John Adams Elimination of Ohio Income Tax by qde79354

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									                                                Where did they explore?           What impact did
SOL: VUS.2 & VUS.3
                                          Spanish – Caribbean, Central and     exploration have on the
                                                South America                    American Indians?
                                          English – present day United       Spanish – conflict over land
       Unit I Review Sheet                      States                       English – conflict over land
                                          French – present day Canada        French – cooperation

             New England            Middle              Southern             In general – disease, death,
                                                                                          loss of territory
 Colonies MA, RI,               NY, NJ, PA,        VA, NC,
 in Region CT, NH,              MD, DE             SC, GA,                   The English Come
                                                                             to the New World
 Reasons     Religious          Economic           Economic
 for         freedom &          opportunity &      opportunity
                                                                               Why was slavery
 settlemen   economic           religious
                                                                               introduced into the
             opportunity        freedom
 t                                                                             colonies?

 Politics    Covenant                              House of Burgesses          Growth of plantation
             community;                                                        economy required large,
             town meetings                                                     cheap labor supply –
                                                                               indentured servants were
 Economy     Shipbuilding,      Shipbuilding,      Plantations, cash           replaced by slaves (Middle
             fishing,           small farms,       crops (tobacco),            passage)
             lumbering,         trading            Indentured servants
                                                                               What impact did slavery
 Society     Puritans,          Tolerant,          Cavaliers; land             have on life in the
             religious status   middle-class,      ownership, ties to          colonies?
             intolerant of      Quakers,           England, Anglican
                                                                               Conflict between North and
             dissent            Catholics          church
                                                                               South & eventually lead to
                                                                               Civil War
   SOL: VUS.4 – Unit 2 Review Sheet
                                                                                                   Enlightenment Ideas of
                                                                                                         John Locke
                                                                                                   • All people are free, equal
                                                                                                   and have natural rights
          New Taxes to pay               Proclamation              French & Indian                 • There is a “social
          for war and troops to            of 1763                      War                        contract” between the
          protect the colonies                                                                     people and the
          – Stamp Act, Sugar             No settlement            Fought between the
                                                                                                   government.
          Act, tax on tea                 west of the             French and the
                                         Appalachian              English for control of
                                             Mts.                 the Ohio River valley
 Boston Tea Party
                                                                                                   Continental Congress – 1774
 Protest against                                                          Common                   All colonies send representatives;
 tea monopoly                                                             Sense                    first time the colonies acted together
                                                                          Thomas
                                                                          Paine,
                                                                          challenged
       Differences among colonists                                        British rule
                                                                                                                     Concord and
       Patriots          Neutrals         Loyalists                                                                  Lexington – war
                                                                                         Declaration of
       Wanted            Tried to stay    Remained                                                                   begins with
       independence,                                                                     Independence                skirmish between
                         uninvolved       loyal to
       Patrick Henry,                     Britain;                                                                   British troops and
       “Give me                                                                             Written by               minutemen.
       Liberty or give                    Believed                                          Thomas
       me Death”                          taxation was                                      Jefferson;
       George                             justified
       Washington
                                                                                            reflected Paine
                                                                                            and Locke’s
Why do the Americans win?                                                                   ideas

Diplomatic Factors                           Military Factors
Ben Franklin & Treaty with France            G. Washington; French army and navy
                                                                                     COLONIES ARE INDEPENDENT!
 SOL: VUS.5 – Unit 2 Review


  The Articles of Confederation                                  Problems with Articles
  Why established? Afraid of strong                              1. Weak national government
  central government (like Britain)
                                                                                                                 Constitutional
                                                                 2. Congress has no power to tax or               Convention
                                                                 regulate commerce
                                                                 3. No common currency
               Ratification                                      4. Each state gets one vote

     Federalists            Anti-federalists
                                                                 5. One Branch -- legislative         Key issues & Resolutions
                                                                 Shay’s Rebellion: showed weakness    States vs. Federal power:
•Strong national        •States should have
government that
shared power with
                        most of the power
                                                             Important People                         federal law is law of land; states
                        •Bill of Rights is                                                            have rights to govern themselves
the states              necessary                    James Madison: “Father of the
                                                                                                      Representation in Congress:
•Political factions                                  Constitution”, author of Virginia Plan,
will check each                                      took notes, lead debate                          Senate = representation
other
                                                     George Washington: chairman of the               House of Reps – proportional rep.
• Bill of Rights is                                  Convention, lent prestige to proceedings
unnecessary                                                                                           Slaves as population:
                                                                                                      3/5 of a white person
                                                                                                      Branches of government:
Creation of the Bill of Rights                                                                        Legislative, executive and judicial
                                                                                                      branches with checks and balances
First 10 Amendments; drafted by James Madison; He used
•Virginia Declaration of Rights (George Mason)
Basic human rights can not be violated by the government
•Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (Thomas Jefferson)
Outlawed the established Church – no gov’t support
    Political Developments                                                                           Expansion
                                                                               Manifest Destiny: America should stretch from Atlantic
  Washington & Adams                                                           to Pacific
  Election of 1800 – won by                                                    Louisiana Purchase: (1803) President Jefferson
  Thomas Jefferson, first peaceful                                             purchased from France, doubled the size of the U.S.
  transfer of power from one party                                             Lewis and Clark: explore the new territories that lay west
                 to another                                                    of the Mississippi River. Sacajawea served as their
                                                                               guide and translator.
                                                                               Monroe Doctrine: (1823) Europe can not have new
                                                        SOL: VUS.6             colonies in the western hemisphere, America will not
                                                                               interfere in Europe
                                                                               Texas Annexation: Americans in Texas revolt, battle of
                                                                               the Alamo, Texas joins the Union (1845)
                                                              Unit 3 Review    Mexican Cession: (1848) United States defeated
        Development of Political Parties                                       Mexico, acquired California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona,
                                                                               and parts of Colorado and New Mexico.
        Federalists               Democratic Republicans
•led by John Adams and          •led by Thomas Jefferson                                          Age of Jackson
Alexander Hamilton,             • believed in a weak
•believed in a strong                                                         •Expansion of democracy – don’t need to own property to
                                national government and
national government and                                                       vote; more men can vote
                                an agricultural economy.
industrial economy
                                •supported by farmers,                        •Aristocrat/Aristocracy: government in which power is
•supported by bankers           artisans, and frontier                        given to those believed to be best qualified
and business interests in       settlers in the South.
the Northeast.                                                                •Election of 1828 – first election with nominating
                                                                              conventions, more common people vote; Jackson elected
Supreme Court Decisions -- Chief Justice                                      •Spoils system : giving gov’t jobs to political supporters
John Marshall of Virginia
                                                                              •presidential veto: President can stop passage of acts
Marbury v. Madison -- established the power of the
federal courts to declare laws unconstitutional (“judicial                    •Indian Removal/Trial of Tears: Indians forced to relocate
review”)                                                                      to reservations or across the Mississippi
                                                               War of 1812    •Bank of the United States – Jackson vetoed the re-charter,
McCulloch v. Maryland prohibited the states from taxing
agencies of the federal government (“the power to tax is                      thought Bank was a tool of the rich, BUS failed
the power to destroy”)                                                        •Panic of 1837 -- economic depression after BUS failed
First Industrial Revolution                                       Economic Differences
Railroads and Canals -- helped the
growth of an industrial economy and                             NORTH                        SOUTH
supported the westward movement
of settlers.                                                                           Cotton Kingdom
                                                                                       •developed an agricultural
Eli Whitney – invented cotton gin;                  •developed an                      economy
led to the spread of the slavery-                   industrial economy                          • slavery-based system
based “cotton kingdom”                              based on                                    of plantations in the          Slavery
                                                    manufacturing                               lowlands
                                                    • favored high
      Women’s Suffrage                              protective tariffs
                                                                                                •small subsistence
                                                                                                farmers in
 •Seneca Falls Declaration – (1848)                                                             Appalachian Mts.
 All men AND WOMEN are                                                                 • strongly opposed high
 created equal.                                                                        tariffs,
 •Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B.
 Anthony – worked for women’s
 rights before and after the Civil
 War
                                                                         Compromise and Conflict over Slavery
                                                                         •Missouri Compromise: (1820) Missouri becomes a slave state, all
                                                                         future states north of 36-30 will be free, those south will be slave
                                                                         •Compromise of 1850: California entered as a free state, new
                                      Slave Revolts                      territories acquired from Mexico would decide on their own.
                    •Nat Turner & Gabriel Prosser -- fed white
                                                                         •Kansas-Nebraska Act: gave people in Kansas and Nebraska the
                    Southern fears about slave rebellions and led to
                                                                         choice whether to allow slavery in their states (“popular
                    harsh laws in the South against fugitive slaves.
                                                                         sovereignty”). Result = “Bleeding Kansas”
                                      Abolitionists                      •Creation of the Republican Party: opposed the spread of slavery.
                    Grew stronger in the North                           •Dred Scott Decision: (1857) Supreme Court overturned efforts to
                                                                         limit the spread of slavery
                    •Harriet Beecher Stowe: Uncle Tom’s Cabin
                                                                         •Lincoln – Douglas Debates: (1858) debates over U.S. Senate seat
                    •William Lloyd Garrison: The Liberator
                                                                         in Illinois; Lincoln opposed the spread of slavery into new states;
                                                                         Douglas stood for “popular sovereignty.”
 Election of 1860                     Secession several                           First Shots
                                      Southern states seceded in
 winner: Abraham Lincoln                                                          April 1861 – Fort
                                      protest to Lincoln’s election
                                                                                  Sumter, SC
                                                                                  Opening confrontation
SOL: VUS.7 Unit 4 Review                                                          of the war



                                Major Events                                                  Key Leaders
   Appomatox
                                •Battle of Antietam – (1862) early                            •Abraham Lincoln – President of the
   Courthouse                   Union victory, which lead to:                                 United States during the Civil War, insisted
                                                                                              that the Union be held together
   April 1865 – Lee             •Emancipation Proclamation– (1863)
   surrendered to Grant         all slaves in areas in rebellion are freed; end               •Ulysses S. Grant -- Union military
                                of slavery is a northern aim                                  commander, won victories over the South

                                •Battle of Gettysburg – (1863) turning                        •Robert E. Lee -- Confederate general of
                                point in the war                                              the Army of Northern Virginia; opposed
                                                                                              secession,
                                •Gettysburg Address – United States is                        •Frederick Douglass -- Former slave &
                                one nation; Civil War is a struggle to restore                abolitionist; urged Lincoln to recruit former
                                it                                                            slaves
   Reconstruction
   •Lincoln’s Ideas –              Changes to the Constitution                                    End of Reconstruction
   Southern states had never                                                                   Compromise of 1877 – Hayes/Tilden election
                                   •13th Amendment: slavery is abolished
   seceded; reconstruction
   should be lenient               •14th Amendment: – States were                          Economic and Social Impact
   •Assassination of               prohibited from denying equal rights under the          •North and Mid-west: became strong and
                                   law to any American.                                    industrial; lead economic growth of US
   Lincoln (April 1865)
                                   •15th Amendment: all male citizens can                  •South – development of Jim Crow Laws;
   •Congress’s Ideas –             vote, regardless of “race, color, or previous           devastated by the war. Farms, railroads, cities,
   Radical Republicans take        condition of servitude” (former slaves).                and factories destroyed; remained poor,
   over; want to punish the                                                                agriculture-based economy
   South and civil rights for
                                                                                           •West – transcontinental railroad brings many
   blacks                                                                                  settlers west of the Mississippi
      SOL: VUS.8a,b
                                                               IMMIGRATION AND                                Old         New
                                     Unit 5 Review               CITY GROWTH                                Pre-1871   1871 to 1921

                                                          Many Immigrants come to America              northern &      southern &
       INDUSTRIALIZATION                                  looking for better lives.                    western         eastern
                                                                                                       Europe          Europe and
   Technological change spurred                                             Immigrants                                 Asia
   growth of industry primarily in                                          contributed to
   northern cities.                                                         industrial growth
                                                                             • Railroads – Chinese
  Factors leading to Industrial growth:
                                                                             • Factories – textile and steel mills,
  Natural Resources          Government Policies        Cheap Labor
                                                                             • Coal Mining – Slavs, Italians, Poles
                                                                                       The Immigrant Experience
    Inventions & Inventors                 Corporate Leaders                Ellis Island – Statue of Liberty, ethnic neighborhoods
Corporation: limited liability            Laissez-faire policies &          “melting pot” – assimilating into American culture,
                                                                            speak English, public schools
• Steel – Bessemer process                land grants to railroads
                                                                            Nativism – fear and resentment of immigrants,
• Electricity – Thomas Edison, the        Carnegie – steel                  willing to work for low wages & bad conditions
light bulb & power
                                          Rockefeller – oil                 Limiting Immigration
• Telephone – Alexander G. Bell
                                          Morgan – banking                  •Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
• Airplane – Wright Brothers                                                •Immigration Restriction Act of 1921
• Assembly line – Henry Ford              Vanderbilt – railroads
                                                                                                       City Growth
                     Railroad                                                            New Industrial cities: Chicago, Detroit,
                                                                                         Cleveland, Pittsburgh, and New York;
                                                   • Cowboys: took cattle on the         manufacturing and transportation centers
  WESTWARD EXPANSION                               “long drive” to market
                                                                                         Advantages of the cities: jobs; NYC
Intensified movement of settlers                   • Farmers: Homestead Act              built the 1st subway
into the region between the                        (1862) – free land; former slaves
                                                   & Southerners; mechanical reaper      Problems of the cities: housing
Mississippi River and the Pacific                                                        shortages, slums, tenements, sewage,
Ocean.                                             • New states enter the union          water, public transportation
        SOL: VUS.8c,d                          Unit 6 Review
                                                                                 What is it? The Progressive Movement:
                                                                                       used government to reform problems
                                                                                       created by industrialization.
                                                           Goal   # 2: Guaranteed economic opportunities through government
            Who is Involved?
                                                                  regulation
            Theodore Roosevelt: “Square Deal”
                                                             Working                   Impact of labor unions                Gains
            Woodrow Wilson: “New Freedom”                  conditions for
                                                               labor
            Muckrakers: writing about the problems
            of industrialization                          dangerous, long         Organizations                        •Limited work
                                                          hours, low wages,       • Knights of Labor                   hours
What do the Progressives do?                              no job security, no     • American Federation of Labor       •Regulated
 Goal # 1: Government controlled by the People            benefits, company       (Gompers)                            working
                                                          towns                   • American Railway Union (Debs)      conditions
Level of          Progressive                                                     • International Ladies’ Garment      •Sherman Anti-
Government        accomplishments                                                 Workers Union                        trust Act (outlaws
                                                                                  Strikes                              monopolies)
Local             City manager & council                                          • Haymarket Square                   •Clayton Anti-
                  system                                                          •Homestead Strike                    trust Act (unions
State             referendum, recall, initiative                                  •Pullman Strike                      legal)
                                                          Child labor             The Bitter Cry of the Children       Child labor laws
Elections         primary election, secret
                  ballot, direct election of
                  senators (17th )                                              Different Ideas
                                                                                                Booker T.           W.E.B. Du Bois
                                                   African Americans                           Washington
Goal # 3: Elimination of Social injustice          •Jim Crow – laws that set up           • believed in              • believed
                                                   segregation                            equality through           education was
Women’s suffrage (right to vote)                   • Plessy v. Ferguson –                 vocational                 meaningless
• Had strong leaders like Susan B. Anthony         Supreme Court said                     education and              without equality
• Women were encouraged to go to work              “Separate but equal” is ok             economic success
during World War I                                                                                                   •supported political
• Eventually resulted in 19th                      • Ida B. Wells – fought                • accepted social          equality
Amendment to the Constitution                      against lynching                       separation                 • helped form the
                                                   • Great Migration – many                                          NAACP
                                                   African-Americans move to
                                                   Northern cities
                                                    SOL: VUS.9a, b               Unit 6 Review




                                                    United States has a new role in the world
                                                       International             Latin America                 Pacific
                                                          Markets
                                                    Open Door Policy          Spanish American           Hawaii – US settlers
                                                    – John Hay; all           War (1898)
                                                                                                         overthrew monarch;
                                                    nations have equal        • Puerto Rico – US
                                                    trade rights with         annexed                    US annexed Hawaii
                                                    China                     • Cuba – US can
                                                                              intervene
                                                                                                         Philippines – US
                                                    Dollar Diplomacy                                     annexed after
                                                    – Taft; invest in Latin   Panama Canal – T.
                                                                              Roosevelt                  Spanish American
                                                    America; govt. will       encouraged a revolt,
                                 1914 –             protect investments                                  War
                                                                              got treaty to build
     Allies       Central        assassination of                             canal
 Britain        Germany          Franz Ferdinand
                                                                 Versailles
 France         Austria –                                         Peace
                Hungary                                                                                     US reaction to
 Russia                                                         Conference              Treaty of
                                   World War I                                          Versailles          the Treaty:
 United States is: neutral                                         1919
                                                                                        French &            • disliked
                                                    Fourteen Points                     English punish      League, fear of
But then:                                                                               Germany             involvement in
                                                    • Wilson’s plan to                                      future wars
1.      Germany’s unrestricted                      eliminate the causes of             League of
       submarine war fare                 Germany   war                                 Nations             •Senate did not
                                          loses                                         created             ratify treaty
2.     Economic ties to Great Britain               • self-determination
                                                                                        New national
1917 – United States enters the war:                • freedom of the seas               boundaries &
                                                                                        nations
     “To make                 US sends: soldiers,   • League of Nations
     the world                war materials         • mandate system
     safe for                 and food
     democracy”
                                                        SOL: VUS. 9c



Causes of the Great Depression:                                                                          Impact of the Great Depression
                                                   Depression Economy
1.      Over speculation on stocks                                                                       • unemployment and homelessness
        with borrowed money                        Unemployment            less money to spend
                                                                                                         • bank failures and collapse of
2.       Federal Reserve restricted                                                                      financial system
        the money supply                            fire workers            people buy fewer goods       • political unrest (militant labor
3.       High tariffs create                                                                             unions)
        unbalanced foreign trade
                                                           companies have less profit                    • farm foreclosures and migration
        (Hawley—Smoot)
                                                                                                         • unemployment = one in four
                                                                                                         workers



                     New Deal Programs: Alphabet Agencies
              Goal                          Program                       What it did                Franklin Roosevelt becomes
                                                                                                     president (1933)
                                      Works Progress               Provides jobs and welfare
Relief – direct payment to            Administration (WPA)         to the unemployed                 “We have nothing to fear but fear itself.”
people for immediate help
                                      Agricultural                 Raise crop prices by
Recovery – bring the nation           Adjustment Act (AAA)         reducing production                    Impact of the New Deal
out of depression over time
                                                                                                          Made the government more
                                      Federal Deposit              Insure money in banks to               involved in business, the economy,
Reform – correct unsound              Insurance Corporation
                                      (FDIC)
                                                                   prevent bank runs/failures             and everyday life
banking and investment practices                                                                          More active in solving problems
                                      Social Security              Open up jobs by allowing
                                                                   older worker to retire
SOL: VUS.10, 11                                           War in Europe & in Asia                    United States is officially
                                                                                                     neutral & many Americans
                                                    Europe                    Asia/Pacific
                                                                                                     are isolationist
                                            • September 1, 1939 –        •Japan attacks China        US begins to send war
                                            Germany invaded              and Manchuria                      supplies to Britain:
                                            Poland                       • US Refused to
                    Unit 7 Review                                                                    1.      Cash and Carry
                                            •Soviets invade Eastern      recognize conquests &
          Results of the war                Europe                       imposed an embargo on
                                                                                                     2.      Bases for Destroyers
 Soviets: control Eastern Europe; will      • Germany overran            oil and steel               3.      Lend-Lease
 led to COLD WAR                            France & western
 Germany: divided in East (controlled                                    • Japan attacks the
                                            Europe                       United States                    FDR says: it’s like
 by USSR) and West (US, France, Britain)
                                            • Battle of Britain                                           “lending a garden
 Japan: occupied by US; adopted
 democracy                                  • 1941 – Germany                                              hose to a next-door
 Europe: in ruins, rebuilt with US          invaded the USSR                                              neighbor whose house
 Marshall Plan                                                                                            is on fire”
 United Nations formed to prevent                                 Nuremberg Trials – war
 future wars                                                      crimes trials of Nazis;
                                                                  emphasized personal                        Pearl Harbor --
                                                                  responsibility                             Dec. 7, 1941
           Atomic Bomb – Hiroshima &            Japan
           Nagasaki; thousands killed           surrendered                                                  “a date which will
                                                War ENDED
                                                                  Led to demand for Jewish                   live in infamy”
           Truman hoped to save lives                             Homeland (Israel)
           and end the war
                                                                                             War in Europe & in Asia
                       Actions during War
                                                                                 Europe/North Africa               Asia/Pacific
    Minority Participation – most          Holocaust – Hitler’s
    units segregated & minority units      Final Solution for the Jews        Allied Strategy: Defeat        Allied Strategy:
    suffered high casualties and won       (genocide)                         Germany first                  island hopping
    numerous medals for bravery                                               Axis Strategy: defeat          Japan’s strategy:
                                           Who: Jews, Poles, Slavs,
    • African Americans: most              gypsies, “undesirables             Soviets and Britain quickly    conquer Pacific
    served in support role, wanted to                                         Key Battles                    quickly before US can
    fight; Tuskegee Airmen;                Geneva Convention –                •El Alamein – prevented        act
                                           tried to ensure humane             Germany’s spread into          Key Battles
    • Native Americans: Navajo             treatment of POWs
    code-talkers; unbreakable code                                            Egypt                          •Midway: ends
                                           Europe – followed rules            • Stalingrad – forced          Japanese
    •Mexican Americans: served in                                             Germany to retreat from        advance/threat to
    integrated units                       Asia – didn’t follow rules         the USSR                       Hawaii
                                           (Bataan Death March);                                             •Iwo Jima/Okinawa:
    • Japanese Americans: Nisei            Japanese commit suicide            • Normandy – began the
    Regiments; earned many medals          instead of surrender               liberation of Europe;          brought US closer to
                                                                                                             Japan; very costly
Life at Home during World War II                                                  Role of Women
Success in the war required the total commitment of the
                                                                                  • Rosie the Riveter
nation’s resources. On the home front, public education
and the mass media promoted nationalism.                                          • worked in factories/government jobs to
                                                                                  replace men who joined the army
                        Organizing Resources                                      •joined the military in non-combat roles

     Economic Resources                       Human Resources
 • business and government worked       • Selective Service – draft provided      Role of African Americans
 together                               personnel for the military
                                                                                  • migrated to cities to work in war
 • Rationing – limiting the amount of   • more women and minorities               industries
 scarce materials people could buy      entered the workplace
                                                                                  • Double “V” campaign – victory over
 • War bonds & income taxes were        • all citizens contributed to the war     racism and victory over Hitler
 used to pay for the war                effort: victory gardens, scrap drives,
                                        war bonds
 • Businesses changed from
 peacetime to wartime production
                                                                                 Role of the Media
                                                                                 • government censored news of the war
                                                                                 • public campaigns (propaganda) kept
                                                                                 Americans focused on war effort
 Treatment of Japanese Americans                                                 • Entertainment industry contributed by
                                                                                 producing plays, movies and shows that
 • Japanese Americans on the West Coast were sent to
 internment camps                                                                      • boosted morale and support for
                                                                                       the war
 • Why? fear of spies; long held racial prejudice
                                                                                       • portrayed the enemy in
 • The Supreme Court upheld the internment in Korematsu
                                                                                       stereotypical ways
 v. the United States
 • eventually the government apologized and made financial
 payments to survivors
   Situation after World War II
                                                                                Communists won the
 United States        Soviet Union             Vietnam War               1945 Chinese Civil War
•democratic          •Totalitarian      • Communist North Vietnam
political            government                                                 Soviets developed an atomic
                                        attempted to take over South
institutions                            Vietnam                                 bomb – new fear of nuclear war
                     •Communist                                          1949
• free market        (socialist)
economic system      economic system    • US got involved to contain            President Eisenhower adopted
                                        communism                               policy of “massive retaliation”
Truman               Warsaw Pact –
Doctrine –           alliance of        • John F. Kennedy began        1950           Korean War
containment;         Soviets and        troop build-up, after his
keep communism       Eastern Europe     assassination in 1963, Lyndon       • Communist North Korean
from spreading                          Johnson increased the               invaded South Korea
                                        number of troops               1954
Formation of                                                                • US joined to contain
NATO –                                  • US troops won lots of             Communism
defensive alliance                      battles, but could not win by
of US and                               fighting a limited war              • Chinese joined to protect
Western Europe                                                              communism
                                        • Nation bitterly divided over
        SOL: VUS.12                     war; many supported military            • ended in a stalemate – South
                                        but there was lots of                   Korea is a separate, non-
                                        opposition (esp. college                communist nation
                                        students)
                                        • President Nixon tried                 Cuba – Fidel Castro leads
                                        Vietnamization – turning war            communist take-over; many flee
         Unit 8 Review                  over to South Vietnamese                to Florida
      Results of World War II           • Policy failed, South Vietnam          Bay of Pigs – failed invasion of
Soviets: control Eastern Europe; will   could not resist Soviet-backed          Cuba by Cubans exiles
led to COLD WAR                         North
Germany: divided in East (controlled                                          1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis;
                                        •Nixon resigned because of            Soviet missiles in Cuba; JFK
by USSR) and West (US, France,
                                        Watergate Scandal
Britain)                                                                 1961 ordered Soviets to remove them;
Japan: occupied by US; adopted          • 1975 – Vietnam united               almost leads to nuclear war
democracy                               under communism                       before they were removed by
Europe: in ruins, rebuilt with US                                             Soviets
Marshall Plan
United Nations formed to                Soviet Union dissolved –
prevent future wars                     Cold War ended                   1989
                                                                        Cold War At Home
                US Military Forces in Cold War
                                                                • Fear of Communism and nuclear
      President John Kennedy’s (a WWII veteran) inaugural
                                                                war
      address
                                                                • 1950s/1960s – American schools held
      • pledged that the United States would “pay any price,
                                                                Duck and cover drills; the
      bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any
                                                                government encouraged people to
      friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival
                                                                build bomb shelters
      and the success of liberty.”
                                                                •Alger Hiss, Julius and Ethel
      • “Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what
                                                                Rosenberg were convicted of spying
      you can do for your country.”
                                                                leading increased fears of
      Millions of Americans served in the military during the   communism at home
      Cold War and their service not always popular
                                                                • Senator Joseph McCarthy falsely
      Vietnam veterans received little support                  accused many people of being
                                                                communists – McCarthyism
                                                                •Foreign policy became a major
  Fall of the Soviet Union lead to the end of the               issue in presidential elections
                      Cold War
                                                                •Virginia benefited from heavy
    Internal Problems            External Pressure              military spending, esp. Northern
                                                                Virginia and Hampton Roads
• Rising nationalism in     • Ronald Reagan’s
Soviet Republics            challenge to the moral
• increasing military       legitimacy of the Soviet
expenditures to compete     Union
with US                     • “Mr. Gorbachev, tear                    SOL: VUS.12
• market reforms            down this wall”
• economic inefficiency     • increased US military
• Gorbachev’s glasnost      and economic pressures
(openness) & perestroika    on the Soviet Union
(economic restructuring)
                                                                        Unit 8 Review
 SOL: VUS.13



                                   Brown vs. Board of Education
  Unit 9 Review
                                   • Supreme Court decision that
National Association for the       segregated schools are
 Advancement of Colored            unconstitutional & must be                      Virginia Response
     People (NAACP)                desegregated
                                                                          •Massive resistance – closing
• challenged segregation in the    • Made up of many cases,               some public schools to avoid
courts                             including a Virginia case              integration
• Thurgood Marshall – NAACP                                               • establishment of private
Legal Defense Team                                                        academies that could remain
• Oliver Hill – Legal Defense                                             segregated
Team in Virginia                                                          • “white flight” from urban
                                                                          school systems



              1963                                1964                                   1965
    March on Washington                     Civil Rights Act                       Voting Rights Act
• Martin Luther King gave his “I    • prohibited discrimination on        • outlawed literacy tests
have a dream speech”                the basis of race, religion,
                                                                          • sent federal registrars to the
• helped influence public           national origin, and gender
                                                                          South to register voters
opinion to support civil rights     • desegregated public facilities
legislation                                                               • resulted in more African
                                                                          American voters
• demonstrated the power of
non-violent, mass protest


                                              President Lyndon Johnson worked
                                              hard to get these two laws passed.
                                                                                   Changing Patterns of Immigration
     Changing Role of Women
                                                                             most new immigrants are from Asia and Latin
• more women in the workplace and           Issues of working women                America
working mothers
                                            • need for affordable day        Reasons for immigration
• more women in non-traditional roles       care
                                                                             1.    political freedom
      • Sandra Day O’Connor – first         • equitable pay
      woman on the Supreme Court                                             2.    economic opportunity
                                            • pink collar ghetto – low
      • Sally Ride – first US female        prestige, low paying jobs        Effects of Immigration
      astronaut
                                            • Glass ceiling – perception     1.    Bilingual education/English as a Second
• courts helped provide these               that women’s career                    Language
opportunities                               advancement is not equal to      2.    Changing public policy (ex: Cuba)
                                            men
                                                                             3.    Politics/voting
                                                                             Contributions of immigrants
                                                                             1.    Ethnic foods, music, arts
                                                                             2.    Role in labor force



             Space Program
 1960s – John F. Kennedy pledged                         New Technologies
 increased support for space program
                                                      • Cable TV/24-hour News              Better Communication/Access to
 John Glenn – first American to orbit the             (CNN)                                        global information
 earth
                                                      • Personal computers                • telecommuting
 Neil Armstrong – first man on the moon
 (1969)                                               • Cellular phones                   • distance learning

 “That’s one small step for a man, one                • World Wide Web                    • growth in white collar careers
 giant leap for mankind”                                                                  • breakthroughs in medical
                                                                                          research (Dr. Jonas Salk – polio
                                                                                          vaccine)

								
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