OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH POLICY, ORGANISATION & ARRANGEMENT (PART 2) ELEMENTS IN OSH ORGANISATION/FUNDAMENTALS AND REQUIREMENTS The WorkSafe Plan is an important tool sued by WorkSafe Western Australia to audit OSH performance to ensure all aspects of key elements have been considered. It is an assessment and rating process to examine the adequacy of the workplace safety systems put in place to manage safety. It is a framework for good management. The five key elements of the Plan are: Management commitment OSH policy, plans and procedures Consultation Hazard identification, risk assessment and control Training MANAGEMENT COMMITMENT (WORKPLACE PLAN KEY ELEMENT) Managers within the organisation need to be committed to the provision of a safe and healthy working environment for employees, and to plan for this to happen. To do this, they need to understand and accept their responsibilities for occupational safety and health. Management needs to be aware of the organisation's occupational safety and health (OSH) problems, have a conviction that high standards are attainable, and have allocated adequate resources to achieve those high standards. Line managers and supervisors need to be responsible and held accountable for the safety and health of their staff and to have been given the skills and resources to fulfill these responsibilities. Management commitment is demonstrated by management's willingness to take action to improve OSH, meeting the aims and objectives of written OSH policy. The plan is to ensure that OSH policy is implemented. Good organisation show the following: 1. Principle requirements provided for under the OSH Act, Regulations and approved codes of practice and standards that apply to the place of work and its operations have been identified and actioned, demonstrating management's commitment to providing a safe workplace. Management representatives and key personnel have attended seminars/training that provide appreciation/awareness of statutory and other OSH responsibilities. 2. A competent person has been appointed and given authority to co-ordinate and direct all aspects of the employer's safety and health initiatives. 3. The organisation has developed and documented preventive OSH plans that address major issues and hazards, in consultation with employees. There is evidence to show that work injury experience or other relevant data has been used as a guide to develop preventive OSH plans. Line managers are held accountable for the successful outcomes of preventive OSH plans and have been delegated appropriate authority to meet their objectives. 4. Sufficient resources have been allocated to ensure the OSH policy and specific OSH plans are successfully implemented and monitored. Line managers, supervisors and other with OSH responsibilities have been allocated sufficient time and resources to perform their tasks effectively. 5. Accountabilities and responsibilities of managers, supervisors and other key personnel have been defined and documented and included in their written job descriptions. Safety and health performance indicators are included in appraisals for managers, supervisors and employees. 6. Comprehensive OSH surveys have been undertaken to identify major hazards and the risk control systems in place. The recommendations of the survey have been prioritised. 7. During meetings management is actively monitoring performance and progress of all OSH initiatives throughout the organisation. An audit of the overall OSH management system is undertaken periodically to ensure the organisation's OSH management system complies with the objectives of the OSH policy and specific OSH plans. OSH POLICY, PLANS AND PROCEDURES (WORKSAFE PLAN KEY ELEMENT) The OSH policy is the basis upon which effective OSH plan are built. It is important in demonstrating to mangement and employees that there is a commitment to ensuring high standards of safety and health for all employees. It states the organisation's OSH objectives and provides the framework for achieving those objectives. The roles and responsibilities of managers, supervisors and employees in implementing the policy and procedures are also clearly defined. The OSH policy needs to be supported by specific plans and procedures relating to more particular safety and health matters, e.g., manual handling, chemical storage, screen- based equipment, heat stress. Supporting procedures provide the detailed, step-by-step information that enables policy requirements to be actioned. The OSH policy (along with the OSH plans and procedures) is a tool in the production of goods and services and needs to be seen that way at all levels within the organisation. Although it is written as a separate document, it is nevertheless an integral part of the production process and the organisation's business aims. It should not be seen as an added cost. If correctly integrated into the running of the organisation, the policy will not be an added cost but a normal process like total quality management, playing its part in ensuring the continued economic progress of the organisation. The policy should take this perspective into account. A written OSH policy on its own will not prevent accidents. What will prevent accidents is its implementation through specific plans and procedures. The policy and all plans and procedure need to be achievable, flexible and regularly reviewed. This way, the OSH management system will keep pace with changes that occur in the organisation and will always be up to date. The good organisation show the following: 1. The organisation ensures senior managers are aware of their responsibilities in respect of the OSH policy. 2. A consultative approach has been adopted when preparing and maintain the OSH policy, plans and procedures. 3. The organisation's OSH policy is supported by a range of OSH plans and procedures (in a manual) with the aim of achieving the objectives of the OSH policy. 4. All employees have been given an explanation of their OSH responsibilities during their induction a well as information regarding the existence and location of the OSH policy, plans and procedures. All documents are in a language and format which all the employees can understand. 5. The organisation has a mechanism/procedure in place that ensures regular review of the OSH policy, plans and procedures (ideally annually). Review also occurs on introduction of change to either legislation or workplace environment. 6. A policy has been developed for contractors who undertake work on the premises or who carry out work under the supervision and control of the employer. Induction of contractors is addressed in this policy. The contract used for engagement of contractors include, OSH requirements. Supervisors are aware of their role and responsibilities in the supervision of contractors. OSH POLICY, ORGANISATION AND ARRANGEMENTS - (HAND OUT 5) WHAT IS A POLICY ? An occupational safety and health policy is a statement of management's commitment and intent in regard to occupational safety and health. A policy is best produced with the assistance of the safety and health committee. The policy is an excellent starting point for workplaces commencing their health and safety responsibilities. It helps management to clarify the main issues, plan appropriately, determine and allocate resources and responsibilities and integrate occupational safety and health into the normal routine of the workplace. The OSH Act 1994 places a duty on every employer and self-employer person to : prepare and as often as may be appropriate revise a written statement of his general policy with respect to the safety and health at work of his employees and the organisation and arrangements for the time being in force for carrying out that policy, and to bring the statement and any revision of it to the notice of all of his employees. The key words or phrases are `written statement', `general policy', `organisation', `arrangements', and `bring to the notice of all employees'. This indicate the basic format of a safety and health policy statement. ALLOCATION AND ASSIGNING OF LINE MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES This part of the policy document should explain the organisation for safety and health responsibilities. This will be mainly about "who is to do what". Essentially it should spell out: The list of safety and health responsibilities of all levels of management i.e. from top management down to supervisors and safety and health personnel (if any). The role of worker in the implementation of the policy. Each employee has a duty not to endanger himself or others by his actions or omissions, and to co-operate in all measures provided for his safety and health. The structure and functions of safety and health committees and other in-house safety and health organisations (if any). ORGANISATIONAL ARRANGEMENTS Where job descriptions exist safety and health objectives should be integrated into them. Assessment of individuals safety and health performance against set objectives should also be included in annual personal appraisals and career development. Use the OSH Act duties as the basis of the allocation of responsibilities. Overall Responsibility The managing director/senior executive must accept overall responsibility for all matters, including those regarding health, safety and welfare. The senior person responsible for OSH policy should also be identified. Management Responsibility Managers are responsible for ensuring that the OSH policy is implemented within their own departments. Managers must monitor the workplace to ensure that safe conditions are maintained. Where risks are identified the manager must ensure that these are rectified, so far as is reasonably practicable. Management duties include the following: (a) ensuring that employees, contractors and visitors are aware of safety procedures. (b) establishing that all equipment, plant and substances used are suitable for the task and are kept in good working condition; this includes the regular maintenance and servicing of equipment. (c) providing, adequate training, information, instruction and supervision to ensure that work is conducted safety. (d) taking immediate and appropriate steps to investigate and rectify any risks to safety and health arising, from the work activity. (e) bringing to the prompt attention of senior management any safety and health issue that requires their attention. (f) ensuring that all accidents and `near-misses' are properly recorded and reported and than an investigation is carried out to determine causal factors. (g) maintaining safe access to and egress from the workplace at all times. Managers dealing with particular topic†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† †††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††††††† ††††††††††††††††††† take reasonable care for their own safety and health and of other persons who may be affected by their acts or omissions. cooperate with the employer and wear PPE at all times. work in accordance with information and training provided. refrain from intentionally misusing or recklessly interfering with anything that has been provided for safety and health reasons. report any hazardous defects in plant and equipment, or shortcomings in the existing safety arrangements, to a responsible person without delay. not undertake any task for which authorisation and/or training has not been given. Health and Safety Assistance Competent persons have been appointed to assist us in meeting our safety and health obligations. These people have sufficient knowledge and information to ensure that statutory provisions are met and that the safety policy is being adhered to. Names, job titles and functions of these people are listed below: Safety and Health Officer (full details of the role of the SHO in inspections and assistance given to supervisors, etc., will be given later in the course) First Aider Fire Marshal Welfare Officer Committee Members The company recognised that there may be occasions when specialist advice is necessary. In these circumstances the services of competent external advisers will be obtained. First Aid. The company will maintain suitable numbers of first aid personnel to deal with minor accidents and emergencies at the workplace. These personnel will have sufficient training and qualifications in accordance with statutory requirements. Identities of first aiders will be displayed throughout the workplace. Emergency Procedures. Emergency procedures are designed to give warning of imminent danger and to allow personnel to move to a place of safety. The manager of each department is responsible for ensuring that all employees and visitors within the area are informed of, and are fully conversant with, emergency procedures. Fire Marshals will be appointed for each area to assist with an evacuation. They will be given adequate instruction and training to ensure effectiveness. Health surveillance. We will ensure that health surveillance of individuals is provided where required under statutory provisions or where this would be of benefit to maintaining safety and health. Information and Communication. We will ensure that suitable and relevant information relating to safety and health at the workplace is disseminated to staff and non-employees. Statutory notices will be displayed throughout the workplace. Safety committee meetings will be held regularly, during which time matters arising in connection with safety and health will be discussed. ARRANGEMENTS (SYSTEM, PLAN AND PROCEDURE) Procedure: A procedure is a logical series of steps relating to a specific workplace activity. It establishes what action is required, who is required to act and when the action is to take place. In the safety and health policy the organisation has stated its intent to provide for safe and healthy workplace conditions. The plans and procedures outline in greater detail the way in which this is to be achieved. There are a number of areas in which general and/or specific procedures are desirable depending on the needs of individual workplaces. The general (systems) procedures would include the following: Hazard/accident reporting Accident/incident investigation Workplace inspections Risk assessment and control First aid Emergency preparedness and evacuation OSH induction and other training Procedures for contractors and visitors OSH promotion Record keeping Safe systems of work PPE There will also be number of procedures that relate the control of workplace OSH risks. There are three major steps in the design of any workplace OSH procedure: 1. Identification of the hazards. 2. Assessments of the risks 3. A control strategy to eliminate or reduce the risks. QUALITY PRINCIPLES IN MANAGEMENT There is increasing recognition that a developed approach to quality is an essential feature of a successful organisation, not an optional extra. The emphasis is on `managing quality in' rather that `inspecting defects out'. The TQM approach seeks to promote continuous improvement in all aspects of an organisation's activities. As the term` total quality' would imply, the ultimate goal for safety and health is an injury-free working environment, and this is the target which a number of organisations have set themselves. Success in quality management requires the development of supportive organisational cultures. The TQM philosophy stresses the importance of the active involvement of all employees in the quality process. Organisations which are successful in the management of safety and health go to great lengths to develop a positive safety culture on the same basis. The Du Pont principles and the WorkSafe Plan are examples of aspects of good management systems. Du Pont Principles Some companies have become well-known for the success of their safety management system. Du Pont claims several of its plants with more than 1,000 employees have run for more than ten years without recording a lost-time injury accident. Du Pont has ten principles of safety management which are worthy of study: 1. All injuries and occupational illnesses are preventable. 2. Management is directly responsible for doing this, with each level accountable to the one above and responsible for the level below. 3. Safety in condition of employment, and is as important to the company as production, quality or cost control. 4. Training is required in order to sustain safety knowledge, and includes establishing procedures must be carried out. 5. Safety audits and inspections must carried out. 6. Deficiencies must be corrected promptly, by modification, changing procedures, improved training and/or consistent and constructive disciplining. 7. All unsafe practices, incidents and injury accidents will be investigated. 8. Safety away from work is as important as safety at work. 9. Accident prevention is cost-effective; the highest cost is human suffering. 10. People are the most critical element in the safety and health programme. Employees must be actively involved, and complement management responsibility by making suggestions for improvements.
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