Osh Management Manual by vto19348


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                                       (PART 2)


The WorkSafe Plan is an important tool sued by WorkSafe Western Australia to audit
OSH performance to ensure all aspects of key elements have been considered. It is an
assessment and rating process to examine the adequacy of the workplace safety
systems put in place to manage safety. It is a framework for good management.

The five key elements of the Plan are:

      Management commitment
      OSH policy, plans and procedures
      Consultation
      Hazard identification, risk assessment and control
      Training


Managers within the organisation need to be committed to the provision of a safe and
healthy working environment for employees, and to plan for this to happen. To do this,
they need to understand and accept their responsibilities for occupational safety and

Management needs to be aware of the organisation's occupational safety and health
(OSH) problems, have a conviction that high standards are attainable, and have
allocated adequate resources to achieve those high standards. Line managers and
supervisors need to be responsible and held accountable for the safety and health of
their staff and to have been given the skills and resources to fulfill these responsibilities.

Management commitment is demonstrated by management's willingness to take action
to improve OSH, meeting the aims and objectives of written OSH policy. The plan is to
ensure that OSH policy is implemented.

Good organisation show the following:

1.     Principle requirements provided for under the OSH Act, Regulations and
       approved codes of practice and standards that apply to the place of work and its
       operations have been identified and actioned, demonstrating management's
       commitment to providing a safe workplace. Management representatives and
       key    personnel    have      attended     seminars/training     that    provide
       appreciation/awareness of statutory and other OSH responsibilities.

2.     A competent person has been appointed and given authority to co-ordinate and
       direct all aspects of the employer's safety and health initiatives.
3.     The organisation has developed and documented preventive OSH plans that
       address major issues and hazards, in consultation with employees. There is
       evidence to show that work injury experience or other relevant data has been
       used as a guide to develop preventive OSH plans. Line managers are held
       accountable for the successful outcomes of preventive OSH plans and have been
       delegated appropriate authority to meet their objectives.

4.     Sufficient resources have been allocated to ensure the OSH policy and specific
       OSH plans are successfully implemented and monitored. Line managers,
       supervisors and other with OSH responsibilities have been allocated sufficient
       time and resources to perform their tasks effectively.

5.     Accountabilities and responsibilities of managers, supervisors and other key
       personnel have been defined and documented and included in their written job
       descriptions. Safety and health performance indicators are included in appraisals
       for managers, supervisors and employees.

6.     Comprehensive OSH surveys have been undertaken to identify major hazards
       and the risk control systems in place. The recommendations of the survey have
       been prioritised.

7.     During meetings management is actively monitoring performance and progress
       of all OSH initiatives throughout the organisation. An audit of the overall OSH
       management system is undertaken periodically to ensure the organisation's OSH
       management system complies with the objectives of the OSH policy and specific
       OSH plans.


The OSH policy is the basis upon which effective OSH plan are built. It is important in
demonstrating to mangement and employees that there is a commitment to ensuring
high standards of safety and health for all employees. It states the organisation's OSH
objectives and provides the framework for achieving those objectives. The roles and
responsibilities of managers, supervisors and employees in implementing the policy and
procedures are also clearly defined.

The OSH policy needs to be supported by specific plans and procedures relating to more
particular safety and health matters, e.g., manual handling, chemical storage, screen-
based equipment, heat stress. Supporting procedures provide the detailed, step-by-step
information that enables policy requirements to be actioned.
The OSH policy (along with the OSH plans and procedures) is a tool in the production of
goods and services and needs to be seen that way at all levels within the organisation.
Although it is written as a separate document, it is nevertheless an integral part of the
production process and the organisation's business aims. It should not be seen as an
added cost. If correctly integrated into the running of the organisation, the policy will
not be an added cost but a normal process like total quality management, playing its
part in ensuring the continued economic progress of the organisation. The policy should
take this perspective into account.

A written OSH policy on its own will not prevent accidents. What will prevent accidents
is its implementation through specific plans and procedures. The policy and all plans
and procedure need to be achievable, flexible and regularly reviewed. This way, the
OSH management system will keep pace with changes that occur in the organisation
and will always be up to date.

The good organisation show the following:

1.     The organisation ensures senior managers are aware of their responsibilities in
       respect of the OSH policy.

2.     A consultative approach has been adopted when preparing and maintain the
       OSH policy, plans and procedures.

3.     The organisation's OSH policy is supported by a range of OSH plans and
       procedures (in a manual) with the aim of achieving the objectives of the OSH

4.     All employees have been given an explanation of their OSH responsibilities
       during their induction a well as information regarding the existence and location
       of the OSH policy, plans and procedures. All documents are in a language and
       format which all the employees can understand.

5.     The organisation has a mechanism/procedure in place that ensures regular
       review of the OSH policy, plans and procedures (ideally annually). Review also
       occurs on introduction of change to either legislation or workplace environment.

6.     A policy has been developed for contractors who undertake work on the
       premises or who carry out work under the supervision and control of the
       employer. Induction of contractors is addressed in this policy. The contract
       used for engagement of contractors include, OSH requirements. Supervisors are
       aware of their role and responsibilities in the supervision of contractors.


An occupational safety and health policy is a statement of management's commitment
and intent in regard to occupational safety and health.

A policy is best produced with the assistance of the safety and health committee. The
policy is an excellent starting point for workplaces commencing their health and safety
responsibilities. It helps management to clarify the main issues, plan appropriately,
determine and allocate resources and responsibilities and integrate occupational safety
and health into the normal routine of the workplace.

The OSH Act 1994 places a duty on every employer and self-employer person to :

      prepare and as often as may be appropriate revise a written statement of his
       general policy with respect to the safety and health at work of his employees and
       the organisation and arrangements for the time being in force for carrying out
       that policy, and to bring the statement and any revision of it to the notice of all
       of his employees.

The key words or phrases are `written statement', `general policy', `organisation',
`arrangements', and `bring to the notice of all employees'. This indicate the basic
format of a safety and health policy statement.


This part of the policy document should explain the organisation for safety
and health responsibilities. This will be mainly about "who is to do what".
Essentially it should spell out:

The list of safety and health responsibilities of all levels of management i.e. from top
management down to supervisors and safety and health personnel (if any).

The role of worker in the implementation of the policy. Each employee has a duty not
to endanger himself or others by his actions or omissions, and to co-operate in all
measures provided for his safety and health.

The structure and functions of safety and health committees and other in-house safety
and health organisations (if any).

Where job descriptions exist safety and health objectives should be integrated into
them. Assessment of individuals safety and health performance against set objectives
should also be included in annual personal appraisals and career development. Use the
OSH Act duties as the basis of the allocation of responsibilities.

Overall Responsibility

The managing director/senior executive must accept overall responsibility for all matters,
including those regarding health, safety and welfare. The senior person responsible for
OSH policy should also be identified.

Management Responsibility

Managers are responsible for ensuring that the OSH policy is implemented within their
own departments. Managers must monitor the workplace to ensure that safe conditions
are maintained. Where risks are identified the manager must ensure that these are
rectified, so far as is reasonably practicable.

Management duties include the following:

(a)    ensuring that employees, contractors and visitors are aware of safety
(b)    establishing that all equipment, plant and substances used are suitable for the
       task and are kept in good working condition; this includes the regular
       maintenance and servicing of equipment.
(c)    providing, adequate training, information, instruction and supervision to ensure
       that work is conducted safety.
(d)    taking immediate and appropriate steps to investigate and rectify any risks to
       safety and health arising, from the work activity.
(e)    bringing to the prompt attention of senior management any safety and health
       issue that requires their attention.
(f)    ensuring that all accidents and `near-misses' are properly recorded and reported
       and than an investigation is carried out to determine causal factors.
(g)    maintaining safe access to and egress from the workplace at all times.

Managers                 dealing              with               particular


      take reasonable care for their own safety and health and of other persons who
       may be affected by their acts or omissions.

      cooperate with the employer and wear PPE at all times.

      work in accordance with information and training provided.

      refrain from intentionally misusing or recklessly interfering with anything that has
       been provided for safety and health reasons.

      report any hazardous defects in plant and equipment, or shortcomings in the
       existing safety arrangements, to a responsible person without delay.

      not undertake any task for which authorisation and/or training has not been

Health and Safety Assistance

Competent persons have been appointed to assist us in meeting our safety and health
obligations. These people have sufficient knowledge and information to ensure that
statutory provisions are met and that the safety policy is being adhered to.

Names, job titles and functions of these people are listed below:

Safety and Health Officer (full details of the role of the SHO in inspections and
assistance given to supervisors, etc., will be given later in the course)

First Aider
Fire Marshal
Welfare Officer
Committee Members

The company recognised that there may be occasions when specialist advice is
necessary. In these circumstances the services of competent external advisers will be

First Aid. The company will maintain suitable numbers of first aid personnel to deal
with minor accidents and emergencies at the workplace. These personnel will have
sufficient training and qualifications in accordance with statutory requirements.
Identities of first aiders will be displayed throughout the workplace.
Emergency Procedures. Emergency procedures are designed to give warning of
imminent danger and to allow personnel to move to a place of safety. The manager of
each department is responsible for ensuring that all employees and visitors within the
area are informed of, and are fully conversant with, emergency procedures.

Fire Marshals will be appointed for each area to assist with an evacuation. They will be
given adequate instruction and training to ensure effectiveness.

Health surveillance. We will ensure that health surveillance of individuals is provided
where required under statutory provisions or where this would be of benefit to
maintaining safety and health.

Information and Communication. We will ensure that suitable and relevant
information relating to safety and health at the workplace is disseminated to staff and

Statutory notices will be displayed throughout the workplace.

Safety committee meetings will be held regularly, during which time matters arising in
connection with safety and health will be discussed.


Procedure: A procedure is a logical series of steps relating to a specific workplace
activity. It establishes what action is required, who is required to act and when the
action is to take place.

In the safety and health policy the organisation has stated its intent to provide for safe
and healthy workplace conditions. The plans and procedures outline in greater detail
the way in which this is to be achieved. There are a number of areas in which general
and/or specific procedures are desirable depending on the needs of individual
workplaces. The general (systems) procedures would include the following:

      Hazard/accident reporting
      Accident/incident investigation
      Workplace inspections
      Risk assessment and control
      First aid
      Emergency preparedness and evacuation
      OSH induction and other training
      Procedures for contractors and visitors
      OSH promotion
      Record keeping
      Safe systems of work
      PPE
There will also be number of procedures that relate the control of workplace OSH risks.

There are three major steps in the design of any workplace OSH procedure:

1.     Identification of the hazards.
2.     Assessments of the risks
3.     A control strategy to eliminate or reduce the risks.


There is increasing recognition that a developed approach to quality is an essential
feature of a successful organisation, not an optional extra. The emphasis is on
`managing quality in' rather that `inspecting defects out'.

The TQM approach seeks to promote continuous improvement in all aspects of an
organisation's activities. As the term` total quality' would imply, the ultimate goal for
safety and health is an injury-free working environment, and this is the target which a
number of organisations have set themselves.

Success in quality management requires the development of supportive organisational
cultures. The TQM philosophy stresses the importance of the active involvement of all
employees in the quality process.      Organisations which are successful in the
management of safety and health go to great lengths to develop a positive safety
culture on the same basis. The Du Pont principles and the WorkSafe Plan are examples
of aspects of good management systems.

Du Pont Principles

Some companies have become well-known for the success of their safety management
system. Du Pont claims several of its plants with more than 1,000 employees have run
for more than ten years without recording a lost-time injury accident. Du Pont has ten
principles of safety management which are worthy of study:

1.     All injuries and occupational illnesses are preventable.
2.     Management is directly responsible for doing this, with each level accountable to
       the one above and responsible for the level below.
3.     Safety in condition of employment, and is as important to the company as
       production, quality or cost control.
4.     Training is required in order to sustain safety knowledge, and includes
       establishing procedures must be carried out.
5.     Safety audits and inspections must carried out.
6.     Deficiencies must be corrected promptly, by modification, changing procedures,
       improved training and/or consistent and constructive disciplining.
7.     All unsafe practices, incidents and injury accidents will be investigated.
8.    Safety away from work is as important as safety at work.
9.    Accident prevention is cost-effective; the highest cost is human suffering.
10.   People are the most critical element in the safety and health programme.
      Employees must be actively involved, and complement management
      responsibility by making suggestions for improvements.

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