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Children _ poverty

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									                                   NATIONAL POVERTY WHEEL

                                                                                                                                            SOUTH AFRICAN
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                                                                         R                                 2006                             CHILD GAUGE                                                                                                                              Children & poverty
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                                                                                                           About the South African Child Gauge                                                             About the map                                                                                                                        About the Children’s Institute                                                                                                                                                                      Data sources for provincial portraits and poverty wheel
                children not



                                                                                                           The South African Child Gauge is produced by the Children’s                                     This map is a companion to the South African Child Gauge 2006 and provides                                                           The Children’s Institute is a policy research institute aimed at




                                                                                              H E A LT H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Statistics South Africa (2006) General Household Survey 2005. Pretoria, Cape Town: StatsSA.




                                                                             clo se
                                                                             60% children
           e x p e r ie n c i ng


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Statistics South Africa (2005) General Household Survey 2004. Pretoria, Cape Town: StatsSA.
 FOOD


                                                                                                           Institute, University of Cape Town. This annual publication reports                             a provincial portrait of key child-centred socio-economic indicators. The                                                            contributing to policies, laws and interventions that promote equity
                hunger

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Department of Education (2005) Education statistics in South Africa at a glance in 2004. Pretoria: Department of Education.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Actuarial Society of South Africa (2005) ASSA2003 Aids and Demographic Model. Available www.assa.org.za.




                                                                                 t o cl i n i c
                                                                                                           on the situation of the country’s children to highlight the challenges                          data comes from the Children Count – Abantwana Babalulekile Project, which                                                           and realise the rights and improve the conditions of all children                                                                                                                                   • Department of Social Development (2005; 2006) SOCPEN database. Eligibility analysis by Debbie Budlender, Centre for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Actuarial Research, UCT, using Statistics South Africa (2005) General Household Survey 2004.
                                                                                                           related to the promotion and protection of their rights. The                                    uses selected indicators to track the realisation of children’s rights over time.                                                    in South Africa, through research, advocacy, education and technical
          78%




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Bradshaw D, Nannan N, Laubscher R, Groenewald P, Joubert J, Nojilana B, Norman R, Pieterse D & Schneider M (2004)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      South African National Burden of Disease Study 2000 – Estimates of Provincial Mortality. Cape Town: Medical Research
                                                                                                           theme of the 2006 edition is children and poverty.                                              The indicators, related commentary and technical definitions can be found                                                            support. For more information on the Institute, see www.ci.org.za                                                                                                                                     Council.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Labadarios D (ed) (1999) The National Food Consumption Survey (NFCS): Children aged 1 – 9 years, South Africa, 1999.




                                                                 en
                                     6%                              r                                                                                                                                     in the South African Child Gauge 2006. See the last panel for data sources.                                                          or phone +27 21 689 5404 or e-mail info@ci.org.za.
                                   9




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Pretoria: Department of Health.




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                            u c n d i i l d re n       34%              s
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                                                                      M
                                               ON             IN   CO                                          NORTH WEST PROVINCE:
                                                                                                               • Is home to 1.4 million children – 8% of South Africa’s child
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 GAUTENG PROVINCE:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • Has the smallest geographical area, but is home to more than                                                                                                                                                                                              OU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     SIN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    32
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        WAT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MOZAMBIQUE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         4%                     %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       H
                                                                                                                 population.                                                                                       2.6 million children – 15% of South Africa’s children.                                                                                                                                                                                                            8




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    This map was conceptualised and compiled by Lizette Berry, Katharine Hall, Annie Leatt, Double-Hugh Marera, Jo Monson, Jean Redpath, Maylene Shung-King and Charmaine Smith. Design by Jenny Young.
                                                                                                               • Slightly more than two-thirds (67%) of its children live in rural parts.                        • Has the country’s largest share (31%) of urban children – 96%




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             H E A LT H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     48%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           80%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    FOOD
ABOUT THE POVERTY WHEEL                                                                                        • 18% of its children live in informal housing and more than one-                                   of its children live in urban areas.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LIMPOPO PROVINCE:
The wheel is a legend for the provincial wheels on the map and also reflects the multi-                          quarter (27%) live in overcrowded households.                                                   • Nearly one in three children (30%) are informally housed and live                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • Is home to 14% of South Africa’s child population – over 2.6
dimensionality of poverty. When the subject of poverty is raised, many people think of                         • About one in four children (26%) of primary school-age attend                                     in overcrowded dwellings.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     9                                                                                                         million children.
income poverty or other types of material deprivation such as lack of food or clothes.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      UC 8 %                     %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ED
                                                                                                                 schools that are more than 30 minutes travel from their homes,                                  • 15% of secondary school-aged children travel more than                                                                                                                                                                                                                           17   E                                                                               • 88% of its children live in rural areas.
But children’s experiences of poverty are on many dimensions. Inadequate housing,                                and 36% of secondary school-aged children are in the same                                         30 minutes to reach school.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ATI                               OM
limited access to water and sanitation, and inability to get schooling are all dimensions                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ON                INC                                                                                  • A small proportion of its children live in informal housing (5%) or
                                                                                                                 situation.                                                                                      • Has an HIV-prevalence rate of 2.5% among children, and has                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              traditional dwellings (5%).
in the lives of children living in poverty. And there are many more.
                                                                                                               • Has the largest proportion of deaths due to lower respiratory                                     the second largest proportion of children receiving antiretroviral                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Over one-third (35%) of children of secondary school-age travel
Developing consensus on all the dimensions of poverty for children, and defining and
measuring exactly what they are, is important for monitoring and planning. It is
                                                                                                                 infections among children younger than five years: 8% of deaths
                                                                                                                 in boys and 9% of deaths in girls.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   treatment (39%).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 G   WAT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              LIMPOPO                                                                                                                      more than 30 minutes to attend school.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • A large proportion (86%) of eligible children receives the Child                                                                                                                                        IN
particularly important to define the minimum core – what no child should be without
                                                                                                               • 75% of eligible children receive the Child Support Grant.                                         Support Grant.                                                                                                                                                                                   O   US           90
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ER                                                                                                                                         • Has the second largest proportion of deaths due to diarrhoeal
– and then ensure that national policies and programmes meet this minimum core.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 9%        %                                                                                                                                                diseases in children younger than five years: 16% of deaths in




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6
Please note – only one indicator has been selected for each dimension on the poverty                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       boys and 17% of deaths in girls.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       H E A LT H
wheel. There are many other indicators which show whether children have access to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Has the highest take-up rate (90%) of the Child Support Grant.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               83%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    G                WAT




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             86%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   FOOD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            SIN                                ER
income, education, food, health, water and housing.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 OU                            65
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7%                         %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               H
INDICATOR DEFINITIONS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                UC 7 %
FOOD: Percentage of children (7 – 17) who never or seldom went hungry.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        H E A LT H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ED
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     57




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                58%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   E




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  75%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           FOOD
HOUSING: Percentage of children (0 – 17) in formal housing.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ATI                      OM
WATER: Percentage of children (0 – 17) with clean reliable water supply in their house or yard.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ON             INC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    G             WAT
HEALTH: Percentage of children who travel less than 30 minutes to reach the nearest clinic,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SIN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MPUMALANGA PROVINCE:
                                                                                                                  NAMIBIA                                                                                                                                                                             OU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ER                                                                      GAU-                                                                                  9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   UC 7 %                                   %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               SWAZILAND smallest proportions (7%) of children living in




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ED
using the means of transport household members usually use.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      91
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  9%                  %                                                                                                                                                                                            31         M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    E                             • Has one of the




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ATI
INCOME: Percentage of children (0 – 17) living in households with a total income of R1,200
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     NORTH                    7                                                                                                                                                                                          ON                         I     NCO                                              South Africa – that is 1.3 million children.
or more per month.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TENG




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   H E A LT H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         • 65% of its children live in rural areas.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           56%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    75%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             FOOD
EDUCATION: Percentage of children (0 – 17) attending an education facility.

For data sources, see the panel in the top right hand side.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WEST                                                                                                                                                                                    MPUMA-                                                                                                      • 12% of children are informally housed – however one in four
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (25%) children live in overcrowded households.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     UC 5 %                           %                                                                                                                                      LANGA                                                                                                       • More than one-third (35%) of secondary school-aged children




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ED
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 28            E
     FREE STATE PROVINCE:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ATI                              OM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 travel more than 30 minutes to reach school.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ON                     INC
     • Has the second smallest share (6%) of South Africa’s child population,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Has the second largest proportion of deaths due to HIV/AIDS in
       just over 1.1 million children.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     children younger than five years: 47% of deaths in boys and 50%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           of deaths in girls.
     • More than two-thirds (68%) of its child population live in urban areas.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      G             WAT                                  • 77% of eligible children receive the Child Support Grant – the
     • 6% of its children live in traditional dwellings, and another 19% live                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                SIN                              ER                           second lowest take-up rate among the provinces.
       in informal housing.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          OU                         47
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0%                     %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             5
     • 19% of its children of secondary school-age travel more than
       30 minutes to reach school.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              FREE STATE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           H E A LT H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     48%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                78%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        FOOD
     • Has the second highest HIV-prevalence rate among children (2.6%),
       and the second smallest proportion of children receiving antiretroviral
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  G        WAT
       treatment (25%).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     SIN                         ER                                                                                                                                                               9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    OU                    90                                                                                                                                                                        UC 6 %                                 %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ED
     • 82% of eligible children receive the Child Support Grant.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4%                 %                                                                                                                                                                                            31                    E




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            7                                                                                                                                                                                         ATI                                   OM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ON                    INC                                        KWAZULU-NATAL PROVINCE:




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        H E A LT H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ING   WAT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Has the largest share (21%) of children living in South Africa




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            73%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  78%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      FOOD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   OU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      S
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      62
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 LESOTHO                                                                       KWAZULU-                                                                                      – more than 3.8 million children.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           H




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Has the country’s second largest proportion (17%) of rural
     NORTHERN CAPE PROVINCE:
                                                                                                                                                 NORTHERN CAPE                                                                                                          H E A LT H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   UC 7 %                             %                                                                                                                                        NATAL                                                                                         children – 63% of its children live in rural sites.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ED
     • Has the smallest share (2%) of South Africa’s child population – just
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                76%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             81%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      FOOD




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    E
       over 337,000 children.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ATI                              OM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   • 13% of its children live in informal housing, while more than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ON                INC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               one-third (37%) live in traditional dwellings.
     • Three-quarters (75%) of its child population live in urban areas.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    9                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Nearly one in three children (30%) of primary school-age attend
     • A small proportion of its children live in informal housing (11%) and                                                                                                                                                   UC 5 %                      %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ED




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      40            E                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        schools that are more than 30 minutes travel from their homes,
       close to one-third (32%) of its children live in overcrowded dwellings.                                                                                                                                                   ATI                        OM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and 40% of secondary school-aged children are in the same
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ON               INC
     • 20% of secondary school-aged children attend schools that are                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         situation.
       more than 30 minutes from their homes.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Has the largest proportion of deaths due to HIV/AIDS in children
     • Has the second lowest death rate among children younger than five                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     younger than five years: 48% of deaths in boys and 52% of
       years – 68 children die out of every 1,000 born alive.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          IN            G   WAT                                                                                                                                                                                                 deaths in girls.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                O   US                   32
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ER
     • Has the largest increase in the take-up of the Child Support Grant                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   0%                %                                                                                                                                                                                            • 85% of eligible children receive the Child Support Grant, an




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4                                                                                                                                                                                                                    increase of 20% between mid-2005 and mid-2006.
       between mid-2005 and mid-2006, increasing from 65% to 89% over
       this period.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           H E A LT H
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   44%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      70%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               FOOD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                9
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         UC 6 %                               %




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ED
     WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              20            E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ATI                                 OM                                                                                                  EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE:                                                                                                             POORER
     • Has a fairly small child population – just over 1.5 million                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ON                        INC
                                                                                                                                                                                                           G      WAT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Is home to more than 3.1 million children – the second largest
       children (9%) of the country’s child population.                                                                                                                                                SIN                ER
                                                                                                                                                                                                OU               93                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  population (17%) of children in South Africa.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           5%
     • The majority of children live in urban areas (87%).                                                                                                                                                            %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     EASTERN CAPE
                                                                                                                                                                                            H




                                                                                                                                                                                                       7                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           • 77% of its children live in rural parts of the province.
     • Less than one-quarter (23%) of its children live in informal housing,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   H E A LT H




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   • 53% of its children live in traditional dwellings and 7% live in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             93%




       although close to one-third (32%) live in overcrowded dwellings.
                                                                                                                                                                                             81%
                                                                                                                                                                                      FOOD




     • 9% of secondary school-aged children travel more than 30 minutes
                                                                                                                                                     WESTERN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         informal housing.
       to reach school.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Nearly 50% of secondary school-aged children travel more than
     • Has the lowest HIV-prevalence rate among children (0.8%) and has
                                                                                                                                                      CAPE                                         9
                                                                                                                                                                                              UC 5 %                   %
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     30 minutes to reach school.
                                                                                                                                                                                        ED




                                                                                                                                                                                                                 64            E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   • Has the highest rate of death among children younger than
       the highest proportion of children receiving antiretroviral treatment                                                                                                                    ATI                     OM
       (61%).
                                                                                                                                                                                                    ON            INC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                five years in South Africa – 105 children die out of every
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1,000 born alive.
     • 71% of eligible children receive the Child Support Grant, the lowest
       take-up rate in the country.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • 87% of eligible children received the Child Support Grant in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     mid-2006, an increase of 20% from the previous year.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        RICHER




                                                                                                                                                                     Visit www.childrencount.ci.org.za for more data

								
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