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									     REPORT: Evaluation of 1st phase of the project:
   “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy
         Measures to Prevent and Reduce Trafficking in Women
                  in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine”
                           (RER/02/11/IRL)

           Donor:
           Development Cooperation Ireland
           Implementing Agency:
           International Labour Organization (ILO)

           Type of Evaluation:
           Independent Terminal Evaluation of the 1st phase of the project


           Date & Duration of evaluation:
           21st November- 2nd December, 2005 (10 days: field visit, draft report)
           7th December- 9th December, 2005 (3 days, final revision of report)


           Geographical coverage:
           Albania, Moldova and Ukraine


           Project work covered by the evaluation:
           27 months: 1st October, 2003 to 31st December, 2005

           Prepared by:
           Fatoş Ipek-Demir, independent evaluator, E-Quality, Netherlands, December 2005
           f.ipek-demir@e-quality.nl
           The responsibility for opinions expressed in this evaluation rests solely with the author
           and publication does not constitute an endorsement by the ILO of the opinions expressed
           in them.

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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
Table of contents                                                                                                        page

0.         Acknowledgements                                                                                              4
1.         Summary of findings and recommendations                                                                       5
2.         Introduction                                                                                                  7
3.         Design                                                                                                        8
4.         Implementation/delivery process                                                                               11
           4.1 Activities & Outputs
           4.2 Management & coordinationa
           4.3 External/internal factors
5.         Performance                                                                                                   14
           5.1 Relevance
           5.2 Effectiveness
           5.3 Efficiency
           5.4 Impact
           5.5 Sustainability
6.         Special concerns                                                                                              16
           6.1 Gender concerns
           6.2 Knowledge sharing
           6.3 Lessons learned
7.         Findings, conclusions and recommendations                                                                     18
8.         Annexed information                                                                                           20




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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
Acknowledgements

In November 2005 the International Labour Organisation (ILO) asked E-Quality, the
information centre for gender and ethnicity issues in The Netherlands, to carry out an
evaluation of the first phase of ILO/Migrant project “Employment, Vocational Training
Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce Trafficking in Women
in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine.” The evaluation took place in Kiev, Ukraine, between the
21st and 25th of November, and included field research visits to two of the stakeholders in the
project, the Chernivtsi Oblast Employment Centre and the NGO “Suchasnyk”‟ in Chernivtsi.
The findings of this project-evaluation are presented in this document.

Both this project and the evaluation assignment are made possible by Development
Cooperation Ireland and the efforts of ILO project staff. Therefore I would like to thank
Gloria Moreno-Fontes (ILO/Migrant), Hlib Yasnytsky, Sofia Lytvyn, Jana Costachi, Oleg
Chirita, Edlira Vezelaj and Mirela Kasmi for their co-operation and for doing their utmost to
provide me with the necessary documents relating to this project. This included work plans
and progress reports.

I am grateful to all the people who have been kind enough to take time to answer my
questions and give their views on the project, including Ministry and Department officials
and representatives of the project‟s stakeholders from the Ukraine, Albania and Modolva. I
would especially like to thank the officials from state employment agency in Ukraine and
Elvira Mruchkovska, Head of NGO “Suchasnyk”, for your exceptional helpfulness. I
congratulate everyone with the results achieved in the first phase of this project and wish
everyone success with the activities in the second phase.




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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
1. Summary of findings and recommendations

This project should continue with dedicated funds earmarked for it. The two years for this
project are only a beginning toward reaching the objectives. The overall results shown by
project staff continue to justify the costs incurred. However, a lot remains to be done,
especially to strengthen capacities to prevent and reduce trafficking of human beings and
improve the labour market position of female victims or potential victims of trafficking. The
effectiveness and efficiency of the work in Albania needs special attention or the continuation
of the project should be reviewed.

Lack of information on available budgets and mid-course changes in budget plans by
management was a problem during the first phase of the project. Project workers have made a
lot of progress toward meeting project objectives and these successes are clearly stated in the
project reports. Sometimes activities were postponed (due to administrative problems or
procedures) and sometimes they had to be cancelled (due to lack of funds). In some cases
additional data was needed for the project, so data-gathering activities were carried out.

Several positive changes and effects have been caused by the Project at both the local and
national levels. A few examples of achievements:
     - lobby activities to facilitate political dialogue and to introduce labour migration issues
         on the agenda of stakeholders and project partners,
     - creation of national networks comprising various institutions involved directly in
         migration and trafficking issues.
     - Numerous workshops, seminars and trainings with which knowledge and expertise
         was shared on the matters of migration, labour market policies and (anti-)trafficking.
         Furthermore vocational trainings for victims and potential victims of trafficking were
         provided.
The overall problems and needs still exist in Moldova, Albania and Ukraine. Trafficking is
still a very real problem and the needs of its victims remain. Because of the economic
situation within these countries, potential victims are still at risk. What should perhaps be
considered in a next phase of this project is to expand attention to both men and women. In
any case obtaining reliable statistics on the number of male and female victims should be a
priority. Another factor proving the relevance and worth of this project is that during the
course of the project new researches and consultations were initiated because of lack of
information and knowledge in specific areas.

At the moment this project is not sustainable without external funding. When we examine the
project results to date, much remains to be done. The investments made in the first phase are
in general efficient and in order tot not lose the knowledge and results from the first phase
this project is well worth continuing. Three key areas include raising awareness about the
problem of trafficking, disseminating knowledge on labour and migration policies to all target
groups, and directly providing more training programs and information to victims of
trafficking and potential victims of trafficking.


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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
Summary of recommendations:
    Continuation of the project.
         o Special concern about activities in Albania
    More clarity about available budgets.
    Better and quicker administrative procedures from ILO headquarters.
    Improving knowledge sharing within project-team (e.g website).
    More specific information in reports on effective results.
    Improving efficiency in Albania (better balance between results and expenditures).
    Management attention to the differences in capacity, creativity and flexibility of
     team members.
    Reviewing choice of exclusive focus on women as target group.
    Developing method for measuring outputs (evaluation forms)
    More PR/communication for the project (e.g. website).




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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
2. Introduction

This evaluation report examines the results of the 1st phase of the project:
“Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent
and Reduce Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine”. The project was made
possible by the government of Ireland and was carried out by the ILO‟s International
Migration Programme (ILO/MIGRANT) in the three countries between the 1st of October
2003 and the 31st December 2005, encompassing a period of 27 months and on a budget of
662,295 euros.

The project is part of ILO‟s Partnership Programme Agreement with Development
Cooperation Ireland (DCI). It was co-ordinated by ILO headquarters and country-level project
teams in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine, each composed of a project-coordinator and a
project-assistant. This evaluation was carried out by an independant evaluator hired by
ILO/Migrant.

“An evaluation assesses the effects and impact of project results. It focuses on the analysis of
the progress made towards the achievement of objectives. The general aims of an evaluation
are to enhance the management of ongoing activities and improve the planning of new
activities. It also enables stakeholders to take policy and operational decisions on a more solid
information base.”1

Data is gathered from project files, reports and interviews with stakeholders and project
partners.
                                   Terms of reference for independent terminal evaluation
          Efficiency - the productivity of the Project implementation process taken as a measure of the extent to
           which the outputs achieved are derived from an efficient use of financial, material and human resources;
          Effectiveness - the extent to which the project can be said to have contributed to the development
           objectives and the immediate objectives and more concretely whether the stated outputs have been achieved
           satisfactorily;
          Impact - positive and negative changes and effects caused by the Project at the local, provincial and
           national levels, i.e. the impact achieved with project partners and various implementing partner
           organisations;
          Relevance – the extent to which the objectives and the activities are in line with the local, provincial and
           national priorities and needs;
          Sustainability – the extent to which adequate capacity building of project partners has taken place to
           ensure that mechanisms are in place to sustain activities and thus is likely to be maintained beyond project
           completion.




1 http://www.ilo.org/public/english/bureau/program/guides/indpen/key.htm, “Guidelines for the preparation of
independent evaluations”,
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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
3. Design

The socio-economic and cultural context is clearly described in the project plan and is
followed by an adequate problem analysis.

Abstract from project design RER/02/M11/IRE
Trafficking is a labour migration issue of major concern in the Central and Eastern European region. The
number of young women trafficked clandestinely across borders …….continues to grow.

The disintegration of the socio-economic structure in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine has given as a result a
continuous fall of living standards, and a lack of training and employment opportunities accompanied by a
growth of unemployment that is affecting more women than men.

Prevailing differences between men and women migrant workers are due to sex-disaggregated labour markets
and existing cultural and traditional values, norms and stereotyping about the roles of women and men, in both
countries of origin and destination.

The middlemen or the trafficker has learnt to exploit weaknesses in state systems to his advantage. The disregard
by Western European States of the existence of jobs in certain sectors has left such jobs to the control of
middlemen who offer smuggling services to male migrants and trafficking services to female migrants.

The following immediate objectives were developed:

     1. At the end of the project, the Ministries of Labour and Social Affairs, other relevant
        national institutions, and tripartite partners would have strengthened capacities to prevent
        and reduce the trafficking into labour exploitation of women at risk;
     2. At the end of the project each country would have a community-based pilot project,
        developed and established in a selected community, integrated into a national strategy;
     3. At the end of the project, the three countries together would have identified and provided
        with training or employment opportunities 250 to 300 women victims or potential victims
        of trafficking.

The indicators used to measure the development objective were the following:
          Introduction of gender-sensitive employment and training strategies to contribute to the
           reduction and prevention of trafficking in women and provide reintegration options to
           those already trafficked;
          Introduction of gender-balanced migration policy measures to develop a system to
           regulate the activities of private job placement agencies and other institutions providing
           information on jobs abroad;
          Promotion of the establishment of a single labour market information system on the
           availability of jobs at home and abroad.

Overall validity of design

The original project design is logical, concentrating on the identified problems and needs and
setting forth a strategy for solving them. It also defines the target groups, encompassing both
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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
direct (250-300 young women) and indirect beneficiaries (100-150 officials at different
government ministries). However, at this point disproportionate efforts and resources have
been spent on the first objective. Both documents and outputs show that more has been
achieved for these indirect beneficiaries. Of course victims or potential victims of trafficking
will eventually benefit from the strengthening of capacities by officials from government
ministries, but significantly more effort and resources should be focused on this group,
especially in countries where political stability is an issue. The negative effects of regime
change can be minimized in this way.

Roles and responsibilities of the main project partners are defined but not specified within
activity plans and corresponding actions. In some cases the project has been designed without
the participation of project staff, although alteration and improvements have been made in
consultation with headquarters and project staff within the countries. Assumptions at the start
of the project were not always correct (especially regarding political will/stability). Overall
the project design was made without much influence of project staff which in some cases was
hired a few months later.

For each country, the main outputs, activities and inputs needed to achieve the objectives are
described in a logical framework, followed up by an action plan. Inputs, activities and outputs
are linked to each immediate objective. For example:
                                                Activity                                                   Time frame

 Immediate Objective 1. At the end of the project the Ministries of Labour and Social Affairs, Migration
 Department, other relevant national institutions, and tripartite partners would have strengthened capacities to
 prevent and reduce trafficking into labour exploitation of women at risk.

 Output 1.1. At national level, sustainable mechanisms to take co-ordinated action to combat trafficking with the
 purpose of economic exploitation are developed and operating effectively.

 1.1.1 Recruit a project officer plus support staff. Organization of a training.                            Nov. 2003-febr. 2004



Finally it was assumed that the major external factors affecting the project implementation
and performance would be:

                           -     Political will and political stability

                           -     Willingness and interest of government, workers‟ and employers‟
                                 organizations to work on reducing trafficking in women.

As expected, these matters have had a tremendous impact on the development and
sustainability of the project. Some objectives have been reached, but some have not, primarily
due to political changes or changes in the position of officials. Elections have also created
shifts. During the two-day seminar in Kiev these external influences were specifically
mentioned in the session about the future of the project, and specifically in regards to the
second phase. Finally the project depends on the stability, continuity, and cooperativeness of
organisations within the three countries. As an example, the Moldovan project coordinator
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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
shared that the two biggest trade unions in Moldova do not co-operate with each other at the
moment and thus she cannot work together with them constructively to realize the project.
Furthermore political changes in Albania put the outputs and achievements of the project in
danger. Overall in Albania we can observe that less has been accomplished, primarily due to
higher costs, and because organisations were „not open to co-operate”.




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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
4. Implementation/delivery process

The implementation of the project focused on achieving the three objectives mentioned in
chapter 3. The delivery strategy – co-operation with stakeholders, providing practical
information to victims, sharing knowledge on Migration with policy makers, finding relevant
partners – has been effective in achieving most of the objectives. However, more objectives
were attained at the institutional level, than at the level of women victims of trafficking or
potential victims.
During the seminar I asked the project coordinators to estimate what percentage of their
efforts were spent on each of these groups. The Albanian co-ordinator estimated 70% went to
legal, policy and administrative improvement of migration policies and 30% was spent on
potential and actual victims of trafficking. “There was a lack of funds to reach the girls.” In
Moldova 80-90% was spend on the first group and 10-20% on the girls/women. „There was
bigger money and bigger human resources for the first group.‟ Also in Moldova, activities in
the area of improving migration policies could be integrated with other projects so more was
accomplished in this area. In the Ukraine „more advancement in promotion of services for
target group‟ has been accomplished. Specifically, job placement numbers have increased,
progress has been made toward the establishment of private enterprises, and progress has
been made toward improving administrative issues.

Several partners were involved in the implementation of the project:
   - Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, particularly, the Social Services and Labour
       Inspection Department;
   - State Migration Authority Ministry of Economy and Trade and the Ministry of Health and
       Social protection (in Moldova)
   - National Employment Service;
   - Minister of State for Coordination with the Prime Minister;
   - Ministry of Public Order;
   - Ministry of Foreign Affairs;
   - Employers‟ and workers‟ organizations;
   - Private Employment Agencies (for improving their licensing and functioning system of
       regulation)
   - Financial institutions (for execution of the micro-credits provision);
   - Local gender- oriented Non Profit Organizations;
   - Existing shelter accommodating victims of trafficking;
   - Local government authorities and social partners;
   - Law enforcement authorities.

The contributions of these partners were coordinated (and sometimes initiated) by the national
project office (composed of a national project coordinator and a national project assistant in each
country). These contributions were varied and numerous. For example in Ukraine there were 17
seminars on different topics organized which reached a total of 414 participants. In 4.2 more
information on the activities and outputs will be given.
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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
For the most part, project management paired project activities to the strengths of its project
partners. All of them used their knowledge, networks, and sometimes were even able to find
additional funds of planned and unplanned partners to achieve project objectives. This was also
done in a creative and „entrepreneurial‟ manner. In almost all cases cooperation was sought and
found with for example IOM, ILO/IPEC, Unicef and OSCE. Funds, products and expertise were
combined to create joint effects and achieve objectives.
Additionally, to improve awareness about trafficking in Moldova, the project team sought and
found media attention, resulting in 20 radio shows about this topic. In Ukraine creative solutions
were found to finance a publication and thereby stretch the project budget further. Translation of
ILO Manual was offered to the Ministry of Education, who could also use it. In this way the
publication could be produced with reduced VAT, and instead of 100 copies, 400 copies were
printed.

4.1 Activities & Outputs
For the different objectives several activities were planned and they were followed by
outputs. There are similarities (National Steering Committees) between the countries, but not
in the numbers of activities or in the way and pace they handled matters. The differences in
effectiveness, creativity and ambition are clear, both in analysing the reports and in listening
to the project staff members.
The quality of the outputs was ensured both by the knowledge of project staff and also in
some cases by hiring external consultants or working together with national partners
(stakeholders) who could provide necessary information and expertise. (The list of these
partners is on page 9.)

                                                             Activities
                                               Moldova                        Albania                      Ukraine
 Objective 1*                                  43*                            16*                          19*
 Objective 2                                   5                              7                            13
 Objective 3                     6                      3                 8
Sources: Activity plans and reports Moldova, Ukraine and Albania
* these figures do not include the 10 translations of some relevant ILO publications.

At the end of the project between 250 to 300 women victims of trafficking (total for all three
countries) or potential victims should have been identified and provided with training or
employment opportunities in their home countries. These numbers have not been achieved. In
some countries it is particular difficult to identify these women. In Albania a local organisation
who works with these women and girsl has asked for money in order to identify this target group,
in other countries this was achieved by co-operation with local NGO‟s.

4.2 Management & coordination
The technical and administrative guidance and support provided by the project staff, partner
organisations and the relevant ILO unit and headquarters was adequate. The documents prove
that in all three countries many lobbying activities took place. The management and
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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
coordination by project staff led to many activities designed to obtain the main objectives of
the project. Partner organisations were involved and motivated as well. A very positive
example of adequate management and coordination by project staff was found in Kiev. The
information from my interviews with representatives from the Chernivtsi Oblast Employment
Centre and with the Head of NGO “Suchasnyk” proved what positive results can be obtained
with partners when adequate guidance is given by project staff. Also in Moldova due to the
guidance and support of project staff many planned activities were accomplished as well as
some additional activities. In Albania, the guidance and support by staff showed less result.
Finally a lot has been said on the management and coordination given by headquarters.
Project staff was sometimes extremely frustrated by the slow and long procedures to obtain
answers and especially to obtain funds. Interactions with headquarters should be made
quicker, as prompter feedback and funding will increase program effectiveness.

4.3 External/internal factors
A major external factor is the occasional lack of willingness to cooperate and or coordinate
activities. When stakeholders and/or partners in the project have low capacity or not much
willingness to work together, it is more difficult to attain results. In the case of Moldovia the
remedial action taken was a full range of activities to enhance the capacity of the participants
from various state organizations. Political stability and political willingness is another
external factor which strongly influences the project (in this case, negatively). When elections
take place, officials change and project staff must begin anew building up relations with
stakeholders. Social culture within each country can also have a negative effect on the way
the project develops. For example in Albania victims of trafficking are very difficult to
identify, due to stigmatization and to the Albanian people‟s prejudices. In Ukraine the project
staff faced legal and administrative obstacles to opening a deposit bank account which would
serve as a credit guarantee. It was solved by working together with the Chernivtsi Branch of
PrivatBank and with relevant departments at ILO headquarters in Geneva and the support of
the ILO National Correspondent in Ukraine.
An internal factor which limited project effectiveness was the long administrative procedures
within ILO Headquarters, causing occasional lack of support to the project teams. For
instance when a person responsible for financial issues became ill there was no replacement
for her and things were postponed, with a trickledown of negative consequences for the
project, limiting effectiveness and alienating potential partners.




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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
5. Performance

5.1 Relevance
The overall problems and needs still exist in Moldova, Albania and Ukraine. Trafficking is
still a problem and the needs its victims remain. Because of the economic situation in these
countries there is still a danger for potential victims. What should perhaps be considered in
the next phase of this project is attention for both men and women. In any case reliable
statistics are needed on the number of male and female victims.
Another factor proving project relevance is that during the course of the project new
researches and consultations were initiated to address the lack of information and knowledge
in various areas.

5.2 Effectiveness
The project has attained significant progress towards meeting its objectives. These are clearly
stated in the project reports. However, some activities were postponed (due to administrative
problems or procedures) and some were not performed (due to lack of funds). In Albania
some activities did not occur because of lack of funds. In one case it is stated „this activity did
not take place‟, but it is not clear why not. Overall it is difficult to measure the effectiveness
of the project in Albania from the documents provided (reports and activity plan). Moreover
the report is extremely vague on WHAT exactly has been accomplished and the report is not
specific in its formulations. During the interview with Albanian project staff in Kiev I still did
not receive clear answers and „due to lack of funds‟ was repeated many times. I asked project
staff to tell me in their own words specifically what they have achieved, but they were unable
to do so and more detailed information after the meeting in Kiev as requested was not send.
Projectwide, there are reports on the activities performed but the data collected to measure
the outputs of the project concerning objective 1 and 2 did not reach the evaluator.
Concerning objective 3 numbers of the victims of trafficking and potential victims of
trafficking are given. Many of the target groups participated in implementing the project, but
not in its formulation. In some cases additional data was needed for the project so data
gathering activities were carried out.

5.3 Efficiency
The overall results shown by project staff continue to justify the costs incurred. A lot remains
to be done. Through the project and budget management of headquarters and the creativity of
some project staffs, resources were spent as economically as possible to achieve results. The
availability of budget information is a significant problem. Project staff did not have a clear
idea on what they could spend, and they had to contact headquarters many times. In Albania
costs of living, office rent, salaries of external consultants and event organization were
higher, yet in this country less has been accomplished. It is difficult to change the general
costs in a country, but results could have been more in accordance to the money spent. When
I asked for more ways to deliver more and better outputs with the available inputs, project
staffs answered this could be by finding additional sources and funding to do more. But this
of course is easier said than done and so it is a challenge, sometimes it has been achieved by
creativity and right networks.
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Evaluation of 1 phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
           st

Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
5.4 Impact
Several positive changes and effects have been caused by the Project. At the local level for
instance in Chernivtsi oblast both professionals and women from the target group benefited
from trainings. Professionals learned methods for building interactive forms of human
trafficking prevention and women underwent vocational trainings. In Albania a national
workshop on migration was organized in collaboration with the Migration Department and
the National Employment Service, the impact being that information on the National strategy
on migration was shared with professionals and stakeholders. In Moldova the project had a
great impact on relevant partners who benefited from the best practises learned during
implementation, including how to work with victims, elaborate referral standards and assess
beneficiairies.

5.5 Sustainability
Two years is a short time to answer the question of sustainability of this project. When we
look at the results of the projects, much remains to be done on the matters of raising
awareness, increasing knowledge on labour and migration policies within the target groups
and providing more trainings and information to victims and potential victims of trafficking.
At this point, it is unlikely that the project‟s benefits will be sustained after the withdrawal of
external support. Translated training manuals and publications are now available, but it is
always a matter of will to coordinate and adopt these materials to local circumstances.
Activities in the area of micro-credit will start in Ukraine in December 2005, and this will
need time to grow before it can be expected to be self-sufficient.




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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
6. Special concerns

In this chapter we identify and examine any anticipated or unanticipated effects on issues of
special concern to the ILO, namely:
    - Gender Concerns
    - Knowledge Sharing and
    - Lessons learned

6.1 Gender concerns
Specific attention is given to girls and women who have been trafficked or are potential
victims of trafficking. The beneficiaries of vocational training and of micro-credits are all
female. However comments to this approach are given: in some countries men and women
equally are victims of trafficking, why not change the title in “against trafficking of human
beings”. Unfortunately, at present there are no accurate statistics available to justify giving
more attention to women in this matter.

6.2 Knowledge sharing
Attention has been given to documenting the project experiences and achievements.
Information was documented in activity plans and several reports. There is some uniformity
in the way this is done but sometimes project staff use different formats. Within each
country‟s project team it is important to adequately share information. However, documents
which were published and/or finished were sent by all the project staff to each other.
Finally project experiences and achievements have also been shared with stakeholders within
and outside the ILO. This was done via round tables and workshops but also through media
attention and in Moldova through some radio shows on the subject.
Unfortunately at present there is no website or other communication medium to pursue
project goals and share project information with a wider audience.

6.3 Lessons learned
The lessons learned from the project‟s experience for future project design are:
     Information on budget lines.
    Information on budget lines at the beginning, during and after the project is necessary and
    essential. “We can make better estimates on what we need and what we want to have.
    Also we know better how much we will spend on several activities.” Better choices and
    an equal sharing of funds between target groups can be achieved. From the start of the
    project it was not clear how much each country could spend and which choices could be
    made.
    No specific spending plan was available. Expenditures were on ad hoc base. Because of
    this project team members were sometimes seen as unreliable. They started negotiations
    but could not start activities and sometimes had to stop plans entirely because from
    headquarters information came that no funds were left for that activity. These were
    problems that greater fiscal transparency and communication could have prevented.
    Negotiations with partners were started but then activities were postponed because of lack
    of money or late arrival of money. This lack of reliable fiscal support limited program
    effectiveness, and also damaged public perception of the ILO as a reliable partner in these
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           st

Trafficking in Women in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine” (RER/02/11/IRL)
     communities.
      Availability of (co-)funding and accessibility.
     “It costs time and money to find co-funding and/or partners to combine activities.
     When you don‟t know how much you have to spend, it is difficult to start activities.” For
     the second phase serious and open financial management should occur from the start and
     throughout the entire project. Realistic and equal division of funds should take place.
      Constraint between available time for the project and activities to accomplish.
     Ambitions are high and the pressure to achieve is also high, but sometimes the money
     available inhibits ambitions. In the second phase realistic choices about what can be
     achieved should be made, to make the best use of the human and fiscal resources and the
     successful partnerships already established. Quality and work towards sustainability
     should now be emphasized, not the quantity of projects in each country.
      Political will and commitment
     In Ukraine for example the government has not wanted to ratify conventions, thus in the
     2nd phase a cost/benefit analysis of ratification will be carried out. Without political will
     and commitment it will be difficult to accomplish all project objectives. Facts and figures
     are also necessary in order to convince politicians. This should be taken into account in
     the aims and methodology of the project beyond 2005.
      Sustainibility NGO‟s
      Political stability
      Reliable partners
      Communication and information from headquarters
      Trainings for development of expertise and knowledge for project-team member
      Balance between direct and indirect effects for actual and potential victims of
         trafficking
      Studies to deliver more facts and figures on the issue
     On a policy level it is easier to convince persons through findings from research and
     policy studies. In several countries there is a lack of reliable information and statistics
     with which to better address the problems and issues that arise.

     However, the project plan for the second phase of this project has been approved before
     starting the evaluation of the first phase. Hopefully some (or better all) of the
     recommendations can be incorporated in the project.




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7. Findings, conclusions and recommendations


Findings and conclusions
Remarkable progress has been made in the project “Employment, Vocational Training
Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce Trafficking in Women
in Albania, Moldova and Ukraine”. The majority of the objectives and activities have been
achieved. The first steps have been made in the modification of legislation, policy,
administration, and in practical measures to better manage labour migration. Community-
based pilot projects have begun in every country but it has not had the impact everywhere that
the project initially intended. Also the number of trafficking victims reached for vocational
trainings) is too low, only 30 in Albania, 40 in Ukraine and 30 in Moldova.
The amount of activities and the their impact differ greatly from country to country. Of
special concern is the project in Albania, where results are very vague and not comparable
with the achievements in Ukraine and Moldova. Capacity of project staff should be improved,
but more importantly, in determining which activities to prioritize, the political stability of the
country and the willingness of stakeholders to participate effectively needs be taken into
account.
The project needs to continue to sustain and build on the effects and achievements of the last
2 years. Special attention should be given to the budget planning, sharing funds equally and
safeguarding timely delivery during the course of the project. If budget clarity and
accessibility are adressed at this time, there will be long term benefits to project
implementation. With the lessons learned from the first phase, a better model can be
implemented, hopefully preventing future budgeting issues.

Recommendations
    More information on budgets within the project.
    Equal, (sometimes) better, more and quicker communication within project-team.
     Project team members came together three times during the project. Further
     communication was done primarily by email and sometimes by telephone. The
     Ukrainian and Moldovian project teams interacted more effectively because of
     language skills and showed more similarities within their activities, primarily through
     sharing experiences and best practices and by learning from each other.
    Good back-up from headquarters ILO.
     Back-up from headquarters was appreciated but was found inadequate.
     Communication was sometimes slow and getting the funds in time to the right places
     was a big problem.
    Better availability of project coordinator to project staff, and the establishment of a
     backup contact person or replacement when administrative officials are unavailable.
    Uniform methods for knowledge sharing.
    Improving budgetary efficiency in Albania (better balance between results and
     expenditures).
    Finding more creative ways to access co-funding or willing partners to carry out
     activities with shared objectives.

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          Reviewing choice of exclusive focus on women as target group.
          Developing methods for measuring outputs within partners and target groups
           (evaluation forms).
          Realistic decision making whenever political environment changes (whether to
           continue or stop, and where to focus resources).
          Increase focus (and budget) on direct target groups.
          Knowledge sharing (e.g. improving website).
           Both coordinators and assistants had several trainings for knowledge development on
           the issues of migration. The effects and results of these different trainings could have
           been shared with each other, for this the website could have been used. In annex 2
           there is a list of trainings that were attended by some of the project team-members.
          Recognize the difference in capacity, creativity and flexibility of team members.
           With management feedback and possible mid-term reviews, adaptations or changes
           can be made, maximizing return on capacity across the board. Finally (and no less
           importantly) the project teams should work to prevent attrition, thereby minimizing
           the loss of project-specific knowledge and experience that leaves with departing team
           members.
          More PR/communication activities for the project. For example a website with all the
           information on the project would be recommendable.




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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
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8. Annexed information

8.1 Interviewed persons

Representatives of Albania
       1. Majlinda Bushati Hafizi, Director of Migration in the Ministry of Labour, Social
          Affairs and Equal Opportunities.
       2. Ilda Poda, Head of the Sector of the Relationships with Non-Profitable
          Organizations at the Department of Social Services in the Ministry of Labour,
          Social Affairs and Equal opportunities.
       3. Mimoza Ponari, Specialist of the Employment Sector at the Department of
          Employment Policies in the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Equal
          Opportunities.
       4. Mirela Nase, Head of the Sector of Employment Promotion Programmes in the
          National Employment Service.

Representatives of Moldova
       5. Tatiana Samoila, National Migration Bureau.
       6. Ion Holban, Deputy Director, National Employment Agency.
       7. Diana Gutîm, Social Worker, Centre for the Prevention of Trafficking in Women.

Representatives of Ukraine
       8. Ludmila Pozhidaeva, Deputy Head, Office of development and Introduction of
           New Technologies, State Employment Centre.
       9. Larisa Kolos, Gender expert, Department of Family affairs, Ministry for Family,
           Youth and Sports.
       10. Iryna Honcharuk, Leading specialist of the Branch on organization of vocational
           guidance, Chernivtsi oblast employment centre.
       11. Elvira Mruchkovska, Head of NGO “Suchasnyk”.
       12. Halyna Chupina, Director, Chernivtsi Oblast Employment Centre.
       13. Dmytro Nykrysa, Head, Office of vocational training, Chernivtsi Oblast
           Employment Centre.
       14. Olha Shevchuk, Deputy director, Chernivtsi Oblast Employment Centre.

Projectteam-members
        15. Mirela Kasmi, National Project Co-ordinator, Albania.
        16. Edlira Vezelaj, Project Assistant Albania.
        17. Jana Costachi, National Project Co-ordinator, Moldova.
        18. Oleg Chirita, Project Assistant, Moldova.
        19. Hlib Yasnytsky, National Project Co-ordinator, Ukraine.
        20. Sofia Lytvyn, Project Assistant, Ukraine.


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Evaluation of 1st phase of the project: “Employment, Vocational Training Opportunities and Migration Policy Measures to Prevent and Reduce
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8.2 Trainings (some) project team-members received

     1. Managing a national programme against trafficking in human beings, “Addressing the
        labour market dimensions”.
     2. Training on implementation of the project.
     3. Sub-regional training mission to Ukraine.
     4. SAP-FL Field Staff Workshop.
     5. “Combatting Trafficking and Forced Labour in Europe”, SAP-FL (U+M).
     6. Workshop on Developments and Petterns of Migration Processes in Central and
        Eastern Europe.
     7. UNDP-training in Romania.




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