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Enlightenment

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					England and the Stuart
Dynasty and the English
       Civil War
England/Parliament Limits the
Monarchy
   Ideas of the Age of Enlightenment clash
    with the ideas of the monarchy
   Absolute rulers in England were
    overthrown and Parliament gained power
Why does this matter now?

 Many  of the government reforms
 of this period contributed to the
 democratic tradition of the United
 States
The Stuart Dynasty begins
   Elizabeth I died
    childless, so her
    cousin James from
    Scotland became
    king = James I
James I - 1603-1625
   Believed in divine right,
   Absolute power = many fights with
    Parliament over $
   Was a Calvinist
   James I was best known for supporting the
    creation of the King James version of the
    Bible
Charles I – 1625 - 1649
   Son of James
   Also believed in
    divine right
   Often dissolved
    Parliament over
    battles for $$$
   Forced to sign the
    Petition of Right
    Petition of Right
   Parliament exchanged $ for Charles I signing the
    Petition of Right

   The Petition of Right had 4 points
   King cannot imprison subjects without due cause
   King could not get taxes without Parliament
   King could not house soldiers in civilian homes
   King could not impose martial law in peacetime
Charles I
   Charles dissolved Parliament for 8 years until
    he needed $ to fight Scotland

   Parliament tried to limit the king’s power =
    king arrested members = start of English
    Civil War
English Civil War 1642-1649
   Charles (Cavaliers) v Parliament (Roundheads)
English Civil War
   Oliver Cromwell led the
    Parliament forces and
    defeated Charles I

   He then executed Charles I =
    1st king executed

   Cromwell then created the
    Commonwealth of England
    and became a military dictator
The Commonwealth
                 Cromwell outlawed
                  sinful activities –
                  Puritan Morality

                 After Cromwell’s death,
                  England wanted the
                  king to come back =
                  Restoration = Charles
                  II takes over
Charles II/The Restoration –
1659 - 1685
   Charles II had to sign 1 thing

   Habeas Corpus = a person cannot be held
    in prison for opposing a king
Problem!!
   Charles II = no children =
    brother James II became
    king

   James II was Catholic and
    England was not

   Whig party did not want
    James and the Tories did
James - 1685-1688 II
   James is a devout Catholic
   His second marriage results in a Catholic son
    (future heir to the throne)
   Parliament fears future Catholicism and
    exiles James II
    James II – 1685-1688
   Parliament invites James’ daughter and husband to take
    the throne
   Called Glorious Revolution because of no bloodshed
   James’s daughter and her husband became king and
    queen = William and Mary
William and Mary/The Glorious
Revolution 1688-1703
   Parliament created the English Bill of
    Rights = limited royal power

   This turned England into a constitutional
    monarchy (laws limit the king’s power)

				
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posted:3/7/2011
language:English
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