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									                      Organizational Development

Q1. Define OD and enlist its important characteristics.

Ans. The literature contains several definitions of OD, to quote a few:

     OD is a response to change, a complex educational strategy intended to change
      the beliefs, attitudes, values and structure of organization so they can better adopt
      new technologies, markets and challenges, and the dizzying rate of change itself
     ( Bennis, 1969).
    OD is planned process of change in an organization‘s culture through the
      utilization of behavioral science, technology, research and theory. ( Burke 1982)
    Organizational Development is an effort (1)planned,(2) organizational wide, (3)
      managed from the top, (4) to increase organization effectiveness and health
      through (5) planned interventions in the organization‘s processes, using
      behavioral science knowledge. (Beckhard,1969)

   Let us examine this definition:

   1. It is a planned change effort. An OD program involves a systematic diagnosis of
      the organization, the development of strategic plan for improvement, and the
      mobilization of resources to carry out the effort.
   2. It involves the total system. An organization development effort is related to a
      total organization change in the culture and the reward system or the total
      managerial strategy.
   3. It is managed from the top. In an OD effort the top management of the system has
      personal investment in the program and it‘s outcomes. They actively participates
      in the management of the effort. This does not mean that they must participate in
      the same activities as others, but it does that they must have both knowledge and
      commitment to the goals of the programs and must actively support the methods
      used to achieve goals.
   4. It is designed to increase organization effectiveness and health.

Another Classic definition Offered by French And BELL:

Organizational development is a long range effort to improve an organization‘s problem
solving and renewal processes, particularly through a more effective and collaborative
management of organization‘s culture-with special emphasis on the culture of formal
work teams – with the assistance of a change agent, or catalyst, and the use of the theory
and technology of applied behavioral science, including action research.

Porras and Robertson state: OD is a practical application of the science of organization.
Drawing from several discipline for its models, strategies and techniques, OD focuses on
the planned change of human systems and contributes to organization science through the
knowledge gained from its studies of complex change dynamics.



                                       Page 1 of 35
To summarize, here are primary the distinguishing characteristics of OD:

   1. OD focuses on culture and processes.

   2. Specifically, OC encourages collaboration between organization leaders and
      members managing culture and processes.

   3. Teams of all kind is particularly important for task accomplishment and is targets
      for OD activities.

   4. OD focuses on the human and social side of the organization primarily, and in so
      doing also intervenes in the technological and structural sides.

   5. OD focuses on total system change and views organization as complex social
      system.

   6. OD relies on an action research model with extensive participation by client
      system members.

   7. OD takes a developmental view that seeks the betterment both individuals and
      organizational attempting to create WIN WIN solutions.

   8. OD practitioners are facilitators, collaborators, and co learners with the client
      system.




                                      Page 2 of 35
   Q2. Write brief note on the following:

   a. Change Management models.
   Ans. Models and theories of planned change- OC is planned change in an
   organizational context. The development models of planned change facilitated the
   development of OD. The work of the pioneering social psychologist Kurt Lewin was
   instrumental in this approach. Kurt Lewin introduced the idea about changed process.

   Stage 1: Unfreezing : creating motivation and readiness to change through
              a. Disconfirmation or lack of confirmation.
              b. Creation of guilt or anxiety
              c. Provision of psychological safety.

   Stage 2: Changing through Cognitive restructuring: Helping the Client to see things,
            judge things, feel things and react to things differently based on a new point
            of view obtained through
              a. Identifying with a new role model, mentor etc.
              b. Scanning the environment for new relevant information.

    Stage 3: Refreezing: Helping the client to integrate the new point of view into
              a. The total personality and self concept
              b. Significant Relationship
 Lewin‘s three stage model is a powerful cognitive tool for understanding change
situations.

   1. Unfreezing – The first task is to make the people aware of the need for change. A
      climate of openness and trust is developed so that the group is ready for change.
   2. Moving- using the survey feedback method, the group makes a diagnosis of
      where it is and develops action plans where it wants to go.
   3. Refreezing- Once the plans have been carried out and an evaluation has been
      made, the group starts to stabilize into more effective performance.

2b. Empowerment:
Ans. One of the most important foundations of OD is its use of a participation and
empowerment model. The participation in OD programs is not restricted to the top
people; it is extended broadly through out the organization. Increased participation and
empowerment have always been central goals and core values of the field.

To empower is to give some one power. This is done by giving individuals the authority
to participate, to make decisions, to contribute their ideas, to exert influence, and to be
responsible. That is why participation is such an effective form of empowerment.
Participation enhances empowerment, and empowerment in turn enhances performance
and individual well-being.
OD interventions are deliberately designed to increase involvement and participation by
organization leaders and members. For example, autonomous work groups, quality
circles, team building, survey feedback, quality of work life programs and opportunities.
OD interventions are basically methods for increasing participation. The entire field of
OD is about empowerment.

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2c. Internal and External Change Agents:
Ans.

                           Advantages                   Disadvantages
External Agent                Credibility as an            Perceived as an
                                Expert                        outsider
                              No negative history          Lacks knowledge of
                                with               the        organization and it‘s
                                organization.                 way of life
                              Objective outsider           Often has limited
                              Wide        experience         availability of time.
                                and           diverse
                                knowledge.
Internal Agent                Credibility as an            Often not perceived
                                insider                       as an OD expert.
                              Knows               the      May have negative
                                organization, people          organizational
                                culture etc.                  history.
                              Personal                     May have limited
                                relationship                  OD experience.
                              Availability          is     May                lack
                                ensured all the time.         objectivity.




                                  Page 4 of 35
2d. System theory.
Ans. System theory is the second foundation of OD, this theory views organization as
open system in active exchange with their surrounding environments.

Every system has a boundary that separates it from its environment. The boundary draws
the line between system and environment. What is inside the boundary is the system and
what is outside the boundary is the environment.

Open systems have purposes and goals, the reason for their existence. It is important to
note that these purposes must align with purpose or needs in the environment for example
the organization‘s purpose will be reflected in its outputs and if the environment does not
want the outputs, the organization will cease to exist.
 A System in Interaction with its environment.

Open system thinking is the most required aspect for creating learning organization.
According to Peter Senge, learning organization is able to cope effectively with rapidly
changing environmental demands. Senge believes five discipline must be mastered in
order to create a learning organization: personal mastery, mental model, building shared
vision, team learning, and system thinking, of all these discipline, the fifth discipline,
system thinking is the most important.

System theory has contributed in many ways in the theory and practice of OD:

      Issues, events, forces and incidents are not viewed as isolated phenomenon but are
       seen in relation to other issues, events and forces.
      A system approach encourages analysis of events in terms of multiple causation
       rather than single causation.
      One cannot change one part of a system without influencing other parts in some
       ways.
      According to field theory ( Kurt Lewin), the forces in the field at the time of the
       event re the relevant forces for analysis. This idea helps the OD practioner to
       analyze the events in the light of the similar kind of historical events.
      Anyone wants to change a system, the system has to be changed not just its
       component parts.




                                       Page 5 of 35
Q3. What are effective teams? Explain in details the OD interventions that help
clarify the roles in the teams.

Ans. Effective Teams:
For individual to function effectively, frequently, aprerequisite is that the team must
be effective.

Characteristics of effective Teams

1. There is a clear unity of purpose.
   There was free discussion of the objectives until members could commit
   themselves to them, the objectives are meaningful to each group member.

2. The group is elf-conscious about its own operations.
   The group has taken time to explicitly discuss group process- how the group will
   function to achieve its objectives, the group has a clear, explicit and mutually
   agreed upon approach: mechanics, norms, expectations, rules etc. frequently, it
   will stop to examine how well it is doing or what may be interfering with its
   operation. Whatever the problem may be, it gets open discussion and a solution
   found.

3. The group had set clear and demanding performance goals for itself and has
   translates thee performances goals into well-defined concrete milestones against
   which it measures itself. The group defines and achieves a continuous series of
   ―small wins‖ along the way to larger goals.

4. The atmosphere tends to be informal, comfortable, relaxed.
   There are no obvious tensions, a working atmosphere in which people are
   involving and interested.

5. there is a lot of discussion in which virtually everyone participates, but it remains
   pertinent to the purpose of the group. If discussion gets off track, someone will
   bring it back in short order. The members listen to each other. Every idea is given
   a hearing. People are not afraid of being foolish by outing forth a creative thought
   even if it seems extreme.

6. People are free in expressing their feeling as well as their ideas. This is critical if
   the team members have to work in a congenial and fearless environment.

7. There is disagreement and this is viewed as good.
   Disagreements are not suppressed or overridden by premature group action. The
   reasons are carefully examined, and the group seeks to resolve thm rather than
   dominate the dissenter. Dissenters are not trying to dominate the group they have
   a genuine differences of opinion. If there are basic disagreements that cannot be
   resolved, the group figures out a way to live with them without letting them block
   its efforts.



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8. Most decisions are made at a point where there is general agreement.
   However, those who disagree with the general agreement of the group do not
   keep their opposition private and let an apparent consensus mask their
   disagreement. The group does not accept a simple by each group member.

9. Each individual carries his or her own weight, meeting or exceeding the
   expectations of other group members. Each individual is respectful of the
   mechanics of the group: arriving on time, coming to meetings prepared,
   completing agreed upon tasks on time, etc. When action is taken , clear
   assignments are made (who-what-when) and willingly accepted and completes by
   each group member.

10. Criticism is frequent, frank and relatively comfortable.
    The criticism has a constructive flavour-oriented towards removing an obstacle
    that faces the group.

11. The leadership of the group shifts from time to time. The issue is not who
    controls, but how to get the job done.




                                 Page 7 of 35
Q4. “ Operating in Political environment is a difficult proposition for a successful
OD program” Suggest various strategies to be adopted by the OD Consultant for
maximizing chances of success of an OD program in a political active organization.

Ans. Diagnosing Political Power in Organizations

 When an internal or external consultant enters an organizational setting, knowing who
has power and source of that power increase the probability of a successful intervention.
At the same, time the probability of success is increased by the consultant‘s accurate
assessment of his or her own power.

The following points provides some guidelines to the consultants for evaluating their own
levels of influence:

Although OD practitioners can use a variety of tactics to increase their power with the
organizational settings, the process of personal power enhancement will be more
effective if the consultant understand the existing power relationships with the
organization. One way to understand the power dynamics is to perform a political
diagnosis, just as conducting an issues diagnosis to identify problem areas.

At the levels of the individual, there are at least three diagnostic approaches for assessing
power.

Position Analysis focuses on jobs and responsibilities of an individual with the
organization . starting with organizational chart, the OD practitioner makes an estimate of
the personal power of key individuals. In addition, he or she attempts to determine the
linkages of the individuals in question with people outside the organization. A person
who represents the company to a regulatory body, for example, and has access to
powerful people outside the company, is likely to have considerable power within the
organization.

Reputational Analysis is based on the idea that powerful people are known to others,
and one way to guage power is to ask about an individual‘s reputation. Although this
could be subjective method, view of people who hold power, this provides more
information than studying an organizational chart. More than one person can be asked to
improve the reliability of reputional analysis.

Decision Analysis attempts to identify people who have directly influenced decisions on
organizational issues. Although members of complex organizations make hundreds of
decisions daily, only a few decisions are really important in terms of power and politics.
Typical important decisions revolve around issues like budgets, reorganization and key
personnel decisions. In studying the decision process, informal decision makers-like
those who provide information to decision making process also need to be considered.




                                       Page 8 of 35
Power Tactics

Many researches have studied the tactics individuals use to become powerful in
organizations. Some of the most common tactics include the following.
   1. Forming coalitions and alliances: As suggested above, this is probably the most
       common way to gain influence among the organizational members.
   2. Controlling access to individuals: Members who are able to control contact with
       higher executives typically become very influential with the organization. For this
       reason, secretaries and administrative assistants to senior managers often have
       power far beyond their position power.
   3. Controlling access to information and other resources: When people are
       dependent on others for access for information and nay other resource necessary
       to do their jobs, they are in a weak position. Again, people who hold positions of
       low status can gain considerable power by controlling access to critical
       information and resources. In general, people who control budgets are more
       powerful.
   4. Setting the Agenda: One of the easiest ways to be powerful is to make certain that
       issues that diminish personal influence never arise in the organization. Powerful
       people maintain their power by seeing that only certain issues are discussed. A
       powerful person may also determine the criteria by which his or her performance
       will be evaluated, what issues are raises in meetings, and who is invited to
       organizational events.
   5. Attacking others: Another way to become powerful is to find someone else to
       blame mistakes on. In highly political environments, depreciating the
       achievement of others is a common strategy for making oneself more powerful.
   6. Managing the impression one makes: This may involve becoming associated with
       organizational success and distanced from failures, associating with the ―right‖
       people, or managing the way one dresses, behaves and speaks. One tactics of
       impression management is to give appearance of being indispensable by
       becoming highly visible with the organization.

Successful use of power tactics alone will not, ofcourse, create a successful intervention.
OD practitioners must have an excellent command of intervention techniques as well as
the interpersonal skills and influence to have these techniques accepted by organizational
members. In most situations, however, acceptance is, atleast in part, apolitical process.




                                       Page 9 of 35
Q5. Write detailed notes on:
   a. Force Fields Analysis
   Ans. Force Field analysis is a device for understanding a problematic situation and
   planning corrective actions. This technique rests on several assumptions:
   a. the present state of things ( the current condition) is a quasi-stationary equilibrium
       representing a resultant in a field of opposing forces.
   b. A desired future state of affairs (the desired condition) can only be achieved by
       making an effort to move the current point of equilibrium to a desired point and
       stabilizing the equilibrium to that point.
   c. There are two types of forces, which act on this point at any time- The Enabling
       or Driving forces and Disabling or Restraining forces. Therefore, effort needs to
       be made to identify and then minimize the impact of restraining forces and
       maximize the impact of driving forces.

The Force Field Analysis involves the following steps:

Step 1: Decide upon a problem situation you are interested in improving, and carefully
and completely describe the current condition. What is the staus quo? What is the current
condition? Why do you want it to be changed?

Step2: Carefully and completely describe the desired condition. Where do you want to
be? What is the desired state of things?

Step 3: Identify the forces and factors operating in the current force field. Identity the
driving forces, which are pushing towards the desired state. Similarly, identify the
restraining forces, which are pushing away from the desired condition. This identification
of forces should be thorough and exhaustive so that the picture of why are things the way
they are becomes clear for future action.

Step 4: Examine the forces in detail in terms of their strengthen and weaknesses. Also
identify which ones are within control and which are beyond control and influences.

Step 5: Strategies for strengthening the driving forces and weakening the restraining
forces could include any or more of the following:

   a. Add more driving forces, remove the restraining forces or do both .
   b. Select several important adaptable restraining forces and develop action plans to
      remove them instead of just adding driving forces.
   c. Work towards gaining participants and co-operation from all the concerned.
      Remember that resistance is maximum from people who fear change for some
      reason or the other.

Step 6: Implement the action plans that should cause the desired condition to be
achieved.

Step 7: Describe what action plans must be taken to stabilize the desired condition and
implement those action plans. This is to reinforce the desired condition so that things do
not go back to the previous state.

                                      Page 10 of 35
5b. Quality of Work Life as an OD Intervention.
Ans. The term ―quality of work life‖ (QWL) was first introduced in 1972 during an
international labour relations conference. QWL received more attention after United
Auto Workers and General Motors initiated a QWL program for work reforms.

Robbins (1989) defined QWL as ―a process by which an organization responds to
employees needs by developing mechanisms to allow them to share fully in making the
decisions their design their lives at work‖

QWL has been well recognized as a multi-dimensional construct and it may not be
universal or eternal. The key concepts captured and discussed in the existing literature
include job security, better reward system, higher pay and opportunity for growth,
participative groups, and increased organizational productivity among others.

For the purpose of this study , QWL is defined as the favourable conditions and
environments of a workplace that support and promote employees satisfaction by
providing them with rewards, job security and growth opportunities.

Positive Effects of QWL : The basic objectives of an effective QWL program are
improved working conditions and greater organizational effectiveness. A win-win
situation may result if QWL is positively linked to business performance. Positive results
of QWL have been supported by a number of previous studies, including reduced
absentiseem, lower turnover, and improved job satisfaction. Not only does QWL
contributes to a company‘s ability to recruit quality people, but also it enhances a
company‘s competitiveness.

Common beliefs support the contention that QWL will positively nurture   a more
flexible, loyal and motivated work force which are essential in determining the
company‘s competitiveness.

Job Security and QWL: Out of many essential elements of QWL, job security has
become the most discussed issue in recent years. Firing workers, characterized as
downsizing reengineering, restructuring and other euphemisms, can counter the positive
results of QWL by creating fear of job insecurity. Although the rate of job losses has
slowed in recent years, many senior mangers still hold the belief that downsizing is
necessary in today‘s competitive market.
 Employees job satisfaction is at its slowest level in years, with only one in four
employees ― extremely satisfied‖ with their job.

Fear of JOB Insecurity: What may worry people the most is not the fact of joblessness
so much as the threat of it. For example, an analysis of workers surveys in the 1980s and
1990s, found only a slight decline in the proportion of this holding jobs for at least four
years. (Koretz,1996)
The new paradigm attempts to align the interests of the investor, manager and employee
stakeholders into win-win situation. The paradigm raises questions as to its feasibility and
as to whether a company can be profitable and satisfy the needs of the employee
stakeholders. The idea that corporate management could reconcile the social demands for
increased job security with with capitalism demands for profits and efficiencies has been

                                      Page 11 of 35
around for may years . Current trends between unions and management with the goal of
protecting jobs and pay by making their employers more profitable and competitive.

The term QWL has been applied to a wide variety of organization improvement efforts.
The common elements seem to be, as Goodman indicates, an ‗attempt to restructure
multiple dimensions of the organization‘ and to institute a mechanism which introduces
and sustain changes overtime.

Aspects of change mechanism are usually an increase in participation by employees in
shop floor decisions and an increase in problem solving between the union and
management.

At some General Motors plants, QWL projects have included some of the following
features.

           1.  Voluntary involvement on the part of employees
           2.  Union agreement with the process and participation in it.
           3.  Assurance of no loss of jobs as a result of the program
           4.  Training of employees in team problem solving
           5.  The use of quality circles where employees discuss problems affecting the
               performance of the plant and the work environment.
           6. Work team participation in forecasting, work planning and team leader
               and team member selection.
           7. Regular planned team meetings to discuss such matters as quality, safety,
               customer orders and schedules.
           8. Encouragement of skill development and job rotation within work teams.
           9. Skill training
           10. Responsiveness to employee concerns.

While the specifics vary from one QWL project to the other, both within a given
organization and between organizations, several features tend to be common. Theses
features include union involvement; a focus on work teams; problem solving sessions by
work teams in which the agenda may include productivity, quality, and safety problems;
autonomy in planning wok, the availability of skill training; and increased responsiveness
to employees by supervisors.




                                      Page 12 of 35
Q6. What is Grid OD? Explain in detail with the Leadership Grid diagram.
Ans. Grid Organization Development

One of the most structured and popular organization wise interventions programs in OD
is Grid OD, developed by psychologist Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (1964,1969)

This approach to OD emphasizes the importance of both helping managers become more
effective and systematically creating and ideal strategic model to guide organizational
planning and actions. This OD intervention uses a variety of specially designed
diagnostic instruments that enable individuals and groups to study their own behaviour
and identify areas that need improvement.

Grid and management Styles

Grid OD proposes those two fundamental dimensions of leader behaviour are essential
for understanding managerial effectiveness.
    a. Concern for people
    b. Concern for results

Concern for people refers to the consideration of social and interpersonal concern of
others, concern for results involves issues of quality, quantity and overall effectiveness of
work outputs.

The graphical presentation of the model illustrates the concept further.




                                       Page 13 of 35
The Leadership Grid above identifies five basic managerial styles.

      1.1 Impoverished Management: managers falling under this category are just
       going through their jobs without any real contributions. They are primarily
       concerned with keeping their jobs and are of little or no value in OD.
      9.1 Authority Compliance task Management : Emphasis is on results and hence
       creativity and initiative of the subordinates is likely to be stifled. Low concern for
       interpersonal relationships is also likely to result in low cohesion amongst the
       group members.
      1.9 Country Cub Management: the focus of the 1,9 managers is on creating work
       environments with pleasant social environment positive interpersonal
       relationships. They are primarily concerned with people and their feelings,
       attitudes and needs rather than results.
       5.5 Middle of the Road Management : these mangers have a moderate concern
       for people and results. They use this managerial style to balance employee morale
       with acceptable levels of work outputs. They try to resolve conflicts through
       accommodation and compromise.
      9.9 Team Management : The 9,9 manager demonstrate high concern for people
       and results and views these two dimensions of leadership as complementary
       rather than antagonistic. There is an attempt to integrate personal goals of the
       employees with the organizational goals through participative decision making.
       By developing work teams that utilize team members‘ contributions in an
       interdependent way, 9,9 managers simultaneously promote high morale and
       productivity.

One of the most important assumptions of Grid OD is that 9,9 management style is the
most effective approach for all managers in all the organization.

From an OD perspective, helping managers move to a 9,9 managerial style represent
critical component of organizational change process. However, for this to happen , it
must be preceded by a change in organization‘s culture.




                                      Page 14 of 35
7. Diagnosis is critical for success of any OD program. Explain using an appropriate
model.

Ans.

8. OD Consultant must be competent in more than one discipline for implementing
a successful OD program. What are the different competencies expected of the OD
Consultant.

Ans. Competencies of an OD Consultant to lead a change effort is more complex than
hiring a lawyer for legal consultation or an economist for financial forecasting. Unlike
other consultants, professional who will serve as OD Consultants need to have a broad
range of competencies that, unfortunately, do not come with prestigious academic or
business credentials alone. Hiring an unsuccessful OD Consultant is usually the result of
faulty selection and evaluation procedures. Organizations are much more likely to hire
the wrong kind of OD consultant if they fail to develop selection criteria unique to its
organization needs.

When the wrong consultant is hired, OD programs often fail to get started or stall midway
through the process.

The following is a comprehensive list of competencies for a successful OD Consultant.
To guide an OD intervention all the way to successful completion requires a special set
of knowledge, skills and abilities.

The categorization of these competencies actually depicts the stages in the Client
Consultant relationship throughout the OD effort.

Marketing
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      1. Be aware of systems wanting to change
                      2. Be known to those needing you
                      3. Match skills with potential client profile
                      4. Convey qualification in credible manner
                      5. Quickly grasp the nature of the system
                      6. Determine appropriate decision makers
                      7. Determine appropriate processes

Enrolling
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      8. Build trusting relationships
                      9. Present the theoretical foundation of change
                      10. Deal effectively with resistance
                      11. Help the client mange emotionally charged feelings

                                      Page 15 of 35
                       12. Collaboratively design the change process
                       13. Help the client trust the process


Contracting
                       14. Contract psychological for collaboration
                       15. Help the client reflect on motivation
                       16. Clarify outcomes
                       17. Build realistic expectations
                       18. conduct a mini-assessment
                       19. Identify the boundary of system to be changed
                       20. Articulate an initial change process to use
                       21. Explicate ethical boundaries
                       22. confirm commitment of resources
                       23. Identify critical success factors for the intervention.
                       24. clarify the role of consultant
                       25. Clarify the role of client
                       26. Begin to lay out an evaluation model

Mini assessment:
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      27. Further clarify real issues
                      28. Be aware of how one‘s biases influence interaction
                      29. Link change effort into ongoing organizational processes
                      30. Identify formal power
                      31. Identify informal power



Data gathering:
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      32. Determine an appropriate data collection process
                      33. Determine the type of data needed
                      34. Determine the amount of data needed
                      35. Utilize appropriate mix of methods to ensure efficiency
                      36. Utilize appropriate mix of methods to ensure validity
                      37. Utilize appropriate mix of methods to ensure objectivity
                      38. Utilize appropriate mix of data collection technology
                      39. Clarify boundaries for confidentiality
                      40. Select a process that will facilitate openness
                      41. Gather data to identify future states.

Diagnosis
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      42. Gather data to identify first steps of transition
                      43. Watch for deeper issues as data is gathered
                      44. Suspend judgment while gather data
                      45. Know when enough data has been gathered

                                       Page 16 of 35
                       46. Suppress judgment while gathering data.
                       47. Use statistical methods when appropriate
                       48. Recognize what is relevant
                       49. Know how data from different parts of the system impact each
                           other
                       50. Communicate implications of system theory
                       51. Continuously assess the issues as they surface.
                       52. Stay focused on the purpose of the consultancy
                       53. Utilize a solid conceptual framework based on research

Feedback
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      54. Prepare leadership for the truth
                      55. Involve participants so they begin to own the process
                      56. Synthesize the data gathers into them
                      57. Create a non-threatening atmosphere
                      58. Facilitate complex emotional patterns

Planning
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      59. Distill recommendations from the data
                      60. Focus action that generates high impact at lowest cost
                      61. Consider creative alternative
                      62. Mentally rehearse adverse consequences
                      63. Mentally rehearse potential gains

Participation
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      64. Facilitate a participative decision making process
                      65. Obtain direction from leadership
                      66. Obtain commitment from leadership
                      67. Co-create an implementation plan that is rooted in the data.
                      68. Co-create an implementation plan that is concrete
                      69. Co-create an implementation plan that is simple
                      70. Co-create an implementation plan that is clear
                      71. Co-create an implementation plan that logically sequences
                          activities
                      72. Co-create an implementation plan that is result oriented
                      73. Co-create an implementation plan that is measurable
                      74. Co-create an implementation plan that is rewarded

Intervention
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      75. Reduce dependency upon consultant
                      76. Instill responsibility for follow through
                      77. Intervene at the right depth
                      78. Pay attention to the timing of activities
                      79. Facilitate concurrent interventions

                                       Page 17 of 35
                      80. Help mange impact to related systems
                      81. Re-design intervention or mindfully respond to new dynamics.

Evaluation
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      82. Integrate research with theory and practice
                      83. Initiate ongoing feedback in client consultant relationship
                      84. Choose appropriate evaluation methods – that is, interviews,
                          instruments,     financial    sheets—to     collect    evaluation
                          information.
                      85. 36. Determine level of evaluation such as reaction, learning,
                          behavioral change, organizational impact, social impact.
                      86. ensure evaluation method is valid
                      87. Ensure evaluation is reliable
                      88. Ensure evaluation method is practical

Follow- up
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      89. Establish method to monitor change during the intervention
                      90. Establish method to monitor change after the intervention
                      91. Use information to reinforce positive change
                      92. Use information to correct negative change
                      93. Use information to take next steps
                      94. Link evaluation with expected outcomes.

Adoption
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      95. Transfer change skills to internal consultant so learning is
                          continuous
                      96. Maintain/increase change momentum
                      97. Link change process to daily life of system
                      98. Mobilize additional internal resources to support continued
                          change
                      99. Determine the parts of the organizational that warrant a special
                          focus of attention
                      100. Pay attention to movement back to old behaviours
                      101. Move more away from project driven change to strategy-
                          driven change
                      102. Be sure customers and stakeholders are satisfied with
                          intervention‘s results
                      103. Plan renewal/reunion events

Separation
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      104. recognize when separation is desirable
                      105. Process any left over relationship issues consultants and
                          client
                      106. Ensure that learning will continue

                                      Page 18 of 35
                     107.   Leave the client satisfied
                     108.   Plan for the post consultation contact.

Self-Awareness
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      109. Clarify personal values
                      110. Clarify personal boundaries
                      111. Manage personal biases
                      112. Manage personal defensiveness
                      113. Recognize when personal feelings have been aroused
                      114. Remain physically healthy while under stress
                      115. Resolve ethical issues with integrity
                      116. Avoid getting personal needs met at the expenses of the
                          client ( i.e financial ,emotional, sexual etc.)
                      117. work within the limits of your capabilities
                      118. Perform effectively in an atmosphere of ambiguity
                      119. Perform effectively in the midst of chaos

Interpersonal
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      120. Develop mutually trusting relationship with others
                      121. Solicit feedback from others about your impact on them
                      122. Energize others
                      123. Collaborate with internal/external OD professional
                      124. balance the needs of multiple relationships
                      125. Listens to others
                      126. Pay attention to the spontaneous and informal
                      127. Consistently maintain confidentiality
                      128. Interpersonally relate to others
                      129. Use humor effectively

Other
An effective organization development (OD) practitioner can…
                      130. Interpret cross-culture influences in a helpful manner
                      131. Handle diversity and diverse situations skillfully
                      132. Communicate directions clearly to large groups
                      133. Use the latest technology effectively
                      134. Use the internet effectively
                      135. Facilitate small group interventions (up to 70)
                      136. Facilitate large group interventions (70-2,000)
                      137. Apply the skills if international consultant
                      138. Demonstrate ability to conduct community development
                      139. Demonstrate ability to conduct community development
                      140. Function effectively as an internal consultant
                      141. Be aware of the influences of cultural dynamics on
                          interactions with others.



                                    Page 19 of 35
Q9. Write short notes on:

   a. Strategies to build trust between the OD consultant and the organizational
      members?

   Ans. Building Trust in Working Relationships- The key to success

   A satisfactory relationship between the change agent and the organizational members
   is critical to success of nay OD effort. A trusting relationship helps the consultant
   deal with the challenges bought by those who are uncomfortable or in disagreement
   with the change effort, and the consutants‘ style and values are the key factors in
   establishing trust and making relationships successful.
   1. Communication is the central element in building a trusting relationship between
   the OD consultant and organizational members. The goal of both, the consultant and
   client should be to develop a positive climate for trust and verbal communication
   provides a major influence on that development.

   2. Defensiveness is another barrier to a climate of trust. This attitude results from a
   person‘s perception that he or she is being unfairly evaluated or criticized. As a result,
   the person perception that he or she is being unfairly evaluated or criticized. As a
   result , the person defends his or her behaviour or position. Defensiveness behavoiur
   diminish the likelihood for open and frank communication, and they impair the
   development of trust. Supportive behaviours, on the other hand, communicate
   positive intent, and encourage the development of trust, OD consultants who focus
   on supportive behaviours are likely to experience less defensiveness from
   organizational members.

   The ideal OD Consultant

   From the perspective of a professional internal consultant, the ideal external
   consultant has the following qualities:

          Listen, but does not sell
          Fits into the organization and embraces it‘s mission and culture.
          Teaches the internal professional staff and helps them achieve independence.
          Provides good customers service
          Protects confidentiality
          Challenges assumptions
          Is a recognized expert
          Provides perspectives and objectivity
          Celebrate with internal staff.




                                      Page 20 of 35
9b. Ethical guidelines for OD professionals

Whenever professionals offer advice or intervene in the affairs of individuals, groups,
organizations or government agencies, questions arise concerning honesty, fairness and
conflict of interests.

Ethics refer to issues or practices that should influence the decision making process in
terms of ―doing the right thing‖. In other words, ethics reflect the morals- what is
considered right or wrong of a society or a culture.

As an OD professional, it is critical that some ethical guidelines are committed to and
followed religiously. The following are some of them: ( Source The OD Institute, 1994)

I. Responsibility to Self.
       A. Act with integrity; be authentic and true to self.
       B. Strive continually for self-knowledge and personal growth.
       C. Recognize personal needs and desires and, when they conflict with other
          responsibilities, seek all –win resolutions of those conflicts.
       D. Assert own economic and financial interest in ways that are fair and equitable
          to self as well as to clients and their stakeholders.

II. Responsibility for Professional Development and Competence
        A.     Accept responsibility for the consequences of acts and make reasonable
               efforts to ensure that services are properly used; terminate services if they
               are not properly used and do what he/she can to see that any abuses are
               corrected.

       B.      Strive to achieve and maintain a professional level of competence for both
               self and profession by developing the full range of own competence and
               by establishing collegial and cooperative relations with other OD
               professionals.

       C.      Recognize own personal needs and desires and deal with them responsibly
               in the performance of professional roles.

       D.      Practice within the limits of my competences, culture and experience in
               providing services and using techniques.

       E.      Practice in cultures different from own only with consultation from people
               native to or knowledge about those specific cultures

III. Responsibility to Clients and significant Others


                                      Page 21 of 35
       A.      Serve the long term well-being, interest and development of the client
               system and all its stake holders, even when the work being done has a
               short term focus.
       B.      Conduct any professional activity, program or relationship in ways that re
               honest, responsible, and appropriately open.
       C.      Establish mutual agreement on a contract covering services and
               remuneration.
       D.      Deal with conflicts constructively and avoid conflicts of interest as much
               as possible.
       E.      Define and protect the confidentiality of client-professional relationship.
       F.      Make public statements of all kinds accurately, including promotion and
               advertising, and give services as advertised.

IV. Responsibility to the Profession

       A.      Contribute to continuing professional development for self, other
               practitioners and the profession.
       B.      Promote the sharing of OD knowledge and skill.
       C.      Work with other OD professionals in ways that extremely what our
               profession says we stand for.
       D.      Work actively for ethical practice by individuals and organizations
               engaged in OD activities and in, case of questionable practice, use
               appropriate channels fro dealing with it.
       E.      Act in ways that bring credit to the OD profession and with due regards
               for colleagues in other professions.

V. Social Responsibility

       A.    Act with sensitivity to the fact that my recommendation and actions may
             alter the lives and well-being of people within client systems and the
             larger systems of which they are subsystem.
       B.    Act with awareness of the cultural filters which affect my view of the
             world, respect cultures different from my own and be sensitive to cross-
             cultural and multicultural differences and their implications.
       C.    Promote justice and serve the well being of all life on Earth.
       D. Recognize that accepting this Statement as a guide foe my behaviour involves
             holding myself to a standard that may be more exacting than the laws of
             any countries in which I practice, the guidelines of any professional
             associations to which I belong, or the expectations of any clients.


9c. Foundations of OD
Ans. Values, Assumptions and Beliefs in OD

The field of OD rests on a foundation of values and assumptions about people and
organizations. These beliefs help to define what OD is and guide its implementation.



                                       Page 22 of 35
Values have always been an integral part of OD package. OD values an assumption
developed from research and theory by behavioural scientist and from the experiences
and observations of practicing managers. OD values tend to be humanistic, optimistic and
democratic.

Humanistic values proclaimed the importance of the individual, respect the whole person,
treat people with respect and dignity, assume that everyone has intrinsic worth, view all
people as having the potential for growth and development. Optimistic values posit that
people are basically good, the progress is possible and desirable in human affairs, and the
rationality, reason and goodwill are the tools for making progress. Democratic value
asserts the sanctity of the individual, the right of people to be free from arbitrary misuse
of power, fair and equitable treatment for all and justice through the rule of law and due
process.

In a recent survey study, the top five values considered most important were:

                       1.   Increasing effectiveness and efficiency
                       2.   Creating openness in communication
                       3.   Empowering employees to act
                       4.   Enhancing productivity and
                       5.   Promoting organizational participation.

The knowledge base of OD is extensive and is constantly being upgraded. The most
important concept on which OD is constructed is as follows:

      Model & theories of planned change
      System theory
      Participation and empowerment
      Teams and team work
      Parallel learning structures
      A normative value for culture and changed
      Applied behavioural science
      Action research

Q10. Describe in detail the MBO approach to OD.

Ans. The MBO approach to OD

For an MBO program to be effective organization wide OD intervention, senior
management must support and actively participate in its implementation. It begins with
the top management providing clear statement of organizational purpose or mission so
that individual member can align their goals with critical organizational objectives. This
statement can then serve as a guide fro developing long range goals and strategic
planning. Departmental and individual goals can then be derived from organizational
goals. Based on extensive reviews of MBO programs, two researches have identified the
following factors for the success of MBO programs:

   a. Organizational commitment
                                       Page 23 of 35
   b. Mutual goals setting
   c. Frequent performance reviews
   d. Some degree of freedom in means for achieving individual goals.




Step1: Formulating Long Range Goals: Guided by the organization‘s mission statement,
senior management defines critical long term objectives and determine how available
resources will be used to accomplish these goals. This process then leads to strategic
planning activities which describe how the organization will cope with its changing
environment.

Step 2: developing Specific Objectives: In this step, broad organizational objectives are
translated into specific measurable outcomes with clearly stated timeframes. Although
organizational objectives may include areas such as profitability, market share, and
quality, all objectives must be stated in clear terms.

Step 3: Developing departmental objectives: Once organizational objectives are clearly
specified, each division or department must develop a set of specific goals that will
enable the organization to achieve its objectives. Again, these departmental goals must be
clearly stated in terms of measurable outcomes.



                                      Page 24 of 35
Step 4: Setting Group and Individual Goals: This step is focused on developing and
implementing group and individual level goals in a coordinated manner. This process
encourages vertical and horizontal communication in the organization since individual‘s
must clarify their roles and take responsibility for specific results. Individuals goal
setting is done in a collaborative manner and will include both, personal and professional
development objectives. Research indicates that individual goals produce the most
positive results when they are challenging and specific.

Step 5: Formulating and Implementing Action Plans: Although clearly stated goals
provide a precise description of desired outcome, action plans are needed to provide a
way of attaining goals. Action plans systematically identify the methods, activities and
resources required to accomplish objectives.

Step 6: Reviewing Goal Progress : Finally, mangers must review progress towards
achieving the goal by meeting with subordinates in a group or individually. During these
meetings, managers and subordinates discuss problems and difficulties involved in
completing the goals and evaluated individual performance based on degree to which
targeted goals were actually achieved. These meetings may also provide an opportunity
to review and modify goals that have become outdated or unobtainable. Once this
assessment is complete, the focus shifts from past performance to planning future goals
and action plans. Together, mangers and subordinates develop mutually agreed upon
goals and formulated a strategy to achieve them.

Although MBO is a widely used approach for enhancing organizational effectiveness, the
ways organizations use this intervention vary considerable. Companies such a as IBM
and Hewlett-Packard, for example, have made MBO an integral part of their cultures. In
general research on the effectiveness of MBO has produced mixed results. To some
degree, the success of an MBO intervention depends on the culture of the organization.

In keeping with the principles of OD, implementing and MBO program can be seen as an
opportunity for employee development-mangers can assist employees in setting
professional work, designing their work and participating in decision making. MBO
seems to work better in organizations having a consultative environment.




                                      Page 25 of 35
Q11. What are the different tactics adopted to gain power in organizations?

Ans. Power Tactics

Many researches have studied the tactics individuals use to become powerful in
organizations. Some of the most common tactics include the following.
   7. Forming coalitions and alliances: As suggested above, this is probably the most
       common way to gain influence among the organizational members.
   8. Controlling access to individuals: Members who are able to control contact with
       higher executives typically become very influential with the organization. For this
       reason, secretaries and administrative assistants to senior managers often have
       power far beyond their position power.
   9. Controlling access to information and other resources: When people are
       dependent on others for access for information and nay other resource necessary
       to do their jobs, they are in a weak position. Again, people who hold positions of
       low status can gain considerable power by controlling access to critical
       information and resources. In general, people who control budgets are more
       powerful.
   10. Setting the Agenda: One of the easiest ways to be powerful is to make certain that
       issues that diminish personal influence never arise in the organization. Powerful
       people maintain their power by seeing that only certain issues are discussed. A
       powerful person may also determine the criteria by which his or her performance
       will be evaluated, what issues are raises in meetings, and who is invited to
       organizational events.
   11. Attacking others: Another way to become powerful is to find someone else to
       blame mistakes on. In highly political environments, depreciating the
       achievement of others is a common strategy for making oneself more powerful.
   12. Managing the impression one makes: This may involve becoming associated with
       organizational success and distanced from failures, associating with the ―right‖
       people, or managing the way one dresses, behaves and speaks. One tactics of
       impression management is to give appearance of being indispensable by
       becoming highly visible with the organization.

Successful use of power tactics alone will not, ofcourse, create a successful intervention.
OD practitioners must have an excellent command of intervention techniques as well as
the interpersonal skills and influence to have these techniques accepted by organizational
members. In most situations, however, acceptance is, atleast in part, apolitical process.




                                      Page 26 of 35
Q12. Write short notes on :

 a. Appreciation Concerns Exercise
Ans. The Appreciation and concern Exercise

This intervention may be appropriate if interview data suggests that one of the
deficiencies in the interactions of members of a group is lack of expression of
appreciation, and that another deficiency is the avoidance of confronting concerns and
irritations.

This intervention can be carried out in many different ways. On a broad scale, the
following are the important aspects.

    1. The facilitator asks each member of the group to write down one to three
       appreciation for each member of the group.
    2. Each member is also asked to write down one or two minor irritations or concerns
       related to each person that may be interfering with communications, getting the
       work done effectively, and so on.
    3. Along with the assignment, the facilitator may make some suggestions, such as;
           a. You be the judge of which concerns to raise?
           b. Will be helpful to the relationship?
           c. Will it be helpful to the group?
           d. Can the person do anything about it?
           e. Would it be better to talk privately with the person?
On the positive side, sometimes raising concerns in a team setting can provide an
opportunity for others to validate what is being perceived or to provide another
perspective.

   b. Responsibility Charting
   Ans. In work teams, decisions are made, tasks are assigned, and individuals and
   small groups accomplish the tasks.

   This process is easily described on paper, but in reality, a decision to have someone
   do something is somewhat more complex than it appears because multiple factors are
   in fact involved in even the simplest task assignment.

   The person who does the work, one or more people who may approve or veto the
   work, and persons who may ―contribute‖ in some way to the work while not being
   responsible for it all play a part in given task. The issue is, who is to do what, with
   what kind of involvement by others?

   A technique called Responsibility Charting helps to clarify who is responsible for
   what on various decisions and actions. It is simple, relevant, and effective technique
   for improving team functioning.



                                     Page 27 of 35
The technique is defined as follows:

First is to construct a grid; the type of decision and classes of actions that need to be
taken in the total areas of work under discussion are listed along left-hand side of the
grid. The actors who might play some part in decision making on those issues are also
identified and listed across the top of the grid.

The process, then, is one of assigning a behavoiur to each of the actors opposite each
of the issues. There are four classes of behavours:

1. Responsibility (R) – the responsibility to initiate action to ensure that the decision
   is carried out.
2. Approval required, or the right to veto (A-V)- the particular item must be
   reviewed by the particular role incubement, and this person has the option of
   either vetoing or approving it.
3. Support (S) – providing logistical support and resources for the particular item.
4. Inform (I)- must be informed and, by inference, cannot influence.

A fifth behaviour ( or non- behaviour) is non involvement of a person with the
decision; this is indicated on the chart with a ‗-‗ (dash).

One type of responsibility chart is in the following figure.

Responsibility Charting is usually done in a work team context. Each decision or
action is discussed and responsibility is assigned.

Some guidelines to conduct this intervention more effectively are:

1. Assign responsibility to only one person. That person initiates and then is
   responsible and accountable for the action.
2. Avoid having too many people with an approval-veto function on an item. This
   will slow down task accomplishment or will negate it altogether.
3. If one person has approval-veto involvement on most decisions, that person could
   become a bottleneck for getting things done.
4. The assignment functions to persons at times becomes difficult. For example, a
   person may want A-V on an item, but not really need it; a person may not want S
   responsibility on an item but should have it; or two persons each want R on a
   particular item but only one can have it.
5. The support function is critical. A person with a support role has to expend
   resources or produce something that is then used by the person responsible for the
   action. This support role and its specific demands must be clarified and clearly
   assigned.




                                   Page 28 of 35
Responsibility Charting is an effective tool to clear up responsibility diffusion- the actual
lack of responsibility or supervision when too many people are given responsibility for
the same thing. For example, at one organization, many decisions had to be approved by
every manager up to the CEO. Each assumed that errors would be caught at the next or
previous level, and the CEO himself admitted that he didn‘t read the form, he just signed
them. Thus the organization wasted great deal of time, sent an impropriate message to it
employees, and ended. Up with less accountability than if people were given
responsibility for their own approvals.

A responsibility Charting session can quickly identify who is to do what on new
decisions as well as help top pinpoint reasons why old decisions are not being
accomplished as desired. Responsibility Charting is a good intervention to use to improve
the task performance or a work team.

Responsibility Charting

Actors
Decisions




R: Responsibility, A-V: Approval, S: Support, I : Inform




                                       Page 29 of 35
Q12c. Levels of Organizational Analysis.

Ansc. There are atleast three diagnostic approaches for assessing power.

Position Analysis focuses on jobs and responsibilities of an individual with the
organization . starting with organizational chart, the OD practitioner makes an estimate of
the personal power of key individuals. In addition, he or she attempts to determine the
linkages of the individuals in question with people outside the organization. A person
who represents the company to a regulatory body, for example, and has access to
powerful people outside the company, is likely to have considerable power within the
organization.

Reputational Analysis is based on the idea that powerful people are known to others,
and one way to guage power is to ask about an individual‘s reputation. Although this
could be subjective method, view of people who hold power, this provides more
information than studying an organizational chart. More than one person can be asked to
improve the reliability of reputional analysis.

Decision Analysis attempts to identify people who have directly influenced decisions on
organizational issues. Although members of complex organizations make hundreds of
decisions daily, only a few decisions are really important in terms of power and politics.
Typical important decisions revolve around issues like budgets, reorganization and key
personnel decisions. In studying the decision process, informal decision makers-like
those who provide information to decision making process also need to be considered.




                                      Page 30 of 35
Q13. Describe in detail the Principled Negotiation technique. What is the
application of this intervention.

Ans13. Principled Negotiations

Fisher, Ury and Patton described this intervention in the book ― Getting to Yes‖. The
following are the stages in this intervention.

   1. People: separate the people from the problem. People have different perceptions,
      feelings and data. These differences need to be clarified.
   2. Interests: Focus on interests, not positions. Positions lock the parties into an
      adversarial stance and obscure what their underlying interest really are.
   3. Options: Generate a variety of possibilities before deciding what to do. A number
      of options can provide flexibility in reaching an agreement, and options can be
      invented so that both parties gain.
   4. Criteria: Insist that the results be based on some objective standard. Discussions
      based on objective criteria tend to reduce the pressure and manipulating for
      dominance, and increase the likelihood that a resulting agreement will be percievd
      as fair.

   They also recommend four basic steps a facilitator can use in helping a group invent
   options:

   1. A description of the problem in terms of what‘s wrong and what the current
      symptoms appear to be.
   2. Analysis of the problem including sorting symptoms into categories and
      identifying barriers to resolving the problem.
   3. Approaches to solving the problem in terms of possible strategies and ―theoretical
      models‖.
   4. Action ideas; what might be done and what specific steps might be taken to deal
      with the problem.




                                    Page 31 of 35
Q14. Write short notes:-
  a. Inter group third party interventions.
  Ans. Intergroup Team building Interventions

   The goal of these activities is :

   1. To increase communication and interaction between groups.
   2. To reduce the amount of dysfunctional competition
   3. To replace a parochial independent point of view with an awareness of a necessity
      for interdependence of action, calling on the best efforts of both groups.

Generally, a significant amount of time and energy is spent in competition,
misunderstanding. Miscommunication and misperception cause the work groups to
become dysfunctional and counter productive in an organization.

OD methods provide ways to increase intergroup co-operation and communication as
described in the following interventions.

Blake, Shepard and Mouton designed the following intervention for situations where
relations between groups are strained or overtly hostile.

Step 1: The leaders of the two groups meet the consultant and agree to resolve the
difference, if any. They commit their time and energy towards the same.

Step 2: the intergroup interventions per se begin now. The two groups meet in separate
rooms and build two lists. In one list, they give their thoughts, attitudes, feelings and
perceptions of the other group- what the other group is like, what it does that gets in their
way and so on. In the second list, the group tries to predict what the other group is saying
about them in it‘s list- that is, they try to anticipate what the other group dislikes about
them, how the other group sees them and so on. Both groups build these two lists.

Step 3: Without discussion, both groups share these lists with one another in presence of
the consultant.

Step 4: The two groups return to their meeting places and discussion on what they have
learnt about themselves take place. Very often, they discover that many points are based
on misperceptions and miscommunications. ― the difference are not so huge as we had
imagined‖ is what come out of each group. After this, the next task is to prioritize issues
that still are unresolved.

Step 5: each group shares the list of resolved and unresolved issues and set priorities of
item that need immediate attention and which are important. ― Who will do what when‖
is agreed upon for most important items.

Step 6: As a follow up, a meeting is held between the leaders of these two groups to
ensure the act in items are being completed. This ensures that the intervention is taken
seriously and made useful.


                                       Page 32 of 35
b. Cross functional teams.
Ans. Cross Functional Teams

These are important forms of teams in OD context. OD approaches have great utility
in formation and functioning of these teams.

Cross functional teams comprise of individuals from varied functional background-
Marketing,HR,Finance,Operations,Systems etc. but who meet regularly to solve
problems or work on projects which require diverse expertise. Large companies in
India as well as other countries- Tata Motors, Reliance, Wipro, Motorola, Ford, #M,
GE use cross Functional teams to deliver high quality product and services to their
customers.

Teams can be very effective. It is almost impossible to open a business magazine
today without some guru exhorting the benefits of working in teams. In many
situations teams can achieve more than individuals working on their own.

In short, teams can be good, but they can also be bad. In the new organization teams
have a critical role to play. Work teams are used as the basic unit of organization.
Problem solving teams are used to improve the way the organization performs, and
management teams are used to develop strategy and to drive the changes. If the role
of team is to be positive, people must learn how to make them work effectively. What
do we mean by team effectiveness? A team can be considered to be effective if their
output is judged to meet or exceed the expectations of the people who receive the
output.

This is a question of the customer being right. If the team has been given some task to
perform, the people who have given them the task are the people who will judge
whether the result is satisfactory. Producing a quality output is not enough to judge
the effectiveness of the team. The second criteria is that the team should still be able
function effectively after they have completed their task. It should not be torn apart
by dissension.

This is not just a question of the members of the team still being on speaking terms. It
means that after the team has been disbanded, the people should have an enhanced
working relationship that benefits the organization.

Finally, effectiveness is judged by whether the team feels satisfied with its efforts. If
the team members are pleased with their efforts, if the experience has been a good
one, if time spent away from their normal work has been worth the effort, the team
has likely been effective.




                                   Page 33 of 35
Q15. What is Quality Circle? Explain the motivational Aspects of Quality Circle.

Ans. Quality Circles are largely a Japanese synthesis of American ideas pertaining to
statistical quality control and group dynamics.
The outcome of quality circle is currently popular nationally and internationally.
Many of these circles have failed because of negligence and lack of efforts. To be
successful, the quality circle requires management support and involvement.

What is Quality Circle?

This is a voluntary association of a group of persons working in same or similar type
of job at the same work area who meet regularly one hour a week during their normal
working time o discuss about their work related problems and arrive at a solution
which can be implemented by them without additional cost or at a marginal cost.

This group will ideally consists of 8 to 10 members but it should never be less than 5
or more than 15 in number because with less number of sufficient ideas may not
come up and more number in depth discussion will not be possible.

There is a strict discipline in both formation and working of the group.

Let us study the process of formation of the Quality Circle and the method of their
working.

Process of Group Formation: the total quality circle system has 4 stages of formation
starting from the group.

1. Steering Committee: This is an apex multidisciplinary group consisting of senior
   executives of production, maintenance and personal. Finance, HRD, Quality
   control etc. areas along with one or two senior level Trade Union Leaders. The
   total number of member should not exceed 15. The Chief Executive would
   normally be the chairman of the committee. This committee will decide the areas
   where Quality Circle programs should be stared. They will give broad guidelines
   to the circles and monitor the activities regularly. This is essential for two reasons.
a. Once the workers know that the top management is really serious about the
    circles, then will tend to take more interest, otherwise they may feel that it is yet
    another fad of the management.
b. Since company‘s time will be spent for Quality Circle, which in other words
    means some cost to the organization; the committee would like to ensure
    adequate return on investment. If the return will be favourable than it will be a
    great motivator to go for more quality circles.




                                   Page 34 of 35
2. Facilitators: He is a person who is elected by the steering Committee to co-
   ordinate and direct the activities of different quality circles in his area of
   responsibility. He has to be specially trained in QC methodology. An external
   Consultancy may be engaged to start without it would be desirable to have one in
   house person facilitator.

3. Leader : Initially to start the QC program the leader of the group will be selected
   b y the Facilitator with the approval of the steering committee. But once the QC
   get going there is no bar for the members to select their own leaders of the group
   in their day to day working should be the leader of the QC group also so that
   implementation part of the job will be easier.

4. Members: Voluntary membership of the circle would be called for after the
   facilitator has explained the philosophy of QC and the need to start such circles in
   that area of work. As mentioned earlier the members should be working in the
   same or similar type of job in the same area. If the members of the volunteers
   become too many, then more than one QC can be formed keeping in view of the
   ideal number as 8 to 10. this member will be specially trained in problem analysis
   and problem solving . thus the QC members will be carefully trained persons and
   not just a group of voluntary workers. The facilitator and the leaders will naturally
   see to it that the right type of volunteer is associated in the right type of QC.




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