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                                      NMMU

                   SANTED CASE STUDIES (Cycle 2)

                                ENGINEERING

                                FINAL REPORT

                                  October 2010

CONTENTS
1.    Introduction and general contextual background                          2

2.    Process followed: phases of the SANTED case studies                     9

3.    Progress towards finding a coherent academic framework
      and programme structure for Engineering: Stage 1                        15

4.    Issues and questions for consideration and discussion                   21

APPENDICES
1.    Proposed programme structure for NMMU’s Engineering
      Qualifications                                                          22
2.    Analysis of National Diploma / BTech (Mechanical Engineering)
      & Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics based on description
      of knowledge content, competencies and skills                           24
3.    Analysis of National Diplomas: Electrical Engineering &
      Mechanical Engineering                                                  32
4.    Analysis of specific module content in the Diploma in Electrical
      Engineering & the Diploma in Mechanical Engineering                     35
5.    Analysis of BTechs: Electrical Engineering & Mechanical
      Engineering                                                             46
6.    Analysis of specific module content in the BTech (Electrical
      Engineering) & the BTech (Mechanical Engineering)                       50
7.    Analysis of Bachelor of Engineering (Mechatronics)                      52
8.    Analysis of specific module content in the 4-year BEng (Mechatronics)   55
9.    Comparison of knowledge blocks in year 1 of the Diploma in
      Mechanical Engineering and the BEng (Mechatronics)                      67


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1. Introduction and general contextual background

A major focus of the SANTED Project is to examine possibilities for an optimal
curriculum framework for selected case studies at the Nelson Mandela
Metropolitan University (NMMU) as a comprehensive university.

The work on the case studies is intended to assist participating departments and
schools in addressing challenges in their respective disciplines and fields, many
of which have been brought about by the merger of UPE, PE Technikon and the
PE campus of Vista into the NMMU. The results from the case study research will
form the basis for recommendations to:
   Retain existing programmes and / or modules;
   Redesign existing programmes and / or modules;
   Develop new programmes and / or modules;
   Consolidate existing programmes and / or modules;
   Discontinue existing programmes and / or modules; and to
   Develop articulation arrangements among qualification types within a specific
   field or between fields.

While these challenges are being addressed at the case study level, the
SANTED Thematic Task Team (TTT) 11 is dealing with a range of challenging
questions regarding how the NMMU wishes to present itself to stakeholder
communities. These questions relate to the academic mission of the NMMU, as
well as vision and strategic objectives as a merged, comprehensive university.

Relevant to the work of both the case studies and TTT1, Muller’s2 work has
proven helpful. He draws a distinction between two predominant forms of
coherence, namely conceptual and contextual relevance. An institution in which
contextual relevance is predominant will have a more externally-oriented
academic mission that focuses on addressing the educational and training needs
of the external environment. However, an institution in which conceptual
relevance is predominant will place a stronger emphasis on a research-oriented
academic mission and on education provision with a more formative character.

In terms of Muller’s discussion, TTT1’s work includes making decisions regarding
the definition of the academic core of the NMMU in terms of contextual or
conceptual relevance. While there will obviously be overlaps, the choice between
contextual or conceptual relevance as the dominant element in our academic
mission will influence the structure of the NMMU’s programme qualifications mix
(PQM) as well as the balance between different types of qualifications (general-
formative; professional; general occupational).

1
 TTT1 comprises Prof Heather Nel, Prof Nico Jooste and others and was set up specifically to
define the nature and mission of the NMMU as a comprehensive university.
2
 Commissioned SANTED work: Johan Muller: In search of coherence: a conceptual guide to
curriculum planning for comprehensive universities.

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The NMMU draws 70% of its students from the Eastern Cape3 which historically
has had the lowest matriculation pass rate in the country. Accordingly it is
essential that the NMMU has mechanisms in place to both increase access to
higher education studies and to support students from educationally
disadvantaged backgrounds during their studies. The NMMU has fortunately
been able to build on the foundations laid by its merging institutions in this regard
and the issues of access and student development are accorded a high priority.
The mission and vision of the NMMU focus strongly on developing people and
communities to optimise their potential, while one of the core values of the
NMMU is access.

National higher education policies emphasise that career-focused diploma
programmes should grow at a faster rate than degree programmes and this has
indeed been the case at the NMMU since 2006. Between 2005 and 2007, total
headcount enrolments in contact diploma programmes grew by 5.2% (from 7 831
to 8 246) while enrolments in contact undergraduate degree programmes
remained static (from 8 762 to 8 696). Total enrolments in diploma programmes
in 2007 were 48% of the total headcount enrolment, while enrolments in
undergraduate degree programmes stood at 39%4. At both the undergraduate
and postgraduate level, the distribution of headcount enrolments is in line with
the DoE approved enrolment projections for 2010 which indicate that the NMMU
should have 47% of its students enrolled in diplomas, 42% in degrees, 4% in
postgraduate qualifications up to Master’s level, and 7% at Master’s and Doctoral
level.

The NMMU’s overall graduation rates, which are calculated as the ratio of
graduate headcounts to headcount enrolments in a specific year, increased from
20.2% in 2006 to 25.3% in 20075.

The NMMU’s overall success rate (which is closely linked to the graduation rate)
is based on the ratio of successful FTE students to enrolled FTE students.
Although it has risen marginally from 71.7% in 2006 to 73.1% in 20076, it is below
the national average. The NMMU has committed itself to improving success rates
to 75% by 20107.



3
    Self Evaluation Report 2008: Figure 2.11 (Section 2.7) page 21
4
    Table 1 in NMMU Audit Portfolio Guide (Section C: Statistical Profile) page 23
5
 Self Evaluation Report 2008: Figure 2.12 (Section 2.7) page 22; also Figure 24 in NMMU Audit
Portfolio Guide page 83
6
    Figure 19 in NMMU Audit Portfolio Guide (Section C: Statistical Profile) page 57
7
    Self Evaluation Report 2008: page 22

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In a position paper currently being developed by the Thematic Task Team 3
coordinator, Prof Cheryl Foxcroft8, she points out that the NMMU, in its capacity
as a comprehensive university, has an obvious strength in that it provides
applicants with a comprehensive range of programmes (certificates, diplomas,
and degree studies) with a differentiated set of admission requirements. Thus, if
applicants do not meet the requirements for their first choice qualification, they
can be considered for another qualification. Furthermore, articulation from a
programme at one level to one at the next level can be built into the programme
mix.

Despite initial challenges in implementing a centralised process, admission to
diploma and national higher certificate programmes has grown since the merger
(e.g. in 2006 enrolments in diploma programmes grew by 12%) 9 . As a result, the
NMMU has been able to meet its enrolment targets for diploma programmes.

The need to formalise articulation arrangements between programmes and
programme-types and to align qualifications to the HEQF are two of the major
focus areas of the SANTED project.

Clearly there is a dire need at the NMMU to address the low success, throughput
and graduation rates of students in all undergraduate programmes, particularly
National Diplomas and BTechs.

As Foxcroft points out, “The range of programme and articulation options,
together with a developmentally differentiated approach to admissions and
programme placement, has the potential to create multiple entryways and
learning pathways for applicants, resulting in increased access opportunities” 10.

While work on the case studies has avoided the complex and often controversial
issue of broadening the variety of admissions criteria to include both academic
and non-academic criteria, it has focused on the consideration of responsible
multiple entry routes which could possibly be created through articulation
possibilities between programmes within a discipline and even between
disciplines.

The effect of creating multiple articulation routes is that access to programmes
will be broadened, especially to increasingly higher HEQF level programmes.
These multi-level programme pathways will mean that a certain standard of
performance at one level of the programme pathway will facilitate access to a
programme at the next level.
8
 Towards Developing a Framework for Debating the Question of Access at a Comprehensive
University: Revised February 2009: Prof Cheryl Foxcroft
9
    Self Evaluation Report 2008: page 66
10
  Towards Developing a Framework for Debating the Question of Access at a Comprehensive
University: Revised February 2009: Prof Cheryl Foxcroft: page 2

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The literature suggests that the broadening of access results in a more diverse
student body with diverse cultures and this in turn has a range of consequences
for the institution, including placing greater emphasis on multicultural awareness
throughout the campus, student life and in learning materials and the
curriculum11. Further implications are the need to review and revise curriculum
content together with the modes, methods and strategies through which learning
is facilitated; the need to review the nature of the student support services
available; the need to view how this support is integrated with the learning
outcomes of programmes and the qualities universities want in their graduates;
and the need to address professional staff development requirements in the light
of the increased diversity of students.

Boylan (2004)12, in attempting to improve the way that learning is facilitated for
non-traditional students, has improved facilitation of learning for all students.
Responding holistically to “access for success” can therefore fundamentally
change an institution as well as the nature of HE. This is very promising for the
NMMU as the SANTED case studies investigate possible articulation pathways
within and across disciplines.

In conducting the series of meetings with academic staff involved in the ten
SANTED case studies, on several occasions mention was made of the
university-wide problem of significant differences between the entry
competencies of diploma and degree students, with diploma students generally
requiring more developmental support13. The NMMU is committed to the
development of its students by fostering a supportive and enabling environment
that both builds capacity and empowers students to optimise their potential to
succeed in their studies. One reason why the NMMU places an emphasis on
developing its students is linked to the fact that along with our commitment to
increasing access comes a concomitant responsibility to especially provide
academic development and support opportunities to students who are not
adequately prepared for higher education studies but who have the potential to
succeed.




11
 Astin, 1993; Boylan, 2004; Smith, 1997). Cited in Foxcroft’s position paper “Towards
Developing a Framework for Debating the Question of Access at a Comprehensive University:
Revised February 2009”
12
   Cited in Foxcroft’s position paper “Towards Developing a Framework for Debating the Question
of Access at a Comprehensive University: Revised February 2009”
13
     Risk Profiles for degree students: Self Evaluation Report 2008: 12.1 in section 12.2.2, page 96


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1.1       IMPLICATIONS FOR ENGINEERING

1.1.1 Enrolments and biographical Information
The 2009 enrolments in the Engineering programmes (focused on in the
SANTED case studies14) is as follows:

       National Diploma (Electrical Engineering): 432 (comprising 66% black; 21%
       white; 11% coloured; 2% Indian students). Of the total number of students
       enrolled in the National Diploma (Electrical Engineering), 77% were males.

       National Diploma (Mechanical Engineering): 253 (comprising 58% black;
       32% white; 9% coloured; 1% Indian students). Of the total number of
       students enrolled in the National Diploma (Mechanical Engineering), 89%
       were males.

       BTech (Electrical Engineering): 89 (comprising 37% black; 43% white; 18%
       coloured; 2% Indian students). Of the total number of students enrolled in the
       BTech (Electrical Engineering), 97% were males.

       BTech (Mechanical Engineering): 53 (comprising 43% white; 36% black; 13%
       coloured; and 8% Indian students). Of the total number of students enrolled
       in the BTech (Mechanical Engineering), 89% were males.

       BEng Mechatronics: 140 (comprising 48% white; 40% black; 8% coloured;
       4% Indian students). Of the total number of students enrolled in the BEng
       Mechatronics, 87% were males.


1.1.2 Throughput rates
Once again the focus here is on the Engineering programmes focused on in the
SANTED case studies.

Throughput rates15 for the 2002 intake of National Diploma (Electrical
Engineering) students was 14.2% (graduates completing in the minimum time of
three years, i.e. in 2004). However after six years (i.e. 3 years + 3 years) 41.2%

14
     The following programmes formed the focus of the Engineering case studies:
              National Diploma: Electrical Engineering (Power / Industrial        /   Electronic
              Communication / Computers);
              National Diploma: Mechanical Engineering;
              Bachelor of Technology: Electrical Engineering;
              Bachelor of Technology: Mechanical Engineering;
              Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics
15
     Statistics provided by Dr CJ Sheppard, Director: Management Information

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of the cohort had graduated. Of note is that of the 303 students enrolled in the
National Diploma (Electrical Engineering) in 2002, only 232 (76%) proceeded to
the second year16.

The throughput rates for the 2002 intake of National Diploma (Mechanical
Engineering) students was 25.4% (graduates completing in the minimum time of
three years, i.e. in 2004), and 55% after six years (i.e. three years + three years).
Of the 169 students enrolled in the National Diploma (Mechanical Engineering) in
2002, 147 (87%) proceeded to the second year.
This can be summarised as follows:

Qualification            Graduate in min.           Graduate in 3 + 3     Students proceeding
                         time: 3 years (2005)       years (2007)          from 1st to 2nd year
                                                                          (2002 to 2003)
National Diploma                 14.2%                     41.2%                  76.5%
(Electrical
Engineering)
National Diploma                 25.4%                      55%                    87%
(Mechanical
Engineering)




1.2      CONCLUSION

The NMMU is currently addressing the high attrition rates of diploma students
from year 1 to year 2 as well as the poor graduation rates, by:

     Providing more comprehensive support and development to enable first year
     students to successfully make the transition from school to university – both
     from first-year lecturers and the development and support services offered in
     the Higher Education and Development Services (HEADS).. This involves the
     identification of high risk students and putting them in touch with support and
     development opportunities;

     Raising the admission criteria in accordance with the research findings of the
     Centre for Access Assessment and Research (CAAR). Students who do not
     meet the admission requirements for a diploma are counseled into an
     extended programme;

     Analysing the reasons why students are dropping out after year 1 of the
     diploma. This research is also being undertaken by CAAR. Furthermore,
     research undertaken by the Schools of Management Sciences and Accounting
     have indicated that the lack of flexibility for students to move into a different

16
  It is not clear how many of those who did not proceed to year 2 in 2003, failed and proceeded
with year 2 the following year, and how many dropped out of higher education completely.

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  diploma pathway (from the one they initially enrolled in) after year 1 may well
  be a contributing factor;

  Examining the nature of the first-year curricula (linked to the bullet point
  above). An issue is that students sometimes make the wrong career choices,
  especially since there is no real career guidance in our schools anymore.
  Engineering, for example, is a high profile career these days: students might
  want to study it without being suited to it, or they might choose to enter the
  wrong sub-field. The rigid nature of many diploma curricula and the fact that
  there is little overlap between the various curricula, make it difficult for
  students to change programmes. A common first semester with an
  introduction to the various sub-fields might make it easier to stream students
  to appropriate sub-fields, or even to another discipline/profession.

  Examining the curricula and the teaching and learning methods used with
  regard to providing space for students to develop their language and
  communication competencies as well as their problem-solving, leadership and
  team work skills. These are the generic competencies that employers want to
  see over and above graduates’ specific discipline knowledge and skills. The
  development of these generic competencies will also impact on success rates
  since language and problem-solving difficulties are among the key factors that
  impinge on student success rates.

The last two bullet points are particularly relevant to the SANTED case studies,
during which a major focus has been on the analysis of curriculum content in
diplomas, especially with regard to how diplomas might articulate into relevant
Bachelor’s degree programmes.




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2. Process followed: phases of the SANTED case studies

2.1 Phase 1 (Information-gathering)
During this phase, information for each programme in the Engineering case study
group17 was gathered against the questions agreed upon by the SANTED Broad
Academic Task team (BATT) Case Study Questions Working Group.

In this phase a range of relevant information was gathered, including:
    Comprehensive curriculum information in terms of programme exit outcomes,
    graduate profiles and module information in respect of topics, credit values
    and teaching, learning and assessment strategies;
    Requirements or guidelines with respect to programme specification,
    including the regulatory requirements for programme design by the
    professional bodies (mainly ECSA); and
    SAQA qualification specifications.


2.2 Phase 2 (Analyses)
In an attempt to find meaningful comparison, three programmes (National
Diploma / BTech Mechanical Engineering and the BEng Mechatronics) in the
SANTED Engineering case studies were subjected to preliminary comparative
analyses (see Appendices) in preparation for further scrutiny by the School and
Faculty Academics.      During this process the following questions were
considered:
   What is the purpose of the qualification?
   What kind of graduate should the programme produce?
   What are the learning outcomes of the programme?
   What is the nature and balance of the theoretical and practical knowledge,
   competencies and skills that the graduate needs to develop in each
   programme, and what are the implications of this balance for the way in which
   the programme is designed? The theoretical framework and the practical
   competencies that graduates need to develop depend on the graduate profile
   and exit level outcomes of the programme;
   The coherence of the curriculum18: A curriculum is conceptually coherent
   when there is an upward or vertical hierarchy of conceptual abstraction, with
   later concepts dependent for their meaning on earlier concepts. On the other


17
     The following programmes formed the focus of the Engineering case studies:
              National Diploma: Electrical Engineering (Power / Industrial / Electronic Communication /
              Computers);
              National Diploma: Mechanical Engineering;
              Bachelor of Technology: Electrical Engineering;
              Bachelor of Technology: Mechanical Engineering;
              Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics
18
     The key criteria for curriculum coherence are sequencing, pacing and progression.


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     hand, a contextually coherent curriculum sequencing is less important, with
     topics being selected for relevance and coherence to a particular context.

     Put another way: curriculum coherence focuses on the manner in which
     knowledge, skills and attitudes are developed. In other words, to what extent
     do certain curricular components build on each other in a vertical sequence,
     or to what extent are the learning components more independent of each
     other so that vertical sequencing is less important?

The clarification of these questions will form the basis for decisions on curriculum
design, access and articulation for the NMMU’s Engineering qualifications. In
order to make these crucial decisions, use is being made of Johan Muller’s
analysis19 of the four different qualification routes through which graduates are
prepared for the world of productive work, as follows:

ROUTE 1: Includes disciplines / fields with a stronger conceptual orientation, and
an emphasis on internal validation of knowledge. Both hard and soft “pure”
disciplines; contemporary version of the liberal arts & sciences;

ROUTE 2: Includes the traditional and some new professions; a more applied or
contextual focus, but tensions in terms of the appropriate balance between a
conceptual and contextual orientation. The traditional general-formative ideal still
shapes the undergraduate curriculum, in terms of the development of a broad
conceptual framework. The intensive Bachelor’s with professional capping up to
Master’s level forms the basic pattern;

ROUTE 3: Has a stronger contextual focus on the practical knowledge required
to meet occupational demands; linked to some applied theory. Occupational
specialisation occurs earlier than in Route 2 so that comparatively less attention
is paid to the development of a broad conceptual basis. Conceptual
understanding remains important, but has a more specific nature;

ROUTE 4: Includes occupationally specific qualifications that straddle both
secondary and tertiary education; emphasis placed upon on-the-job training; no
direct access to degree study.

These four routes are summarised in the adapted version of Muller’s table
overleaf:




19
   Commissioned SANTED work: Johan Muller: In search of coherence: a conceptual guide to curriculum
planning for comprehensive universities.

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   TABLE 1

                   ROUTE 4               ROUTE 3                   ROUTE 2                     ROUTE 1
                 Contextually           Contextually             Conceptually                Conceptually
                   relevant               relevant                 relevant                     relevant
                  Particular /            General               Traditional and              Academia; 4th
                   specific             occupation            some 4th generation             generation
                 occupations                  s                  professions                  professions
Labour         E.g. Travel           E.g. Technicians,        E.g. Engineers, lawyers,     Researchers,
Market         agents, hospitality   Technologists,           architects, HR managers,     academics
               workers, trade                                 industrial psychologists,
               technicians                                    doctors, teachers, social
                                                              workers
Knowledge      Largely practical     Practical knowledge      Applied theory & practical   Largely theoretical
               knowledge             & some applied           experience                   progression of the
                                     theory                                                discipline
Induction      On-the-job-           Apprenticeship           External internship (e.g.    Internal internship
               training,                                      housemanship)                (e.g. postdoctoral
               some                                                                        work, tenure)
               apprenticeship
Regulation     Moderate to weak      Moderate sectoral        Strong sectoral regulation   Moderate to strong
               sectoral regulation   regulation (e.g. trade   (e.g. accreditation          disciplinary regulation
               (e.g. hairdresser’s   tests)                   requirements; board          (peer review)
               practical test)                                exams)




   To facilitate comparisons, each programme in the case study group was
   mapped against the following criteria20:

         A comparison of the purpose and learning pathway of each in order to
         identify overlaps;

         A comparison of the graduate profiles of each programme being considered;

         A comparison of the knowledge base / content of each in order to identify
         overlaps;

         The key characteristics of the knowledge / content making up the
         programme:
         o Does the knowledge predominantly require a hierarchical (vertical)
            progression where new knowledge builds on existing knowledge OR is it
            non-hierarchical (horizontal) where knowledge is packaged into self-
            contained modules?


   20
     Ms Trish Gibbon’s assistance with the development of the analytical model used for this mapping is
   acknowledged


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     o Is the knowledge predominantly hard (well-defined knowledge base) or
       soft (looser knowledge base)?
     o Is the knowledge predominantly pure (a focus on theoretical coherence) or
       applied (a focus on contextual requirements and applications)?
     o Using the above mentioned characteristics, knowledge may be defined as
       hierarchical or non-hierarchical and hard pure, hard applied, soft pure and
       soft applied21.

     The competencies required of the graduate of the programme:
     o Are these predominantly operational / specific to a limited context OR
        strategic / generally applicable within a broader context?

     The skills required of the graduate of the programme:
     o Are these predominantly technical / analytical /creative/ research?

     The teaching and learning strategies used: Are these predominantly:
     o Discursive (lectures, seminars, text-book based, studio based);
     o Practical (workshop, laboratory-work);
     o In-service practicum learning (on-the-job / site experience / formal
        internship)?

     The nature of summative assessment strategies used: Is the process of
     collecting evidence and making judgements about a student’s level of
     competence or achievement in relation to the learning outcomes in the form of
     an accumulation of exercises and tests written throughout the year, final
     written examinations, practical demonstrations or portfolio presentations (or a
     combination of these)?

Towards the end of 2009 it became clear that NMMU still faced fundamental
questions with respect to curriculum design, including: the differences between
diplomas and degrees; how to define the difference between vocational /
professional / academic pathways; what the differences are in the curriculum
logics of diplomas and degrees. What these challenges suggest is that a
curriculum model that helps to address the questions that lie at the heart of the
analytical phase (Phase 2) is still to be identified.


21
   Becher & Trowler (Academic Tribes and Territories 2nd Ed, 2002) describe the nature of knowledge & the
disciplinary groupings as follows:
Hard-pure: pure sciences (e.g. Physics): cumulative; atomistic; concerned with universals; impersonal &
value free; clear criteria for knowledge verification; results in discovery / explanation.
Soft-pure: pure social sciences (e.g. Anthropology): reiterative; holistic; concerned with particulars; personal
& value-laden; dispute over criteria for knowledge verification; results in understanding / interpretation.
Hard-applied: technologies (e.g. Mechanical Engineering / Clinical Medicine): purposive & pragmatic (know-
how via hard knowledge); concerned with mastery of physical environment; criteria for judgement are
purposive & functional; results in products / techniques.
Soft-applied: applied social sciences (e.g. Management / Education / Law): functional & utilitarian (know-
how via soft knowledge); concerned with enhancement of professional practice; results in protocols /
procedures.

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As a result, during 2010 the Centre for Higher Education Development (CHED) at
the University of Cape Town was contracted to assist the NMMU in the
development of a curriculum model that provides an explanatory framework for
addressing such questions. The purpose of the collaborative work with CHED
was therefore to develop, building on the work of Johan Muller (2008), a
conceptual framework for the curriculum that would provide a basis for
understanding and classifying the curricular logic of different types of
qualifications within the same discipline or academic field, as well as in different
disciplinary fields. It was envisaged that this framework would serve as the basis
for curriculum analysis and development, decisions on admissions and
articulation, and the development of a proposed consolidated qualification
structure.

While Engineering was not one of the case studies identified for participation in
this collaborative endeavour with CHED (i.e. Stage 2), it is anticipated that the
conceptual framework developed during this process will be applied to all
programmes at the NMMU when they undergo redevelopment.

2.3 Phase 3 (Feedback from experts in the academic and professional field)
   Once the School, Department and Faculty had reached consensus, the
   proposed academic and programme models for re-curriculation, articulation
   and programme restructuring would be presented to external academics,
   employers and professional bodies for their feedback and advice.

2.4 Phase 4 (Consolidation with internal processes)
   The agreed academic model / structure will be submitted for internal approval;
   Project outcomes are aligned with the University’s planning initiatives;
   Project outcomes are integrated into the University’s systems for academic
   planning, quality management and academic development (including the
   establishment of appropriate structures for the coordination of articulation
   processes and curriculum design;
   The resource centre is consolidated into the University structures;
   Report is written on project findings;
   Financial statements are audited;
   Project findings are shared with the HE sector.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2.5    Phase 5 (curriculum development / redevelopment)
Curriculum design, development, redevelopment will be undertaken by the
School / Department in conjunction with the Centre for Teaching, Learning &
Media (CTLM).




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2.6   Summary
In summary, the following approach was therefore being used to develop a final
proposal for a consolidated qualification structure:

   Programme mapping (information on characteristics of current programmes);

   Analysis of the programme by starting with the profile of the graduate of the
   programme (here the insights and advice of employers, professional bodies
   and other stakeholders are solicited);

   Identification of the exit level outcomes (in terms of knowledge, skills and
   attributes) needed to produce the required graduate competencies;

   Determination of the nature of the knowledge, competencies and skills
   necessary to create these exit level outcomes;

   Determination of appropriate strategies for teaching, learning and assessment
   in the various programmes within the academic field;

   Development of a consolidated and final proposal on the qualification
   structure for the academic field with appropriate models for access, retention
   and articulation;

   Development of the programme against the revised HEQF guidelines
   (5 October 2007) and the revised Level Descriptors.




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3. Progress towards finding a coherent academic framework and
   programme structure for Engineering: Stage 1

3.1 Information-gathering
    Templates for the following programmes in the Engineering case studies
    were completed during this phase: National Diploma: Electrical Engineering
    (Power / Industrial / Electronic Communication / Computers); National
    Diploma: Mechanical Engineering; Bachelor of Technology: Electrical
    Engineering; Bachelor of Technology: Mechanical Engineering; Bachelor of
    Engineering: Mechatronics.


3.2 Comparative analyses
    A series of comparative analyses was undertaken over a period of 18
    months. These analyses, which require more intense scrutiny by the
    discipline experts, will be used to make decisions leading to the
    development of proposals on curriculum design, programme models,
    access models and articulation pathways for Engineering at the NMMU.

     They are as follows:

     3.2.1 Analysis of National Diploma: Mechanical Engineering & Bachelor
     of Technology (Mechanical Engineering) & Bachelor of Engineering
     (Mechatronics) based on description of knowledge content, competencies
     and skills (Appendix 1, page 27). Here an attempt was made to identify
     common knowledge blocks.

     3.2.2 Analysis of National Diplomas: Electrical Engineering & Mechanical
     Engineering (Appendix 2, page 35) to examine graduate profiles and
     purpose against knowledge blocks.

     3.2.3 Analysis of specific module content in the Diploma in Electrical
     Engineering & the Diploma in Mechanical Engineering (Appendix 2.1, page
     38) in order to identify common knowledge blocks. Here an attempt was
     also made to compare the Diplomas with the revised ECSA standard for
     Diploma-type programmes for Engineering Technician registration with
     ECSA.

     3.2.4 Analysis of BTechs: Electrical Engineering & Mechanical
     Engineering (Appendix 3, page 49) to examine graduate profiles and
     purpose against knowledge blocks.

     3.2.5 Analysis of specific module content in the BTech (Electrical
     Engineering) & the BTech (Mechanical Engineering): i.e. year 4 on top of a
     National Diploma (Appendix 3.1, page 53). Here an attempt was also made

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                                       16


     to compare the Diploma / BTech with the revised ECSA standard for
     BEngTech-type programmes for Engineering Technologist registration with
     ECSA.

     3.2.6 Analysis of Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics (Appendix 4,
     page 55) to examine graduate profile and purpose against knowledge
     blocks.

     3.2.7 Analysis of specific module content in the four-year BEng
     (Mechatronics) (Appendix 4.1, page 58). Here an attempt was made to
     compare the current BEng (Mechatronics) with the revised ECSA standard
     for BEng-type programmes for Professional Engineer registration with
     ECSA.

     3.2.8 Comparison of knowledge blocks in year 1: Diploma (Mechanical
     Engineering) & BEng (Mechatronics) (Appendix 5, page 70).


3.3 Focus group meetings with discipline experts
    The analysis of the knowledge blocks in year 1: Diploma (Mechanical
    Engineering) & BEng (Mechatronics) seemed to indicate that due to the
    vastly different knowledge blocks making up the first year of each of these
    qualifications, there was no possibility to create an articulation pathway
    between the two.

     This conclusion was tested and confirmed in focus group meetings with the
     Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Design discipline experts (June
     2009), where it was established that the Diploma had a weaker theoretical
     and conceptual base than the Degree. In addition, different pedagogies
     were used, which in turn presented challenges to students who are used to
     one teaching and learning paradigm having to adapt to a new and vastly
     different one. A further problem relates to the poor proficiency of Diploma
     students in the language of instruction (English).

     The implications are that a Diploma in Mechanical Engineering student, who
     wishes to undertake BEng (Mechatronics) studies, would have to apply for
     admission into the first year of the BEng Mechatronics, applying for
     appropriate exemptions / credits for any specific modules already passed (if
     any). This would have to be done on a case-by-case basis.

     In order to provide a suitable replacement for the current BTechs and also
     to accommodate articulation into the Degree pathway for the exceptional
     Diploma student, the School of Engineering is currently considering the
     option of a new Bachelor of Engineering Technology (three years; level 7)
     which will be aligned with the restructured Diploma in Engineering (refer
     Section 4, pages 23-24).


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                                             17


      A further revelation which emanated from the focus group meeting with the
      Engineering Design academics, was that in spite of the clearly defined
      ECSA standards for problem-solving skills developed for the Level 6
      Diploma (Engineering Technician pathway), the Level 7 BTech22
      (Engineering Technologist pathway), and the four-year Level 8 Bachelor of
      Engineering (Mechatronics) (Professional Engineer pathway), this was not
      manifested in reality.

      In other words, while the ECSA standard requires the Technician pathway
      (i.e. Diploma students) to be able to solve well-defined problems, the
      Technologist pathway (i.e. BTech students) to be able to solve broadly
      defined problems, and the Professional Engineer pathway (i.e. BEng
      students) to be able to define complex problems, in reality the boundaries
      were blurred. This means that there is currently no clear distinction between
      the capstone projects and related learning outcomes for the Diploma and
      BTech and capstone projects and related learning outcomes for the BTech
      and BEng (Mechatronics).


3.4 Feedback from experts and stakeholders in the Engineering academic
    and professional fields
       This phase commenced with an ECSA workshop in April 2008 and is
       already underway. At this workshop intensive discussions occurred
       nationally on the implications of the revised HEQF, particularly on
       Engineering Technology programmes 23.

         A follow-up workshop, again convened by ECSA, was held in November
         2008. At this workshop there appeared to be general consensus
         regarding the proposed ECSA and Engineering Standards Generating
         Body (ESGB) standards which are scheduled to be registered in early
         2009.

         In early March 2009, Dr Terry Stidworthy from ECSA presented a
          workshop at NMMU on the standards which had recently been
          registered for Professional Engineers (Bachelor of Engineering-type
          qualifications), Engineering Technologist (Bachelor of Engineering
          Technology-type qualifications) and Engineering Technician (Diploma in
          Engineering / Higher Certificate in Engineering-type qualifications).


22
 The BTech will probably be replaced with a three-year BTechEng (refer proposed structure for
NMMU Engineering qualifications in the Appendices)
23
  HEQF Aligned Qualifications for Engineering Technicians and Technologists (24 October 2007)
& Engineering Council of South Africa Position Paper: Implementing Engineering Qualifications
under the HEQF: Draft 2 (4 February 2008)


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                                               18


         These three different qualification routes proposed by ECSA for
         Engineering qualifications24 each comprise the following ten exit level
         outcomes (at progressive levels of complexity):
         o ELO 1: identify, assess, formulate and solve engineering problems;
         o ELO 2: use math, basic science and engineering science knowledge
            to solve engineering problems;
         o ELO 3: perform design and synthesis of solutions;
         o ELO 4: design and conduct investigations and experiments;
         o ELO 5: use appropriate engineering methods, skills and tools,
            including those based on IT;
         o ELO 6: communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, with
            engineering and wider audiences;
         o ELO 7: assess impact of engineering activity on social, industrial and
            physical environment;
         o ELO 8: work effectively as an individual, in teams;
         o ELO 9: engage in independent learning through well-developed
            learning skills;
         o ELO 10: act professionally and ethically, exercise judgment and take
            responsibility within own limits.

         The ECSA approach to generating the standards was to use the
         professional graduate profiles to derive the purpose of qualifications as
         follows25:

      Professional Engineers             Professional Engineering                    Professional
              (BEng)                          Technologists                          Engineering
                                               (BEngTech)                            Technicians
                                                                                       (DipEng)
                                          are characterised by:
     Solving problems, developing        Applying established and            Applying proven, commonly
     components, systems,                newly developed engineering         understood techniques
     services and processes by           technology to solve problems,       procedures, practices and
     analysis, synthesis, creativity,    develop components, systems,        codes in support of
     innovation and applying             services and processes.             engineering activities.
     fundamental and engineering
     principles.
     Providing technical and             Providing leadership in             Managing and supervising
     commercial leadership through       applying technology and             engineering operations,
     well-developed interpersonal        commercially and have well-         construction and activities.
     skills.                             developed interpersonal skills.

24
  Refer also to the ECSA / ESGB paper: HEQF Compliant Generic Engineering Qualifications,
Draft 2: 24 October 2008 which compares the BEng-type qualification, the BEngTech-type
qualification, the Diploma-type qualification and the Advanced certificate-type qualification.
25
  Based on the IEM Graduate Attributes and Professional Competency Profiles according to the
Washington accord, the Sydney accord and the Dublin Accord, as set out in the paper: Graduate
Attributes and Professional Competencies Version 1.1 – 13 June 2005.

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                                               19



     Working independently and           Working independently and            Working independently and
     responsibly, applying original      responsibly, applying judgment       responsibly within an
     thought and judgment to             to decisions arising in the          allocated area or under
     technical and risk-based            application of technology to         guidance of an engineer or
     decisions in complex                problems and associated risks.       technologist.
     situations.
     Optimising technical                Ensuring that engineering            Ensuring that engineering
     performance, costs and              solutions meet performance           solutions meet performance
     benefits to clients and             requirements and accepted            requirements and accepted
     community while achieving           minimum standards for the            minimum standards for
     desired outcomes within the         community’s safety and               health and safety.
     context of a safe and               welfare.
     sustainable environment.
                           To achieve this their knowledge encompasses
     A broad, fundamentals-based         An understanding of                  A working understanding of
     appreciation of engineering         engineering sciences                 engineering sciences
     sciences, with depth in specific    underlying a deep knowledge          underlying the techniques
     areas, together with financial,     of specific technologies,            used, together with
     commercial, legal, social and       together with financial,             financial, legal and health,
     health, safety and                  commercial, legal, social and        safety and environmental
     environmental matters               health, safety and                   methodologies.
                                         environmental matters.
                          The qualification outcome (graduate profile) is:
     Conduct investigations of           Conduct investigations of            Conduct investigations of
     complex problems26 including        broadly-defined problems27;          well-defined problems28;
26
   Complex Problems require identification and analysis, and may be concrete or abstract, may
be divergent and may involve significant uncertainty. Problems may be infrequently encountered
types and occur in unfamiliar contexts. Approach to problem-solving needs to be found, is
creative and innovative. Information is complex and possibly incomplete, requiring validation and
critical analysis; Solutions are based on theory, use of first-principles and evidence, (which may
be incomplete) together with judgement where necessary; Involves a variety of interactions which
may impose conflicting constraints, premises, assumptions restrictions
27
   Broadly Defined Problems require identification and analysis which may be concrete, but ill-
posed or have a degree of uncertainty; Problems may be unfamiliar, but are capable of
interpretation for solution by technologies in practice area; Approach to solution involves using
structured analysis techniques in well-accepted, creative and innovative ways. Information is
complex and possibly incomplete, requires validation, supplementation and compilation into the
information base; Solutions may be partially outside standards and codes, may require judgment,
and may operate outside standards and codes with justification; Involves a variety of factors
which may impose conflicting constraints, premises, assumptions or restrictions.
28
   Well Defined Problem statements are concrete, requirements are largely complete and
certain, but may require refinement; Problems may be unfamiliar, but occur in familiar contexts
and are amenable to solution by established methodologies; Approach to solution involves
standardized methodologies or codified best practice. Information is concrete and largely
complete, requires validation and possible supplementation; Solutions are encompassed by
standards, codes and documented procedures; judgment of outcome is required; Involves several
issues, but with few of these imposing conflicting constraints, premises, assumptions or
restrictions within limitations of procedures.


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                                          20


   •   design of experiments,        •   locate, search and select   •   locate and search
   •   analysis and interpretation       relevant data from codes,       relevant codes and
       of data,                          databases and literature,       catalogues,
   •   synthesis of information to   •   design and conduct          •    conduct standard tests
       provide valid conclusions         experiments to provide          and measurements.
                                         valid conclusions.

        The knowledge base for all Engineering qualifications can be broken
        down into the following areas:
        o    Mathematical Sciences
        o    Basic Sciences
        o    Engineering Sciences
        o    Engineering Design
        o    Computing & IT
        o    Complementary Studies
        o    Engineering Practice

       In the discussion on the new Diploma requirements, Dr Stidworthy said
       that ECSA has made the decision that even though the HEQF states that
       a “Diploma may include work integrated learning (WIL)”, the proposed
       diploma will include it, and that once SAQA / CHE approves the standard,
       it will become compulsory for HEIs to include WIL as part of their Diploma.
       It was pointed out that if the Diploma is designed to include WIL as part of
       the qualification, then it would attract DoE funding.

       In response to the question regarding the progression route for the
       BEngTech, Dr Stidworthy responded that ECSA envisaged a common
       MEng for both the BEng (professional engineer route) and the BEngTech
       (professional engineering technologist route).

       It was also pointed out that the DoE has indicated that:
           o It is not able to consider any new redeveloped qualification for the
             next 18 months;
           o The CHE is taking over from SAQA for the registration of standards;
           o Anything the NMMU proposes may have to change in the light of any
             decision taken by the DoE and CHE;
           o The national debate regarding the possible introduction of a four-
             year Bachelor’s degree to address educational disadvantage will
             continue.

       Finally, as the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA) consolidates its
       position regarding registration of qualifications under the revised HEQF,
       scrutiny of the optimal structure for the NMMU’s Engineering qualifications
       will continue.




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                                                21


4.        Issues and questions for consideration and discussion

          The current lack of clear distinction between the capstone projects and
          related learning outcomes for the Diploma and BTech29 and capstone
          projects and related learning outcomes for the BTech and BEng
          (Mechatronics) should be considered with a view to creating distinctly
          different capstone projects which are aligned with the required ECSA
          standards. These require the Technician pathway (i.e. Diploma students)
          to be able to solve well-defined problems, the Technologist pathway (i.e.
          BTech students) to be able to solve broadly defined problems, and the
          Professional Engineer pathway (ie BEng students) to be able to define
          complex problems.

          There are crucial questions that require clarification around exactly how
          the Department of Education (DoE) funding mechanism under the
          revised HEQF will work. This will require specific information from the
          Director: Management Information.

          It was noted that the DoE had investigated the funding of work integrated
          learning (WIL) and together with HESA had decided not to fund it. The
          main reason was that they were not convinced of the quality of experiential
          learning. The Minister has, however, indicated that the issue could be
          revisited now that the new HEQF has been gazetted. It was suggested
          that the Dean of Engineering should, through the Deputy Vice-Chancellor
          (Academic) / Vice-Chancellor, send a letter to the Minister of Education,
          via HESA, requesting that the matter of funding for WIL be reconsidered.

          A minority view that emerged was that WIL experiences, if structured into
          credit-bearing portfolio-based modules, will in fact be eligible for funding.

          How pipeline students are to be dealt with and the final date for allowing
          students to enrol in the BTech are still not certain. While the revised HEQF
          came into effect in January 2009, the DoE has indicated that new
          enrolments into the current National Diplomas could still occur up to and
          including 2013. This means that new enrolments into the current BTech
          could still occur up to and including 2016. However, this would not provide
          for students who failed a year along the way.

          Clear communication must occur early with prospective students
          regarding new options to replace the current National Diploma / BTech
          pathway.




29
     The current capping 1-year BTech will probably be replaced by a 3-year, Level 7 BTechEng

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                                                      22


APPENDIX 1: Proposed programme structure for NMMU’s
Engineering qualifications30

         Earlier models (available upon request) were scrutinised and discussed,
         and rejected for two main reasons: current resources would not allow the
         School to offer a wide range of programmes and a common first semester
         for all Engineering students (diploma and degree) is not feasible due to the
         varying skill sets of students at entry level.

         The current preferred structure for the NMMU’s Engineering qualifications,
         which is still under discussion, includes the following main features:
             Three different programme pathways are available to school-leavers: a
             diploma (entry for school-leavers with an NSC result which allows
             diploma entry) and two Bachelor’s degrees (entry for school-leavers
             with an NSC result which allows degree entry) as follows:
              o A three-year Diploma of Engineering which will lead to registration
                  as a Professional Engineering Technician;
              o A three-year Bachelor of Engineering Technology which will lead to
                  registration as a Professional Engineering Technologist;
              o The Bachelor of Engineering (Mechatronics) which will lead to
                  registration as a Professional Engineer.

              The curricula for the BEngTech and the Diploma (both career-focused,
              contextually-oriented pathways) will be designed in a manner which
              accommodates similar knowledges in the first two years. This will then
              mean that Diploma students who attain a specified level of achievement
              in the first two years may be allowed to articulate into the BEng Tech,
              taking specified credits with them (up to a maximum of 180 credits).
              Alternatively, a graduate from the Diploma may articulate into the
              BEngTech, also taking a maximum of 180 credits with them.

              The only way a Diploma student will be able to continue with
              postgraduate studies is to articulate into the BEng Tech in the ways
              outlined in the previous bullet point.

              A graduate from the three-year Bachelor’s Degree may, on meeting
              certain admission criteria, progress to the one-year Bachelor Honours
              Degree.

              A Bachelor’s Honours Degree or the four-year professional Bachelor’s
              Degree may progress to the Master’s Degree.

              A Master’s Degree graduate may progress to the Doctoral Degree.


30
     Refer to Section 4.1 (page 24) of this report.

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                                                                                             23




                                             PROPOSED STRUCTURE FOR ENGINEERING PROGRAMMES AT NMMU
                                                                                         DOCTORAL DEGREE
LEVEL 10                                                                                    (LEVEL 10)



LEVEL 9                                                                                  MASTERS DEGREE
                                                                                            (LEVEL 9)
                                                                                                                                      Professional Eng
                                                                  BENG HONS                                   BENG
LEVEL 8                                                             (LEVEL 8)
                                                                                                              (MECHATRONICS)
                                                               1 Yr / 120 credits (all
                                                                                                              (Professional)
LEVEL 7                                                                @ L8)                                  (LEVEL 8)                  NOTE: From HEQF doc (5 Oct 2007):
                                     See Note 2                                               Engineering                                page 9
                                                               BACHELOR OF ENG                Technologist
                                                               TECH (LEVEL 7)                                 4 Yrs / 480 credits;
                                                                                                              (min 96 credits @ L8;      Note 1: “Any and all credits for an
LEVEL 6       Eng                                                                                             min 120 credits @ L7;
           Technician                                          3 Yrs / 360 credits                                                       incomplete qualification may be
                           DIPLOMA IN                                                                         max 96 credits @ L5)
                           ENG (LEVEL 6)
                                                               (min 120 credits @ L7;                                                    recognized as meeting part of the
                                                               max 96 credits @ L5)                                                      requirements for a different qualification
                           3 Yrs / 360
                           credits; min 60                                                                                               in the same or different institution.”
                           credits @ L7;          See Note 1
                           max 120 credits                                                                                               Note 2: “…a maximum of 50% credits of
LEVEL 5                    @ L5                                                                                                          a completed qualification may be
                                                                                                                                         transferred to another qualification,
                                                                                                                                         provided also that no more than 50% of
                                                                                                                                         the credits required for the other
                                                                                                                                         qualification are credits that have been
                                                                                                                                         used for a completed qualification.”
                             Meets NSC Diploma
                        requirements PLUS a Maths &                                      Meets NSC Degree
                            Science requirement                            Requirements PLUS a Maths & Science requirement




           SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                                                  24



  APPENDIX 2: Analysis of National Diploma: Mechanical Engineering & Bachelor of Technology
  (Mechanical Engineering) & Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics based on description of
  knowledge content, competencies and skills

                   National Diploma & BTech: Mechanical Engineering                          Bachelor of Engineering:
                                                                                                  Mechatronics
Purpose of the     ND:                                                                        Graduates have a broad,
qualification       Graduates have a working understanding of mechanical engineering          fundamentals-based
                    sciences underlying the techniques used, together with financial,         appreciation of mechanical
                    legal & health, safety & environmental methodologies AND are              engineering sciences, with depth
                    capable of performing all the functions of a mechanical engineering       in specific areas, together with
                    technician in both the public and private sectors;                        financial, commercial, legal,
                    Focuses on well-defined Engineering problems;                             social & health, safety &
                    Leads to registration as a professional mechanical engineering            environmental matters AND are
                    technician-in-training with the Engineering Council of South Africa       capable of performing all the
                    (ECSA).                                                                   functions of a professional
                                                                                              mechanical engineer in both the
                   BTECH:                                                                     public and private sectors;
                     Graduates have an understanding of mechanical engineering                Focuses on complex
                     sciences underlying a deep knowledge of specific technologies,           Engineering problems;
                     together with financial, commercial, legal, social & health, safety &
                     environmental matters AND are capable of performing all the              Leads to registration with ECSA
                     functions of a professional mechanical engineering technologist in       as a professional mechanical
                     both the public and private sectors;                                     engineer.
                     Focuses on broadly-defined Engineering problems;
                     Leads to registration with ECSA as a candidate mechanical
                     technologist in the field of mechanical engineering.
Graduate Profile   ND:                                                                         Ability to select    and specify
                       Ability to apply mechanical engineering principles to diagnose &        components and       systems to
                       solve engineering problems;                                             provide optimum       engineering
                       Ability to demonstrate mechanical engineering knowledge & skills        performance;
                       in one or more specialised areas;                                       Ability to specify   a system in


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                                                                 25



                       Ability to engage in mechanical engineering design work                   association with the appropriate
                       individually & as part of a team;                                         component selection;
                       Ability to apply management principles in an engineering                  Ability to assess engineering
                       environment;                                                              performance of systems to
                       Ability to install, assemble, commission and maintain mechanical          changes     in    design    and
                       engineering equipment or functions within applicable standards            operating conditions.
                       and codes of practice;
                       Ability to apply technical knowledge and analytical skills to
                       diagnose problems in mechanical equipment systems and develop
                       appropriate solutions;
                       Ability to plan, design, undertake and supervise tasks and projects
                       considering all the appropriate technical and non-technical
                       aspects.

                   BTECH:
                      Ability to apply an integration of theory, principles, proven
                      techniques, practical experience & appropriate skills to the solution
                      of broadly defined problems in the field of mechanical engineering
                      while operating within the relevant standards & codes;
                      Ability to demonstrate well-rounded general mechanical
                      engineering knowledge, as well as systematic knowledge of the
                      main terms, procedures, principles & operations of one of the
                      disciplines of mechanical engineering;
                      Ability to gather evidence from primary sources & journals using
                      advanced retrieval skills, & organise, synthesise & present the
                      information professionally in a mode appropriate to the audience;
                      Ability to identify, analyse, conduct & manage a project;
                      Ability to work independently as a team member and as a team
                      leader;
                      Ability to relate mechanical engineering activity to health, safety &
                      environment , cultural & economic sustainability.
Learning           Contextually relevant / career-focused: preparation for careers in         Conceptually & contextually
pathway            engineering & areas that potentially benefit from technical (ND) and       relevant / academic focused:



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                                                                        26



                         technological (BTech) engineering skills & proficiency.                  preparation to proceed on the
                                                                                                  academic route into Honours,
                                                                                                  Master’s and PhD study.
Knowledge base           Mathematical Sciences                                                    Mathematical Sciences
                         ND:                                                                      - Algebra; calculus; differential
* = indicative credits   - Basic concepts including: logarithms, differential equations, matrix   calculus; graph theory;
provided by ECSA
                         algebra                                                                  - Mathematical modeling;
                         Characteristics of knowledge                                             - Mechanics; numerical methods;
                         Hierarchical, hard pure                                                  vector analysis; transform theory;
                                                                                                  - Engineering statistics.
                         BTECH:                                                                   Characteristics of knowledge
                         -Engineering Materials & Science                                         Hierarchical, hard pure
                         Characteristics of knowledge
                         Hierarchical, mainly hard applied; some hard pure.

                         Basic Sciences                                                           Basic Sciences
                         ND:                                                                      - Mechanics & Thermodynamics
                         - Electrotechnology                                                      - Electricity, Magnetism & Optics
                         - Fluid Mechanics                                                        - Materials Science
                         - Mechanics of Machines                                                  - Strength of Materials
                         - Strength of Materials                                                  - Thermo-fluids
                         - Thermodynamics                                                         - Electrotechnology
                         - Hydraulic Machines                                                     - Electronics
                         Characteristics of knowledge                                             - Control Systems
                         Hierarchical, hard applied                                               - Microprocessors
                                                                                                  Characteristics of knowledge
                         BTECH: [20 credits*]                                                     Hierarchical, hard applied
                         - Automatic Control
                         - Strength of Materials
                         - Stress Analysis
                         - Thermodynamics
                         Characteristics of knowledge
                         Hierarchical, hard applied



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                                                              27



                 Engineering Sciences                                 Engineering Sciences
                 ND:                                                  - Dynamics
                 - Engineering Materials & Science                    - Machine Design
                 - Motor Vehicle Engineering                          - Electric Machines
                 Characteristics of knowledge                         Characteristics of knowledge
                 Hierarchical, hard applied                           Hierarchical, hard applied

                 BTECH:
                 - Mechanics of Machines
                 - Turbo Machines
                 - Refrigeration & Air Conditioning
                 Characteristics of knowledge
                 Hierarchical, hard applied.

                 Engineering Design & Synthesis                       Engineering Design & Synthesis
                 ND:                                                  - Engineering Drawing
                 - Mechanical Engineering Design                      - Mechatronics Design
                 Characteristics of knowledge                         - Advanced Manufacturing
                 Hierarchical, mainly hard applied                    Systems;
                                                                      -Mechatronics Project
                 BTECH:                                               Characteristics of knowledge
                 - Engineering Design Project                         Hierarchical, mainly hard applied
                 Characteristics of knowledge
                 Hierarchical, mainly hard applied; some hard pure.

                 Engineering Practice                                 Engineering Practice
                 ND:                                                  - Advanced Manufacturing
                 - Manufacturing Engineering                          Systems;
                 - Mechanical Engineering Practice                    - Mechatronics Project
                 Characteristics of knowledge                         Characteristics of knowledge
                 Non-hierarchical, mainly hard applied                Non-hierarchical, mainly hard
                                                                      applied




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                                                                28



                   Computing & IT                                                           Computing & IT
                   ND:                                                                      - Computer Science for Engineers
                   - Basic concepts including word processing; spreadsheets; managing       - Complex computing concepts
                   files; MATLAB                                                            - Design
                   - Computer Aided Draughting                                              Characteristics of knowledge
                   - Software Design                                                        Hierarchical, hard applied
                   Characteristics of knowledge
                   Hierarchical, hard applied.

                   BTECH:
                   - Computer networks
                   - Advanced concepts
                   - Advanced CAD
                   - Advanced Software Design
                   Characteristics of knowledge
                   Hierarchical, mainly hard applied.

                   Complementary Studies                                                    Complementary Studies
                   ND:                                                                      - Communication Systems
                   - Communication skills: communication theory; oral presentation;         - Professional Communication
                   technical writing skills                                                 Environmental Management
                   Characteristics of knowledge                                             - Project Management
                   Non-hierarchical, soft applied.                                          - Entrepreneurship (financial &
                                                                                            business)
                   BTECH:                                                                   Characteristics of knowledge
                   - Advanced communication skills: communication theory; oral              Non-hierarchical, soft applied.
                   presentation; technical writing skills
                   - Professional communication
                   Characteristics of knowledge
                   Non-hierarchical, mainly soft applied
Competencies       Operational                                                              Operational
                   ND                                                                         Ability to select and specify
                       Apply engineering principles and problem-solving techniques in the     components & systems to



  SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                                              29



                    field of mechanical engineering technology by operating within           provide optimum engineering
                    relevant standards and codes                                             performance
                    Apply theory and practical handskills in mechanical engineering          Ability to specify a system in
                    activities and applications                                              association with the appropriate
                    Install, assemble, commission and maintain mechanical                    component selection
                    engineering equipment or functions within applicable standards           Competency in assessing
                    and codes of practice                                                    engineering performance of
                    Interpret technical data                                                 systems to changes in design
                    Apply proven, commonly understood techniques, procedures,                and operating conditions
                    practices & codes in support of mechanical engineering activities        Solve problems, develop
                    Manage & supervise mechanical engineering operations,                    components, systems, services
                    construction & activities                                                & processes by analysis,
                    Work independently & responsibly within an allocated area or             synthesis, creativity, innovation
                    under guidance of an mechanical engineer or technologist                 & applying fundamental
                 BTECH                                                                       mechanical engineering
                    Apply high level application of engineering technology principles &      principles
                    problem solving techniques in the mechanical engineering field           Provide leadership in applying
                    Undertake laboratory work with technical machines                        technology to mechanical
                    Test, commission & operate Protection schemes                            engineering operations,
                    Undertake lab work with protection schemes                               construction & activities
                    Apply established & newly developed mechanical engineering               Work independently &
                    technology to solve problems, develop components, systems,               responsibly, applying
                    services & processes                                                     judgement to decisions arising
                    Provide leadership in applying technology to mechanical                  in the application of technology
                    engineering operations, construction & activities                        to problems & associated risks
                    Work independently & responsibly, applying judgement in the              Ensure that mechanical
                    application of technology to problems & associated risks                 engineering solutions meet
                                                                                             performance requirements &
                    Ensure that mechanical engineering solutions meet performance
                                                                                             accepted minimum standards
                    requirements & accepted minimum standards for the community’s
                                                                                             for the community’s safety &
                    safety & welfare
                                                                                             welfare
                 Strategic
                                                                                          Strategic
                 ND:
                                                                                             Effective communication with
                    Effective communication



SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                                                   30



                        Practice self management principles                                     engineering audiences & the
                        Relate engineering activity to environmental, cultural & safety         larger community
                        issues                                                                  Well developed interpersonal
                                                                                                skills
                    BTECH:                                                                      Critical awareness of the
                      Effective communication                                                   impact of engineering activity
                      Well developed interpersonal skills                                       on society and the environment
                      Well-rounded general mechanical engineering knowledge                     Ability to work effectively as an
                      Systematic knowledge of the main terms, procedures, principles &          individual, in teams and in
                      operations of one of the disciplines of mechanical engineering            multidisciplinary environments
                      Work independently as a team member and as a team leader;                 Awareness of the need to act
                      Relate mechanical engineering activity to health, safety &                professionally & ethically, to
                      environment , cultural & economic sustainability                          take responsibility
                      Make independent decisions / judgements taking into account the           Critical awareness of the
                      relevant technical, economic, social & environmental factors              impact of engineering activity
                                                                                                on the social, industrial &
                                                                                                physical environment
Skills              Technical                                                                Technical
                    ND:                                                                         Design and conduct
                       Apply basic graphical techniques;                                        investigations and experiments
                       Apply graphical techniques to effective presentation of information      Use appropriate engineering
                                                                                                methods, skills and tools,
                    BTECH:                                                                      including those based on
                      Integrate theory, principles, proven techniques, practical                information technology
                      experience & appropriate skills to the solution of broadly defined
                      problems in the field of mechanical engineering while operating
                      within the relevant standards & codes
                                                                                             Analytical
                    Analytical                                                                  Apply knowledge of
                    ND:                                                                         mathematics, basic science &
                       Collect, organize, analyse & evaluate basic mechanical                   engineering sciences to solve
                       engineering technology information                                       engineering problems
                       Apply technical knowledge and analytical skills to diagnose              Identify, analyse, conduct &



   SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                                                31



                      problems in mechanical equipment systems and develop                     manage mechatronics projects;
                      appropriate solutions                                                    Apply the knowledge gained to
                      Plan, design & undertake tasks & projects considering all the            new situations, both concrete &
                      appropriate technical and non-technical aspects                          abstract, in the workplace /
                   BTECH:                                                                      community
                      Gather evidence from primary sources & organise, synthesise &
                      present the information professionally
                      Apply the knowledge gained to new situations, both concrete &
                      abstract, in the workplace / community
                      Plan, design, undertake, manage & supervise tasks & projects
                      considering all the appropriate technical and non-technical aspects
                   Creative
                   ND:                                                                      Creative
                      Design basic simple elements of mechanical engineering                   Identify, assess, formulate and
                      technology projects                                                      solve convergent and divergent
                      Generate, construct, assemble & deliver simple technical                 engineering problems creatively
                      presentation                                                             and innovatively
                   BTECH:                                                                      Perform creative, procedural
                      Design advanced mechanical engineering technology projects;              and non-procedural design &
                      Generate, construct, assemble & deliver technical presentation           synthesis of components,
                                                                                               systems, engineering works,
                   Research                                                                    products or processes
                   ND:
                      Conduct limited research                                              Research
                   BTECH:                                                                      Conduct Mechatronics
                      Conduct an integrated research project, with an industry-oriented        research projects
                      approach
Teaching &         Mixture of discursive and practical (about 50 -50)                       Mainly discursive; some practical
Learning Methods                                                                            applications
Summative          Written exams; Practical tests; Group assignments; Individual            Written tests, exams; practicals.
Assessment         assignments
Procedures




  SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                                32


         APPENDIX 3: Analysis of National Diplomas: Electrical
              Engineering & Mechanical Engineering


              National Diploma: Electrical / Mechanical Engineering

                       [3 Years; 360 credits: 132@L5; 132@L6; 96@L7]

                                                                      To achieve the purpose,
     Criterion                      Description                       ELOs, graduate profile,
                                                                      competencies & skills the
                                                                      following knowledge base is
                                                                      necessary:
Purpose of           - Prepares for competent practising              Mathematical Sciences
qualification        technician in the specific field;                Basic concepts including:
                     - Provides required base for professional        logarithms, differential equations,
                     registration as an engineering                   matrix algebra
                     technician-in-training with the
                     Engineering Council of South Africa              Characteristics of knowledge
                     (ECSA);                                          Hierarchical, hard pure
                     - As an engineering technician, performs
                     established procedures in the support of         Basic Sciences *
                     the specific engineering applications            Electrical Eng pathway:
Graduate             - Has mainly a contextual knowledge              - Digital Systems
Profile31            base, with a working understanding of            - Digital Communication
                     the discipline’s sciences underlying the         - Electronics
                     techniques used, together with financial,        - Power Electronics
                     legal and health, safety and                     - Network Systems
                     environmental methodologies;                     - Control Systems
                     - Applies proven, commonly understood            - Logic Design
                     techniques, procedures, practices and
                     codes in support of engineering                  Mechanical Eng pathway:
                     activities;                                      - Electrotechnology
                     - Manages & supervises operations,               - Strength of Materials

31
     Graduate profile is based on the following exit level outcomes:
1: Identify, assess, formulate & solve well-defined engineering problems (see footnote 11)
2: Use math, basic science & engineering science knowledge to solve well-defined engineering
problems;
3: Demonstrate competence to perform procedural design of well-defined components, systems,
products or processes and synthesis of solutions;
4: Design and conduct investigations and experiments of well-defined problems;
5: Use appropriate engineering methods, skills and tools, including those based on IT for the
solution of well-defined engineering problems;
6: Communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, with engineering & wider audiences;
7: Assess impact of engineering activity on social, industrial & physical environment and address
issues by well-defined procedures;
8: Work effectively as an individual & in teams;
9: Engage in independent learning through well-developed learning skills;
10: Act professionally and ethically, exercise judgement and take responsibility within own limits.

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                                              33


                    construction and activities.                  - Applied Strength of Materials
                    - Works independently and responsibly         - Thermodynamics
                    within an allocated area or under             - Hydraulic Machines
                    guidance of a professional engineer or
                    technologist                                  Characteristics of knowledge
                    - Ensures that solutions meet                 Hierarchical, hard applied
                    performance requirements and accepted
                    minimum standards for health and              Engineering Sciences *
                    safety;                                       Electrical Eng pathway:
                    - Able to conduct investigations of well-     - Electrical Engineering: Application
                    defined engineering problems32 in order         of electrical engineering
                    to:                                             quantities; Circuits; illumination;
                    •   locate and search relevant codes and        interconnectors
                        catalogues                                - Electrical Distribution
                    •   conduct standard tests and                - Electrical Machines
                        measurements.                             - Electronic Communication
Competencies Operational                                          - Industrial Electronics
& Skills       Apply engineering principles and                   - Radio Engineering
                        problem-solving techniques in the         - Television
                        field of engineering technology by        - Electrical Protection
                        operating within relevant standards       - Electronic applications
                        and codes
                        Apply theory and practical handskills     Mechanical Eng pathway
                        in engineering activities and             - Mechanics
                        applications                              - Fluid Mechanics
                        Install, assemble, commission and         - Fluid Control Systems
                        maintain engineering equipment or         - Mechanics of Machines
                        functions within applicable standards     - Engineering Materials & Science
                        and codes of practice                     - Motor Vehicle Engineering
                        Apply proven, commonly understood         - Mechanical Manufacturing
                        techniques, procedures, practices &       Engineering
                        codes in support of engineering           - Steam Plant
                        activities                                - Theory of Machines
                        Manage & supervise engineering
                        operations, construction & activities     Characteristics of knowledge
                        Work independently & responsibly          Hierarchical, hard applied
                        within an allocated area or under
                        guidance of an engineer or                Engineering Design & Synthesis
                        technologist                              Electrical Eng pathway:
                                                                  - Logic Design
                                                                  - Design Project

32
   Well-Defined Problem statements are concrete, requirements are largely complete and
certain, but may require refinement; Problems may be unfamiliar, but occur in familiar contexts
and are amenable to solution by established methodologies; Approach to solution involves
standardized methodologies or codified best practice. Information is concrete and largely
complete, requires validation and possible supplementation; Solutions are encompassed by
standards, codes and documented procedures; judgment of outcome is required; Involves several
issues, but with few of these imposing conflicting constraints, premises, assumptions or
restrictions within limitations of procedures.


SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                         34


                 Strategic
                    Effective communication                  Mechanical Eng pathway
                    Interpret technical data                 - Mechanical Engineering Drawing
                    Practice self management principles      - Mechanical Engineering Design
                    Relate engineering activity to           - Computer-aided drawing
                    environmental, cultural & safety
                    issues                                   Characteristics of knowledge
                                                             Hierarchical, hard applied
                 Technical
                    Apply basic graphical techniques         Engineering Practice
                    Apply graphical techniques to            Electrical Eng pathway:
                    effective presentation of information    - Electrical Engineering Practice
                    Interpret technical data
                                                             Mechanical Eng pathway
                 Analytical                                  - Mechanical Engineering Practice
                    Collect, organise, analyse & evaluate
                                                             Characteristics of knowledge
                    basic engineering technology
                                                             Hierarchical, mainly hard applied
                    information
                    Apply technical knowledge and
                                                             Computing & IT
                    analytical skills to diagnose problems
                                                             - Basic concepts including word
                    in equipment systems and develop
                                                             processing; spreadsheets;
                    appropriate solutions
                                                             managing files; MATLAB
                    Plan, design, undertake and              - Software Design.
                    supervise tasks and projects
                    considering all the appropriate          Characteristics of knowledge
                    technical and non-technical aspects      Non-hierarchical, hard applied.
                 Creative                                    Complementary Studies
                    Design basic simple elements of          - Communication skills:
                    engineering technology projects          communication theory oral
                    Generate, construct, assemble &          presentation; technical writing skills
                    deliver simple technical presentation
                                                             Characteristics of knowledge
                 Research                                    Non-hierarchical, soft applied.
                 Conduct limited research
Teaching &       Mixture of discursive and practical         * The Engineering discipline
Learning         (about 50 -50)                              experts will need to scrutinise
Methods                                                      this analysis and verify which
Summative        Practical tests, assignments & final        aspects fall into the categories
Assessment       exams                                       of Basic Sciences & Engineering
Procedures                                                   Sciences




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                                             35


         APPENDIX 4: Analysis of specific module content in the
       Diploma in Electrical Engineering & the Diploma in Mechanical
                                Engineering


       Nat Diploma: Electrical Eng                     Nat Diploma: Mechanical Eng


  Module          Topics within module             Module           Topics within module

YEAR 1
Mathematics       Radian measure                                    Same
1                 Natural logarithms
[WIS111/2]        Determinants
                  Differentiation 1
                  Integration 1
                  Complex numbers
                  Statistics
Mathematics       Differentials 2                                    Same
2 [WIS211/2]      Integration 2
                  Matrix algebra
                  Differentiated equations
                  (1st order)
Computer          Basic concepts of                            Same (as elective)
Skills 1          information technology
[CCP1111/2]       Using a computer &
                  managing files
                  Word processing
                  Spreadsheets
                  Information &
                  communication
Communicatn       Communication theory        Module A:             Communication theory
Skills 1          Oral presentation           Communication         Oral presentation skills
[CCM1111/2]       Technical writing skills    Principles            Technical writing skills
                  Group communication         [CCM1221/2]           Data gathering &
                  skills                                            interpretation skills
                                                                    Basic report writing skills
                                                                    Meeting procedure &
                                                                    documentation skills
                                              Computer Aided        Apply CAD software to
                                              Draughting 1          orthographic drawings & 2-
                                              [MCD1211/2]           dimensional assembly
                                                                    drawings for fabrication
                                                                    Parametric modelling with

      SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                                  36


                                                                        3D software
Digital           Introduction to digital logic    Mechanical        Physical drawing ability of:
Systems 1         Stored programme                 Engineering          Geometric constructions &
[EDS1111/2]       computer                         Drawing 1            tangencies
                  Number systems & codes           [MED1111/2]          Orthographic projection
                  Logic gates                                           Isometric projection
                  Boolean algebra                                       Application of 2-
                  Combinational logic                                   dimensional drawing on
                  Functions of                                          CAD
                  combinational logic
                  Error detections &
                  correction
Electronics 1     Basic measurements               Electrotechnolo      Introduction to electrical &
[EEL1011/2]       Semiconductor theory             gy 1                 mechanical engineering
                  Diodes                           [MET1111/2]          qualities & the application
                  Transistor theory                                     thereof
                  Applied technology                                    Batteries
                                                                        D.C. theory & Network
                                                                        analysis
                                                                        Electromagnetism
                                                                        Magnetic circuits
                                                                        Inductance
                                                                        Capacitance
                                                                        Basic A.C. theory &
                                                                        measurements
                                                                        Basic DC Motors & Stepper
                                                                        Motors
                                                                        Transformer Basics
                                                                        Basic electronic devices &
                                                                        applications
                                                   Mechanics of         Moments of inertia (areas &
                                                   Machines 2           mass)
                                                   [MMB2211/2]          Simple harmonic motion &
                                                                        vibration
                                                                        Natural frequency &
                                                                        resonance
                                                                        Power transmissions
                                                                        (inertia torque, kinetic
                                                                        energy of rotation, hoists &
                                                                        haulage & vehicle
                                                                        dynamics)
                                                   Strength of          Stress & strain
                                                   Materials 2          Temperature stresses
                                                   [MSM2211/2]          Axial loads
                                                                        Catenaries

      SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                                 37


                                                                    Bending
                                                                    Torsion of circular shafts
                                                                    Pin joined frames
                                                                    3D space frames
                                                  Thermodynamic     Properties of fluids
                                                  s2                Vapours & gases
                                                  [MTH2211/2]       Thermodynamic laws
                                                                    Heat engines
                                                                    Entropy
                                                                    Carnot cycle
Electrical        Introduction to electrical &    Mechanics 1       Statistics
Engineering 1     mechanical engineering          [MEC1111/2]       Centre of gravity
[ENG1311/2]       quantities & the                                  Friction
                  application thereof                               Work
                  Batteries                                         Power & energy
                  D.C. theory & network                             Kinematics
                  analysis                                          Dynamics (elementary)
                  Electromagnetism
                  Magnetic circuits
                  Inductance
                  Capacitance
                  Basic A.C. theory &
                  measurements
                  Measurements
Digital           Flip flops & other multi-       Engineering       Types of materials: metals,
Systems 2         vibrators                       Materials &       semi-conductors, ceramics
[EDS2111/2]       Counters                        Science 1         composites & polymers
                  Shift registers                 [MEM1111/2]       Atomic structure of
                  Memories                                          materials
                  Interfacing                                       Deformation, strain
                  Integrated circuit                                hardening & annealing
                  technologies                                      Solidification & grain size
                  Data sheets                                       strengthening
                  Programmable devices                              Mechanical testing
Electronics 2     Field effect transistors        Motor Vehicle     Principle cycles of
[EEL2011/2]       Other semi conductor            Engineering 1     operation
                  devices                         [MVE1111/2]       Main engine components
                  Basic rectification                               Engine lubrication system –
                  Single stage transistor                           wet
                  amplifiers                                        Engine lubrication system –
                  Power amplifiers                                  dry
                  Applied technology                                Fuel system basis – petrol
                                                                    & diesel
                                                                    Carburation & injection

      SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                               38


                                                                    system – petrol
                                                                    Conventional & advanced
                                                                    ignition systems
                                                                    Electronic ignition systems
                                                                    Engine valves 7 heads
                                                                    Clutches, gearboxes &
                                                                    drivelines
Electrical        A.C. networks                 Mechanical          Safety & safety legislation
Engineering 2     Resonance                     Manufacturing       Identification & application
[ENG2011/2]       Series & parallel circuits    Engineering 1       of materials
                  Power factor correction       [MNE1111/2]         Elementary measuring
                  (single phase)                                    equipment
                  D.D. &A.C. circuit                                Elementary hand &
                  theorems                                          machine tools
                  Harmonics
                  Three phase circuits
                  (balanced)
                  One- Phase transformer
                                                Mechanical          Hand tools
                                                Manufacturing       Machine tools
                                                Engineering 2       Metal forming
                                                [MNE2211/2]         Erosion
                                                                    Castings
                                                                    Plastics: moulding &
                                                                    machining
                                                                    Welding & joining
                                                                    Obtaining finish & accuracy
                                                                    Hand techniques &
                                                                    equipment; machine
                                                                    techniques & equipment
                                                                    Chemical finishing:
                                                                    Anodising
                                                                    Electroplating: practical
                                                                    project
                                                Fluid Mechanics     Basic principles: static
                                                2 [MFL2211/2]       pressure 7 head
                                                                    Bemouli’s equation
                                                                    Continuity of flow
                                                                    Loss of energy in pipelines
                                                                    in Series
                                                                    Frictional resistance to fluid
                                                                    flow in single pipelines
                                                                    Shock losses in pipelines
                                                                    D’Arcy & Chezy formula


      SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                                39


                                                                        Venturi meters
                                                                        Pilot tube
                                                                        Fluid pressure on surfaces
                                                                        Bouyancy
                                                                        Archimedes Principle
                                                                        Calculation of conditions of
                                                                        equilibrium
                                                                        Calculation of metacentric
                                                                        height
                                                                        Pneumatic control circuits
                                                                        (including cascades)
                                                 Mechanical         Experiential learning formally
                                                 Engineering        integrates the student’s
                                                 Practice 1         academic studies with work
                                                 [MEP1211/2]        experience in participating
                                                                    employer organisations.
                                                                    Focuses on:
                                                                    Developing hand skills by
                                                                    participating in physical work in
                                                                    an artisan work environment.

Projects 1        Planning & construction of
[EPJ1011/2]       projects compatible with
                  the level in the discipline
                  Applicable computer-
                  assisted drawing
                  Ergonomic & aesthetic
                  design principles in
                  construction
                  Operating procedures &
                  maintenance
                  Construction techniques
                  Documentation

YEAR 2
Software          Programme design                                     Same
Design 2          High level language
[ESW2011/2]
Mathematics       Fourier analysis                                     Same
3                 Differential equations (La
[WIS311/2]        Place)
Electrical        Orientation                    Fluid Mechanics       Fluids in rigid-body motion
Engineering       Safety & first aid             3 [MFM3211/2]         Viscosity & power
Practice 1        Basic hand skills                                    transmission
[EEP1211/2]       Measuring instruments                                Flow in pipes

      SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                                40


                  Electrical & electronic                           Flow under varying heat
                  components                                        Uniform flow in open
                  Circuit diagrams                                  channels
                  Power sources                                     Momentum analysis of flow
                  Programmable devices                              structure
                  General administration                            Reciprocating pumps
                  Report writing
Digital           Microprocessors                Mechanics of       Velocity & acceleration
Systems 3         Series & parallel data         Machines 3         diagrams (including coriolis
[EDS311/2]        transfer                       [MMB3211/2]        component)
                  Interrupt                                         Epicyclic gears
                  Programmable timers                               Balancing
                  Micro controllers                                 Crank & connecting rods
                                                                    Spur gears & gear trains
                                                                    Instantaneous centres of
                                                                    rotation
Electrical        Advanced phase 3 circuits      Strength of        Combined loadings
Engineering 3     Illumination                   Materials 3        Bending
[ENG311/2]        Interconnectors                [MSM3211/2]        Transverse shear
                  Components
Electrical        Single phase transformers      Thermodynamic      Ideal gas cycles
Machines 2        D.C. machines                  s3                 Gas power cycles
[EEM2111/2]       Induction machines             [MTH3211/2]        Vapour power cycles
                                                                    (steam plant)
                                                                    Refrigeration
                                                                    IC engines
Industrial        Components: Power              Mechanical         Shafts, gears, fasteners
Electronics 2     diodes, transistors, triac,    Engineering        Welded & rivotted joints
[EIE2011/2]       diac, mosfet, thyristor,       Design 2           Cams, helical springs
                  latest device technology       [MDE2211/2]        Couplngs, spur gears
                  Characteristics & ratings
                  Terminology
                  Cooling
                  Suitable operating circuit
                  Fixed rectification
Electronics 3     Advanced voltage               Electrotechnolo    SC networks
[EEL3011/2]       regulators                     gy 2               Power factor correction
                  Amplifier theory &             [MET2211/2]        (single phase)
                  applications                                      Three phase circuits
                  Basic oscillators                                 Consumer’s supply
                  Operational amplifiers                            Switchgear & protection
                  Passive filter design                             Economics & tariffs
                  Noise                                             DC motors
                                                                    Transformers

      SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                                  41


                                                                       Three phase induction
                                                                       motors
Electronic          Introduction to                Engineering         Mechanical metallurgy
Communicati         communication systems          Materials &         Strengthening mechanisms
on 2                Analysis of passive            Science 2           Phase transformations
[EEC2111/2]         circuits                       [MEM2111/2]         Corrosion
                    Transmission                                       Diffusion
                    Lines                                              Phase diagrams (basic
                    Modulation                                         concepts)
                    Electromagnetic waves &                            Engineering materials
                    propagation
                    Receivers
                    Antennas
                    Data commmunication
Network             Routing protocols              Computer &          MATLAB & problem solving
Systems 2           Router security                Programming         Array & matrix operations
[NEW2001/2]         Router configuration           Skills 1            Files, functions & data
                                                   [CCP1411/2]         structures
                                                                       Programming with MATLAB
                                                                       Plotting & model building
                                                                       Linear algebraic equations
                                                                       Probability, statistics &
                                                                       interpolation
                                                                       Numerical calculus,
                                                                       differential equations &
                                                                       Simulink
                                                                       Symbolic processing with
                                                                       MATLAB
YEAR 3
Software             General concepts in                               Same
Design 3             software engineering
[ESW3011/2]          General software
                     components
                     Advanced programming
                     techniques
Electrical       Experiential learning formally    Mechanical    Experiential learning formally
Engineering      integrates the student’s          Engineering   integrates the student’s academic
Practice 2       academic studies with work        Practice 2    studies with work experience in
(Specialisatio   experience in participating       [MEP2321/2]   participating employer
ns: Power;       employer organisations.                         organisations. Focuses on a high
Industrial)      Focuses on a high level of            (Same)    level of synthesis, responsibility &
[EEP2211/2]      synthesis, responsibility &                     accountability as would be
OR               accountability as would be                      expected of a Mechanical
(Specialisatio   expected of an Electrical                       Engineering Technician.
ns:Industrial;   Engineering Technician.

       SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                                  42


Electronic
Com)
[ELP2011/2]

Design             The design, construction,       Mechanical        Design principles
Project 3          testing & documentation         Engineering       Shaft & coupling
[EDP3011/2]        of a complete project           Design 3          Bearings
                   compatible with the level       [MDE3211/2]       Gears & gear units
                   in the particular discipline                      Belts
                                                                     Chains
                                                                     Clutches & brakes
                                                                     Mechanisms
Electrical         Principles of transmission
Distribution 3     & distribution
[EED3011/2]        Conductors
                   L.V & H.V. Cables
                   Insulating materials
                   Insulators
                   Bushings
                   Line supports
                   Overhead lines
                   Busbars
Electrical         Three phase transformers
Machines 3         Induction machines
[EEM3011/2]        Synchronous machines
Electrical         Basic principles
Protection 3       Fundamental theory
[EPR3011/2]        Fault calculations
                   Fuses
                   Fuse cut-outs (fuse links)
                   Circuit breakers
                   Current voltage
                   transformers
Power              Single phase & 3 phase          Applied           Stress transformation
Electronics 3      inverters                       Strength of       Strain transformation
[EPE3011/2]        DC choppers                     Materials 3       Design of beams & shafts
                   Controlled rectification        [MST3111/2]       Slope & deflections of beams
                   AC voltage control                                & shafts
                                                                     Buckling of columns
Control            Introduction to PLCs
Systems 2          Programming techniques
[ECS2011/2]        Practical programming
                   Introduction to control
                   system theory

       SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                               43


                  Performance, stability &
                  frequency response of
                  control systems
                  Practical: introduction to
                  SCADA
Control           PLCs                          Fluid Control       Pneumatics & electro-
Systems 3         Programming techniques        Systems 3           pneumatics
[ECS3011/2]       Practical programming         [MFY3111/2]         Hydraulics & electro-
                  Control system theory                             hydraulics
                  Performance, stability &                          Proportional hydraulics &
                  frequency response of                             PLCs (Siemens S7)
                  control systems                                   Automation project
                  Practical: SCADA                                  Introduction to automatic
                                                                    control theory
                                                                    System modelling & response
                                                                    Feedback 7 closed-loop
                                                                    controllers
Digital           Introduction: Data            Module B:           Advanced project based oral
Communicati       networks                      Communicati         presentation & report writing
on 2              Modems                        on in Practice      skills
[EDC2011/2]       Digital multiplexing          [CCM1421/2]
                  Open systems
                  interconnection (OSI
                  model)
                  LANs
                  Integrated services
                  Digital networks (ISDN)
                  Fibre optic
                  communications &
                  standards &
                  recommendations
Electronic        Small signal analysis
Applications      Frequency analysis
3                 Feedback theory
[EEA3011/2]       Linear IC applications
                  Active filter design
                  Oscillators
Network           Advanced routing
Systems 3         protocols
[NEW301/2]        Advanced router security
                  Advanced router
                  configuration
Radio             Radio frequency               Theory of           Energy diagrams
Engineering 3     amplifiers                    Machines 3          Governors
[ERE3001/2]       Amplitude modulation &        [MDM3111/2]         Cams
      SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                              44


                  demodulation                                      Introduction to vibration signal
                  Angle modulation &                                analysis
                  demodulation
                  Frequency conversion &
                  mixing
                  Super heterodyne
                  receivers
                  Antennas
Television 3      Television fundamental       Steam Plant          Steady one-dimensional heat
[ETV3011/2]       Television cameras           3                    transfer
                  Colour signal                [MTD3111/2]          Reciprocating & rotary
                  Television receivers                              compressors
                  Television measurements                           Psychometry
                  Colorimetry                                       Nozzles
                  Antenna & distribution                            Steam & gas turbines
                  systems                                           Combustion
Logic Design      Programmable logic           Hydraulic            Dimensional analysis &
3                 arrays                       Machines 3           similarity
[ELC3011/2]       Digital design techniques    [MHM3111/2]          Centrifugal 7 mixed flow
                  & fault finishing                                 pumps & fans
                  techniques                                        Axial flow pumps & fans
                                                                    Pump & fan systems
                                                                    Hydraulic turbines


      Based on the analyses of the two Diplomas (above), the following basic
      curriculum structure for a Diploma in Engineering (leading to registration
      as an Engineering Technician) can be deduced:

      Year 1: Mathematical Sciences; Computing & IT, Communication Skills
      (complementary studies); Basic Sciences; specific Engineering Sciences

      Year 2: Engineering Practice (30 credits) (could also be in year 1); Mathematical
      Sciences; Computing & IT, Communication Skills (complementary studies); Basic
      Sciences; specific Engineering Sciences

      Year 3: Engineering Practice (WIL: 60 credits); Mathematical Sciences;
      Computing & IT, Communication Skills (complementary studies); Basic Sciences;
      specific Engineering Sciences

      The credits for the full 360 credit, Level 6 diploma qualification should be as
      follows in order to meet the ECSA standard as well as the diploma requirements
      under the revised HEQF:

      Math Sciences: 28

      SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010
                                              45


      Computing & IT: 21
      Basic Sciences: 21
      Engineering Sciences: 126
      Engineering Design: 28
      Engineering Practice: 30
      Work Integrated Learning (WIL): 60 (Pitch at Level 7 to meet HEQF requirement)
      Complementary Studies: 14
      Other credits to be relocated: 32

      The current National Diplomas in Electrical and Mechanical Engineering compare
      as follows with the revised ECSA standard for Diploma-type programmes for
      Engineering Technician registration with ECSA:

Knowledge Area        ECSA       Nat Dip                  Nat Dip Elect Eng
                       Std        Mech
                                  Eng**
                                              Power    Industrial   Electr Comm   Computers
Math Sciences           28          20         36         36            36           36
Computing & IT          21          20          6         30            18           30
Basic Sciences *        21          40         72         96           108           96
Eng Sciences *          126         120        120        72            84           72
Eng Design              28          30         12         12            12           24
Eng Practice            30          120        60         60            60           60
Work Int Learning       60           -         60         60            60           60
(WIL)
Complementary           14          10             6       6            6             6
Studies
Other credits for       32
redistribution
TOTAL                   360         360        372        372          384           384

         * The Electrical Engineering discipline experts will need to scrutinise this
         analysis and verify which aspects fall into the categories of Basic Sciences &
         Engineering Sciences

          ** Mechanical Engineering credits verified (Dr Hannalie Lombard 3 June 2009)




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       APPENDIX 5: Analysis of BTechs: Electrical Engineering &
                      Mechanical Engineering


         Bachelor of Technology: Electrical / Mechanical Engineering
     [1 year capping programme for Nat Dip, 1 year, 120 credits, all at NQF Level 7]

                                                                         To achieve the purpose,
     Criterion                        Description                        ELOs, graduate profile,
                                                                         competencies & skills the
                                                                         following knowledge base
                                                                         is necessary:
Purpose of           - Prepares for competent practising                 Mathematical Sciences
qualification        technologist in the specific field;                 Electrical Eng pathway:
                     - Provides required base for professional           Engineering Mathematics
                     registration as a candidate engineering
                     technologist in the field of electrical /           Mechanical Eng pathway:
                     mechanical engineering with the                     Engineering Materials &
                     Engineering Council of South Africa                 Science
                     (ECSA).
Graduate             - Has mainly a contextual knowledge base,           Characteristics of knowledge
Profile33            with a deep knowledge of specific                   Hierarchical, mainly hard
                     technologies, together with financial,              applied; some hard pure.
                     commercial, legal, social and health, safety
                     and environmental matters;                          Basic Sciences
                     - Capable of performing all the functions of        Electrical Eng pathway:
                     a professional electrical / mechanical              - Electronic Communication
                     engineering technologist in both the public         Systems
                     and private sectors;                                - Satellite Communications
                     - Demonstrates well-rounded general                 - Microcontroller Systems
                     electrical / mechanical engineering                 - Micro Systems
                     knowledge, as well as systematic                    - Opto Electronics
                     knowledge of the main terms, procedures,            - Power Electronics & Power

33
     Graduate profile is based on the following exit level outcomes:
1: Identify, assess, formulate & solve broadly-defined engineering problems (see footnote 13);
2: Apply maths, basic science & engineering science knowledge to solve broadly-defined
engineering problems;
3: Demonstrate competence to perform procedural design of broadly-defined components,
systems, products or processes and synthesis of solutions;
4: Design and conduct investigations and experiments of broadly-defined problems;
5: Use appropriate engineering methods, skills and tools, including those based on IT for the
solution of broadly-defined engineering problems;
6: Communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, with engineering & wider audiences;
7: Assess impact of engineering activity on social, industrial & physical environment and address
issues by broadly-defined procedures;
8: Work effectively as an individual & in teams;
9: Engage in independent learning through well developed learning skills;
10: Act professionally and ethically, exercise judgment and take responsibility within own limits.

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             principles and operations of one of the                   Systems
             disciplines of electrical engineering;                    - Process Control
             - Able to gather evidence from primary                    - Protection Technology
             sources and journals using advanced
             retrieval skills, and organise, synthesise and            Mechanical Eng pathway:
             present the information professionally in a               - Mechanics of Machines
             mode appropriate to the audience;                         - Turbo Machines
             - Able to apply the knowledge gained to                   - Eng Materials & Science
             new situations, both concrete and abstract,               - Automatic Control
             in the workplace / community;
             - Can identify, analyse, conduct and                      Characteristics of knowledge
             manage a project;                                         Hierarchical, hard applied.
             - Can make independent decisions /
             judgements taking into account the relevant               Engineering Sciences
             technical, economic, social and                           Electrical Eng pathway:
             environmental factors;                                    - Audio Engineering
             - Able to work independently as a team                    - Electrical Machines
             member and as a team leader;                              - Electrical Protection
             - Able to relate electrical / mechanical                  - High Voltage Engineering
             engineering activity to health, safety and
             environment , cultural and economic                       Mechanical Eng pathway:
             sustainability;                                           - Refrigeration & Air
             - Applies an integration of theory, principles,           Conditioning
             proven techniques, practical experience &                 - Strength of Materials
             appropriate skills to the solution of broadly             - Stress Analysis
             defined engineering problems34 in the field               - Thermodynamics
             of electrical / mechanical engineering while
             operating within the relevant standards and               Characteristics of knowledge
             codes.                                                    Hierarchical, hard applied.
             .
Competencies Operational                                               Engineering Practice (Design
& Skills          Apply high level application of                      & Synthesis)
                  engineering technology principles and                - Software Engineering:
                  problem solving techniques in the                    Advanced software design,
                  specific engineering field                           implementation & testing
                  Undertake laboratory work with                       - Engineering Design Project
                  technical machines                                   - Engineering Management
                  Test, commission and operate
                  protection schemes                                   Characteristics of knowledge
                  Lab work with protection schemes                     Hierarchical, mainly hard
                  Apply established and newly developed                applied; some hard pure.

34
   Broadly-Defined Problems require identification and analysis which may be concrete, but ill-
posed or have a degree of uncertainty; Problems may be unfamiliar, but are capable of
interpretation for solution by technologies in practice area; Approach to solution involves using
structured analysis techniques in well-accepted, creative and innovative ways. Information is
complex and possibly incomplete, requires validation, supplementation and compilation into the
information base; Solutions may be partially outside standards and codes, may require judgment,
and may operate outside standards and codes with justification; Involves a variety of factors
which may impose conflicting constraints, premises, assumptions or restrictions.


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                    engineering technology to solve
                    problems, develop components,               Computing & IT
                    systems, services and processes             - Computer Networks
                    Provide leadership in applying              - Advanced concepts
                    technology to electrical / mechanical       - Advanced CAD
                    engineering operations, construction        - Advanced Software Design
                    and activities
                    Work independently and responsibly,         Characteristics of knowledge
                    applying judgment in the application of     Hierarchical, mainly hard
                    technology to problems and associated       applied.
                    risks
                    Ensure that electrical / mechanical         Complementary Studies
                    engineering solutions meet performance      - Advanced communication
                    requirements and accepted minimum           skills: communication theory;
                    standards for the community’s safety        oral presentation; technical
                    and welfare                                 writing skills
                                                                - Professional communication
                 Strategic                                      Characteristics of knowledge
                    Effective communication                     Non-hierarchical, mainly soft
                    Well developed interpersonal skills         applied.
                    Well-rounded general electrical
                    engineering knowledge                       Characteristics of knowledge
                    Systematic knowledge of the main            Non-hierarchical, mainly soft
                    terms, procedures, principles and           applied.
                    operations of one of the disciplines of
                    electrical engineering
                    Work independently as a team member
                    and as a team leader
                    Relate electrical engineering activity to
                    health, safety and environment , cultural
                    and economic sustainability.

                 Technical
                    Integrate theory, principles, proven
                    techniques, practical experience and
                    appropriate skills to the solution of
                    broadly defined problems in the field of
                    electrical / mechanical engineering while
                    operating within the relevant standards
                    and codes.

                 Analytical
                    Gather evidence from primary sources
                    and journals using advanced retrieval
                    skills, and organise, synthesise and
                    present the information professionally;
                    Apply the knowledge gained to new
                    situations, both concrete and abstract,
                    in the workplace / community
                    Identify, analyse, conduct and manage

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                    a project
                    Make independent decisions /
                    judgements taking into account the
                    relevant technical, economic, social and
                    environmental factors

                 Creative
                    Design advanced electrical / mechanical
                    engineering technology projects
                    Generate, construct, assemble and
                    deliver technical presentation

                 Research
                 Conduct an integrated research project,
                 with an industry-oriented approach
Teaching &       Mixture of discursive and practical (about 50
Learning         -50)
Methods
Summative        Written exams; Practical tests; Group
Assessment       assignments; Individual assignments
Procedures




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       APPENDIX 6: Analysis of specific module content in the BTech
       (Electrical Engineering) & the BTech (Mechanical Engineering):
                     ie Year 4 on top of a National Diploma

               BTech (Electrical Eng)                       BTech (Mechanical Eng)
                        Module                                       Module
Industrial Project 4 [EIP4010]                       Engineering Design Project 4 [MDM4110]
(36 credits)                                         (30 credits)

CHOICE OF 7 OF THE FOLLOWING ELECTIVES:              CHOICE OF 2 OF THE FOLLOWING 4
                                                     ELECTIVES:
Audio Engineering 4 [EAE4011]
Computer Networks 4 [ECN4011]                        Automatic Control 4 [MMC4111/2]
Electronic Communication Systems 4 [EES4011]         Engineering Materials & Science 4
Electrical Machines 4 [EEM4011]                      [MEM4111/2]
Electrical Protection 4 [EPR4011]                    Mechanics of Machines 4 [MMM4441/2]
Engineering Management 4 [EMM4011]                   Turbo Machines 4 [MFT4441/2]
Engineering Mathematics 4 [WIS4011]
High Voltage Engineering 4 [EHV4011]
Microcontroller Systems 4 [EMS4011]
Micro Systems 4 [EMD4011]
Opto Electronics 4 [EOE4011]
Power Electronics 4 [EPE4011]
Power Systems 4 [EPS4011]
Process Control 4 [EPC4011]
Protection Technology 4 [EPT4011]
Satellite Communications 4 [ESC4111]
Software Engineering 4 [ESE4011]
                                                     Thermodynamics 4 [MTD4111/2]
                                                     Refrigeration & Air Conditioning 4
                                                     [MTR4111/2]
                                                     Strengths of Materials 4 [MSL4111/2]

                                                     Stress Analysis 4 [MSS4111/2]


      Based on the analyses of the two BTechs (above), the following basic
      curriculum structure for a BTech (Engineering) (leading to registration as
      an Engineering Technologist) can be deduced:

      Engineering Design Project
      Specific Engineering Sciences

      Since the BTech has been phased out under the revised HEQF, possible models
      for the Engineering Technologist pathway include:


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A three-year BEng (Tech) Degree predicated on the current three-year National
Diploma and one-year BTech combined

BEngTech
The credits for the Level 7 BEngTech qualification should be as follows in order
to meet the ECSA standard (although the requirement under the revised HEQF
for a Bachelor’s Degree is a minimum of 360 credits with a minimum of 120
credits at Level 7, and a maximum of 96 credits at Level 5) :

Math Sciences: 42
Computing & IT: 21
Basic Sciences: 28
Engineering Sciences: 140
Engineering Design & Synthesis: 49
Complementary Studies: 28
Other credits to be relocated: 112
TOTAL: 420 credits


Owing to the fact that the current National Diplomas & BTechs in Electrical
and Mechanical Engineering will need to be completely restructured, it is
not possible to construct a comparative table at this point.




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APPENDIX 7: Analysis of Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics


                          Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics

                    [4 years; 596credits: 210@L5; 218@L6; 168@L7; 0@L8]

                                                                         To achieve the purpose,
     Criterion                        Description                        ELOs, graduate profile,
                                                                         competencies & skills the
                                                                         following knowledge base is
                                                                         necessary:
Purpose of           - Prepares for competent practising                 Mathematical Sciences
qualification        professional engineer in the field of               - Algebra; calculus; differential
                     mechatronics as a science-based problem-            calculus; graph theory;
                     solver, developer of new technology and a           - Mathematical modeling;
                     pioneer of innovative applications;                 - Mechanics; numerical methods;
                     - Provides required base for professional           vector analysis; transform theory;
                     registration as a professional mechanical           - Engineering statistics.
                     engineer with the Engineering Council of
                     South Africa (ECSA).                                Characteristics of knowledge
Graduate             - Has mainly a conceptual base, with an             Hierarchical, hard applied
Profile35            academic focus: preparation to become a
                     professional engineer or to proceed on the          Basic & Engineering Sciences *
                     academic route into Honours, Master’s and           - Mechanics & Thermodynamics
                     PhD study;                                          - Physics: Electricity, Magnetism &
                     - Able to select and specify components             Optics
                     and     systems     to    provide     optimum       - Materials Science
                     engineering performance;                            - Strength of Materials
                     - Able to specify a system in association           - Thermo-fluids
                     with the appropriate component selection;           - Electrotechnology
                     - Able to assess engineering performance            - Electronics
                     of systems to changes in design and                 - Control Systems

35
     Graduate profile is based on the following exit level outcomes:
1: Identify, assess, formulate & solve complex engineering problems (see foot note 15);
2: Use math, basic science & engineering science knowledge to solve complex engineering
problems;
3: Demonstrate competence to perform procedural design of complex components, systems,
products or processes and synthesis of solutions;
4: Design and conduct investigations and experiments of complex problems;
5: Use appropriate engineering methods, skills and tools, including those based on IT for the
solution of complex engineering problems;
6: Communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, with engineering & wider audiences;
7: Assess impact of engineering activity on social, industrial & physical environment and address
issues by complex procedures;
8: Work effectively as an individual & in teams in multidisciplinary environments;
9: Engage in independent learning through well developed learning skills;
10: Act professionally and ethically, exercise judgment and take responsibility within own limits.


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                     operating conditions;                              - Digital Electronics
                     - Applies an integration of theory, principles,    - Process Control
                     proven techniques, practical experience and        - Microprocessors
                     appropriate skills to the solution of complex      - Electric Machines
                     engineering problems36 in the field of             - Power Electronics & Drivers
                     mechatronics while operating within the            - Advanced Manufacturing
                     relevant standards and codes.                      Systems

Competencies Operational                                Characteristics of knowledge
& Skills       Ability to select and specify components Hierarchical, hard applied
                         and systems to provide optimum
                         engineering performance                        Design & Synthesis
                         Ability to specify a system in association     - Engineering Drawing
                         with the appropriate component                 - Machine Design
                         selection                                      - Mechanical Design
                         Competency in assessing engineering            - Mechatronics Design
                         performance of systems to changes in           - Mechatronics Project
                         design and operating conditions
                         Solve problems, develop components,            Characteristics of knowledge
                         systems, services and processes by             Hierarchical, mainly hard applied
                         analysis, synthesis, creativity, innovation
                         and applying fundamental mechanical            Computing & IT
                         engineering principles                         - Computer Science for Engineers
                         Provide leadership in applying                 - Complex computing concepts
                         technology to mechanical engineering
                         operations, construction and activities        Characteristics of knowledge
                         Work independently and responsibly,            Hierarchical, hard applied
                         applying judgement to decisions arising
                         in the application of technology to            Complementary Studies
                         problems and associated risks                  - Communication Systems
                                                                        - Professional Communication
                         Ensure that mechanical engineering
                                                                        - Environmental Management
                         solutions meet performance
                         requirements and accepted minimum              - Project Management
                                                                        - Entrepreneurship (financial &
                         standards for the community’s safety
                                                                        business)
                         and welfare

                     Strategic                                          Characteristics of knowledge
                                                                        Non-hierarchical, soft applied.
                        Effective communication with
                        engineering audiences and the larger
                                                                        * The Engineering discipline
                        community
                                                                        experts will need to scrutinize
                        Well developed interpersonal skills             this analysis and verify which
                        Critical awareness of the impact of             aspects fall into the categories
                        engineering activity on society and the

36
  Complex Problems require identification and analysis, and may be concrete or abstract, may
be divergent and may involve significant uncertainty. Problems may be infrequently encountered
types and occur in unfamiliar contexts. Approach to problem solving needs to be found, is
creative and innovative. Information is complex and possibly incomplete, requiring validation and
critical analysis; Solutions are based on theory, use of first-principles and evidence, (which may
be incomplete) together with judgement where necessary; Involves a variety of interactions which
may impose conflicting constraints, premises, assumptions & restrictions.

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                    environment                                of Basic Sciences & Engineering
                    Ability to work effectively as an Sciences
                    individual,     in     teams     and    in
                    multidisciplinary environments
                    Awareness of the need to act
                    professionally and ethically, to take
                    responsibility
                    Critical awareness of the impact of
                    engineering activity on the social,
                    industrial and physical environment.
                 Technical
                    Design and conduct investigations and
                    experiments
                    Use appropriate engineering methods,
                    skills and tools, including those based
                    on information technology



                 Analytical
                    Apply knowledge of mathematics, basic
                    science and engineering sciences to
                    solve engineering problems
                    Identify, analyse, conduct and manage
                    mechatronics projects;
                    Apply the knowledge gained to new
                    situations, both concrete and abstract,
                    in the workplace / community


                 Creative
                    Identify, assess, formulate and solve
                    convergent and divergent engineering
                    problems creatively and innovatively
                    Perform creative, procedural and non-
                    procedural design and synthesis of
                    components, systems, engineering
                    works, products or processes

                 Research
                 Conduct mechatronics research projects

Teaching &       Mainly discursive; some practical
Learning         applications
Methods
Summative        Written tests, exams; practicals.
Assessment
Procedures



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      APPENDIX 8: Analysis of specific module content in the four-
                       year BEng (Mechatronics)


   MODULE                    SPECIFIC LEARNING OUTCOMES WITHIN MODULE

YEAR 1

Mathematics 1:        Apply the rules of basic formal logic solve Mathematical problems;
Algebra               Use Mathematical Induction to prove theorems related to sequences and
[MATH101]             series;
                      Utilise basic Set Theory to solve basic problems on sets and their operations
                      with specific reference to subsets of the set of real numbers;
                      Use the basic rules of elementary permutation and combination theory to
                      establish statistical and probability models to related problems;
                      Utilise the binomial formula in binomial expansions and related problems;
                      Investigate, analyse, describe and represent a wide range of basic one-
                      variable functions and solve Mathematical problems;
                      Apply the algebra of vectors in R2 and R3 to solve elementary problems
                      involving vector quantities and to describe, represent, analyse and explain the
                      properties of shapes in 2-dimentional and 3-dimensional space.
Mathematics 1:        Apply the basic rules of limits and continuity to a wide range of basic one-
Differential          variable functions;
Calculus              Differentiate a wide range of functions using first principles, basic rules and
[MATH102]             techniques;
                      Apply differentiation in sketching of curves for polynomial and rational
                      functions;
                      Apply differentiation to real-life optimization problems;
                      Illustrate and calculate the anti-derivative of elementary functions.

Mathematics 1:        Differentiate and apply differentiation rules for logarithmic, exponential,
Calculus              hyperbolic and inverse trigonometric functions;
[MATH103]             Apply various integration techniques to determine integrals of a wide range of
                      composite functions;
                      Apply integration to calculate area between curves and the arc-lengths of a
                      curve;
                      Apply integration in the determining the surface areas and volumes of solids of
                      revolution;
                      Introduction to first order differential equations;
                      Visualize surfaces in R3 defined by elementary two-variable functions;
                      Differentiate basic multi-variable functions;
                      Introduction to invariable functions;
                      Introduction to partial differentiation.

Mathematics 1:        Sketch and analyse one-variable functions described in parametric form;
Algebra               Sketch and analyse one-variable functions described in polar form;
[MATH104]             Apply the algebra of complex numbers to simplify and solve basic equations;
                      Geometrically interpret a complex number as a 2-dimensional extension of a

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                      real number;
                      Apply the Gauss-Jordan method for solving a system of linear equations;
                      Illustrate and apply the operations and properties of matrices;
                      Use the algebra of determinants to solve systems of linear equations;
                      Use matrix operations to illustrate symmetries in R2 and R3.

Applied               Think critically and see the different proof techniques relevant to graph theory;
Mathematics 1:        Apply graph theoretical results to practical problems;
Graph Theory           Use MATLAB to solve various scientific problems;
[MAPM111]              Write simple programs utilizing the MATLAB language;
                      Implement simple numerical algorithms.

Applied               Identify meaningful word problems given a particular situation;
Mathematics 1:        Mathematically formulate simple word problems;
Mathematical          Recognise proportionality problems, and in simple cases solve it using
Modelling             appropriate mathematical tools;
[MAPM112]             Recognise a linear or integer programming problem, and in simple situations
                      solve these using appropriate graphical methods;
                      Determine the unknown parameters in a model which will best explain a given
                      dataset either visually or by using the least-squares technique;
                      Linearise simple non-linear models in order to determine unknown
                      parameters;
                      Formulate and solve elementary discrete dynamical models using appropriate
                      difference equations;
                      Solve problems using dimensional analysis and linear algebra;
                      State and apply definitions and theorems discussed in the course;
                      Apply all prior mathematical knowledge to solve meaningful problems.

Applied               Apply the basic rules of differential and integral calculus to a wide range of
Mathematics 1:        basic mechanical problems;
Mechanics             Identify which coordinate system is most appropriate for a given mechanical
[MAPM113]             problem;
                      Know how to obtain the appropriate kinematic quantity, by applying
                      appropriate mathematical techniques;
                      Draw free-body diagrams, select the inertial coordinate system and resolve all
                      forces acting on the particle;
                      Apply the equations of motion in either the rectangular or polar coordinate
                      system to obtain the appropriate kinematical quantity;
                      Know and understand the concept of work and be able to determine the work
                      done by a variety of forces;
                      Apply the principle of work and energy;
                      Compute the power supplied to a body by an unbalanced force;
                      Understand the concepts of conservative force and potential energy and be
                      able to apply the conservation of mechanical energy to a variety of mechanical
                      problems.

Applied                Understand the various types of errors;
Mathematics 1:         Understand the limits of floating-point computations;


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Numerical               Decide when and which numerical algorithms should be used for a given
Methods                    problem;
[MAPM114]               Derive and use some of the more fundamental theorems and algorithms;
                        Do an error analysis to determine a bound or estimate the approximate
                           solution accuracy;
                        Determine the roots of nonlinear equations using a variety of methods;
                        Apply all prior mathematical knowledge as demanded by the prerequisites;
                        Effectively and efficiently implement algorithms using MATLAB code;
                        Effectively solve and check solutions using MATLAB.

Physics 1A:           Predict motion of any object moving in a straight line, or in a plane or in a
Mechanics &           circle, or that performs harmonic motion;
Thermodynamics        Demonstrate an understanding of the mechanics of fluids;
[F101]                Apply the theoretical concepts for all aspects of: wave motion, including the
                      superposition of waves; sound; basic thermodynamics.
Physics 1B:         Demonstrate an understanding of the following concepts:
Electricity,          Static electricity
Magnetism &           Direct current circuits
Optics [F102]         Magnetism
                      The relationship between electricity and magnetism
                      The link between these concepts and the theory of electromagnetism and
                      optics
                      Electromagnetic waves
                      Nature of light
                      Laws of geometrical optics
                      Image forming in geometrical optics.

Materials Science      Explain the main classifications/distinctions between different materials, the
1B [MAS1122]           essential (general) structures causing such distinctions, and the relevance of
                       material properties to selection for engineering purposes;
                       Analyse concepts regarding the detailed structure of materials;
                       Explain in detail the mechanical properties of various materials, in particular
                       metals, and their relevance to use for different applications;
                       Explain phase diagrams and phase transformations for alloys to apply to
                       specific manufacturing processes as used in engineering industries;
                       Describe the electron configuration for metals in order to predict a materials
                       behaviour;
                       Demonstrate an understanding of the various methods of physical material
                       analysis including electron microscopy techniques.
Engineering            Ability to produce mechanical engineering drawings that are accurate, legible,
Drawing 1A             unambiguous and sufficient for fabrication and assembly of mechanical
[MEW1121] & 1B         components, as per SABS 0111 Part 1;
[MEW1122]              Interpret mechanical engineering drawings so that a clear understanding of
                       the make-up and function of the component or assembly is achieved;
                       Operate a solid modelling software package to be able to produce detailed
                       mechanical engineering drawings as stated above;
                       Sketch free-hand in order to communicate engineering concepts and
                       functions;
                       Deliver a multi-media presentation using applicable software, to further aid the

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                      communication of conceptual ideas and systems in tandem with all the above;
                      Have a general knowledge of the support structures and methods utilised and
                      available in engineering drawing and communication of engineering concepts.
Computer               Demonstrate an understanding and ability to use both Procedure-Oriented
Science for            Programming and Object-Oriented Programming methods;
Engineers 1A           Demonstrate problem-solving using C++;
[MSE1111] & 1B         Write interactive programs;
[MSE1122]              Produce well-formatted output in programs;
                       Make proper use of selection structures and repetition statements;
                       Use I/O files streams and data files;
                       Use classes and inheritance;
                       Write code for error checking and exception handling within programs;
                       Use arrays, pointers and structures efficiently;
                       Understand and use numerical methods and bit operations;
                       Complete a mini project that will have multiple C++ programs and files.

YEAR 2
Mathematics 2A:       Convert curves and surfaces from parametric ( or vector) form to Cartesian
Vector Analysis       form and vice versa;
[MATH202]             Sketch basic parametric curves and basic parametric surfaces;
                      Differentiate vector functions and find the equation of a tangent line to a
                      parametric curve;
                      Evaluate the integral of a vector function and determine arc length;
                      Sketch simple vector fields;
                      Determine the gradient vector field and find the equation of a tangent plane to
                      a parametric surface;
                      Determine the line integrals of a scalar field and a vector field;
                      Determine the scalar potential of conservative vector fields;
                      Determine the divergence and curl of a vector field;
                      Apply the fundamental theorem of line integrals and Green’s theorem to
                      evaluate line integrals;
                      Determine the area of a surface and evaluate the surface integrals of scalar
                      fields and vector fields;
                      Apply Stokes theorem and Divergence theorem to evaluate surface integrals.

                                                         2      3
Mathematics 2B:       Perform symmetry operations in R and R by using matrix multiplication;
Linear Algebra        Extend the usual operations on real numbers to Euclidean n-spaces and
[MATH203]             subspaces;
                      Explore the important role that linear independence of vectors play in the
                      algebra of vector spaces;
                      Apply techniques for finding bases for finite dimensional vector spaces;
                      Construct orthogonal basis for finite dimensional vector spaces;
                      Calculate eigen-values and eigen-vectors for finite dimensional vector spaces;
                      Apply the procedure for diagonalizing symmetric matrices.

Applied               Demonstrate an understanding of higher order equations, including variation
Mathematics 2:        of parameters and undetermined coefficients;
Differential          Apply series solutions;

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Equations             Apply Frobenius’s method.
[MAPM211]
Applied                Derive and use some of the more fundamental theorems and algorithms;
Mathematics 2A:        Do an error analysis to determine a bound or estimate the approximate
Numerical                 solution accuracy;
Methods 2              Use numerical methods to interpolate, differentiate and integrate data;
[MAPM212]              Use numerical methods to solve a variety of linear and nonlinear initial-value
                          problems;
                       Effectively and efficiently implement algorithms using MATLAB code;
                       Effectively solve and check solutions using MATLAB;
                       Apply all prior mathematical knowledge as demanded by the prerequisites.

Applied                Have an understanding of orthogonal functions;
Mathematics 2B:        Obtain the Fourier representation of any function defined on and interval (-p,
Transform Theory           p) or (0, p);
[MAPM213]              Identify even or odd functions and find suitable half-range Fourier series
                           expansions;
                       Obtain the Fourier transform of suitable functions;
                       Define and obtain the Laplace transform of any continuous or piecewise
                       function of exponential order;
                       Be able to apply both Fourier and Laplace transforms in solving boundary and
                       initial value problems;
                       Define a variety of concepts and derive and use some of the more
                           fundamental theorems;
                       Apply all prior mathematical knowledge as demanded by the prerequisites.

Strength of           Ability to understand, problem-solve and apply relevant fundamental
Materials 2           engineering science concepts in the field of mechanics of materials, mostly for
[MSM2111]             the purpose of analysis of structures to ensure functionality;
                      Ability to understand, analyse, and apply the following, to determine relevant
                      information of particular structures: Concepts in stress and strain; Mechanical
                      properties of materials; Trusses and frames; Axial loading, torsion loading,
                      and bending loading; Loading of beams; Transformation of stress.

Dynamics 2            Demonstrate an understanding of the kinematics of rigid bodies by
[MTH2111]             investigating the relations existing between the time, positions the velocities
                      and the accelerations of the various particles forming a rigid body;
                      Apply the acquired knowledge to solutions of rigid body motions that involve;
                      translation, rotation about a fixed axis, general plane motion and motion about
                      a fixed point;
                      Demonstrate an understanding of the kinetics of rigid bodies, by investigating
                      the relations existing between the forces acting on a rigid body, the shape and
                      mass of a body and the motion produced;
                      Apply the acquired knowledge to solutions involving the translation, centroidal
                      rotation, unconstrained motion, noncentroidal rotation rolling motion and other
                      partially constrained plane motions of rigid bodies;
                      Demonstrate an understanding of the method of work and energy as well as
                      the method of impulse and momentum to analyze the plane motion of rigid
                      bodies and of systems of rigid bodies;

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                      Apply the acquired knowledge to solve problems involving displacements and
                      velocities, velocities and time, eccentric impact and general impact of rigid
                      bodies;
                      Demonstrate an understanding of the general methods involved to determine
                      the angular momentum and the rate of change of a rigid body in three
                      dimensions;
                      Demonstrate an understanding of the analysis of vibrations of a rigid body or
                      system of bodies with one degree of freedom;
                      Apply the acquired knowledge to solve problems involving free vibration or
                      forced vibration which is undamped, damped or over damped;
                      Use a PC to solve selected problems computationally.
Thermo-fluids 2        Understand and apply Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics;
[MTF2111]              Apply the gas laws to typical engineering problems;
                       Use equations of state;
                       Apply specific heats, internal energy and enthalpy equations;
                       Define dynamic and kinematic viscosity and Newtonian fluids;
                       Determine hydrostatic forces on submerged surfaces;
                       Determine variations in pressure in a fluid with or without acceleration in the
                       absence of shear stress;
                       Determine energy transfer by work for processes. Calculation of mass and
                          flow rates;
                       Define and apply the Law to nozzles, diffusers, throttling valves, mixing
                       chambers, heat exchangers, pipes and ducted flow;
                       Apply the Law to non-steady flow and closed systems;
                       Derive and apply the energy equation;
                       Derive and apply Newton’s 2nd Law to jets, fixed and moving plates,
                       deflectors, pipe bends and closed conduits;
                       Determine cycle efficiencies or coefficient of performance.
Electrotechnolgy      Demonstrate, in a laboratory, an understanding of the fundamental principles
2A [MET2111]          of electricity, electrical energy and power, DC, AC and 3 phase circuit
                      analysis;
Electrotechnolgy      Demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental principles of electric fields,
2B [MET2122]          magnetic fields and electromagnetic field theory.
Machine Design         Demonstrate an understanding of the design procedure;
2 [MMD2112]            Demonstrate an understanding of and apply statistical considerations in
                          design;
                       Interpret machine element specifications such as surface finishes and
                       tolerances, and understand and apply fits;
                       Demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics and importance of the
                       range of material properties in design;
                       Design and/or analyse various non-permanent and permanent jointing
                          arrangements/methods;
                       Design and/or analyse mechanical springs for a variety of applications;
                       Specify appropriate rolling contact bearings for given conditions, and/or
                       determine life and reliability of bearings;
                       Design shafts for given loading configurations;
                       Demonstrate an understanding of, design, and apply electro-pneumatic and
                       electro-hydraulic circuits for automation purposes (including practical circuit
                       building);

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                       Compile CNC programs for lathe turning applications (practical).
Digital Electronics Demonstrate an understanding of:
2 [MDG2112]            Digital number systems, operations and codes;
                       Logic gates;
                       Integrated circuit technologies (CMOS, TTL, etc);
                       Boolean algebra and logic simplification;
                       Combinational logic (adders, encoders, multiplexers, etc);
                       Sequential logic (flip-flops, counters, shift registers, etc);
                       Programmable logic devices (SPLD, CPLD, FPGA, etc).

Electronics 2          Demonstrate an understanding of fundamental semiconductor physics;
[EEL2112]              Analyse: Diode and related circuits; Bipolar Junction Transistors; Field Effect
                       Transistors; Power amplifiers & heat sinks; Operational amplifiers;
                       Design and simulate simple analog electronic circuits.

YEAR 3
Control Systems           Apply the Laplace Transform to solve linear ordinary differential equations
3A [ECS3211]              and transfer functions to model linear time-invariant systems;
                          Model multivariable control systems using block diagrams, signal flow
                          graphs, state diagrams and state equations;
                          Model physical electrical and mechanical systems using fundamental tools
                       modelling;
                          Perform state variable analysis of linear control systems;
                          Apply the Routh-Hurwitz stability routine to perform stability analysis of
                       control systems;
                          Perform time-domain analysis of linear continuous data control systems and
                          relate time-response criteria to systems parameters;
                          Graphically construct root loci to analyse the roots of the closed loop control
                          systems characteristic equation;
                          Perform frequency-domain analysis of linear continuous data control
                          systems and relate frequency-response characteristics with system
                          parameters;
                          Use time and frequency-domain analysis tools to design control systems,
                          types of controllers PD, PI and PID.
Control Systems          Describe what a digital control system is and model discrete-time systems
3B [ECS3212]             by difference equations;
                         Better understand the effects of sampling and reconstruction processes of
                         continuous-time signals;
                         Apply z-transform, sampling and data reconstruction fundamentals to
                         analyze open-loop discrete-time systems;
                         Determine the output functions and state-variable models for closed-loop
                         discrete systems;
                         Apply techniques to perform time response and stability analysis of discrete-
                         time systems;
                         Design and analysis of phase-lead-lag, notch, forward and feed forward,
                         and state feedback controllers;
                         Design, simulate and implement a PID position control system for an
                         industrial dc servo motor controlled plant;
                         Design a control system using state feedback, taking into account drive

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                        saturation, sensor quantisation and discrete time sampling;

Electric Machines     Demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental principles of magnetic
3 [EEM3111]           circuits, transformers, and rotating machines.
Machine Design        Solve open-ended mechanical design problems (design project);
3 [MMD3111]           Demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics and importance of fatigue
                      loading, identify the type of fatigue loading, construct S-N curves;
                      Design and/or analyse gears (spur, helical, bevel, worm) using AGMA
                      methods;
                      Design and/or analyse clutches, brakes, couplings, flywheels;
                      Design and/or analyse belt drives;
                      Analyse and select shaft dimensions for given loading configurations using the
                      following analyses: stress, deflection and combined fatigue loading;
                      Apply vector algebra to determine shaft loading;
                      Compile CNC programmes for milling operation (practical).
Mechanical            Demonstrate the ability to understand, problem-solve, design, synthesise and
Design 3              apply relevant fundamental engineering science concepts in the field of
[MGN3112]             design, mostly for the purpose of designing mechanical systems;
                      Apply the systems design approach;
                      Apply the principles of systems engineering;
                      Apply design optimization;
                      Demonstrate the ability to understand ethical and legal aspects of engineering
                      practice;
                      Develop design specifications;
                       Develop complete engineering drawings for manufacturing;
                      Apply safety and ergonomic principles;
                      Design complete mechanical systems.

Power                 Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of power electronics and
Electronics &         drives.
Drives 3
[EPE3322]

Strength of           Apply and demonstrate problem-solving of relevant fundamental engineering
Materials 3           science concepts in the field of mechanics of materials, mostly for the purpose
[MSM3011]             of analysis of structures to ensure functionality;
                      Demonstrate the ability to understand, analyse, and apply the following, to
                      determine information relevant to particular structures:
                        Failure theories (static loading)
                        Advanced topics in stresses in beams
                        Analysis of stress and strain
                        Plane stress applications
                        Deflection and rotation of beams
                        Analysis of columns for stability

Microprocessors        Explain the operation and select microprocessor architectures for different
3 [MMX3112]            process applications, including machine code execution, interrupts and
                       busses;

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                       Identify and understand the operation of memory types, select memory type
                       for specific application, design interface and apply in a microcomputer system
                       design;
                       Identify, select and interface peripheral devices including peripheral busses
                       I2C, SPI and ports.
                       Apply programmable logic to solve a simple engineering problem;
                       Design and implement an embedded system to solve an engineering
                       problem.

Communication          Describe the essential components of a communication system;
Systems 3 [CS3]        Analyse radio frequency circuits and configurations for a given application;
                       Write the time-domain equation for Amplitude Modulated and Angle
                       Modulated signals;
                       Analyse noise effects in RF signals;
                       Model communication systems using block diagrams, voltage and frequency
                       considerations;
                       Analyse specifications for communications systems and use them to
                       determine suitability;
                       Compare analogue and digital communication techniques;
                       Analyse Pulse Code Modulation systems and perform calculations on
                       parameters involved;
                       Model transmission lines and determine the responses of matched and
                       unmatched transmission lines;
                       Determine antenna efficiency, antenna gain, beam width, Effective Isotropic
                       Radiated Power (EIRP) and Effective Radiated Power (ERP) for antennas
                       and antenna arrays;
                       Apply engineering principles to analyse and utilise communication systems,
                       e.g. fibre optic and microwave systems.
Engineering           Demonstrate an understanding and practical application of the concepts of
Statistics 3          random event, random variable, probability distribution, population, sample,
[STAM301]             statistic;
                      Process statistical data and derive estimates of parameters of the population;
                      State and test statistical hypotheses;
                      Demonstrate an understanding of the basics of experimental design, statistical
                      process control and their use in Engineering.
YEAR 4
Mechatronics           Describe the essential components of a mobile robotic system;
Design 4               Integrate and use the electrical drive technology, sensors, control technology,
[MD4]                  image processing and embedded programming techniques;
                       Perform a system level analysis and design for a mobile robot to perform
                       simple materials handling tasks and basic transportation within a flexible
                       manufacturing cell.
Advanced               Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of manufacturing systems;
Manufacturing          Demonstrate an understanding of the Computer-Aided Engineering;
Systems 4              Develop and/or select parts of FMS;
[AMS4]                 Programme industrial robots and link them to the cell controller;
                       Apply the principles of JIT system;
                       Apply design optimisation;
                       Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of CIM systems;

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                        Develop specifications for manufacturing systems;
                        Design layout of manufacturing facilities.
Entrepreneurship                                          TBA
(Financial &
Business) [E4]
Mechatronics            Solve engineering problems by:
Project 4A & 4B         o Applying a synthesis of knowledge and technologies from different basic
[MP4]                            and engineering sciences
                        o Application of engineering methods, skills, and techniques to arrive at
                                 practical results and sound assessment of results;
                        Work creatively by, amongst others, independently assembling and utilising
                        new information;
                        Apply sound engineering judgement;
                        Independently and successfully complete a Mechatronics project within
                        stipulated due dates;
                        Plan a project, taking objective formulation, steps required and time
                        schedules into account;
                        Compile technical reports on the planning, progress and the whole of a
                        project;
                        Give professional oral presentations on the progress and the results of a
                        project;
                        Demonstrate a grasp and appreciation of professional ethics and practice in
                        the execution of an engineering project.
Process Control       Demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental principles of engineering
& Instrumentation     measurements, static and dynamic performance characteristics of
4                     measurement systems, operation of electromechanical sensors used in the
[EPC4211]             measurement of displacement, position and proximity, velocity and motion,
                      force, liquid flow, temperature and light;
                      Design amplification, filtering and protection circuits for measurement of
                      sensor-based engineering systems;
                      Apply the hardware and software components to design PC-based real-time
                      data acquisition, signal processing and control systems;
                      Describe the hardware and integrated networked architectural structure of
                      PLCs and configure PLCs. Make use of logic functions, latching and
                      sequencing logic, timers, internal relays, counters etc. to design and develop
                      programs to solve advanced process control problems;
                      Make use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), database
                      design, software engineering methodology and management information
                      systems to create real-time human-machine interfaces monitoring systems.
Professional        Demonstrate the following knowledge and skills:
Communication 4        Oral and written presentation skills;
[PC4]                  Ability to write research proposals, objectives and title;
                       Ability to list sources and in-text cite;
                       Ability to use referencing styles: Harvard / APA +;
                       Ability to undertake a literature review: paraphrasing / summarising examples /
                       exercises;
                       Ability to undertake a dissertation analysis;
                       Ability to use an academic writing style / referencing / paraphrasing;
                       Ability to use research criteria and justify research methodology

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Environmental     Demonstrate the following knowledge, skills, values and attributes:
Management 4        An understanding of the fundamental environmental issues;
[EM4]               Knowledge of environmental legislation and policy in SA;
                    Management of environmental impact assessments and audits;
                    Awareness of the environmental implications of their practice.
Project             Identify a project needs and develop project proposals;
Management 4        Plan and schedule projects;
[PM4]               Control and monitor industrial and design projects;
                     Apply financial considerations and resource planning the principles of JIT
                    system;
                    Apply MS Project software;
                    Manage projects;
                    Understand team behaviour;
                    Develop effective project communication methods.


    Based on the analyses of the BEng (Mechatronics) (above) the following
    basic curriculum structure for a Bachelor in Engineering (leading to
    registration as a professional engineer) can be deduced:

    This qualification at Level 8 must have 560 credits in order to meet the ECSA
    standard (although the requirement under the revised HEQF for a Professional 4-
    year Bachelor’s Degree is a minimum of 480 credits with a minimum of 120
    credits at Level 7, a minimum of 96 credits at Level 8 and a maximum of 96
    credits at Level 5):

    Math Sciences: 56
    Computing & IT: 21
    Basic Sciences: 56
    Engineering Sciences: 168
    Engineering Design & Synthesis: 63
    Complementary Studies: 56
    Other credits to be relocated: 140
    TOTAL: 560 credits

    The current BEng (Mechatronics) compares as follows with the revised ECSA
    standard for BEng-type programmes for Professional Engineer registration
    with ECSA:

        Knowledge Area               ECSA Std          BEng (Mechatronics)
    Math Sciences                       56                    138
    Computing & IT                      17                     16
    Basic Sciences *                    56                    292
    Eng Sciences *                     168
    Eng Design & Synthesis              67                        82
    Complementary Studies               56                        64


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Other credits for                     140
redistribution
TOTAL                                 560                     596


* The Engineering discipline experts will need to scrutinise this analysis and verify
which aspects fall into the categories of Basic Sciences & Engineering Sciences




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           APPENDIX 9: Comparison of knowledge blocks in Year 1: Diploma (Mechanical
                            Engineering) & BEng (Mechatronics)

 Knowledge                 Diploma (Mech Eng)                                        BEng (Mechatronics)
   Area
Math Sciences      Mathematics 1 [WIS111/2]:                       Mathematics 1: Algebra [MATH101]:
                      Radian measure                                  Apply the rules of basic formal logic solve Mathematical
                      Natural logarithms                              problems;
                      Determinants                                    Use Mathematical Induction to prove theorems related to
                      Differentiation 1                               sequences and series;
                      Integration 1                                   Utilise basic Set Theory to solve basic problems on sets and
                      Complex numbers                                 their operations with specific reference to subsets of the set
                      Statistics                                      of real numbers;
                                                                      Use the basic rules of elementary permutation and
                   Mathematics 2 [WIS211/2]:                          combination theory to establish statistical and probability
                      Differentials 2                                 models to related problems;
                      Integration 2                                   Utilise the binomial formula in binomial expansions and
                                                                      related problems;
                      Matrix algebra
                                                                      Investigate, analyse, describe and represent a wide range of
                      Differentiated equations (1st order)
                                                                      basic one-variable functions and solve Mathematical
                                                                      problems;
                                                                      Apply the algebra of vectors in R2 and R3 to solve elementary
                                                                      problems involving vector quantities and to describe,
                                                                      represent, analyse and explain the properties of shapes in 2-
                                                                      dimentional and 3-dimensional space.

                                                                   Mathematics 1: Differential Calculus [MATH102]:
                                                                      Apply the basic rules of limits and continuity to a wide range
                                                                      of basic one-variable functions;
                                                                      Differentiate a wide range of functions using first principles,
                                                                      basic rules and techniques;



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                                                                     Apply differentiation in sketching of curves for polynomial and
                                                                     rational functions;
                                                                     Apply differentiation to real-life optimisation problems;
                                                                     Illustrate and calculate the anti-derivative of elementary
                                                                     functions.

                                                                   Mathematics 1: Calculus [MATH103]:
                                                                     Differentiate and apply differentiation rules for logarithmic,
                                                                     exponential, hyperbolic and inverse trigonometric functions;
                                                                     Apply various integration techniques to determine integrals of
                                                                     a wide range of composite functions;
                                                                     Apply integration to calculate area between curves and the
                                                                     arc-lengths of a curve;
                                                                     Apply integration in the determining the surface areas and
                                                                     volumes of solids of revolution;
                                                                     Introduction to first order differential equations;
                                                                     Visualize surfaces in R3 defined by elementary two-variable
                                                                     functions;
                                                                     Differentiate basic multi-variable functions;
                                                                     Introduction to invariable functions;
                                                                     Introduction to partial differentiation.

                                                                   Mathematics 1: Algebra [MATH104]:
                                                                     Sketch and analyse one-variable functions described in
                                                                     parametric form;
                                                                     Sketch and analyse one-variable functions described in polar
                                                                     form;
                                                                     Apply the algebra of complex numbers to simplify and solve
                                                                     basic equations;
                                                                     Geometrically interpret a complex number as a 2-
                                                                     dimensional extension of a real number;
                                                                     Apply the Gauss-Jordan method for solving a system of



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                                                                     linear equations;
                                                                     Illustrate and apply the operations and properties of matrices;
                                                                     Use the algebra of determinants to solve systems of linear
                                                                     equations;
                                                                     Use matrix operations to illustrate symmetries in R2 and R3.

                                                                   Applied Mathematics 1: Graph Theory [MAPM111]:
                                                                     Think critically and see the different proof techniques
                                                                     relevant to graph theory;
                                                                     Apply graph theoretical results to practical problems;
                                                                      Use MATLAB to solve various scientific problems;
                                                                      Write simple programs utilizing the MATLAB language;
                                                                     Implement simple numerical algorithms.

                                                                   Applied Mathematics 1: Mathematical Modelling
                                                                   [MAPM112]:
                                                                     Identify meaningful word problems given a particular
                                                                     situation;
                                                                     Mathematically formulate simple word problems;
                                                                     Recognise proportionality problems, and in simple cases
                                                                     solve it using appropriate mathematical tools;
                                                                     Recognise a linear or integer programming problem, and in
                                                                     simple situations solve these using appropriate graphical
                                                                     methods;
                                                                     Determine the unknown parameters in a model which will
                                                                     best explain a given dataset either visually or by using the
                                                                     least-squares technique;
                                                                     Linearise simple non-linear models in order to determine
                                                                     unknown parameters;
                                                                     Formulate and solve elementary discrete dynamical models
                                                                     using appropriate difference equations;
                                                                     Solve problems using dimensional analysis and linear



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                                                                     algebra;
                                                                     State and apply definitions and theorems discussed in the
                                                                     course;
                                                                     Apply all prior mathematical knowledge to solve meaningful
                                                                     problems.

                                                                   Applied Mathematics 1: Mechanics [MAPM113]:
                                                                     Apply the basic rules of differential and integral calculus to a
                                                                     wide range of basic mechanical problems;
                                                                     Identify which coordinate system is most appropriate for a
                                                                     given mechanical problem;
                                                                     Know how to obtain the appropriate kinematic quantity, by
                                                                     applying appropriate mathematical techniques;
                                                                     Draw free-body diagrams, select the inertial coordinate
                                                                     system and resolve all forces acting on the particle;
                                                                     Apply the equations of motion in either the rectangular or
                                                                     polar coordinate system to obtain the appropriate kinematical
                                                                     quantity;
                                                                     Know and understand the concept of work and be able to
                                                                     determine the work done by a variety of forces;
                                                                     Apply the principle of work and energy;
                                                                     Compute the power supplied to a body by an unbalanced
                                                                     force;
                                                                     Understand the concepts of conservative force and potential
                                                                     energy and be able to apply the conservation of mechanical
                                                                     energy to a variety of mechanical problems.

                                                                   Applied Mathematics 1: Numerical Methods
                                                                   [MAPM114]:
                                                                      Understand the limits of floating-point computations;
                                                                      Decide when and which numerical algorithms should be
                                                                      used for a given problem;



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                                                                      Derive and use some of the more fundamental theorems
                                                                      and algorithms;
                                                                      Do an error analysis to determine a bound or estimate the
                                                                      approximate solution accuracy;
                                                                      Determine the roots of nonlinear equations using a variety of
                                                                      methods;
                                                                      Apply all prior mathematical knowledge as demanded by the
                                                                      prerequisites;
                                                                      Effectively and efficiently implement algorithms using
                                                                      MATLAB code;
                                                                      Effectively solve and check solutions using MATLAB.

Computing & IT     Computer Skills 1 [CCP1111/2]:                  Computer Science for Engineers 1A [MSE1111] & 1B
                      Basic concepts of information                [MSE1122]
                      technology                                      Demonstrate an understanding and ability to use both
                      Using a computer & managing files               Procedure-Oriented Programming and Object-Oriented
                      Word processing                                 Programming methods;
                      Spreadsheets                                    Demonstrate problem-solving using C++;
                      Information & communication                     Write interactive programs;
                                                                      Produce well-formatted output in programs;
                                                                      Make proper use of selection structures and repetition
                                                                      statements;
                                                                      Use I/O files streams and data files;
                                                                      Use classes and inheritance;
                                                                      Write code for error checking and exception handling within
                                                                      programs;
                                                                      Use arrays, pointers and structures efficiently;
                                                                      Understand and use numerical methods and bit operations;
                                                                      Complete a mini project that will have multiple C++
                                                                      programs and files.

Basic Sciences     Electrotechnology 1 [MET1111/2]:                Physics 1A: Mechanics & Thermodynamics [F101]:


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                      Introduction to electrical & mechanical           Predict motion of any object moving in a straight line, or in a
                      engineering qualities & the application           plane or in a circle, or that performs harmonic motion;
                      thereof                                           Demonstrate an understanding of the mechanics of fluids;
                      Batteries                                         Apply the theoretical concepts for all aspects of: wave
                      D.C. theory & Network analysis                    motion, including the superposition of waves; sound; basic
                      Electromagnetism                                  thermodynamics.
                      Magnetic circuits
                      Inductance                                     Physics 1B: Electricity, Magnetism & Optics [F102]:
                      Capacitance                                    Demonstrate an understanding of the following concepts:
                      Basic A.C. theory & measurements                 Static electricity
                      Basic DC Motors & Stepper Motors                 Direct current circuits
                      Transformer Basics                               Magnetism
                      Basic electronic devices & applications          The relationship between electricity and magnetism
                                                                       The link between these concepts and the theory of
                   Thermodynamics 2 [MTH2211/2]:                       electromagnetism and optics
                      Properties of fluids                             Electromagnetic waves
                      Vapours & gases                                  Nature of light
                      Thermodynamic laws                               Laws of geometrical optics
                      Heat engines                                     Image forming in geometrical optics.
                      Entropy
                                                                     Materials Science 1B [MAS1122]:
                      Carnot cycle
                                                                        Explain the main classifications/distinctions between different
                   Strength of Materials 2 [MSM2211/2]:                 materials, the essential (general) structures causing such
                                                                        distinctions, and the relevance of material properties to
                      Stress & strain
                                                                        selection for engineering purposes;
                      Temperature stresses
                                                                        Analyse concepts regarding the detailed structure of
                      Axial loads                                       materials;
                      Catenaries                                        Explain in detail the mechanical properties of various
                      Bending                                           materials, in particular metals, and their relevance to use for
                      Torsion of circular shafts                        different applications;
                      Pin joined frames                                 Explain phase diagrams and phase transformations for alloys
                      3D space frames                                   to apply to specific manufacturing processes as used in



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                   Fluid Mechanics 2 [MFL2211/2]:                     engineering industries;
                      Basic principles: static pressure 7 head        Describe the electron configuration for metals in order to
                      Bemouli’s equation                              predict a materials behaviour;
                      Continuity of flow                              Demonstrate an understanding of the various methods of
                      Loss of energy in pipelines in Series           physical material analysis including electron microscopy
                      Frictional resistance to fluid flow in          techniques.
                      single pipelines
                      Shock losses in pipelines
                      D’Arcy & Chezy formula
                      Venturi meters
                      Pilot tube
                      Fluid pressure on surfaces
                      Bouyancy
                      Archimedes Principle
                      Calculation of conditions of equilibrium
                      Calculation of metacentric height
                      Pneumatic control circuits (including
                      cascades)
Engineering        Mechanics of Machines 2
Sciences           [MMB2211/2]:
                      Moments of inertia (areas & mass)
                      Simple harmonic motion & vibration
                      Natural frequency & resonance
                      Power transmissions (inertia torque,
                      kinetic energy of rotation, hoists &
                      haulage & vehicle dynamics)

                   Mechanics 1 [MEC1111/2]:
                      Statistics
                      Centre of gravity
                      Friction
                      Work



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                      Power & energy
                      Kinematics
                      Dynamics (elementary)

                   Engineering Materials & Science 1
                   [MEM1111/2]:
                      Types of materials: metals, semi-
                      conductors, ceramics composites &
                      polymers
                      Atomic structure of materials
                      Deformation, strain hardening &
                      annealing
                      Solidification & grain size strengthening
                      Mechanical testing

                   Motor Vehicle Engineering 1
                   [MVE1111/2]:
                      Principle cycles of operation
                      Main engine components
                      Engine lubrication system – wet
                      Engine lubrication system – dry
                      Fuel system basis – petrol & diesel
                      Carburation & injection system – petrol
                      Conventional & advanced ignition
                      systems
                      Electronic ignition systems
                      Engine valves 7 heads
                      Clutches, gearboxes & drivelines

                   Mechanical Manufacturing
                   Engineering 1 [MNE1111/2]:
                      Safety & safety legislation


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                      Identification & application of materials
                      Elementary measuring equipment
                      Elementary hand & machine tools

                   Mechanical Manufacturing
                   Engineering 2 [MNE2211/2]:
                      Hand tools
                      Machine tools
                      Metal forming
                      Erosion
                      Castings
                      Plastics: moulding & machining
                      Welding & joining
                      Obtaining finish & accuracy
                      Hand techniques & equipment; machine
                      techniques & equipment
                      Chemical finishing: Anodising
                      Electroplating: practical project
Engineering        Computer Aided Draughting 1                         Engineering Drawing 1A [MEW1121] & 1B [MEW1122]:
Design             [MCD1211/2]:                                          Ability to produce mechanical engineering drawings that are
                      Apply CAD software to orthographic                 accurate, legible, un-ambiguous and sufficient for fabrication
                      drawings & 2-dimensional assembly                  and assembly of mechanical components, as per SABS 0111
                      drawings for fabrication                           Part 1;
                      Parametric modelling with 3D software              Interpret mechanical engineering drawings so that a clear
                                                                         understanding of the make-up and function of the component
                   Mechanical Engineering Drawing 1                      or assembly is achieved;
                   [MED1111/2]:                                          Operate a solid modelling software package to be able to
                   Physical drawing ability of:                          produce detailed mechanical engineering drawings as stated
                      Geometric constructions & tangencies               above;
                      Orthographic projection                            Sketch free-hand in order to communicate engineering
                      Isometric projection                               concepts and functions;
                      Application of 2 dimensional drawing on            Deliver a multi-media presentation using applicable software,



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                      CAD                                               to further aid the communication of conceptual ideas and
                                                                        systems in tandem with all the above;
                                                                        Have a general knowledge of the support structures and
                                                                        methods utilised and available in engineering drawing and
                                                                        communication of engineering concepts.
Engineering        Mechanical Engineering Practice 1
Practice           [MEP1211/2]:
                   Experiential learning formally integrates the
                   student’s academic studies with work
                   experience in participating employer
                   organisations. Focuses on:
                   Developing hand skills by participating in
                   physical work in an artisan work
                   environment.

Communication         Communication theory
Skills                Oral presentation skills
                      Technical writing skills
                      Data gathering & interpretation skills
                      Basic report writing skills
                      Meeting procedure & documentation
                      skills




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Conclusion: With the possible exception of the Engineering Design modules, the
vastly different knowledge blocks making up the first year of each of the Diploma
in Mechanical Engineering and the BEng Mechatronics, mean that there is no
possibility to create an articulation pathway between the two. For example, the
BEng Mechatronics year 1 is heavily weighted with Mathematical Sciences which
the Diploma in Mechanical Engineering is not.

At this stage it appears as if a Diploma in Mechanical Engineering student, who
wishes to undertake BEng (Mechatronics) studies, would have to complete the
diploma qualification and then start again with the first year of the BEng
Mechatronics, applying for appropriate exemptions / credits for any specific
modules already passed (if any).

However, a further analysis is still to be taken, initially of the Mathematical
Sciences and Engineering Design modules in order to verify this
conclusion.




SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010

								
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