using industry standard pricing models, which the reader can use to determine the potential return on investment of outsourcing for their organization. To augment this report, there is a pre-recorded web seminar sponsored by The Association for Work Process Improvement (TAWPI) and Datacap Inc. This one-hour presentation features additional perspectives on data entry outsourcing, offered by leading industry participants in offshore data entry, Application Service Providers, and technology solutions that enable remote scanning and automated data entry. To obtain a copy free of charge, visit www.datacap.com/webinar 2 Introduction To Outsourcing A Service Bureau is a specialized firm that offers scanning and/or data entry services, usually based on a per document price. Service Bureaus are located within the United States (“Onshore”), in Canada, Mexico, or the Caribbean (“Nearshore”), or overseas, in Europe, South America, Asia-Pacific and India (“Offshore”). Outsourcing, especially offshore, has accelerated dramatically in recent years. Key reasons include increased bandwidth, faster Data Entry scanners, more standardization for data transfer, and the opportunity The Oldest Outsourcing for competitive advantage created by round-the-clock business days Profession and compressed cycle time. Furthermore, outsourcing data entry Data entry services were enables an organization to focus on its core competency, whether it’s first outsourced in the 1950’s, with the advent of product development, services, distribution, retail, etc. the punch card-based, data entry service bureaus. Of course, the main driver for use of outsourcing is cost savings. Data entry labor rates in other parts of the world are significantly lower Five decades later, according to a survey by and, even with triple-pass data entry methods, documents can often Outsourcing Center, Inc., data entry is the most be processed overseas for less cost than manual data entry in-house. outsourced job category, followed by manufacturing Organizations that outsource data entry sacrifice a degree of control and call-center positions. over the process. Distance and differences in culture, language, and technical infrastructure affect performance levels and accuracy. Process management, security, and legal compliance add further complications and a level of risk that has associated costs, sometimes significant ones. Penalties for non-compliance with government regulations, such as HIPAA, Sarbanes-Oxley, and the Patriot Act, can be quite expensive. For example, violations of HIPAA medical information privacy rules carry fines in the hundreds of thousands of dollars. The decision to outsource data entry must take into consideration the necessary degree of security, confidentiality, and privacy protection, which are constraints imposed on the process by compliance legislation. Other factors include back up, auditing and disaster recovery capabilities. Evolution of Outsourcing The outsourcing of operations and services, including data entry, is a long-standing tradition in America, going back to the early fifties, when back-file conversion dominated the first wave of data entry tasks. A second outsourcing trend emerged in the 1980s, when the manufacturing industry had to adjust to foreign companies providing automobiles, electronic equipment and components at lower prices. To compete, U.S. manufacturers began contracting operations to offshore companies that could provide 3 labor at significantly lower costs. In data entry, the 1980s were a time of significant technical advancement, when the personal computer began to play a prominent role in data entry service bureaus. The trend away from key-from- paper operations to key-from-image operations accelerated with the increased usage of scanned images. Use of the computer in key-to-disk operations made it possible to boost operator speed and control data entry accuracy through the use of rules, lookup tables, database integration, and auto- completion of data fields. Outsourcing Becomes a “Best Practice” After companies like General Electric and Texas Evolution of Outsourcing Instruments joined the offshore outsourcing First Wave Second Wave Third Wave • Claim • Data Analysis movement in the 1990s, many high-tech • Legacy Processing conversion • Auditing companies followed suit. It was the beginning of a • Rules • Claim-Data • Mining processing third wave in outsourced data entry, fueled by ever entry • Database • Compliance • Back log integration filing more powerful IT capabilities and a global • Outbound • Adjusting • Research communications infrastructure that enabled rapid calls • Correspondence • Fraud transfer of images and data. detection Figure 1. What happened to the Paperless Today, technological innovation and high-speed Office? Internet connections enable on-the-fly data analysis, While the ratio of digital to paper documents continues to grow, the volume of paper documents in data mining, fraud detection, and automated many industries remains steady, maintaining a recognition of unstructured documents (see Figure 1). demand for data entry workers. As a result, data entry operations have become more For example, according to Health Data Management, approximately 5 billion medical claims are filed in the flexible. Forms and business documents can be U.S. each year. For several years now, the scanned in-house, or by a domestic service bureau, percentage of claims filed electronically has hovered around 60%, which means nearly 2 billion claims are then transmitted to an overseas subcontractor for data still paper. entry. Advantages of Outsourcing Tough competition and shareholder expectations are driving U.S. companies to cut operating costs and to sharpen their focus on core competencies. To this end, they are shifting from a business model in which a company owns all of its operations to a virtual model in which peripheral processes, such as data entry, are managed by an outside service provider. 4 Financial benefits of outsourcing are driven mainly by two factors: Lower wages for the same skills, often leveraged by taking advantage of cost differences in other regions of the world, and; Improved business processes that result from better concentration on primary competencies. Because a growing number of service providers locate their operations offshore in foreign countries in order to gain the most cost-effective wage differential, the practice is often called “offshoring.” Originally perceived as a downsizing tool, outsourcing is now a major driver of organizational change and business process IT Enabled Services Growth 2004- re-engineering. A recent analysis by Billions 2008 McKinsey & Co shows that of the 700 $145 service job categories in the U.S, 550 will $140 be affected by outsourcing in the near future. The IT-enabled services (ITES) market $135 is likely to reach $131 billion in 2004 and $130 $142 billion in 2008. (See Figure 2.) When 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 measured against the current cost base of Figure 2. $532 billion, the differential of $390 billion represents the net savings that the U.S economy can expect to see from outsourcing. Most Frequently Outsourced Data Entry Types: Business Data Type Attorney legal practices Clients lists, and information pertinent to their case Member organizations and Mailing lists, members lists, petitions, surveys, and other material. Trade Associations Automobile manufacturers Rebates, recalls, surveys, comment cards, other promotional material Business form producers Content of business forms Employment agencies and career Resumes, job opportunities, client information and potential employer outplacement information Collection Agencies Account papers, mailings, client information, delinquent and paid-up accounts Direct Mail and Fulfillment Mailing lists, order entry and catalog data Hospitals and Medical forms, insurance forms, patient records, and billing information Other medical offices Insurance Insurance forms, client lists and claim data Coupon redemption, sweepstakes entries, contest entries, refunds, rebates, Marketing fulfillment mailing lists and catalogs Medical Claim Processors Specific data fields on HCFA, UB-82, UB-92, and dental forms Retail Sales receipts, coupons, comment cards, and other customer feedback Sales Organizations Client lists and sales leads Sports Franchises Player statistics, attendance data, season ticket holder lists Telemarketing Sales Telephone numbers for sales calls, orders, and client data 5 Data Entry Outsourcing Models Outsourcing data entry involves turning over data entry operations to a service bureau, which leverages their expertise, resources and ability to scale. The client manages the service bureau by first defining measurable performance metrics, based on their own cost of doing the outsourced tasks, and then using those metrics to evaluate the provider’s performance. There are several business models for outsourcing data entry. Many organizations engage in combinations, mixing in-house processing of some documents with outsourcing of others: Conventional Outsourcing occurs when a company contracts with a service bureau for services over a defined time period. Services are paid to the service bureau on a per item basis. Facilities Management occurs when a company contracts with a third party to run their data entry services in-house, for a defined time period. Joint Ventures are used when a company partners with a second company, typically offshore, to provide data entry services to the company and/or third parties. In conventional outsourcing and joint venture models, a company may transfer an entire functional area to a service provider on startup. Build Operate Transfer (BOT) entails a company partnering with a service bureau to establish an offshore facility; hire and train employees; transition the onshore process to the offshore operation; and finally run the facility and manage the workforce. The company has the option, after a predefined time period, to purchase the offshore operation. Application Service Provider, or ASP, is a third-party entity that manages and distributes software-based services and solutions to customers across a wide area network or the Internet, from a central server. The ASP is a cost-effective way to outsource IT resources and administration, to enable in-house processing. Outsourcing Benefits The motivation to outsource data entry operations is fueled primarily by cost. Domestic service bureaus can offer low cost data entry services by taking advantage of economies of scale, inexpensive labor, and image-enabled, document processing technology that automates data entry and document indexing. Of course, labor is much cheaper offshore. According to a 2004 study by the University of California, Berkeley and McKinsey Global Institute, data entry wages in India are $2.00 per hour versus an average $20 per hour in the U.S. (see Appendix for Cost Comparison Tables). 1. Reduced Capital Costs Outsourcing offers two types of savings: Capital Expenditures - Companies can save 100 percent of their intended capital expenditure (land, facilities, hardware, etc.) by working with an outsourcing firm. If the company’s workload increases, outsourcing obviates the need to invest in additional capital or ramp up capacity. Similarly, a company 6 may find that the service bureau’s capacity offers a competitive advantage, particularly when operating in a price-sensitive market. If facilities already exist, they can be sold or used for other purposes. Revenue Expenditures - Organizations can save 50 percent or more over manual data entry, plus operational and administrative expenses. 2. Converting Fixed Costs to Variable Most service bureaus operate on a ‘per item of work’ basis, which means that by outsourcing, a company can eliminate key operator salaries that represent the major fixed cost of data entry. The practice of paying only when the work is done has a major impact on the bottom line, especially when income levels or volumes are down. 3. Savings on Healthcare and Legal Costs Other incentives to outsource data entry do not involve labor savings, but instead entail savings on legal and medical costs. These include complications due to repetitive strain injuries (RSI), which are especially common among the population of users who have little or no training in typing. Emil F. Pascarelli, in Repetitive Strain Injury: A Computer User's Guide, reports that the number of RSI incidents has increased dramatically since the first PC was released in 1981, when only 18% of all illnesses reported were RSIs. In 2000, an estimated 70% of all occupational illnesses reported to OSHA were RSIs. Such injuries cost companies $20 billion a year in legal and medical costs. 4. Cost-Effective Solution to Seasonal or One-Time Work. It is not unusual for catalog retailers, tax processors and subscription houses to experience peak loads of 80 percent over normal volumes. By outsourcing, companies don’t have to maintain peak level staffing throughout the year. Outsourcing also allows companies to augment the skills of their in-house staff so they don’t have to turn away business that their regular staff can’t handle. 5. Disaster Recovery In a post-9/11 world, an offsite service bureau provides a U.S. company with additional backup protection in the event of a catastrophe, by warehousing data at a separate storage facility. Benefits of Offshore Service Bureaus There are additional benefits that can be realized by contracting with an offshore data entry service bureau: 1. ‘Round-the-Clock’ Operations International time zones allow corporations the competitive advantage gained by accessing data entry labor pools 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Service bureaus in India begin work while the U.S. sleeps, meaning that any work submitted the day before will be completed by dawn the next morning. Productivity grows because the work is done in a single regular workday, without the need for overtime pay. 7 2. Access to Educated, Skilled Labor Many offshore companies feature graduates who have completed at least five years of college. Chocko Valliappa – CEO of Vee Technologies, an offshore data entry outsourcer, based in Bangalore, India – runs his own university to train data entry operators. As a result, in addition to jobs that require only low- paid key operators, Vee Technologies and others are accepting contracts for projects that require knowledge workers. Turnover abroad is relatively low among this group of workers, compared with American employees. Risks of Outsourcing The overriding risk of outsourcing data entry is loss of control over the process. The burden falls upon the customer to ensure that delivered data is accurate, security is not compromised, and above all, that no violations of government and industry regulations occur. Without sufficient controls, quality issues, significant fines and expensive mistakes could wipe out any cost savings realized by outsourcing. 1. Accuracy If inaccurate data is delivered, there may be expensive consequences, such as paying incorrect invoices or health claims, or degradation in productivity as problems are located and fixed internally. Even if an organization contracts with an outsourcer for triple-pass data entry, where each document is entered more than once, there’s no way to guarantee accuracy, short of frequent site visits. 2. Government Compliance Even more important is maintaining compliance with government regulations, such as the Health Information Privacy and Accessibility Act of 1996 (HIPAA), Sarbanes–Oxley (SOX), and the U.S. Patriot Act. HIPAA – The main purpose of HIPAA is to protect the privacy of personal health data by controlling access to health claims, such as HCFA 1500s and UB-92s. Nonetheless, a major health insurance company was recently surprised to discover their service bureau in India was displaying the names of insurance company clients in a demonstration on their Website. The service bureau’s actions threw the insurance company into a thicket of HIPAA violations, and ultimately caused it to bring data entry operations back to America. Sarbanes-Oxley – As a result of Enron and other high-level white collar crime, Sarbanes-Oxley requires CEOs, CFOs, CIOs, and other top managers to certify the integrity of their financial data. SOX’s strong focus on data security and who can access what information makes offshore data security a board-level issue, particularly with invoice and remittance processing, and other organizational financial data. In 2002, the frequency of non-compliance incidents, due to offshore vendor carelessness, caused the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency to issue risk-management compliance guidelines for USA banks that use offshore service providers. US Patriot Act – In a post-911 environment, complying with government regulations is forcing organizations conducting business overseas to certify that they are not contributing to terrorist organizations. Non-compliance could mean hefty fines, and even jail time. 8 Network Security For IT management, security issues can be more serious than government compliance. Some firms allow offshore companies remote access to their in-house software applications and network infrastructure. In this scenario, a rogue programmer could insert hidden code through a network “back door” that would allow access to the system at a later date. One answer to the problem is for companies that outsource their operations to purchase or develop software that can protect their network infrastructure and eliminate its susceptibility to remote data access. Industrial Espionage Another concern is that an employee of an offshore firm could be paid to show a client’s data and/or intellectual property to competitors. The problem is that corporate espionage abroad may not necessarily be subject to the same privacy protections and guarantees in America, or that U.S. privacy laws might not be actionable in the offshore country. Although industrial espionage is always a risk, when it occurs on foreign soil, lack of familiarity with that country’s local laws, customs, and facilities can lead to unique twists and turns. Although a good contract can go a long way toward providing the necessary legal protection, it is a good idea to avoid a standard outsourcing contract. Instead, the client should have one drawn up by a law firm with experience in the country of the service bureau that is doing the work. Choosing An Outsource Partner When selecting an outsourcing vendor, there are common-sense guidelines for setting expectations, building in controls, managing the relationship, and evaluating results. Outsourcing veterans, like Chocko Valliappa of Vee Technologies, providing outsourcing since 1982, maintain that success begins and ends with good communication. “The services customer has to be very clear about their process, their expectations and continually voice their thoughts along the way.” Keys To Success Potential for Failure • Customers understand their process • No support from top management • Good communication • Outsourcing processes which require extensive logistical activities or personal • Plan approved by both parties presence • No politics from the top to the bottom • Outsourcing processes which lack rules and • Outsourcing process documented procedures • Proper governance • Cultural mismatch Figure 4. Valliappa looks for certain “conditions” that can help or hinder an outsourcing program. They include a customer who is knowledgeable about their own process. “They’ll have a firm grasp of the value and cost benefits of the service we are offering,” he says, “and they’ll be able to clearly communicate what is required from us to satisfy them.” 9 Typical Concerns and their Importance for Offshoring Customers Language Skills Cost of Labor Language Skill Security/Business IP Protection Country Infrastructure Cultural Fit Proximity to the US 0 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 5. Source: Vee Technologies Valliappa suggests that customers manage the relationship by keeping internal politics out of the equation, getting buy-in from top management, and regularly evaluating results. “A program is bound to fail,” adds Valliappa, “if there are unrealistic expectations, poor communications, or if they are outsourcing processes which require a personal presence. However, if both parties can communicate well about the process, rules and expectations, most problems can be solved.” Enabling Technology for Managing Data Entry Outsourcing While data and document capture technologies are often thought of as products strictly for in-house data entry, a new generation of products are available that can assure the cost-savings of data entry outsourcing, yet manage the accuracy, communications and control issues that diminish the return on investment. By using an integrated capture product, an organization can mitigate the loss of control and accuracy, while still guaranteeing cost savings. In fact, many organizations today are creating a hybrid approach, where they use automated recognition technologies, such as optical character recognition, on a certain class of documents, outsource a different class for manual data entry, and retain yet another class for in-house data entry. Such a strategy requires a robust platform that can enable scanning, batch processing and careful administration. Datacap Taskmaster is a data and document capture software solution used by organizations worldwide in finance, insurance, healthcare, government and corporate AP departments. Taskmaster leverages the latest technologies, such as Optical Character Recognition (OCR) for machine print, barcode, XML, image processing, and a GUI built for productivity. These technologies make it a tool for enabling a successful outsourcing program. 10 Indeed, service bureaus, ASPs, and end-users, such as Blue Cross Blue Shield of Arizona (BCBSAZ), USIEnergy, Guardian Life, The Hartford, Avidity, and California’s Central Coast Alliance for Health, use Datacap Taskmaster to combine in-house data entry with outsourcing. BCBSAZ processes paper HCFA 1500 and UB-92 medical claims by scanning them with Taskmaster, using OCR technology to automatically extract data. However, the small percentage of claims that are not scannable are outsourced. “We not only outsource the ‘garbage’ claims, but we also use our outsourcing vendor for occasional spikes in volume,” says Ed Davis, Director, Support Operations at BCBSAZ. Use Taskmaster Web to Outsource Scanning With its three-tier, client-server architecture, Taskmaster supports scanning and indexing over the Internet using only a browser. Taskmaster Web supports both on-line and off-line scanning. The advantage of on-line scanning with Taskmaster is that a batch is created and tracking begins the moment a document is scanned. This eliminates problems with synchronization and missing batches that can occur when scanning is done off-line. Taskmaster Web’s administrative interface enables complete management and auditing of the process, giving an organization a way to outsource scanning, yet maintain a high degree of control over the process. Independent Scanning and Indexing In addition to distributed scanning, Taskmaster’s architecture, utilizing XML technology, enables the indexing of document images over a browser. Once scanned (centrally or remotely), the indexing of images can be distributed to an outsourcing company using the Internet. Index operators log in to the Taskmaster Web Server with a user name and password, and Taskmaster doles out the work, tracks the progress, and updates the images with the index values. An administrator can track progress of a batch, check on the productivity of users, and completely control who has access to data for best results as well as to comply with regulations. Automate AND Outsource Taskmaster’s forms processing capabilities enable users to apply automated recognition of machine print, handprint, check boxes and barcodes. Its rules-based architecture enables capture of standard documents, such as tax returns, surveys, and medical claims, as well as unstructured and variable documents, like invoices, Explanations of Benefit (EOB) and shipping records. By automating the capture of data from documents with Taskmaster, a user assures high accuracy levels, and makes the best use of data entry personnel. This is the model used by BCBSAZ and California Central Coast Alliance for Health, another medical claim processor. 11 With Taskmaster handling recognition, data entry operators become verifiers, speeding through batches of document images, checking for low confidence characters and failed validations, doubling and even tripling their productivity. Organizations can choose to outsource verification, using Taskmaster Web, to a third party service bureau or at-home workers, again maximizing the value of the outsource relationship. Control Is the Key Taskmaster’s extensive administrative controls help supervisors track and audit every document from the moment it is scanned until it is released to the repository, keeping tabs on who has access, when and what was done. This job monitoring feature, combined with password access and other security controls, supports most requirements of HIPAA, Sarbanes-Oxley and other government regulations pertaining to the handling of data. Conclusion Outsourcing meets a fundamental need for U.S. businesses looking to lower the cost of operations and streamline productivity. With thorough management and oversight, an organization can balance the cost savings of outsourcing data entry with the trade-offs in accuracy and control. Automated capture systems also help an organization lower cost and accelerate productivity. Today’s capture systems can help an organization tightly manage outsourcing by providing an in-house platform to automate the capture of data when possible and distribute capture tasks when outsourcing is the best option. 12 APPENDIX Cost Comparisons Breaking Down The Costs of Outsourced, ASP and Automated Data Entry In choosing whether to outsource or automate data entry in-house, one decision methodology is to analyze which method of acquiring data entry services produces the lowest net cost per document. The potential size of the outsourcing market is illustrated in the hypothetical insurance case study illustrated in Figure 5. The numbers are based upon costs reported by the insurance industry and on surveys taken by the U.S. Department of Census. Calculations reveal that potential cost savings of $582 million could be realized if only 10% of the data entry labor dedicated to processing insurance claims was outsourced. Looking at the same Data Entry Cost Comparison (Inhouse vs. Offshore) problem in a Cost Basis Weekly Cost/claim adjuster Weekly Total Cost different way, Figure 6 provides some U.S. Salary *$1200 - $1400/week $4800 - $5600 comparisons when Offshore Salary **$500 $2,000 engaging an Annual Savings $145,600 - $291,200 Application Service Sample Document: HCFA 1500 Volume: $1,000/day Provider. In this Figure 6. * Source: Health Data Management ** Source Vee Technologies example, both data entry and IT resources are outsourced, using the Internet as a workflow tool. Here, users can gain the benefits of a web-based capture tool, like Datacap Taskmaster, for data entry automation and scanning over the Internet, without the capital expenditure of investing in IT . The final calculations show that the net cost for processing an invoice using Application Service Provider (ASP) is $.31 – virtually 1/8 the cost of $2.42 for entering the data manually. ASP Savings Calculator Activity Manual ASP Savings Data Entry, Validate, Fix Time (6 3 min. .4 2.6 fields) Average Invoice Line Items 3.5 3.5 - Data Entry Time/Line Item .8 .1 .7 Figure 7. Total Entry All Line Items 2.8 .35 Total Time 5.8 .75 *Source: Fidesic Total Cost: $2.42 .31 $2.10 Corporation Sample Document: Invoices Finally, Figure 8 presents a third set of comparisons, which demonstrate the need for careful analysis before embarking on an outsourcing program. This R.O.I. calculation for a medical claims processing operation compares the cost of using in-house automated data entry, such as Datacap Taskmaster, 13 versus outsourcing. Variables include document volume, manual labor expenses, the cost of hardware and software, cost of services, and recurring costs. At a certain volume, when the cost per medical claim is calculated and compared to the cost available from outsourcing, the comparison actually favors in-house processing. Outsourcing Vs. Inhouse Automated Data Entry Category Details Cost/Year Software: $199,760 amortized over 66,586.00 three years* Professional Services: $45,000 amortized over $15,000 three years* Software Maintenance: 18% of total software* $35,957 Manpower (FTEs): 25 Operators @ $22,890/year $572, 250 Total Inhouse Capture Per Claim cost .18* $689,793 Total Outsource Cost Per Claim cost .25** $945,000 Annual Savings $255,207 Sample Document: HCFA 1500 Volume 15,000 claims a day Figure 8. *Source: Datacap Inc. ** Source: Industry standard price per claim In the example in Figure 8, the net cost per form using Taskmaster in-house over three years comes to 18 cents, for a total annual cost of $689,793; versus $945,000 for annual outsourcing costs, which computes to 25 cents per form, excluding additional hardware costs. While there are many factors and results will vary case by case, the point can be made that outsourcing data entry is more expensive than in-house, automated data capture. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Arthur Gingrande, Partner, IMERGE Consulting Arthur Gingrande is a partner of IMERGE Consulting in Lexington, MA, and a nationally acclaimed expert in image-based intelligent character recognition (ICR), electronic forms, and forms automation. Before that, as vice president of marketing and business development for two software development firms and later as a consultant, he developed the marketing/business plans for six of the leading software development firms in image/data capture and automated forms processing He also consults to end users in the areas of needs analysis and implementation oversight of electronic document management systems (EDMS). He is editor and publisher of Contemplor, a newsletter dedicated to document management and forms automation technology. Since 1991, over 200 of his articles on ICR, forms automation, imaging, and EDMS have been published in various trade journals and I.T. magazines. Mr. Gingrande is the author of numerous articles in Today and other TAWPI publications, including Cost-Justifying an ICR Solution and Measuring and Improving Data Entry Productivity. He is also the author of the definitive book on forms processing, Forms Automation – from ICR to Electronic Forms to the Internet, and also Processing Unstructured Documents: Challenges and Solutions, both published by AIIM, plus numerous white papers and articles for that organization. Mr. Gingrande’s resume is available at the IMERGE Consulting Website, www.imergeconsult.com. He can be contacted by phone at (781) 258-8181 or by email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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