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1 NMMU SANTED CASE STUDIES (Cycle 2) ENGINEERING FINAL REPORT October 2010 CONTENTS 1. Introduction and general contextual background 2 2. Process followed: phases of the SANTED case studies 9 3. Progress towards finding a coherent academic framework and programme structure for Engineering: Stage 1 15 4. Issues and questions for consideration and discussion 21 APPENDICES 1. Proposed programme structure for NMMU’s Engineering Qualifications 22 2. Analysis of National Diploma / BTech (Mechanical Engineering) & Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics based on description of knowledge content, competencies and skills 24 3. Analysis of National Diplomas: Electrical Engineering & Mechanical Engineering 32 4. Analysis of specific module content in the Diploma in Electrical Engineering & the Diploma in Mechanical Engineering 35 5. Analysis of BTechs: Electrical Engineering & Mechanical Engineering 46 6. Analysis of specific module content in the BTech (Electrical Engineering) & the BTech (Mechanical Engineering) 50 7. Analysis of Bachelor of Engineering (Mechatronics) 52 8. Analysis of specific module content in the 4-year BEng (Mechatronics) 55 9. Comparison of knowledge blocks in year 1 of the Diploma in Mechanical Engineering and the BEng (Mechatronics) 67 SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 2 1. Introduction and general contextual background A major focus of the SANTED Project is to examine possibilities for an optimal curriculum framework for selected case studies at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University (NMMU) as a comprehensive university. The work on the case studies is intended to assist participating departments and schools in addressing challenges in their respective disciplines and fields, many of which have been brought about by the merger of UPE, PE Technikon and the PE campus of Vista into the NMMU. The results from the case study research will form the basis for recommendations to: Retain existing programmes and / or modules; Redesign existing programmes and / or modules; Develop new programmes and / or modules; Consolidate existing programmes and / or modules; Discontinue existing programmes and / or modules; and to Develop articulation arrangements among qualification types within a specific field or between fields. While these challenges are being addressed at the case study level, the SANTED Thematic Task Team (TTT) 11 is dealing with a range of challenging questions regarding how the NMMU wishes to present itself to stakeholder communities. These questions relate to the academic mission of the NMMU, as well as vision and strategic objectives as a merged, comprehensive university. Relevant to the work of both the case studies and TTT1, Muller’s2 work has proven helpful. He draws a distinction between two predominant forms of coherence, namely conceptual and contextual relevance. An institution in which contextual relevance is predominant will have a more externally-oriented academic mission that focuses on addressing the educational and training needs of the external environment. However, an institution in which conceptual relevance is predominant will place a stronger emphasis on a research-oriented academic mission and on education provision with a more formative character. In terms of Muller’s discussion, TTT1’s work includes making decisions regarding the definition of the academic core of the NMMU in terms of contextual or conceptual relevance. While there will obviously be overlaps, the choice between contextual or conceptual relevance as the dominant element in our academic mission will influence the structure of the NMMU’s programme qualifications mix (PQM) as well as the balance between different types of qualifications (general- formative; professional; general occupational). 1 TTT1 comprises Prof Heather Nel, Prof Nico Jooste and others and was set up specifically to define the nature and mission of the NMMU as a comprehensive university. 2 Commissioned SANTED work: Johan Muller: In search of coherence: a conceptual guide to curriculum planning for comprehensive universities. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 3 The NMMU draws 70% of its students from the Eastern Cape3 which historically has had the lowest matriculation pass rate in the country. Accordingly it is essential that the NMMU has mechanisms in place to both increase access to higher education studies and to support students from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds during their studies. The NMMU has fortunately been able to build on the foundations laid by its merging institutions in this regard and the issues of access and student development are accorded a high priority. The mission and vision of the NMMU focus strongly on developing people and communities to optimise their potential, while one of the core values of the NMMU is access. National higher education policies emphasise that career-focused diploma programmes should grow at a faster rate than degree programmes and this has indeed been the case at the NMMU since 2006. Between 2005 and 2007, total headcount enrolments in contact diploma programmes grew by 5.2% (from 7 831 to 8 246) while enrolments in contact undergraduate degree programmes remained static (from 8 762 to 8 696). Total enrolments in diploma programmes in 2007 were 48% of the total headcount enrolment, while enrolments in undergraduate degree programmes stood at 39%4. At both the undergraduate and postgraduate level, the distribution of headcount enrolments is in line with the DoE approved enrolment projections for 2010 which indicate that the NMMU should have 47% of its students enrolled in diplomas, 42% in degrees, 4% in postgraduate qualifications up to Master’s level, and 7% at Master’s and Doctoral level. The NMMU’s overall graduation rates, which are calculated as the ratio of graduate headcounts to headcount enrolments in a specific year, increased from 20.2% in 2006 to 25.3% in 20075. The NMMU’s overall success rate (which is closely linked to the graduation rate) is based on the ratio of successful FTE students to enrolled FTE students. Although it has risen marginally from 71.7% in 2006 to 73.1% in 20076, it is below the national average. The NMMU has committed itself to improving success rates to 75% by 20107. 3 Self Evaluation Report 2008: Figure 2.11 (Section 2.7) page 21 4 Table 1 in NMMU Audit Portfolio Guide (Section C: Statistical Profile) page 23 5 Self Evaluation Report 2008: Figure 2.12 (Section 2.7) page 22; also Figure 24 in NMMU Audit Portfolio Guide page 83 6 Figure 19 in NMMU Audit Portfolio Guide (Section C: Statistical Profile) page 57 7 Self Evaluation Report 2008: page 22 SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 4 In a position paper currently being developed by the Thematic Task Team 3 coordinator, Prof Cheryl Foxcroft8, she points out that the NMMU, in its capacity as a comprehensive university, has an obvious strength in that it provides applicants with a comprehensive range of programmes (certificates, diplomas, and degree studies) with a differentiated set of admission requirements. Thus, if applicants do not meet the requirements for their first choice qualification, they can be considered for another qualification. Furthermore, articulation from a programme at one level to one at the next level can be built into the programme mix. Despite initial challenges in implementing a centralised process, admission to diploma and national higher certificate programmes has grown since the merger (e.g. in 2006 enrolments in diploma programmes grew by 12%) 9 . As a result, the NMMU has been able to meet its enrolment targets for diploma programmes. The need to formalise articulation arrangements between programmes and programme-types and to align qualifications to the HEQF are two of the major focus areas of the SANTED project. Clearly there is a dire need at the NMMU to address the low success, throughput and graduation rates of students in all undergraduate programmes, particularly National Diplomas and BTechs. As Foxcroft points out, “The range of programme and articulation options, together with a developmentally differentiated approach to admissions and programme placement, has the potential to create multiple entryways and learning pathways for applicants, resulting in increased access opportunities” 10. While work on the case studies has avoided the complex and often controversial issue of broadening the variety of admissions criteria to include both academic and non-academic criteria, it has focused on the consideration of responsible multiple entry routes which could possibly be created through articulation possibilities between programmes within a discipline and even between disciplines. The effect of creating multiple articulation routes is that access to programmes will be broadened, especially to increasingly higher HEQF level programmes. These multi-level programme pathways will mean that a certain standard of performance at one level of the programme pathway will facilitate access to a programme at the next level. 8 Towards Developing a Framework for Debating the Question of Access at a Comprehensive University: Revised February 2009: Prof Cheryl Foxcroft 9 Self Evaluation Report 2008: page 66 10 Towards Developing a Framework for Debating the Question of Access at a Comprehensive University: Revised February 2009: Prof Cheryl Foxcroft: page 2 SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 5 The literature suggests that the broadening of access results in a more diverse student body with diverse cultures and this in turn has a range of consequences for the institution, including placing greater emphasis on multicultural awareness throughout the campus, student life and in learning materials and the curriculum11. Further implications are the need to review and revise curriculum content together with the modes, methods and strategies through which learning is facilitated; the need to review the nature of the student support services available; the need to view how this support is integrated with the learning outcomes of programmes and the qualities universities want in their graduates; and the need to address professional staff development requirements in the light of the increased diversity of students. Boylan (2004)12, in attempting to improve the way that learning is facilitated for non-traditional students, has improved facilitation of learning for all students. Responding holistically to “access for success” can therefore fundamentally change an institution as well as the nature of HE. This is very promising for the NMMU as the SANTED case studies investigate possible articulation pathways within and across disciplines. In conducting the series of meetings with academic staff involved in the ten SANTED case studies, on several occasions mention was made of the university-wide problem of significant differences between the entry competencies of diploma and degree students, with diploma students generally requiring more developmental support13. The NMMU is committed to the development of its students by fostering a supportive and enabling environment that both builds capacity and empowers students to optimise their potential to succeed in their studies. One reason why the NMMU places an emphasis on developing its students is linked to the fact that along with our commitment to increasing access comes a concomitant responsibility to especially provide academic development and support opportunities to students who are not adequately prepared for higher education studies but who have the potential to succeed. 11 Astin, 1993; Boylan, 2004; Smith, 1997). Cited in Foxcroft’s position paper “Towards Developing a Framework for Debating the Question of Access at a Comprehensive University: Revised February 2009” 12 Cited in Foxcroft’s position paper “Towards Developing a Framework for Debating the Question of Access at a Comprehensive University: Revised February 2009” 13 Risk Profiles for degree students: Self Evaluation Report 2008: 12.1 in section 12.2.2, page 96 SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 6 1.1 IMPLICATIONS FOR ENGINEERING 1.1.1 Enrolments and biographical Information The 2009 enrolments in the Engineering programmes (focused on in the SANTED case studies14) is as follows: National Diploma (Electrical Engineering): 432 (comprising 66% black; 21% white; 11% coloured; 2% Indian students). Of the total number of students enrolled in the National Diploma (Electrical Engineering), 77% were males. National Diploma (Mechanical Engineering): 253 (comprising 58% black; 32% white; 9% coloured; 1% Indian students). Of the total number of students enrolled in the National Diploma (Mechanical Engineering), 89% were males. BTech (Electrical Engineering): 89 (comprising 37% black; 43% white; 18% coloured; 2% Indian students). Of the total number of students enrolled in the BTech (Electrical Engineering), 97% were males. BTech (Mechanical Engineering): 53 (comprising 43% white; 36% black; 13% coloured; and 8% Indian students). Of the total number of students enrolled in the BTech (Mechanical Engineering), 89% were males. BEng Mechatronics: 140 (comprising 48% white; 40% black; 8% coloured; 4% Indian students). Of the total number of students enrolled in the BEng Mechatronics, 87% were males. 1.1.2 Throughput rates Once again the focus here is on the Engineering programmes focused on in the SANTED case studies. Throughput rates15 for the 2002 intake of National Diploma (Electrical Engineering) students was 14.2% (graduates completing in the minimum time of three years, i.e. in 2004). However after six years (i.e. 3 years + 3 years) 41.2% 14 The following programmes formed the focus of the Engineering case studies: National Diploma: Electrical Engineering (Power / Industrial / Electronic Communication / Computers); National Diploma: Mechanical Engineering; Bachelor of Technology: Electrical Engineering; Bachelor of Technology: Mechanical Engineering; Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics 15 Statistics provided by Dr CJ Sheppard, Director: Management Information SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 7 of the cohort had graduated. Of note is that of the 303 students enrolled in the National Diploma (Electrical Engineering) in 2002, only 232 (76%) proceeded to the second year16. The throughput rates for the 2002 intake of National Diploma (Mechanical Engineering) students was 25.4% (graduates completing in the minimum time of three years, i.e. in 2004), and 55% after six years (i.e. three years + three years). Of the 169 students enrolled in the National Diploma (Mechanical Engineering) in 2002, 147 (87%) proceeded to the second year. This can be summarised as follows: Qualification Graduate in min. Graduate in 3 + 3 Students proceeding time: 3 years (2005) years (2007) from 1st to 2nd year (2002 to 2003) National Diploma 14.2% 41.2% 76.5% (Electrical Engineering) National Diploma 25.4% 55% 87% (Mechanical Engineering) 1.2 CONCLUSION The NMMU is currently addressing the high attrition rates of diploma students from year 1 to year 2 as well as the poor graduation rates, by: Providing more comprehensive support and development to enable first year students to successfully make the transition from school to university – both from first-year lecturers and the development and support services offered in the Higher Education and Development Services (HEADS).. This involves the identification of high risk students and putting them in touch with support and development opportunities; Raising the admission criteria in accordance with the research findings of the Centre for Access Assessment and Research (CAAR). Students who do not meet the admission requirements for a diploma are counseled into an extended programme; Analysing the reasons why students are dropping out after year 1 of the diploma. This research is also being undertaken by CAAR. Furthermore, research undertaken by the Schools of Management Sciences and Accounting have indicated that the lack of flexibility for students to move into a different 16 It is not clear how many of those who did not proceed to year 2 in 2003, failed and proceeded with year 2 the following year, and how many dropped out of higher education completely. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 8 diploma pathway (from the one they initially enrolled in) after year 1 may well be a contributing factor; Examining the nature of the first-year curricula (linked to the bullet point above). An issue is that students sometimes make the wrong career choices, especially since there is no real career guidance in our schools anymore. Engineering, for example, is a high profile career these days: students might want to study it without being suited to it, or they might choose to enter the wrong sub-field. The rigid nature of many diploma curricula and the fact that there is little overlap between the various curricula, make it difficult for students to change programmes. A common first semester with an introduction to the various sub-fields might make it easier to stream students to appropriate sub-fields, or even to another discipline/profession. Examining the curricula and the teaching and learning methods used with regard to providing space for students to develop their language and communication competencies as well as their problem-solving, leadership and team work skills. These are the generic competencies that employers want to see over and above graduates’ specific discipline knowledge and skills. The development of these generic competencies will also impact on success rates since language and problem-solving difficulties are among the key factors that impinge on student success rates. The last two bullet points are particularly relevant to the SANTED case studies, during which a major focus has been on the analysis of curriculum content in diplomas, especially with regard to how diplomas might articulate into relevant Bachelor’s degree programmes. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 9 2. Process followed: phases of the SANTED case studies 2.1 Phase 1 (Information-gathering) During this phase, information for each programme in the Engineering case study group17 was gathered against the questions agreed upon by the SANTED Broad Academic Task team (BATT) Case Study Questions Working Group. In this phase a range of relevant information was gathered, including: Comprehensive curriculum information in terms of programme exit outcomes, graduate profiles and module information in respect of topics, credit values and teaching, learning and assessment strategies; Requirements or guidelines with respect to programme specification, including the regulatory requirements for programme design by the professional bodies (mainly ECSA); and SAQA qualification specifications. 2.2 Phase 2 (Analyses) In an attempt to find meaningful comparison, three programmes (National Diploma / BTech Mechanical Engineering and the BEng Mechatronics) in the SANTED Engineering case studies were subjected to preliminary comparative analyses (see Appendices) in preparation for further scrutiny by the School and Faculty Academics. During this process the following questions were considered: What is the purpose of the qualification? What kind of graduate should the programme produce? What are the learning outcomes of the programme? What is the nature and balance of the theoretical and practical knowledge, competencies and skills that the graduate needs to develop in each programme, and what are the implications of this balance for the way in which the programme is designed? The theoretical framework and the practical competencies that graduates need to develop depend on the graduate profile and exit level outcomes of the programme; The coherence of the curriculum18: A curriculum is conceptually coherent when there is an upward or vertical hierarchy of conceptual abstraction, with later concepts dependent for their meaning on earlier concepts. On the other 17 The following programmes formed the focus of the Engineering case studies: National Diploma: Electrical Engineering (Power / Industrial / Electronic Communication / Computers); National Diploma: Mechanical Engineering; Bachelor of Technology: Electrical Engineering; Bachelor of Technology: Mechanical Engineering; Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics 18 The key criteria for curriculum coherence are sequencing, pacing and progression. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 10 hand, a contextually coherent curriculum sequencing is less important, with topics being selected for relevance and coherence to a particular context. Put another way: curriculum coherence focuses on the manner in which knowledge, skills and attitudes are developed. In other words, to what extent do certain curricular components build on each other in a vertical sequence, or to what extent are the learning components more independent of each other so that vertical sequencing is less important? The clarification of these questions will form the basis for decisions on curriculum design, access and articulation for the NMMU’s Engineering qualifications. In order to make these crucial decisions, use is being made of Johan Muller’s analysis19 of the four different qualification routes through which graduates are prepared for the world of productive work, as follows: ROUTE 1: Includes disciplines / fields with a stronger conceptual orientation, and an emphasis on internal validation of knowledge. Both hard and soft “pure” disciplines; contemporary version of the liberal arts & sciences; ROUTE 2: Includes the traditional and some new professions; a more applied or contextual focus, but tensions in terms of the appropriate balance between a conceptual and contextual orientation. The traditional general-formative ideal still shapes the undergraduate curriculum, in terms of the development of a broad conceptual framework. The intensive Bachelor’s with professional capping up to Master’s level forms the basic pattern; ROUTE 3: Has a stronger contextual focus on the practical knowledge required to meet occupational demands; linked to some applied theory. Occupational specialisation occurs earlier than in Route 2 so that comparatively less attention is paid to the development of a broad conceptual basis. Conceptual understanding remains important, but has a more specific nature; ROUTE 4: Includes occupationally specific qualifications that straddle both secondary and tertiary education; emphasis placed upon on-the-job training; no direct access to degree study. These four routes are summarised in the adapted version of Muller’s table overleaf: 19 Commissioned SANTED work: Johan Muller: In search of coherence: a conceptual guide to curriculum planning for comprehensive universities. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 11 TABLE 1 ROUTE 4 ROUTE 3 ROUTE 2 ROUTE 1 Contextually Contextually Conceptually Conceptually relevant relevant relevant relevant Particular / General Traditional and Academia; 4th specific occupation some 4th generation generation occupations s professions professions Labour E.g. Travel E.g. Technicians, E.g. Engineers, lawyers, Researchers, Market agents, hospitality Technologists, architects, HR managers, academics workers, trade industrial psychologists, technicians doctors, teachers, social workers Knowledge Largely practical Practical knowledge Applied theory & practical Largely theoretical knowledge & some applied experience progression of the theory discipline Induction On-the-job- Apprenticeship External internship (e.g. Internal internship training, housemanship) (e.g. postdoctoral some work, tenure) apprenticeship Regulation Moderate to weak Moderate sectoral Strong sectoral regulation Moderate to strong sectoral regulation regulation (e.g. trade (e.g. accreditation disciplinary regulation (e.g. hairdresser’s tests) requirements; board (peer review) practical test) exams) To facilitate comparisons, each programme in the case study group was mapped against the following criteria20: A comparison of the purpose and learning pathway of each in order to identify overlaps; A comparison of the graduate profiles of each programme being considered; A comparison of the knowledge base / content of each in order to identify overlaps; The key characteristics of the knowledge / content making up the programme: o Does the knowledge predominantly require a hierarchical (vertical) progression where new knowledge builds on existing knowledge OR is it non-hierarchical (horizontal) where knowledge is packaged into self- contained modules? 20 Ms Trish Gibbon’s assistance with the development of the analytical model used for this mapping is acknowledged SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 12 o Is the knowledge predominantly hard (well-defined knowledge base) or soft (looser knowledge base)? o Is the knowledge predominantly pure (a focus on theoretical coherence) or applied (a focus on contextual requirements and applications)? o Using the above mentioned characteristics, knowledge may be defined as hierarchical or non-hierarchical and hard pure, hard applied, soft pure and soft applied21. The competencies required of the graduate of the programme: o Are these predominantly operational / specific to a limited context OR strategic / generally applicable within a broader context? The skills required of the graduate of the programme: o Are these predominantly technical / analytical /creative/ research? The teaching and learning strategies used: Are these predominantly: o Discursive (lectures, seminars, text-book based, studio based); o Practical (workshop, laboratory-work); o In-service practicum learning (on-the-job / site experience / formal internship)? The nature of summative assessment strategies used: Is the process of collecting evidence and making judgements about a student’s level of competence or achievement in relation to the learning outcomes in the form of an accumulation of exercises and tests written throughout the year, final written examinations, practical demonstrations or portfolio presentations (or a combination of these)? Towards the end of 2009 it became clear that NMMU still faced fundamental questions with respect to curriculum design, including: the differences between diplomas and degrees; how to define the difference between vocational / professional / academic pathways; what the differences are in the curriculum logics of diplomas and degrees. What these challenges suggest is that a curriculum model that helps to address the questions that lie at the heart of the analytical phase (Phase 2) is still to be identified. 21 Becher & Trowler (Academic Tribes and Territories 2nd Ed, 2002) describe the nature of knowledge & the disciplinary groupings as follows: Hard-pure: pure sciences (e.g. Physics): cumulative; atomistic; concerned with universals; impersonal & value free; clear criteria for knowledge verification; results in discovery / explanation. Soft-pure: pure social sciences (e.g. Anthropology): reiterative; holistic; concerned with particulars; personal & value-laden; dispute over criteria for knowledge verification; results in understanding / interpretation. Hard-applied: technologies (e.g. Mechanical Engineering / Clinical Medicine): purposive & pragmatic (know- how via hard knowledge); concerned with mastery of physical environment; criteria for judgement are purposive & functional; results in products / techniques. Soft-applied: applied social sciences (e.g. Management / Education / Law): functional & utilitarian (know- how via soft knowledge); concerned with enhancement of professional practice; results in protocols / procedures. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 13 As a result, during 2010 the Centre for Higher Education Development (CHED) at the University of Cape Town was contracted to assist the NMMU in the development of a curriculum model that provides an explanatory framework for addressing such questions. The purpose of the collaborative work with CHED was therefore to develop, building on the work of Johan Muller (2008), a conceptual framework for the curriculum that would provide a basis for understanding and classifying the curricular logic of different types of qualifications within the same discipline or academic field, as well as in different disciplinary fields. It was envisaged that this framework would serve as the basis for curriculum analysis and development, decisions on admissions and articulation, and the development of a proposed consolidated qualification structure. While Engineering was not one of the case studies identified for participation in this collaborative endeavour with CHED (i.e. Stage 2), it is anticipated that the conceptual framework developed during this process will be applied to all programmes at the NMMU when they undergo redevelopment. 2.3 Phase 3 (Feedback from experts in the academic and professional field) Once the School, Department and Faculty had reached consensus, the proposed academic and programme models for re-curriculation, articulation and programme restructuring would be presented to external academics, employers and professional bodies for their feedback and advice. 2.4 Phase 4 (Consolidation with internal processes) The agreed academic model / structure will be submitted for internal approval; Project outcomes are aligned with the University’s planning initiatives; Project outcomes are integrated into the University’s systems for academic planning, quality management and academic development (including the establishment of appropriate structures for the coordination of articulation processes and curriculum design; The resource centre is consolidated into the University structures; Report is written on project findings; Financial statements are audited; Project findings are shared with the HE sector. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 2.5 Phase 5 (curriculum development / redevelopment) Curriculum design, development, redevelopment will be undertaken by the School / Department in conjunction with the Centre for Teaching, Learning & Media (CTLM). SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 14 2.6 Summary In summary, the following approach was therefore being used to develop a final proposal for a consolidated qualification structure: Programme mapping (information on characteristics of current programmes); Analysis of the programme by starting with the profile of the graduate of the programme (here the insights and advice of employers, professional bodies and other stakeholders are solicited); Identification of the exit level outcomes (in terms of knowledge, skills and attributes) needed to produce the required graduate competencies; Determination of the nature of the knowledge, competencies and skills necessary to create these exit level outcomes; Determination of appropriate strategies for teaching, learning and assessment in the various programmes within the academic field; Development of a consolidated and final proposal on the qualification structure for the academic field with appropriate models for access, retention and articulation; Development of the programme against the revised HEQF guidelines (5 October 2007) and the revised Level Descriptors. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 15 3. Progress towards finding a coherent academic framework and programme structure for Engineering: Stage 1 3.1 Information-gathering Templates for the following programmes in the Engineering case studies were completed during this phase: National Diploma: Electrical Engineering (Power / Industrial / Electronic Communication / Computers); National Diploma: Mechanical Engineering; Bachelor of Technology: Electrical Engineering; Bachelor of Technology: Mechanical Engineering; Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics. 3.2 Comparative analyses A series of comparative analyses was undertaken over a period of 18 months. These analyses, which require more intense scrutiny by the discipline experts, will be used to make decisions leading to the development of proposals on curriculum design, programme models, access models and articulation pathways for Engineering at the NMMU. They are as follows: 3.2.1 Analysis of National Diploma: Mechanical Engineering & Bachelor of Technology (Mechanical Engineering) & Bachelor of Engineering (Mechatronics) based on description of knowledge content, competencies and skills (Appendix 1, page 27). Here an attempt was made to identify common knowledge blocks. 3.2.2 Analysis of National Diplomas: Electrical Engineering & Mechanical Engineering (Appendix 2, page 35) to examine graduate profiles and purpose against knowledge blocks. 3.2.3 Analysis of specific module content in the Diploma in Electrical Engineering & the Diploma in Mechanical Engineering (Appendix 2.1, page 38) in order to identify common knowledge blocks. Here an attempt was also made to compare the Diplomas with the revised ECSA standard for Diploma-type programmes for Engineering Technician registration with ECSA. 3.2.4 Analysis of BTechs: Electrical Engineering & Mechanical Engineering (Appendix 3, page 49) to examine graduate profiles and purpose against knowledge blocks. 3.2.5 Analysis of specific module content in the BTech (Electrical Engineering) & the BTech (Mechanical Engineering): i.e. year 4 on top of a National Diploma (Appendix 3.1, page 53). Here an attempt was also made SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 16 to compare the Diploma / BTech with the revised ECSA standard for BEngTech-type programmes for Engineering Technologist registration with ECSA. 3.2.6 Analysis of Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics (Appendix 4, page 55) to examine graduate profile and purpose against knowledge blocks. 3.2.7 Analysis of specific module content in the four-year BEng (Mechatronics) (Appendix 4.1, page 58). Here an attempt was made to compare the current BEng (Mechatronics) with the revised ECSA standard for BEng-type programmes for Professional Engineer registration with ECSA. 3.2.8 Comparison of knowledge blocks in year 1: Diploma (Mechanical Engineering) & BEng (Mechatronics) (Appendix 5, page 70). 3.3 Focus group meetings with discipline experts The analysis of the knowledge blocks in year 1: Diploma (Mechanical Engineering) & BEng (Mechatronics) seemed to indicate that due to the vastly different knowledge blocks making up the first year of each of these qualifications, there was no possibility to create an articulation pathway between the two. This conclusion was tested and confirmed in focus group meetings with the Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Design discipline experts (June 2009), where it was established that the Diploma had a weaker theoretical and conceptual base than the Degree. In addition, different pedagogies were used, which in turn presented challenges to students who are used to one teaching and learning paradigm having to adapt to a new and vastly different one. A further problem relates to the poor proficiency of Diploma students in the language of instruction (English). The implications are that a Diploma in Mechanical Engineering student, who wishes to undertake BEng (Mechatronics) studies, would have to apply for admission into the first year of the BEng Mechatronics, applying for appropriate exemptions / credits for any specific modules already passed (if any). This would have to be done on a case-by-case basis. In order to provide a suitable replacement for the current BTechs and also to accommodate articulation into the Degree pathway for the exceptional Diploma student, the School of Engineering is currently considering the option of a new Bachelor of Engineering Technology (three years; level 7) which will be aligned with the restructured Diploma in Engineering (refer Section 4, pages 23-24). SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 17 A further revelation which emanated from the focus group meeting with the Engineering Design academics, was that in spite of the clearly defined ECSA standards for problem-solving skills developed for the Level 6 Diploma (Engineering Technician pathway), the Level 7 BTech22 (Engineering Technologist pathway), and the four-year Level 8 Bachelor of Engineering (Mechatronics) (Professional Engineer pathway), this was not manifested in reality. In other words, while the ECSA standard requires the Technician pathway (i.e. Diploma students) to be able to solve well-defined problems, the Technologist pathway (i.e. BTech students) to be able to solve broadly defined problems, and the Professional Engineer pathway (i.e. BEng students) to be able to define complex problems, in reality the boundaries were blurred. This means that there is currently no clear distinction between the capstone projects and related learning outcomes for the Diploma and BTech and capstone projects and related learning outcomes for the BTech and BEng (Mechatronics). 3.4 Feedback from experts and stakeholders in the Engineering academic and professional fields This phase commenced with an ECSA workshop in April 2008 and is already underway. At this workshop intensive discussions occurred nationally on the implications of the revised HEQF, particularly on Engineering Technology programmes 23. A follow-up workshop, again convened by ECSA, was held in November 2008. At this workshop there appeared to be general consensus regarding the proposed ECSA and Engineering Standards Generating Body (ESGB) standards which are scheduled to be registered in early 2009. In early March 2009, Dr Terry Stidworthy from ECSA presented a workshop at NMMU on the standards which had recently been registered for Professional Engineers (Bachelor of Engineering-type qualifications), Engineering Technologist (Bachelor of Engineering Technology-type qualifications) and Engineering Technician (Diploma in Engineering / Higher Certificate in Engineering-type qualifications). 22 The BTech will probably be replaced with a three-year BTechEng (refer proposed structure for NMMU Engineering qualifications in the Appendices) 23 HEQF Aligned Qualifications for Engineering Technicians and Technologists (24 October 2007) & Engineering Council of South Africa Position Paper: Implementing Engineering Qualifications under the HEQF: Draft 2 (4 February 2008) SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 18 These three different qualification routes proposed by ECSA for Engineering qualifications24 each comprise the following ten exit level outcomes (at progressive levels of complexity): o ELO 1: identify, assess, formulate and solve engineering problems; o ELO 2: use math, basic science and engineering science knowledge to solve engineering problems; o ELO 3: perform design and synthesis of solutions; o ELO 4: design and conduct investigations and experiments; o ELO 5: use appropriate engineering methods, skills and tools, including those based on IT; o ELO 6: communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, with engineering and wider audiences; o ELO 7: assess impact of engineering activity on social, industrial and physical environment; o ELO 8: work effectively as an individual, in teams; o ELO 9: engage in independent learning through well-developed learning skills; o ELO 10: act professionally and ethically, exercise judgment and take responsibility within own limits. The ECSA approach to generating the standards was to use the professional graduate profiles to derive the purpose of qualifications as follows25: Professional Engineers Professional Engineering Professional (BEng) Technologists Engineering (BEngTech) Technicians (DipEng) are characterised by: Solving problems, developing Applying established and Applying proven, commonly components, systems, newly developed engineering understood techniques services and processes by technology to solve problems, procedures, practices and analysis, synthesis, creativity, develop components, systems, codes in support of innovation and applying services and processes. engineering activities. fundamental and engineering principles. Providing technical and Providing leadership in Managing and supervising commercial leadership through applying technology and engineering operations, well-developed interpersonal commercially and have well- construction and activities. skills. developed interpersonal skills. 24 Refer also to the ECSA / ESGB paper: HEQF Compliant Generic Engineering Qualifications, Draft 2: 24 October 2008 which compares the BEng-type qualification, the BEngTech-type qualification, the Diploma-type qualification and the Advanced certificate-type qualification. 25 Based on the IEM Graduate Attributes and Professional Competency Profiles according to the Washington accord, the Sydney accord and the Dublin Accord, as set out in the paper: Graduate Attributes and Professional Competencies Version 1.1 – 13 June 2005. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 19 Working independently and Working independently and Working independently and responsibly, applying original responsibly, applying judgment responsibly within an thought and judgment to to decisions arising in the allocated area or under technical and risk-based application of technology to guidance of an engineer or decisions in complex problems and associated risks. technologist. situations. Optimising technical Ensuring that engineering Ensuring that engineering performance, costs and solutions meet performance solutions meet performance benefits to clients and requirements and accepted requirements and accepted community while achieving minimum standards for the minimum standards for desired outcomes within the community’s safety and health and safety. context of a safe and welfare. sustainable environment. To achieve this their knowledge encompasses A broad, fundamentals-based An understanding of A working understanding of appreciation of engineering engineering sciences engineering sciences sciences, with depth in specific underlying a deep knowledge underlying the techniques areas, together with financial, of specific technologies, used, together with commercial, legal, social and together with financial, financial, legal and health, health, safety and commercial, legal, social and safety and environmental environmental matters health, safety and methodologies. environmental matters. The qualification outcome (graduate profile) is: Conduct investigations of Conduct investigations of Conduct investigations of complex problems26 including broadly-defined problems27; well-defined problems28; 26 Complex Problems require identification and analysis, and may be concrete or abstract, may be divergent and may involve significant uncertainty. Problems may be infrequently encountered types and occur in unfamiliar contexts. Approach to problem-solving needs to be found, is creative and innovative. Information is complex and possibly incomplete, requiring validation and critical analysis; Solutions are based on theory, use of first-principles and evidence, (which may be incomplete) together with judgement where necessary; Involves a variety of interactions which may impose conflicting constraints, premises, assumptions restrictions 27 Broadly Defined Problems require identification and analysis which may be concrete, but ill- posed or have a degree of uncertainty; Problems may be unfamiliar, but are capable of interpretation for solution by technologies in practice area; Approach to solution involves using structured analysis techniques in well-accepted, creative and innovative ways. Information is complex and possibly incomplete, requires validation, supplementation and compilation into the information base; Solutions may be partially outside standards and codes, may require judgment, and may operate outside standards and codes with justification; Involves a variety of factors which may impose conflicting constraints, premises, assumptions or restrictions. 28 Well Defined Problem statements are concrete, requirements are largely complete and certain, but may require refinement; Problems may be unfamiliar, but occur in familiar contexts and are amenable to solution by established methodologies; Approach to solution involves standardized methodologies or codified best practice. Information is concrete and largely complete, requires validation and possible supplementation; Solutions are encompassed by standards, codes and documented procedures; judgment of outcome is required; Involves several issues, but with few of these imposing conflicting constraints, premises, assumptions or restrictions within limitations of procedures. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 20 • design of experiments, • locate, search and select • locate and search • analysis and interpretation relevant data from codes, relevant codes and of data, databases and literature, catalogues, • synthesis of information to • design and conduct • conduct standard tests provide valid conclusions experiments to provide and measurements. valid conclusions. The knowledge base for all Engineering qualifications can be broken down into the following areas: o Mathematical Sciences o Basic Sciences o Engineering Sciences o Engineering Design o Computing & IT o Complementary Studies o Engineering Practice In the discussion on the new Diploma requirements, Dr Stidworthy said that ECSA has made the decision that even though the HEQF states that a “Diploma may include work integrated learning (WIL)”, the proposed diploma will include it, and that once SAQA / CHE approves the standard, it will become compulsory for HEIs to include WIL as part of their Diploma. It was pointed out that if the Diploma is designed to include WIL as part of the qualification, then it would attract DoE funding. In response to the question regarding the progression route for the BEngTech, Dr Stidworthy responded that ECSA envisaged a common MEng for both the BEng (professional engineer route) and the BEngTech (professional engineering technologist route). It was also pointed out that the DoE has indicated that: o It is not able to consider any new redeveloped qualification for the next 18 months; o The CHE is taking over from SAQA for the registration of standards; o Anything the NMMU proposes may have to change in the light of any decision taken by the DoE and CHE; o The national debate regarding the possible introduction of a four- year Bachelor’s degree to address educational disadvantage will continue. Finally, as the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA) consolidates its position regarding registration of qualifications under the revised HEQF, scrutiny of the optimal structure for the NMMU’s Engineering qualifications will continue. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 21 4. Issues and questions for consideration and discussion The current lack of clear distinction between the capstone projects and related learning outcomes for the Diploma and BTech29 and capstone projects and related learning outcomes for the BTech and BEng (Mechatronics) should be considered with a view to creating distinctly different capstone projects which are aligned with the required ECSA standards. These require the Technician pathway (i.e. Diploma students) to be able to solve well-defined problems, the Technologist pathway (i.e. BTech students) to be able to solve broadly defined problems, and the Professional Engineer pathway (ie BEng students) to be able to define complex problems. There are crucial questions that require clarification around exactly how the Department of Education (DoE) funding mechanism under the revised HEQF will work. This will require specific information from the Director: Management Information. It was noted that the DoE had investigated the funding of work integrated learning (WIL) and together with HESA had decided not to fund it. The main reason was that they were not convinced of the quality of experiential learning. The Minister has, however, indicated that the issue could be revisited now that the new HEQF has been gazetted. It was suggested that the Dean of Engineering should, through the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic) / Vice-Chancellor, send a letter to the Minister of Education, via HESA, requesting that the matter of funding for WIL be reconsidered. A minority view that emerged was that WIL experiences, if structured into credit-bearing portfolio-based modules, will in fact be eligible for funding. How pipeline students are to be dealt with and the final date for allowing students to enrol in the BTech are still not certain. While the revised HEQF came into effect in January 2009, the DoE has indicated that new enrolments into the current National Diplomas could still occur up to and including 2013. This means that new enrolments into the current BTech could still occur up to and including 2016. However, this would not provide for students who failed a year along the way. Clear communication must occur early with prospective students regarding new options to replace the current National Diploma / BTech pathway. 29 The current capping 1-year BTech will probably be replaced by a 3-year, Level 7 BTechEng SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 22 APPENDIX 1: Proposed programme structure for NMMU’s Engineering qualifications30 Earlier models (available upon request) were scrutinised and discussed, and rejected for two main reasons: current resources would not allow the School to offer a wide range of programmes and a common first semester for all Engineering students (diploma and degree) is not feasible due to the varying skill sets of students at entry level. The current preferred structure for the NMMU’s Engineering qualifications, which is still under discussion, includes the following main features: Three different programme pathways are available to school-leavers: a diploma (entry for school-leavers with an NSC result which allows diploma entry) and two Bachelor’s degrees (entry for school-leavers with an NSC result which allows degree entry) as follows: o A three-year Diploma of Engineering which will lead to registration as a Professional Engineering Technician; o A three-year Bachelor of Engineering Technology which will lead to registration as a Professional Engineering Technologist; o The Bachelor of Engineering (Mechatronics) which will lead to registration as a Professional Engineer. The curricula for the BEngTech and the Diploma (both career-focused, contextually-oriented pathways) will be designed in a manner which accommodates similar knowledges in the first two years. This will then mean that Diploma students who attain a specified level of achievement in the first two years may be allowed to articulate into the BEng Tech, taking specified credits with them (up to a maximum of 180 credits). Alternatively, a graduate from the Diploma may articulate into the BEngTech, also taking a maximum of 180 credits with them. The only way a Diploma student will be able to continue with postgraduate studies is to articulate into the BEng Tech in the ways outlined in the previous bullet point. A graduate from the three-year Bachelor’s Degree may, on meeting certain admission criteria, progress to the one-year Bachelor Honours Degree. A Bachelor’s Honours Degree or the four-year professional Bachelor’s Degree may progress to the Master’s Degree. A Master’s Degree graduate may progress to the Doctoral Degree. 30 Refer to Section 4.1 (page 24) of this report. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 23 PROPOSED STRUCTURE FOR ENGINEERING PROGRAMMES AT NMMU DOCTORAL DEGREE LEVEL 10 (LEVEL 10) LEVEL 9 MASTERS DEGREE (LEVEL 9) Professional Eng BENG HONS BENG LEVEL 8 (LEVEL 8) (MECHATRONICS) 1 Yr / 120 credits (all (Professional) LEVEL 7 @ L8) (LEVEL 8) NOTE: From HEQF doc (5 Oct 2007): See Note 2 Engineering page 9 BACHELOR OF ENG Technologist TECH (LEVEL 7) 4 Yrs / 480 credits; (min 96 credits @ L8; Note 1: “Any and all credits for an LEVEL 6 Eng min 120 credits @ L7; Technician 3 Yrs / 360 credits incomplete qualification may be DIPLOMA IN max 96 credits @ L5) ENG (LEVEL 6) (min 120 credits @ L7; recognized as meeting part of the max 96 credits @ L5) requirements for a different qualification 3 Yrs / 360 credits; min 60 in the same or different institution.” credits @ L7; See Note 1 max 120 credits Note 2: “…a maximum of 50% credits of LEVEL 5 @ L5 a completed qualification may be transferred to another qualification, provided also that no more than 50% of the credits required for the other qualification are credits that have been used for a completed qualification.” Meets NSC Diploma requirements PLUS a Maths & Meets NSC Degree Science requirement Requirements PLUS a Maths & Science requirement SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 24 APPENDIX 2: Analysis of National Diploma: Mechanical Engineering & Bachelor of Technology (Mechanical Engineering) & Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics based on description of knowledge content, competencies and skills National Diploma & BTech: Mechanical Engineering Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics Purpose of the ND: Graduates have a broad, qualification Graduates have a working understanding of mechanical engineering fundamentals-based sciences underlying the techniques used, together with financial, appreciation of mechanical legal & health, safety & environmental methodologies AND are engineering sciences, with depth capable of performing all the functions of a mechanical engineering in specific areas, together with technician in both the public and private sectors; financial, commercial, legal, Focuses on well-defined Engineering problems; social & health, safety & Leads to registration as a professional mechanical engineering environmental matters AND are technician-in-training with the Engineering Council of South Africa capable of performing all the (ECSA). functions of a professional mechanical engineer in both the BTECH: public and private sectors; Graduates have an understanding of mechanical engineering Focuses on complex sciences underlying a deep knowledge of specific technologies, Engineering problems; together with financial, commercial, legal, social & health, safety & environmental matters AND are capable of performing all the Leads to registration with ECSA functions of a professional mechanical engineering technologist in as a professional mechanical both the public and private sectors; engineer. Focuses on broadly-defined Engineering problems; Leads to registration with ECSA as a candidate mechanical technologist in the field of mechanical engineering. Graduate Profile ND: Ability to select and specify Ability to apply mechanical engineering principles to diagnose & components and systems to solve engineering problems; provide optimum engineering Ability to demonstrate mechanical engineering knowledge & skills performance; in one or more specialised areas; Ability to specify a system in SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 25 Ability to engage in mechanical engineering design work association with the appropriate individually & as part of a team; component selection; Ability to apply management principles in an engineering Ability to assess engineering environment; performance of systems to Ability to install, assemble, commission and maintain mechanical changes in design and engineering equipment or functions within applicable standards operating conditions. and codes of practice; Ability to apply technical knowledge and analytical skills to diagnose problems in mechanical equipment systems and develop appropriate solutions; Ability to plan, design, undertake and supervise tasks and projects considering all the appropriate technical and non-technical aspects. BTECH: Ability to apply an integration of theory, principles, proven techniques, practical experience & appropriate skills to the solution of broadly defined problems in the field of mechanical engineering while operating within the relevant standards & codes; Ability to demonstrate well-rounded general mechanical engineering knowledge, as well as systematic knowledge of the main terms, procedures, principles & operations of one of the disciplines of mechanical engineering; Ability to gather evidence from primary sources & journals using advanced retrieval skills, & organise, synthesise & present the information professionally in a mode appropriate to the audience; Ability to identify, analyse, conduct & manage a project; Ability to work independently as a team member and as a team leader; Ability to relate mechanical engineering activity to health, safety & environment , cultural & economic sustainability. Learning Contextually relevant / career-focused: preparation for careers in Conceptually & contextually pathway engineering & areas that potentially benefit from technical (ND) and relevant / academic focused: SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 26 technological (BTech) engineering skills & proficiency. preparation to proceed on the academic route into Honours, Master’s and PhD study. Knowledge base Mathematical Sciences Mathematical Sciences ND: - Algebra; calculus; differential * = indicative credits - Basic concepts including: logarithms, differential equations, matrix calculus; graph theory; provided by ECSA algebra - Mathematical modeling; Characteristics of knowledge - Mechanics; numerical methods; Hierarchical, hard pure vector analysis; transform theory; - Engineering statistics. BTECH: Characteristics of knowledge -Engineering Materials & Science Hierarchical, hard pure Characteristics of knowledge Hierarchical, mainly hard applied; some hard pure. Basic Sciences Basic Sciences ND: - Mechanics & Thermodynamics - Electrotechnology - Electricity, Magnetism & Optics - Fluid Mechanics - Materials Science - Mechanics of Machines - Strength of Materials - Strength of Materials - Thermo-fluids - Thermodynamics - Electrotechnology - Hydraulic Machines - Electronics Characteristics of knowledge - Control Systems Hierarchical, hard applied - Microprocessors Characteristics of knowledge BTECH: [20 credits*] Hierarchical, hard applied - Automatic Control - Strength of Materials - Stress Analysis - Thermodynamics Characteristics of knowledge Hierarchical, hard applied SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 27 Engineering Sciences Engineering Sciences ND: - Dynamics - Engineering Materials & Science - Machine Design - Motor Vehicle Engineering - Electric Machines Characteristics of knowledge Characteristics of knowledge Hierarchical, hard applied Hierarchical, hard applied BTECH: - Mechanics of Machines - Turbo Machines - Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Characteristics of knowledge Hierarchical, hard applied. Engineering Design & Synthesis Engineering Design & Synthesis ND: - Engineering Drawing - Mechanical Engineering Design - Mechatronics Design Characteristics of knowledge - Advanced Manufacturing Hierarchical, mainly hard applied Systems; -Mechatronics Project BTECH: Characteristics of knowledge - Engineering Design Project Hierarchical, mainly hard applied Characteristics of knowledge Hierarchical, mainly hard applied; some hard pure. Engineering Practice Engineering Practice ND: - Advanced Manufacturing - Manufacturing Engineering Systems; - Mechanical Engineering Practice - Mechatronics Project Characteristics of knowledge Characteristics of knowledge Non-hierarchical, mainly hard applied Non-hierarchical, mainly hard applied SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 28 Computing & IT Computing & IT ND: - Computer Science for Engineers - Basic concepts including word processing; spreadsheets; managing - Complex computing concepts files; MATLAB - Design - Computer Aided Draughting Characteristics of knowledge - Software Design Hierarchical, hard applied Characteristics of knowledge Hierarchical, hard applied. BTECH: - Computer networks - Advanced concepts - Advanced CAD - Advanced Software Design Characteristics of knowledge Hierarchical, mainly hard applied. Complementary Studies Complementary Studies ND: - Communication Systems - Communication skills: communication theory; oral presentation; - Professional Communication technical writing skills Environmental Management Characteristics of knowledge - Project Management Non-hierarchical, soft applied. - Entrepreneurship (financial & business) BTECH: Characteristics of knowledge - Advanced communication skills: communication theory; oral Non-hierarchical, soft applied. presentation; technical writing skills - Professional communication Characteristics of knowledge Non-hierarchical, mainly soft applied Competencies Operational Operational ND Ability to select and specify Apply engineering principles and problem-solving techniques in the components & systems to SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 29 field of mechanical engineering technology by operating within provide optimum engineering relevant standards and codes performance Apply theory and practical handskills in mechanical engineering Ability to specify a system in activities and applications association with the appropriate Install, assemble, commission and maintain mechanical component selection engineering equipment or functions within applicable standards Competency in assessing and codes of practice engineering performance of Interpret technical data systems to changes in design Apply proven, commonly understood techniques, procedures, and operating conditions practices & codes in support of mechanical engineering activities Solve problems, develop Manage & supervise mechanical engineering operations, components, systems, services construction & activities & processes by analysis, Work independently & responsibly within an allocated area or synthesis, creativity, innovation under guidance of an mechanical engineer or technologist & applying fundamental BTECH mechanical engineering Apply high level application of engineering technology principles & principles problem solving techniques in the mechanical engineering field Provide leadership in applying Undertake laboratory work with technical machines technology to mechanical Test, commission & operate Protection schemes engineering operations, Undertake lab work with protection schemes construction & activities Apply established & newly developed mechanical engineering Work independently & technology to solve problems, develop components, systems, responsibly, applying services & processes judgement to decisions arising Provide leadership in applying technology to mechanical in the application of technology engineering operations, construction & activities to problems & associated risks Work independently & responsibly, applying judgement in the Ensure that mechanical application of technology to problems & associated risks engineering solutions meet performance requirements & Ensure that mechanical engineering solutions meet performance accepted minimum standards requirements & accepted minimum standards for the community’s for the community’s safety & safety & welfare welfare Strategic Strategic ND: Effective communication with Effective communication SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 30 Practice self management principles engineering audiences & the Relate engineering activity to environmental, cultural & safety larger community issues Well developed interpersonal skills BTECH: Critical awareness of the Effective communication impact of engineering activity Well developed interpersonal skills on society and the environment Well-rounded general mechanical engineering knowledge Ability to work effectively as an Systematic knowledge of the main terms, procedures, principles & individual, in teams and in operations of one of the disciplines of mechanical engineering multidisciplinary environments Work independently as a team member and as a team leader; Awareness of the need to act Relate mechanical engineering activity to health, safety & professionally & ethically, to environment , cultural & economic sustainability take responsibility Make independent decisions / judgements taking into account the Critical awareness of the relevant technical, economic, social & environmental factors impact of engineering activity on the social, industrial & physical environment Skills Technical Technical ND: Design and conduct Apply basic graphical techniques; investigations and experiments Apply graphical techniques to effective presentation of information Use appropriate engineering methods, skills and tools, BTECH: including those based on Integrate theory, principles, proven techniques, practical information technology experience & appropriate skills to the solution of broadly defined problems in the field of mechanical engineering while operating within the relevant standards & codes Analytical Analytical Apply knowledge of ND: mathematics, basic science & Collect, organize, analyse & evaluate basic mechanical engineering sciences to solve engineering technology information engineering problems Apply technical knowledge and analytical skills to diagnose Identify, analyse, conduct & SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 31 problems in mechanical equipment systems and develop manage mechatronics projects; appropriate solutions Apply the knowledge gained to Plan, design & undertake tasks & projects considering all the new situations, both concrete & appropriate technical and non-technical aspects abstract, in the workplace / BTECH: community Gather evidence from primary sources & organise, synthesise & present the information professionally Apply the knowledge gained to new situations, both concrete & abstract, in the workplace / community Plan, design, undertake, manage & supervise tasks & projects considering all the appropriate technical and non-technical aspects Creative ND: Creative Design basic simple elements of mechanical engineering Identify, assess, formulate and technology projects solve convergent and divergent Generate, construct, assemble & deliver simple technical engineering problems creatively presentation and innovatively BTECH: Perform creative, procedural Design advanced mechanical engineering technology projects; and non-procedural design & Generate, construct, assemble & deliver technical presentation synthesis of components, systems, engineering works, Research products or processes ND: Conduct limited research Research BTECH: Conduct Mechatronics Conduct an integrated research project, with an industry-oriented research projects approach Teaching & Mixture of discursive and practical (about 50 -50) Mainly discursive; some practical Learning Methods applications Summative Written exams; Practical tests; Group assignments; Individual Written tests, exams; practicals. Assessment assignments Procedures SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 32 APPENDIX 3: Analysis of National Diplomas: Electrical Engineering & Mechanical Engineering National Diploma: Electrical / Mechanical Engineering [3 Years; 360 credits: 132@L5; 132@L6; 96@L7] To achieve the purpose, Criterion Description ELOs, graduate profile, competencies & skills the following knowledge base is necessary: Purpose of - Prepares for competent practising Mathematical Sciences qualification technician in the specific field; Basic concepts including: - Provides required base for professional logarithms, differential equations, registration as an engineering matrix algebra technician-in-training with the Engineering Council of South Africa Characteristics of knowledge (ECSA); Hierarchical, hard pure - As an engineering technician, performs established procedures in the support of Basic Sciences * the specific engineering applications Electrical Eng pathway: Graduate - Has mainly a contextual knowledge - Digital Systems Profile31 base, with a working understanding of - Digital Communication the discipline’s sciences underlying the - Electronics techniques used, together with financial, - Power Electronics legal and health, safety and - Network Systems environmental methodologies; - Control Systems - Applies proven, commonly understood - Logic Design techniques, procedures, practices and codes in support of engineering Mechanical Eng pathway: activities; - Electrotechnology - Manages & supervises operations, - Strength of Materials 31 Graduate profile is based on the following exit level outcomes: 1: Identify, assess, formulate & solve well-defined engineering problems (see footnote 11) 2: Use math, basic science & engineering science knowledge to solve well-defined engineering problems; 3: Demonstrate competence to perform procedural design of well-defined components, systems, products or processes and synthesis of solutions; 4: Design and conduct investigations and experiments of well-defined problems; 5: Use appropriate engineering methods, skills and tools, including those based on IT for the solution of well-defined engineering problems; 6: Communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, with engineering & wider audiences; 7: Assess impact of engineering activity on social, industrial & physical environment and address issues by well-defined procedures; 8: Work effectively as an individual & in teams; 9: Engage in independent learning through well-developed learning skills; 10: Act professionally and ethically, exercise judgement and take responsibility within own limits. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 33 construction and activities. - Applied Strength of Materials - Works independently and responsibly - Thermodynamics within an allocated area or under - Hydraulic Machines guidance of a professional engineer or technologist Characteristics of knowledge - Ensures that solutions meet Hierarchical, hard applied performance requirements and accepted minimum standards for health and Engineering Sciences * safety; Electrical Eng pathway: - Able to conduct investigations of well- - Electrical Engineering: Application defined engineering problems32 in order of electrical engineering to: quantities; Circuits; illumination; • locate and search relevant codes and interconnectors catalogues - Electrical Distribution • conduct standard tests and - Electrical Machines measurements. - Electronic Communication Competencies Operational - Industrial Electronics & Skills Apply engineering principles and - Radio Engineering problem-solving techniques in the - Television field of engineering technology by - Electrical Protection operating within relevant standards - Electronic applications and codes Apply theory and practical handskills Mechanical Eng pathway in engineering activities and - Mechanics applications - Fluid Mechanics Install, assemble, commission and - Fluid Control Systems maintain engineering equipment or - Mechanics of Machines functions within applicable standards - Engineering Materials & Science and codes of practice - Motor Vehicle Engineering Apply proven, commonly understood - Mechanical Manufacturing techniques, procedures, practices & Engineering codes in support of engineering - Steam Plant activities - Theory of Machines Manage & supervise engineering operations, construction & activities Characteristics of knowledge Work independently & responsibly Hierarchical, hard applied within an allocated area or under guidance of an engineer or Engineering Design & Synthesis technologist Electrical Eng pathway: - Logic Design - Design Project 32 Well-Defined Problem statements are concrete, requirements are largely complete and certain, but may require refinement; Problems may be unfamiliar, but occur in familiar contexts and are amenable to solution by established methodologies; Approach to solution involves standardized methodologies or codified best practice. Information is concrete and largely complete, requires validation and possible supplementation; Solutions are encompassed by standards, codes and documented procedures; judgment of outcome is required; Involves several issues, but with few of these imposing conflicting constraints, premises, assumptions or restrictions within limitations of procedures. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 34 Strategic Effective communication Mechanical Eng pathway Interpret technical data - Mechanical Engineering Drawing Practice self management principles - Mechanical Engineering Design Relate engineering activity to - Computer-aided drawing environmental, cultural & safety issues Characteristics of knowledge Hierarchical, hard applied Technical Apply basic graphical techniques Engineering Practice Apply graphical techniques to Electrical Eng pathway: effective presentation of information - Electrical Engineering Practice Interpret technical data Mechanical Eng pathway Analytical - Mechanical Engineering Practice Collect, organise, analyse & evaluate Characteristics of knowledge basic engineering technology Hierarchical, mainly hard applied information Apply technical knowledge and Computing & IT analytical skills to diagnose problems - Basic concepts including word in equipment systems and develop processing; spreadsheets; appropriate solutions managing files; MATLAB Plan, design, undertake and - Software Design. supervise tasks and projects considering all the appropriate Characteristics of knowledge technical and non-technical aspects Non-hierarchical, hard applied. Creative Complementary Studies Design basic simple elements of - Communication skills: engineering technology projects communication theory oral Generate, construct, assemble & presentation; technical writing skills deliver simple technical presentation Characteristics of knowledge Research Non-hierarchical, soft applied. Conduct limited research Teaching & Mixture of discursive and practical * The Engineering discipline Learning (about 50 -50) experts will need to scrutinise Methods this analysis and verify which Summative Practical tests, assignments & final aspects fall into the categories Assessment exams of Basic Sciences & Engineering Procedures Sciences SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 35 APPENDIX 4: Analysis of specific module content in the Diploma in Electrical Engineering & the Diploma in Mechanical Engineering Nat Diploma: Electrical Eng Nat Diploma: Mechanical Eng Module Topics within module Module Topics within module YEAR 1 Mathematics Radian measure Same 1 Natural logarithms [WIS111/2] Determinants Differentiation 1 Integration 1 Complex numbers Statistics Mathematics Differentials 2 Same 2 [WIS211/2] Integration 2 Matrix algebra Differentiated equations (1st order) Computer Basic concepts of Same (as elective) Skills 1 information technology [CCP1111/2] Using a computer & managing files Word processing Spreadsheets Information & communication Communicatn Communication theory Module A: Communication theory Skills 1 Oral presentation Communication Oral presentation skills [CCM1111/2] Technical writing skills Principles Technical writing skills Group communication [CCM1221/2] Data gathering & skills interpretation skills Basic report writing skills Meeting procedure & documentation skills Computer Aided Apply CAD software to Draughting 1 orthographic drawings & 2- [MCD1211/2] dimensional assembly drawings for fabrication Parametric modelling with SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 36 3D software Digital Introduction to digital logic Mechanical Physical drawing ability of: Systems 1 Stored programme Engineering Geometric constructions & [EDS1111/2] computer Drawing 1 tangencies Number systems & codes [MED1111/2] Orthographic projection Logic gates Isometric projection Boolean algebra Application of 2- Combinational logic dimensional drawing on Functions of CAD combinational logic Error detections & correction Electronics 1 Basic measurements Electrotechnolo Introduction to electrical & [EEL1011/2] Semiconductor theory gy 1 mechanical engineering Diodes [MET1111/2] qualities & the application Transistor theory thereof Applied technology Batteries D.C. theory & Network analysis Electromagnetism Magnetic circuits Inductance Capacitance Basic A.C. theory & measurements Basic DC Motors & Stepper Motors Transformer Basics Basic electronic devices & applications Mechanics of Moments of inertia (areas & Machines 2 mass) [MMB2211/2] Simple harmonic motion & vibration Natural frequency & resonance Power transmissions (inertia torque, kinetic energy of rotation, hoists & haulage & vehicle dynamics) Strength of Stress & strain Materials 2 Temperature stresses [MSM2211/2] Axial loads Catenaries SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 37 Bending Torsion of circular shafts Pin joined frames 3D space frames Thermodynamic Properties of fluids s2 Vapours & gases [MTH2211/2] Thermodynamic laws Heat engines Entropy Carnot cycle Electrical Introduction to electrical & Mechanics 1 Statistics Engineering 1 mechanical engineering [MEC1111/2] Centre of gravity [ENG1311/2] quantities & the Friction application thereof Work Batteries Power & energy D.C. theory & network Kinematics analysis Dynamics (elementary) Electromagnetism Magnetic circuits Inductance Capacitance Basic A.C. theory & measurements Measurements Digital Flip flops & other multi- Engineering Types of materials: metals, Systems 2 vibrators Materials & semi-conductors, ceramics [EDS2111/2] Counters Science 1 composites & polymers Shift registers [MEM1111/2] Atomic structure of Memories materials Interfacing Deformation, strain Integrated circuit hardening & annealing technologies Solidification & grain size Data sheets strengthening Programmable devices Mechanical testing Electronics 2 Field effect transistors Motor Vehicle Principle cycles of [EEL2011/2] Other semi conductor Engineering 1 operation devices [MVE1111/2] Main engine components Basic rectification Engine lubrication system – Single stage transistor wet amplifiers Engine lubrication system – Power amplifiers dry Applied technology Fuel system basis – petrol & diesel Carburation & injection SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 38 system – petrol Conventional & advanced ignition systems Electronic ignition systems Engine valves 7 heads Clutches, gearboxes & drivelines Electrical A.C. networks Mechanical Safety & safety legislation Engineering 2 Resonance Manufacturing Identification & application [ENG2011/2] Series & parallel circuits Engineering 1 of materials Power factor correction [MNE1111/2] Elementary measuring (single phase) equipment D.D. &A.C. circuit Elementary hand & theorems machine tools Harmonics Three phase circuits (balanced) One- Phase transformer Mechanical Hand tools Manufacturing Machine tools Engineering 2 Metal forming [MNE2211/2] Erosion Castings Plastics: moulding & machining Welding & joining Obtaining finish & accuracy Hand techniques & equipment; machine techniques & equipment Chemical finishing: Anodising Electroplating: practical project Fluid Mechanics Basic principles: static 2 [MFL2211/2] pressure 7 head Bemouli’s equation Continuity of flow Loss of energy in pipelines in Series Frictional resistance to fluid flow in single pipelines Shock losses in pipelines D’Arcy & Chezy formula SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 39 Venturi meters Pilot tube Fluid pressure on surfaces Bouyancy Archimedes Principle Calculation of conditions of equilibrium Calculation of metacentric height Pneumatic control circuits (including cascades) Mechanical Experiential learning formally Engineering integrates the student’s Practice 1 academic studies with work [MEP1211/2] experience in participating employer organisations. Focuses on: Developing hand skills by participating in physical work in an artisan work environment. Projects 1 Planning & construction of [EPJ1011/2] projects compatible with the level in the discipline Applicable computer- assisted drawing Ergonomic & aesthetic design principles in construction Operating procedures & maintenance Construction techniques Documentation YEAR 2 Software Programme design Same Design 2 High level language [ESW2011/2] Mathematics Fourier analysis Same 3 Differential equations (La [WIS311/2] Place) Electrical Orientation Fluid Mechanics Fluids in rigid-body motion Engineering Safety & first aid 3 [MFM3211/2] Viscosity & power Practice 1 Basic hand skills transmission [EEP1211/2] Measuring instruments Flow in pipes SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 40 Electrical & electronic Flow under varying heat components Uniform flow in open Circuit diagrams channels Power sources Momentum analysis of flow Programmable devices structure General administration Reciprocating pumps Report writing Digital Microprocessors Mechanics of Velocity & acceleration Systems 3 Series & parallel data Machines 3 diagrams (including coriolis [EDS311/2] transfer [MMB3211/2] component) Interrupt Epicyclic gears Programmable timers Balancing Micro controllers Crank & connecting rods Spur gears & gear trains Instantaneous centres of rotation Electrical Advanced phase 3 circuits Strength of Combined loadings Engineering 3 Illumination Materials 3 Bending [ENG311/2] Interconnectors [MSM3211/2] Transverse shear Components Electrical Single phase transformers Thermodynamic Ideal gas cycles Machines 2 D.C. machines s3 Gas power cycles [EEM2111/2] Induction machines [MTH3211/2] Vapour power cycles (steam plant) Refrigeration IC engines Industrial Components: Power Mechanical Shafts, gears, fasteners Electronics 2 diodes, transistors, triac, Engineering Welded & rivotted joints [EIE2011/2] diac, mosfet, thyristor, Design 2 Cams, helical springs latest device technology [MDE2211/2] Couplngs, spur gears Characteristics & ratings Terminology Cooling Suitable operating circuit Fixed rectification Electronics 3 Advanced voltage Electrotechnolo SC networks [EEL3011/2] regulators gy 2 Power factor correction Amplifier theory & [MET2211/2] (single phase) applications Three phase circuits Basic oscillators Consumer’s supply Operational amplifiers Switchgear & protection Passive filter design Economics & tariffs Noise DC motors Transformers SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 41 Three phase induction motors Electronic Introduction to Engineering Mechanical metallurgy Communicati communication systems Materials & Strengthening mechanisms on 2 Analysis of passive Science 2 Phase transformations [EEC2111/2] circuits [MEM2111/2] Corrosion Transmission Diffusion Lines Phase diagrams (basic Modulation concepts) Electromagnetic waves & Engineering materials propagation Receivers Antennas Data commmunication Network Routing protocols Computer & MATLAB & problem solving Systems 2 Router security Programming Array & matrix operations [NEW2001/2] Router configuration Skills 1 Files, functions & data [CCP1411/2] structures Programming with MATLAB Plotting & model building Linear algebraic equations Probability, statistics & interpolation Numerical calculus, differential equations & Simulink Symbolic processing with MATLAB YEAR 3 Software General concepts in Same Design 3 software engineering [ESW3011/2] General software components Advanced programming techniques Electrical Experiential learning formally Mechanical Experiential learning formally Engineering integrates the student’s Engineering integrates the student’s academic Practice 2 academic studies with work Practice 2 studies with work experience in (Specialisatio experience in participating [MEP2321/2] participating employer ns: Power; employer organisations. organisations. Focuses on a high Industrial) Focuses on a high level of (Same) level of synthesis, responsibility & [EEP2211/2] synthesis, responsibility & accountability as would be OR accountability as would be expected of a Mechanical (Specialisatio expected of an Electrical Engineering Technician. ns:Industrial; Engineering Technician. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 42 Electronic Com) [ELP2011/2] Design The design, construction, Mechanical Design principles Project 3 testing & documentation Engineering Shaft & coupling [EDP3011/2] of a complete project Design 3 Bearings compatible with the level [MDE3211/2] Gears & gear units in the particular discipline Belts Chains Clutches & brakes Mechanisms Electrical Principles of transmission Distribution 3 & distribution [EED3011/2] Conductors L.V & H.V. Cables Insulating materials Insulators Bushings Line supports Overhead lines Busbars Electrical Three phase transformers Machines 3 Induction machines [EEM3011/2] Synchronous machines Electrical Basic principles Protection 3 Fundamental theory [EPR3011/2] Fault calculations Fuses Fuse cut-outs (fuse links) Circuit breakers Current voltage transformers Power Single phase & 3 phase Applied Stress transformation Electronics 3 inverters Strength of Strain transformation [EPE3011/2] DC choppers Materials 3 Design of beams & shafts Controlled rectification [MST3111/2] Slope & deflections of beams AC voltage control & shafts Buckling of columns Control Introduction to PLCs Systems 2 Programming techniques [ECS2011/2] Practical programming Introduction to control system theory SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 43 Performance, stability & frequency response of control systems Practical: introduction to SCADA Control PLCs Fluid Control Pneumatics & electro- Systems 3 Programming techniques Systems 3 pneumatics [ECS3011/2] Practical programming [MFY3111/2] Hydraulics & electro- Control system theory hydraulics Performance, stability & Proportional hydraulics & frequency response of PLCs (Siemens S7) control systems Automation project Practical: SCADA Introduction to automatic control theory System modelling & response Feedback 7 closed-loop controllers Digital Introduction: Data Module B: Advanced project based oral Communicati networks Communicati presentation & report writing on 2 Modems on in Practice skills [EDC2011/2] Digital multiplexing [CCM1421/2] Open systems interconnection (OSI model) LANs Integrated services Digital networks (ISDN) Fibre optic communications & standards & recommendations Electronic Small signal analysis Applications Frequency analysis 3 Feedback theory [EEA3011/2] Linear IC applications Active filter design Oscillators Network Advanced routing Systems 3 protocols [NEW301/2] Advanced router security Advanced router configuration Radio Radio frequency Theory of Energy diagrams Engineering 3 amplifiers Machines 3 Governors [ERE3001/2] Amplitude modulation & [MDM3111/2] Cams SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 44 demodulation Introduction to vibration signal Angle modulation & analysis demodulation Frequency conversion & mixing Super heterodyne receivers Antennas Television 3 Television fundamental Steam Plant Steady one-dimensional heat [ETV3011/2] Television cameras 3 transfer Colour signal [MTD3111/2] Reciprocating & rotary Television receivers compressors Television measurements Psychometry Colorimetry Nozzles Antenna & distribution Steam & gas turbines systems Combustion Logic Design Programmable logic Hydraulic Dimensional analysis & 3 arrays Machines 3 similarity [ELC3011/2] Digital design techniques [MHM3111/2] Centrifugal 7 mixed flow & fault finishing pumps & fans techniques Axial flow pumps & fans Pump & fan systems Hydraulic turbines Based on the analyses of the two Diplomas (above), the following basic curriculum structure for a Diploma in Engineering (leading to registration as an Engineering Technician) can be deduced: Year 1: Mathematical Sciences; Computing & IT, Communication Skills (complementary studies); Basic Sciences; specific Engineering Sciences Year 2: Engineering Practice (30 credits) (could also be in year 1); Mathematical Sciences; Computing & IT, Communication Skills (complementary studies); Basic Sciences; specific Engineering Sciences Year 3: Engineering Practice (WIL: 60 credits); Mathematical Sciences; Computing & IT, Communication Skills (complementary studies); Basic Sciences; specific Engineering Sciences The credits for the full 360 credit, Level 6 diploma qualification should be as follows in order to meet the ECSA standard as well as the diploma requirements under the revised HEQF: Math Sciences: 28 SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 45 Computing & IT: 21 Basic Sciences: 21 Engineering Sciences: 126 Engineering Design: 28 Engineering Practice: 30 Work Integrated Learning (WIL): 60 (Pitch at Level 7 to meet HEQF requirement) Complementary Studies: 14 Other credits to be relocated: 32 The current National Diplomas in Electrical and Mechanical Engineering compare as follows with the revised ECSA standard for Diploma-type programmes for Engineering Technician registration with ECSA: Knowledge Area ECSA Nat Dip Nat Dip Elect Eng Std Mech Eng** Power Industrial Electr Comm Computers Math Sciences 28 20 36 36 36 36 Computing & IT 21 20 6 30 18 30 Basic Sciences * 21 40 72 96 108 96 Eng Sciences * 126 120 120 72 84 72 Eng Design 28 30 12 12 12 24 Eng Practice 30 120 60 60 60 60 Work Int Learning 60 - 60 60 60 60 (WIL) Complementary 14 10 6 6 6 6 Studies Other credits for 32 redistribution TOTAL 360 360 372 372 384 384 * The Electrical Engineering discipline experts will need to scrutinise this analysis and verify which aspects fall into the categories of Basic Sciences & Engineering Sciences ** Mechanical Engineering credits verified (Dr Hannalie Lombard 3 June 2009) SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 46 APPENDIX 5: Analysis of BTechs: Electrical Engineering & Mechanical Engineering Bachelor of Technology: Electrical / Mechanical Engineering [1 year capping programme for Nat Dip, 1 year, 120 credits, all at NQF Level 7] To achieve the purpose, Criterion Description ELOs, graduate profile, competencies & skills the following knowledge base is necessary: Purpose of - Prepares for competent practising Mathematical Sciences qualification technologist in the specific field; Electrical Eng pathway: - Provides required base for professional Engineering Mathematics registration as a candidate engineering technologist in the field of electrical / Mechanical Eng pathway: mechanical engineering with the Engineering Materials & Engineering Council of South Africa Science (ECSA). Graduate - Has mainly a contextual knowledge base, Characteristics of knowledge Profile33 with a deep knowledge of specific Hierarchical, mainly hard technologies, together with financial, applied; some hard pure. commercial, legal, social and health, safety and environmental matters; Basic Sciences - Capable of performing all the functions of Electrical Eng pathway: a professional electrical / mechanical - Electronic Communication engineering technologist in both the public Systems and private sectors; - Satellite Communications - Demonstrates well-rounded general - Microcontroller Systems electrical / mechanical engineering - Micro Systems knowledge, as well as systematic - Opto Electronics knowledge of the main terms, procedures, - Power Electronics & Power 33 Graduate profile is based on the following exit level outcomes: 1: Identify, assess, formulate & solve broadly-defined engineering problems (see footnote 13); 2: Apply maths, basic science & engineering science knowledge to solve broadly-defined engineering problems; 3: Demonstrate competence to perform procedural design of broadly-defined components, systems, products or processes and synthesis of solutions; 4: Design and conduct investigations and experiments of broadly-defined problems; 5: Use appropriate engineering methods, skills and tools, including those based on IT for the solution of broadly-defined engineering problems; 6: Communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, with engineering & wider audiences; 7: Assess impact of engineering activity on social, industrial & physical environment and address issues by broadly-defined procedures; 8: Work effectively as an individual & in teams; 9: Engage in independent learning through well developed learning skills; 10: Act professionally and ethically, exercise judgment and take responsibility within own limits. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 47 principles and operations of one of the Systems disciplines of electrical engineering; - Process Control - Able to gather evidence from primary - Protection Technology sources and journals using advanced retrieval skills, and organise, synthesise and Mechanical Eng pathway: present the information professionally in a - Mechanics of Machines mode appropriate to the audience; - Turbo Machines - Able to apply the knowledge gained to - Eng Materials & Science new situations, both concrete and abstract, - Automatic Control in the workplace / community; - Can identify, analyse, conduct and Characteristics of knowledge manage a project; Hierarchical, hard applied. - Can make independent decisions / judgements taking into account the relevant Engineering Sciences technical, economic, social and Electrical Eng pathway: environmental factors; - Audio Engineering - Able to work independently as a team - Electrical Machines member and as a team leader; - Electrical Protection - Able to relate electrical / mechanical - High Voltage Engineering engineering activity to health, safety and environment , cultural and economic Mechanical Eng pathway: sustainability; - Refrigeration & Air - Applies an integration of theory, principles, Conditioning proven techniques, practical experience & - Strength of Materials appropriate skills to the solution of broadly - Stress Analysis defined engineering problems34 in the field - Thermodynamics of electrical / mechanical engineering while operating within the relevant standards and Characteristics of knowledge codes. Hierarchical, hard applied. . Competencies Operational Engineering Practice (Design & Skills Apply high level application of & Synthesis) engineering technology principles and - Software Engineering: problem solving techniques in the Advanced software design, specific engineering field implementation & testing Undertake laboratory work with - Engineering Design Project technical machines - Engineering Management Test, commission and operate protection schemes Characteristics of knowledge Lab work with protection schemes Hierarchical, mainly hard Apply established and newly developed applied; some hard pure. 34 Broadly-Defined Problems require identification and analysis which may be concrete, but ill- posed or have a degree of uncertainty; Problems may be unfamiliar, but are capable of interpretation for solution by technologies in practice area; Approach to solution involves using structured analysis techniques in well-accepted, creative and innovative ways. Information is complex and possibly incomplete, requires validation, supplementation and compilation into the information base; Solutions may be partially outside standards and codes, may require judgment, and may operate outside standards and codes with justification; Involves a variety of factors which may impose conflicting constraints, premises, assumptions or restrictions. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 48 engineering technology to solve problems, develop components, Computing & IT systems, services and processes - Computer Networks Provide leadership in applying - Advanced concepts technology to electrical / mechanical - Advanced CAD engineering operations, construction - Advanced Software Design and activities Work independently and responsibly, Characteristics of knowledge applying judgment in the application of Hierarchical, mainly hard technology to problems and associated applied. risks Ensure that electrical / mechanical Complementary Studies engineering solutions meet performance - Advanced communication requirements and accepted minimum skills: communication theory; standards for the community’s safety oral presentation; technical and welfare writing skills - Professional communication Strategic Characteristics of knowledge Effective communication Non-hierarchical, mainly soft Well developed interpersonal skills applied. Well-rounded general electrical engineering knowledge Characteristics of knowledge Systematic knowledge of the main Non-hierarchical, mainly soft terms, procedures, principles and applied. operations of one of the disciplines of electrical engineering Work independently as a team member and as a team leader Relate electrical engineering activity to health, safety and environment , cultural and economic sustainability. Technical Integrate theory, principles, proven techniques, practical experience and appropriate skills to the solution of broadly defined problems in the field of electrical / mechanical engineering while operating within the relevant standards and codes. Analytical Gather evidence from primary sources and journals using advanced retrieval skills, and organise, synthesise and present the information professionally; Apply the knowledge gained to new situations, both concrete and abstract, in the workplace / community Identify, analyse, conduct and manage SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 49 a project Make independent decisions / judgements taking into account the relevant technical, economic, social and environmental factors Creative Design advanced electrical / mechanical engineering technology projects Generate, construct, assemble and deliver technical presentation Research Conduct an integrated research project, with an industry-oriented approach Teaching & Mixture of discursive and practical (about 50 Learning -50) Methods Summative Written exams; Practical tests; Group Assessment assignments; Individual assignments Procedures SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 50 APPENDIX 6: Analysis of specific module content in the BTech (Electrical Engineering) & the BTech (Mechanical Engineering): ie Year 4 on top of a National Diploma BTech (Electrical Eng) BTech (Mechanical Eng) Module Module Industrial Project 4 [EIP4010] Engineering Design Project 4 [MDM4110] (36 credits) (30 credits) CHOICE OF 7 OF THE FOLLOWING ELECTIVES: CHOICE OF 2 OF THE FOLLOWING 4 ELECTIVES: Audio Engineering 4 [EAE4011] Computer Networks 4 [ECN4011] Automatic Control 4 [MMC4111/2] Electronic Communication Systems 4 [EES4011] Engineering Materials & Science 4 Electrical Machines 4 [EEM4011] [MEM4111/2] Electrical Protection 4 [EPR4011] Mechanics of Machines 4 [MMM4441/2] Engineering Management 4 [EMM4011] Turbo Machines 4 [MFT4441/2] Engineering Mathematics 4 [WIS4011] High Voltage Engineering 4 [EHV4011] Microcontroller Systems 4 [EMS4011] Micro Systems 4 [EMD4011] Opto Electronics 4 [EOE4011] Power Electronics 4 [EPE4011] Power Systems 4 [EPS4011] Process Control 4 [EPC4011] Protection Technology 4 [EPT4011] Satellite Communications 4 [ESC4111] Software Engineering 4 [ESE4011] Thermodynamics 4 [MTD4111/2] Refrigeration & Air Conditioning 4 [MTR4111/2] Strengths of Materials 4 [MSL4111/2] Stress Analysis 4 [MSS4111/2] Based on the analyses of the two BTechs (above), the following basic curriculum structure for a BTech (Engineering) (leading to registration as an Engineering Technologist) can be deduced: Engineering Design Project Specific Engineering Sciences Since the BTech has been phased out under the revised HEQF, possible models for the Engineering Technologist pathway include: SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 51 A three-year BEng (Tech) Degree predicated on the current three-year National Diploma and one-year BTech combined BEngTech The credits for the Level 7 BEngTech qualification should be as follows in order to meet the ECSA standard (although the requirement under the revised HEQF for a Bachelor’s Degree is a minimum of 360 credits with a minimum of 120 credits at Level 7, and a maximum of 96 credits at Level 5) : Math Sciences: 42 Computing & IT: 21 Basic Sciences: 28 Engineering Sciences: 140 Engineering Design & Synthesis: 49 Complementary Studies: 28 Other credits to be relocated: 112 TOTAL: 420 credits Owing to the fact that the current National Diplomas & BTechs in Electrical and Mechanical Engineering will need to be completely restructured, it is not possible to construct a comparative table at this point. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 52 APPENDIX 7: Analysis of Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics Bachelor of Engineering: Mechatronics [4 years; 596credits: 210@L5; 218@L6; 168@L7; 0@L8] To achieve the purpose, Criterion Description ELOs, graduate profile, competencies & skills the following knowledge base is necessary: Purpose of - Prepares for competent practising Mathematical Sciences qualification professional engineer in the field of - Algebra; calculus; differential mechatronics as a science-based problem- calculus; graph theory; solver, developer of new technology and a - Mathematical modeling; pioneer of innovative applications; - Mechanics; numerical methods; - Provides required base for professional vector analysis; transform theory; registration as a professional mechanical - Engineering statistics. engineer with the Engineering Council of South Africa (ECSA). Characteristics of knowledge Graduate - Has mainly a conceptual base, with an Hierarchical, hard applied Profile35 academic focus: preparation to become a professional engineer or to proceed on the Basic & Engineering Sciences * academic route into Honours, Master’s and - Mechanics & Thermodynamics PhD study; - Physics: Electricity, Magnetism & - Able to select and specify components Optics and systems to provide optimum - Materials Science engineering performance; - Strength of Materials - Able to specify a system in association - Thermo-fluids with the appropriate component selection; - Electrotechnology - Able to assess engineering performance - Electronics of systems to changes in design and - Control Systems 35 Graduate profile is based on the following exit level outcomes: 1: Identify, assess, formulate & solve complex engineering problems (see foot note 15); 2: Use math, basic science & engineering science knowledge to solve complex engineering problems; 3: Demonstrate competence to perform procedural design of complex components, systems, products or processes and synthesis of solutions; 4: Design and conduct investigations and experiments of complex problems; 5: Use appropriate engineering methods, skills and tools, including those based on IT for the solution of complex engineering problems; 6: Communicate effectively, both orally and in writing, with engineering & wider audiences; 7: Assess impact of engineering activity on social, industrial & physical environment and address issues by complex procedures; 8: Work effectively as an individual & in teams in multidisciplinary environments; 9: Engage in independent learning through well developed learning skills; 10: Act professionally and ethically, exercise judgment and take responsibility within own limits. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 53 operating conditions; - Digital Electronics - Applies an integration of theory, principles, - Process Control proven techniques, practical experience and - Microprocessors appropriate skills to the solution of complex - Electric Machines engineering problems36 in the field of - Power Electronics & Drivers mechatronics while operating within the - Advanced Manufacturing relevant standards and codes. Systems Competencies Operational Characteristics of knowledge & Skills Ability to select and specify components Hierarchical, hard applied and systems to provide optimum engineering performance Design & Synthesis Ability to specify a system in association - Engineering Drawing with the appropriate component - Machine Design selection - Mechanical Design Competency in assessing engineering - Mechatronics Design performance of systems to changes in - Mechatronics Project design and operating conditions Solve problems, develop components, Characteristics of knowledge systems, services and processes by Hierarchical, mainly hard applied analysis, synthesis, creativity, innovation and applying fundamental mechanical Computing & IT engineering principles - Computer Science for Engineers Provide leadership in applying - Complex computing concepts technology to mechanical engineering operations, construction and activities Characteristics of knowledge Work independently and responsibly, Hierarchical, hard applied applying judgement to decisions arising in the application of technology to Complementary Studies problems and associated risks - Communication Systems - Professional Communication Ensure that mechanical engineering - Environmental Management solutions meet performance requirements and accepted minimum - Project Management - Entrepreneurship (financial & standards for the community’s safety business) and welfare Strategic Characteristics of knowledge Non-hierarchical, soft applied. Effective communication with engineering audiences and the larger * The Engineering discipline community experts will need to scrutinize Well developed interpersonal skills this analysis and verify which Critical awareness of the impact of aspects fall into the categories engineering activity on society and the 36 Complex Problems require identification and analysis, and may be concrete or abstract, may be divergent and may involve significant uncertainty. Problems may be infrequently encountered types and occur in unfamiliar contexts. Approach to problem solving needs to be found, is creative and innovative. Information is complex and possibly incomplete, requiring validation and critical analysis; Solutions are based on theory, use of first-principles and evidence, (which may be incomplete) together with judgement where necessary; Involves a variety of interactions which may impose conflicting constraints, premises, assumptions & restrictions. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 54 environment of Basic Sciences & Engineering Ability to work effectively as an Sciences individual, in teams and in multidisciplinary environments Awareness of the need to act professionally and ethically, to take responsibility Critical awareness of the impact of engineering activity on the social, industrial and physical environment. Technical Design and conduct investigations and experiments Use appropriate engineering methods, skills and tools, including those based on information technology Analytical Apply knowledge of mathematics, basic science and engineering sciences to solve engineering problems Identify, analyse, conduct and manage mechatronics projects; Apply the knowledge gained to new situations, both concrete and abstract, in the workplace / community Creative Identify, assess, formulate and solve convergent and divergent engineering problems creatively and innovatively Perform creative, procedural and non- procedural design and synthesis of components, systems, engineering works, products or processes Research Conduct mechatronics research projects Teaching & Mainly discursive; some practical Learning applications Methods Summative Written tests, exams; practicals. Assessment Procedures SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 55 APPENDIX 8: Analysis of specific module content in the four- year BEng (Mechatronics) MODULE SPECIFIC LEARNING OUTCOMES WITHIN MODULE YEAR 1 Mathematics 1: Apply the rules of basic formal logic solve Mathematical problems; Algebra Use Mathematical Induction to prove theorems related to sequences and [MATH101] series; Utilise basic Set Theory to solve basic problems on sets and their operations with specific reference to subsets of the set of real numbers; Use the basic rules of elementary permutation and combination theory to establish statistical and probability models to related problems; Utilise the binomial formula in binomial expansions and related problems; Investigate, analyse, describe and represent a wide range of basic one- variable functions and solve Mathematical problems; Apply the algebra of vectors in R2 and R3 to solve elementary problems involving vector quantities and to describe, represent, analyse and explain the properties of shapes in 2-dimentional and 3-dimensional space. Mathematics 1: Apply the basic rules of limits and continuity to a wide range of basic one- Differential variable functions; Calculus Differentiate a wide range of functions using first principles, basic rules and [MATH102] techniques; Apply differentiation in sketching of curves for polynomial and rational functions; Apply differentiation to real-life optimization problems; Illustrate and calculate the anti-derivative of elementary functions. Mathematics 1: Differentiate and apply differentiation rules for logarithmic, exponential, Calculus hyperbolic and inverse trigonometric functions; [MATH103] Apply various integration techniques to determine integrals of a wide range of composite functions; Apply integration to calculate area between curves and the arc-lengths of a curve; Apply integration in the determining the surface areas and volumes of solids of revolution; Introduction to first order differential equations; Visualize surfaces in R3 defined by elementary two-variable functions; Differentiate basic multi-variable functions; Introduction to invariable functions; Introduction to partial differentiation. Mathematics 1: Sketch and analyse one-variable functions described in parametric form; Algebra Sketch and analyse one-variable functions described in polar form; [MATH104] Apply the algebra of complex numbers to simplify and solve basic equations; Geometrically interpret a complex number as a 2-dimensional extension of a SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 56 real number; Apply the Gauss-Jordan method for solving a system of linear equations; Illustrate and apply the operations and properties of matrices; Use the algebra of determinants to solve systems of linear equations; Use matrix operations to illustrate symmetries in R2 and R3. Applied Think critically and see the different proof techniques relevant to graph theory; Mathematics 1: Apply graph theoretical results to practical problems; Graph Theory Use MATLAB to solve various scientific problems; [MAPM111] Write simple programs utilizing the MATLAB language; Implement simple numerical algorithms. Applied Identify meaningful word problems given a particular situation; Mathematics 1: Mathematically formulate simple word problems; Mathematical Recognise proportionality problems, and in simple cases solve it using Modelling appropriate mathematical tools; [MAPM112] Recognise a linear or integer programming problem, and in simple situations solve these using appropriate graphical methods; Determine the unknown parameters in a model which will best explain a given dataset either visually or by using the least-squares technique; Linearise simple non-linear models in order to determine unknown parameters; Formulate and solve elementary discrete dynamical models using appropriate difference equations; Solve problems using dimensional analysis and linear algebra; State and apply definitions and theorems discussed in the course; Apply all prior mathematical knowledge to solve meaningful problems. Applied Apply the basic rules of differential and integral calculus to a wide range of Mathematics 1: basic mechanical problems; Mechanics Identify which coordinate system is most appropriate for a given mechanical [MAPM113] problem; Know how to obtain the appropriate kinematic quantity, by applying appropriate mathematical techniques; Draw free-body diagrams, select the inertial coordinate system and resolve all forces acting on the particle; Apply the equations of motion in either the rectangular or polar coordinate system to obtain the appropriate kinematical quantity; Know and understand the concept of work and be able to determine the work done by a variety of forces; Apply the principle of work and energy; Compute the power supplied to a body by an unbalanced force; Understand the concepts of conservative force and potential energy and be able to apply the conservation of mechanical energy to a variety of mechanical problems. Applied Understand the various types of errors; Mathematics 1: Understand the limits of floating-point computations; SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 57 Numerical Decide when and which numerical algorithms should be used for a given Methods problem; [MAPM114] Derive and use some of the more fundamental theorems and algorithms; Do an error analysis to determine a bound or estimate the approximate solution accuracy; Determine the roots of nonlinear equations using a variety of methods; Apply all prior mathematical knowledge as demanded by the prerequisites; Effectively and efficiently implement algorithms using MATLAB code; Effectively solve and check solutions using MATLAB. Physics 1A: Predict motion of any object moving in a straight line, or in a plane or in a Mechanics & circle, or that performs harmonic motion; Thermodynamics Demonstrate an understanding of the mechanics of fluids; [F101] Apply the theoretical concepts for all aspects of: wave motion, including the superposition of waves; sound; basic thermodynamics. Physics 1B: Demonstrate an understanding of the following concepts: Electricity, Static electricity Magnetism & Direct current circuits Optics [F102] Magnetism The relationship between electricity and magnetism The link between these concepts and the theory of electromagnetism and optics Electromagnetic waves Nature of light Laws of geometrical optics Image forming in geometrical optics. Materials Science Explain the main classifications/distinctions between different materials, the 1B [MAS1122] essential (general) structures causing such distinctions, and the relevance of material properties to selection for engineering purposes; Analyse concepts regarding the detailed structure of materials; Explain in detail the mechanical properties of various materials, in particular metals, and their relevance to use for different applications; Explain phase diagrams and phase transformations for alloys to apply to specific manufacturing processes as used in engineering industries; Describe the electron configuration for metals in order to predict a materials behaviour; Demonstrate an understanding of the various methods of physical material analysis including electron microscopy techniques. Engineering Ability to produce mechanical engineering drawings that are accurate, legible, Drawing 1A unambiguous and sufficient for fabrication and assembly of mechanical [MEW1121] & 1B components, as per SABS 0111 Part 1; [MEW1122] Interpret mechanical engineering drawings so that a clear understanding of the make-up and function of the component or assembly is achieved; Operate a solid modelling software package to be able to produce detailed mechanical engineering drawings as stated above; Sketch free-hand in order to communicate engineering concepts and functions; Deliver a multi-media presentation using applicable software, to further aid the SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 58 communication of conceptual ideas and systems in tandem with all the above; Have a general knowledge of the support structures and methods utilised and available in engineering drawing and communication of engineering concepts. Computer Demonstrate an understanding and ability to use both Procedure-Oriented Science for Programming and Object-Oriented Programming methods; Engineers 1A Demonstrate problem-solving using C++; [MSE1111] & 1B Write interactive programs; [MSE1122] Produce well-formatted output in programs; Make proper use of selection structures and repetition statements; Use I/O files streams and data files; Use classes and inheritance; Write code for error checking and exception handling within programs; Use arrays, pointers and structures efficiently; Understand and use numerical methods and bit operations; Complete a mini project that will have multiple C++ programs and files. YEAR 2 Mathematics 2A: Convert curves and surfaces from parametric ( or vector) form to Cartesian Vector Analysis form and vice versa; [MATH202] Sketch basic parametric curves and basic parametric surfaces; Differentiate vector functions and find the equation of a tangent line to a parametric curve; Evaluate the integral of a vector function and determine arc length; Sketch simple vector fields; Determine the gradient vector field and find the equation of a tangent plane to a parametric surface; Determine the line integrals of a scalar field and a vector field; Determine the scalar potential of conservative vector fields; Determine the divergence and curl of a vector field; Apply the fundamental theorem of line integrals and Green’s theorem to evaluate line integrals; Determine the area of a surface and evaluate the surface integrals of scalar fields and vector fields; Apply Stokes theorem and Divergence theorem to evaluate surface integrals. 2 3 Mathematics 2B: Perform symmetry operations in R and R by using matrix multiplication; Linear Algebra Extend the usual operations on real numbers to Euclidean n-spaces and [MATH203] subspaces; Explore the important role that linear independence of vectors play in the algebra of vector spaces; Apply techniques for finding bases for finite dimensional vector spaces; Construct orthogonal basis for finite dimensional vector spaces; Calculate eigen-values and eigen-vectors for finite dimensional vector spaces; Apply the procedure for diagonalizing symmetric matrices. Applied Demonstrate an understanding of higher order equations, including variation Mathematics 2: of parameters and undetermined coefficients; Differential Apply series solutions; SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 59 Equations Apply Frobenius’s method. [MAPM211] Applied Derive and use some of the more fundamental theorems and algorithms; Mathematics 2A: Do an error analysis to determine a bound or estimate the approximate Numerical solution accuracy; Methods 2 Use numerical methods to interpolate, differentiate and integrate data; [MAPM212] Use numerical methods to solve a variety of linear and nonlinear initial-value problems; Effectively and efficiently implement algorithms using MATLAB code; Effectively solve and check solutions using MATLAB; Apply all prior mathematical knowledge as demanded by the prerequisites. Applied Have an understanding of orthogonal functions; Mathematics 2B: Obtain the Fourier representation of any function defined on and interval (-p, Transform Theory p) or (0, p); [MAPM213] Identify even or odd functions and find suitable half-range Fourier series expansions; Obtain the Fourier transform of suitable functions; Define and obtain the Laplace transform of any continuous or piecewise function of exponential order; Be able to apply both Fourier and Laplace transforms in solving boundary and initial value problems; Define a variety of concepts and derive and use some of the more fundamental theorems; Apply all prior mathematical knowledge as demanded by the prerequisites. Strength of Ability to understand, problem-solve and apply relevant fundamental Materials 2 engineering science concepts in the field of mechanics of materials, mostly for [MSM2111] the purpose of analysis of structures to ensure functionality; Ability to understand, analyse, and apply the following, to determine relevant information of particular structures: Concepts in stress and strain; Mechanical properties of materials; Trusses and frames; Axial loading, torsion loading, and bending loading; Loading of beams; Transformation of stress. Dynamics 2 Demonstrate an understanding of the kinematics of rigid bodies by [MTH2111] investigating the relations existing between the time, positions the velocities and the accelerations of the various particles forming a rigid body; Apply the acquired knowledge to solutions of rigid body motions that involve; translation, rotation about a fixed axis, general plane motion and motion about a fixed point; Demonstrate an understanding of the kinetics of rigid bodies, by investigating the relations existing between the forces acting on a rigid body, the shape and mass of a body and the motion produced; Apply the acquired knowledge to solutions involving the translation, centroidal rotation, unconstrained motion, noncentroidal rotation rolling motion and other partially constrained plane motions of rigid bodies; Demonstrate an understanding of the method of work and energy as well as the method of impulse and momentum to analyze the plane motion of rigid bodies and of systems of rigid bodies; SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 60 Apply the acquired knowledge to solve problems involving displacements and velocities, velocities and time, eccentric impact and general impact of rigid bodies; Demonstrate an understanding of the general methods involved to determine the angular momentum and the rate of change of a rigid body in three dimensions; Demonstrate an understanding of the analysis of vibrations of a rigid body or system of bodies with one degree of freedom; Apply the acquired knowledge to solve problems involving free vibration or forced vibration which is undamped, damped or over damped; Use a PC to solve selected problems computationally. Thermo-fluids 2 Understand and apply Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics; [MTF2111] Apply the gas laws to typical engineering problems; Use equations of state; Apply specific heats, internal energy and enthalpy equations; Define dynamic and kinematic viscosity and Newtonian fluids; Determine hydrostatic forces on submerged surfaces; Determine variations in pressure in a fluid with or without acceleration in the absence of shear stress; Determine energy transfer by work for processes. Calculation of mass and flow rates; Define and apply the Law to nozzles, diffusers, throttling valves, mixing chambers, heat exchangers, pipes and ducted flow; Apply the Law to non-steady flow and closed systems; Derive and apply the energy equation; Derive and apply Newton’s 2nd Law to jets, fixed and moving plates, deflectors, pipe bends and closed conduits; Determine cycle efficiencies or coefficient of performance. Electrotechnolgy Demonstrate, in a laboratory, an understanding of the fundamental principles 2A [MET2111] of electricity, electrical energy and power, DC, AC and 3 phase circuit analysis; Electrotechnolgy Demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental principles of electric fields, 2B [MET2122] magnetic fields and electromagnetic field theory. Machine Design Demonstrate an understanding of the design procedure; 2 [MMD2112] Demonstrate an understanding of and apply statistical considerations in design; Interpret machine element specifications such as surface finishes and tolerances, and understand and apply fits; Demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics and importance of the range of material properties in design; Design and/or analyse various non-permanent and permanent jointing arrangements/methods; Design and/or analyse mechanical springs for a variety of applications; Specify appropriate rolling contact bearings for given conditions, and/or determine life and reliability of bearings; Design shafts for given loading configurations; Demonstrate an understanding of, design, and apply electro-pneumatic and electro-hydraulic circuits for automation purposes (including practical circuit building); SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 61 Compile CNC programs for lathe turning applications (practical). Digital Electronics Demonstrate an understanding of: 2 [MDG2112] Digital number systems, operations and codes; Logic gates; Integrated circuit technologies (CMOS, TTL, etc); Boolean algebra and logic simplification; Combinational logic (adders, encoders, multiplexers, etc); Sequential logic (flip-flops, counters, shift registers, etc); Programmable logic devices (SPLD, CPLD, FPGA, etc). Electronics 2 Demonstrate an understanding of fundamental semiconductor physics; [EEL2112] Analyse: Diode and related circuits; Bipolar Junction Transistors; Field Effect Transistors; Power amplifiers & heat sinks; Operational amplifiers; Design and simulate simple analog electronic circuits. YEAR 3 Control Systems Apply the Laplace Transform to solve linear ordinary differential equations 3A [ECS3211] and transfer functions to model linear time-invariant systems; Model multivariable control systems using block diagrams, signal flow graphs, state diagrams and state equations; Model physical electrical and mechanical systems using fundamental tools modelling; Perform state variable analysis of linear control systems; Apply the Routh-Hurwitz stability routine to perform stability analysis of control systems; Perform time-domain analysis of linear continuous data control systems and relate time-response criteria to systems parameters; Graphically construct root loci to analyse the roots of the closed loop control systems characteristic equation; Perform frequency-domain analysis of linear continuous data control systems and relate frequency-response characteristics with system parameters; Use time and frequency-domain analysis tools to design control systems, types of controllers PD, PI and PID. Control Systems Describe what a digital control system is and model discrete-time systems 3B [ECS3212] by difference equations; Better understand the effects of sampling and reconstruction processes of continuous-time signals; Apply z-transform, sampling and data reconstruction fundamentals to analyze open-loop discrete-time systems; Determine the output functions and state-variable models for closed-loop discrete systems; Apply techniques to perform time response and stability analysis of discrete- time systems; Design and analysis of phase-lead-lag, notch, forward and feed forward, and state feedback controllers; Design, simulate and implement a PID position control system for an industrial dc servo motor controlled plant; Design a control system using state feedback, taking into account drive SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 62 saturation, sensor quantisation and discrete time sampling; Electric Machines Demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental principles of magnetic 3 [EEM3111] circuits, transformers, and rotating machines. Machine Design Solve open-ended mechanical design problems (design project); 3 [MMD3111] Demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics and importance of fatigue loading, identify the type of fatigue loading, construct S-N curves; Design and/or analyse gears (spur, helical, bevel, worm) using AGMA methods; Design and/or analyse clutches, brakes, couplings, flywheels; Design and/or analyse belt drives; Analyse and select shaft dimensions for given loading configurations using the following analyses: stress, deflection and combined fatigue loading; Apply vector algebra to determine shaft loading; Compile CNC programmes for milling operation (practical). Mechanical Demonstrate the ability to understand, problem-solve, design, synthesise and Design 3 apply relevant fundamental engineering science concepts in the field of [MGN3112] design, mostly for the purpose of designing mechanical systems; Apply the systems design approach; Apply the principles of systems engineering; Apply design optimization; Demonstrate the ability to understand ethical and legal aspects of engineering practice; Develop design specifications; Develop complete engineering drawings for manufacturing; Apply safety and ergonomic principles; Design complete mechanical systems. Power Demonstrate an understanding of the principles of power electronics and Electronics & drives. Drives 3 [EPE3322] Strength of Apply and demonstrate problem-solving of relevant fundamental engineering Materials 3 science concepts in the field of mechanics of materials, mostly for the purpose [MSM3011] of analysis of structures to ensure functionality; Demonstrate the ability to understand, analyse, and apply the following, to determine information relevant to particular structures: Failure theories (static loading) Advanced topics in stresses in beams Analysis of stress and strain Plane stress applications Deflection and rotation of beams Analysis of columns for stability Microprocessors Explain the operation and select microprocessor architectures for different 3 [MMX3112] process applications, including machine code execution, interrupts and busses; SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 63 Identify and understand the operation of memory types, select memory type for specific application, design interface and apply in a microcomputer system design; Identify, select and interface peripheral devices including peripheral busses I2C, SPI and ports. Apply programmable logic to solve a simple engineering problem; Design and implement an embedded system to solve an engineering problem. Communication Describe the essential components of a communication system; Systems 3 [CS3] Analyse radio frequency circuits and configurations for a given application; Write the time-domain equation for Amplitude Modulated and Angle Modulated signals; Analyse noise effects in RF signals; Model communication systems using block diagrams, voltage and frequency considerations; Analyse specifications for communications systems and use them to determine suitability; Compare analogue and digital communication techniques; Analyse Pulse Code Modulation systems and perform calculations on parameters involved; Model transmission lines and determine the responses of matched and unmatched transmission lines; Determine antenna efficiency, antenna gain, beam width, Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) and Effective Radiated Power (ERP) for antennas and antenna arrays; Apply engineering principles to analyse and utilise communication systems, e.g. fibre optic and microwave systems. Engineering Demonstrate an understanding and practical application of the concepts of Statistics 3 random event, random variable, probability distribution, population, sample, [STAM301] statistic; Process statistical data and derive estimates of parameters of the population; State and test statistical hypotheses; Demonstrate an understanding of the basics of experimental design, statistical process control and their use in Engineering. YEAR 4 Mechatronics Describe the essential components of a mobile robotic system; Design 4 Integrate and use the electrical drive technology, sensors, control technology, [MD4] image processing and embedded programming techniques; Perform a system level analysis and design for a mobile robot to perform simple materials handling tasks and basic transportation within a flexible manufacturing cell. Advanced Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of manufacturing systems; Manufacturing Demonstrate an understanding of the Computer-Aided Engineering; Systems 4 Develop and/or select parts of FMS; [AMS4] Programme industrial robots and link them to the cell controller; Apply the principles of JIT system; Apply design optimisation; Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of CIM systems; SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 64 Develop specifications for manufacturing systems; Design layout of manufacturing facilities. Entrepreneurship TBA (Financial & Business) [E4] Mechatronics Solve engineering problems by: Project 4A & 4B o Applying a synthesis of knowledge and technologies from different basic [MP4] and engineering sciences o Application of engineering methods, skills, and techniques to arrive at practical results and sound assessment of results; Work creatively by, amongst others, independently assembling and utilising new information; Apply sound engineering judgement; Independently and successfully complete a Mechatronics project within stipulated due dates; Plan a project, taking objective formulation, steps required and time schedules into account; Compile technical reports on the planning, progress and the whole of a project; Give professional oral presentations on the progress and the results of a project; Demonstrate a grasp and appreciation of professional ethics and practice in the execution of an engineering project. Process Control Demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental principles of engineering & Instrumentation measurements, static and dynamic performance characteristics of 4 measurement systems, operation of electromechanical sensors used in the [EPC4211] measurement of displacement, position and proximity, velocity and motion, force, liquid flow, temperature and light; Design amplification, filtering and protection circuits for measurement of sensor-based engineering systems; Apply the hardware and software components to design PC-based real-time data acquisition, signal processing and control systems; Describe the hardware and integrated networked architectural structure of PLCs and configure PLCs. Make use of logic functions, latching and sequencing logic, timers, internal relays, counters etc. to design and develop programs to solve advanced process control problems; Make use of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA), database design, software engineering methodology and management information systems to create real-time human-machine interfaces monitoring systems. Professional Demonstrate the following knowledge and skills: Communication 4 Oral and written presentation skills; [PC4] Ability to write research proposals, objectives and title; Ability to list sources and in-text cite; Ability to use referencing styles: Harvard / APA +; Ability to undertake a literature review: paraphrasing / summarising examples / exercises; Ability to undertake a dissertation analysis; Ability to use an academic writing style / referencing / paraphrasing; Ability to use research criteria and justify research methodology SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 65 Environmental Demonstrate the following knowledge, skills, values and attributes: Management 4 An understanding of the fundamental environmental issues; [EM4] Knowledge of environmental legislation and policy in SA; Management of environmental impact assessments and audits; Awareness of the environmental implications of their practice. Project Identify a project needs and develop project proposals; Management 4 Plan and schedule projects; [PM4] Control and monitor industrial and design projects; Apply financial considerations and resource planning the principles of JIT system; Apply MS Project software; Manage projects; Understand team behaviour; Develop effective project communication methods. Based on the analyses of the BEng (Mechatronics) (above) the following basic curriculum structure for a Bachelor in Engineering (leading to registration as a professional engineer) can be deduced: This qualification at Level 8 must have 560 credits in order to meet the ECSA standard (although the requirement under the revised HEQF for a Professional 4- year Bachelor’s Degree is a minimum of 480 credits with a minimum of 120 credits at Level 7, a minimum of 96 credits at Level 8 and a maximum of 96 credits at Level 5): Math Sciences: 56 Computing & IT: 21 Basic Sciences: 56 Engineering Sciences: 168 Engineering Design & Synthesis: 63 Complementary Studies: 56 Other credits to be relocated: 140 TOTAL: 560 credits The current BEng (Mechatronics) compares as follows with the revised ECSA standard for BEng-type programmes for Professional Engineer registration with ECSA: Knowledge Area ECSA Std BEng (Mechatronics) Math Sciences 56 138 Computing & IT 17 16 Basic Sciences * 56 292 Eng Sciences * 168 Eng Design & Synthesis 67 82 Complementary Studies 56 64 SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 66 Other credits for 140 redistribution TOTAL 560 596 * The Engineering discipline experts will need to scrutinise this analysis and verify which aspects fall into the categories of Basic Sciences & Engineering Sciences SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 67 APPENDIX 9: Comparison of knowledge blocks in Year 1: Diploma (Mechanical Engineering) & BEng (Mechatronics) Knowledge Diploma (Mech Eng) BEng (Mechatronics) Area Math Sciences Mathematics 1 [WIS111/2]: Mathematics 1: Algebra [MATH101]: Radian measure Apply the rules of basic formal logic solve Mathematical Natural logarithms problems; Determinants Use Mathematical Induction to prove theorems related to Differentiation 1 sequences and series; Integration 1 Utilise basic Set Theory to solve basic problems on sets and Complex numbers their operations with specific reference to subsets of the set Statistics of real numbers; Use the basic rules of elementary permutation and Mathematics 2 [WIS211/2]: combination theory to establish statistical and probability Differentials 2 models to related problems; Integration 2 Utilise the binomial formula in binomial expansions and related problems; Matrix algebra Investigate, analyse, describe and represent a wide range of Differentiated equations (1st order) basic one-variable functions and solve Mathematical problems; Apply the algebra of vectors in R2 and R3 to solve elementary problems involving vector quantities and to describe, represent, analyse and explain the properties of shapes in 2- dimentional and 3-dimensional space. Mathematics 1: Differential Calculus [MATH102]: Apply the basic rules of limits and continuity to a wide range of basic one-variable functions; Differentiate a wide range of functions using first principles, basic rules and techniques; SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 68 Apply differentiation in sketching of curves for polynomial and rational functions; Apply differentiation to real-life optimisation problems; Illustrate and calculate the anti-derivative of elementary functions. Mathematics 1: Calculus [MATH103]: Differentiate and apply differentiation rules for logarithmic, exponential, hyperbolic and inverse trigonometric functions; Apply various integration techniques to determine integrals of a wide range of composite functions; Apply integration to calculate area between curves and the arc-lengths of a curve; Apply integration in the determining the surface areas and volumes of solids of revolution; Introduction to first order differential equations; Visualize surfaces in R3 defined by elementary two-variable functions; Differentiate basic multi-variable functions; Introduction to invariable functions; Introduction to partial differentiation. Mathematics 1: Algebra [MATH104]: Sketch and analyse one-variable functions described in parametric form; Sketch and analyse one-variable functions described in polar form; Apply the algebra of complex numbers to simplify and solve basic equations; Geometrically interpret a complex number as a 2- dimensional extension of a real number; Apply the Gauss-Jordan method for solving a system of SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 69 linear equations; Illustrate and apply the operations and properties of matrices; Use the algebra of determinants to solve systems of linear equations; Use matrix operations to illustrate symmetries in R2 and R3. Applied Mathematics 1: Graph Theory [MAPM111]: Think critically and see the different proof techniques relevant to graph theory; Apply graph theoretical results to practical problems; Use MATLAB to solve various scientific problems; Write simple programs utilizing the MATLAB language; Implement simple numerical algorithms. Applied Mathematics 1: Mathematical Modelling [MAPM112]: Identify meaningful word problems given a particular situation; Mathematically formulate simple word problems; Recognise proportionality problems, and in simple cases solve it using appropriate mathematical tools; Recognise a linear or integer programming problem, and in simple situations solve these using appropriate graphical methods; Determine the unknown parameters in a model which will best explain a given dataset either visually or by using the least-squares technique; Linearise simple non-linear models in order to determine unknown parameters; Formulate and solve elementary discrete dynamical models using appropriate difference equations; Solve problems using dimensional analysis and linear SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 70 algebra; State and apply definitions and theorems discussed in the course; Apply all prior mathematical knowledge to solve meaningful problems. Applied Mathematics 1: Mechanics [MAPM113]: Apply the basic rules of differential and integral calculus to a wide range of basic mechanical problems; Identify which coordinate system is most appropriate for a given mechanical problem; Know how to obtain the appropriate kinematic quantity, by applying appropriate mathematical techniques; Draw free-body diagrams, select the inertial coordinate system and resolve all forces acting on the particle; Apply the equations of motion in either the rectangular or polar coordinate system to obtain the appropriate kinematical quantity; Know and understand the concept of work and be able to determine the work done by a variety of forces; Apply the principle of work and energy; Compute the power supplied to a body by an unbalanced force; Understand the concepts of conservative force and potential energy and be able to apply the conservation of mechanical energy to a variety of mechanical problems. Applied Mathematics 1: Numerical Methods [MAPM114]: Understand the limits of floating-point computations; Decide when and which numerical algorithms should be used for a given problem; SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 71 Derive and use some of the more fundamental theorems and algorithms; Do an error analysis to determine a bound or estimate the approximate solution accuracy; Determine the roots of nonlinear equations using a variety of methods; Apply all prior mathematical knowledge as demanded by the prerequisites; Effectively and efficiently implement algorithms using MATLAB code; Effectively solve and check solutions using MATLAB. Computing & IT Computer Skills 1 [CCP1111/2]: Computer Science for Engineers 1A [MSE1111] & 1B Basic concepts of information [MSE1122] technology Demonstrate an understanding and ability to use both Using a computer & managing files Procedure-Oriented Programming and Object-Oriented Word processing Programming methods; Spreadsheets Demonstrate problem-solving using C++; Information & communication Write interactive programs; Produce well-formatted output in programs; Make proper use of selection structures and repetition statements; Use I/O files streams and data files; Use classes and inheritance; Write code for error checking and exception handling within programs; Use arrays, pointers and structures efficiently; Understand and use numerical methods and bit operations; Complete a mini project that will have multiple C++ programs and files. Basic Sciences Electrotechnology 1 [MET1111/2]: Physics 1A: Mechanics & Thermodynamics [F101]: SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 72 Introduction to electrical & mechanical Predict motion of any object moving in a straight line, or in a engineering qualities & the application plane or in a circle, or that performs harmonic motion; thereof Demonstrate an understanding of the mechanics of fluids; Batteries Apply the theoretical concepts for all aspects of: wave D.C. theory & Network analysis motion, including the superposition of waves; sound; basic Electromagnetism thermodynamics. Magnetic circuits Inductance Physics 1B: Electricity, Magnetism & Optics [F102]: Capacitance Demonstrate an understanding of the following concepts: Basic A.C. theory & measurements Static electricity Basic DC Motors & Stepper Motors Direct current circuits Transformer Basics Magnetism Basic electronic devices & applications The relationship between electricity and magnetism The link between these concepts and the theory of Thermodynamics 2 [MTH2211/2]: electromagnetism and optics Properties of fluids Electromagnetic waves Vapours & gases Nature of light Thermodynamic laws Laws of geometrical optics Heat engines Image forming in geometrical optics. Entropy Materials Science 1B [MAS1122]: Carnot cycle Explain the main classifications/distinctions between different Strength of Materials 2 [MSM2211/2]: materials, the essential (general) structures causing such distinctions, and the relevance of material properties to Stress & strain selection for engineering purposes; Temperature stresses Analyse concepts regarding the detailed structure of Axial loads materials; Catenaries Explain in detail the mechanical properties of various Bending materials, in particular metals, and their relevance to use for Torsion of circular shafts different applications; Pin joined frames Explain phase diagrams and phase transformations for alloys 3D space frames to apply to specific manufacturing processes as used in SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 73 Fluid Mechanics 2 [MFL2211/2]: engineering industries; Basic principles: static pressure 7 head Describe the electron configuration for metals in order to Bemouli’s equation predict a materials behaviour; Continuity of flow Demonstrate an understanding of the various methods of Loss of energy in pipelines in Series physical material analysis including electron microscopy Frictional resistance to fluid flow in techniques. single pipelines Shock losses in pipelines D’Arcy & Chezy formula Venturi meters Pilot tube Fluid pressure on surfaces Bouyancy Archimedes Principle Calculation of conditions of equilibrium Calculation of metacentric height Pneumatic control circuits (including cascades) Engineering Mechanics of Machines 2 Sciences [MMB2211/2]: Moments of inertia (areas & mass) Simple harmonic motion & vibration Natural frequency & resonance Power transmissions (inertia torque, kinetic energy of rotation, hoists & haulage & vehicle dynamics) Mechanics 1 [MEC1111/2]: Statistics Centre of gravity Friction Work SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 74 Power & energy Kinematics Dynamics (elementary) Engineering Materials & Science 1 [MEM1111/2]: Types of materials: metals, semi- conductors, ceramics composites & polymers Atomic structure of materials Deformation, strain hardening & annealing Solidification & grain size strengthening Mechanical testing Motor Vehicle Engineering 1 [MVE1111/2]: Principle cycles of operation Main engine components Engine lubrication system – wet Engine lubrication system – dry Fuel system basis – petrol & diesel Carburation & injection system – petrol Conventional & advanced ignition systems Electronic ignition systems Engine valves 7 heads Clutches, gearboxes & drivelines Mechanical Manufacturing Engineering 1 [MNE1111/2]: Safety & safety legislation SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 75 Identification & application of materials Elementary measuring equipment Elementary hand & machine tools Mechanical Manufacturing Engineering 2 [MNE2211/2]: Hand tools Machine tools Metal forming Erosion Castings Plastics: moulding & machining Welding & joining Obtaining finish & accuracy Hand techniques & equipment; machine techniques & equipment Chemical finishing: Anodising Electroplating: practical project Engineering Computer Aided Draughting 1 Engineering Drawing 1A [MEW1121] & 1B [MEW1122]: Design [MCD1211/2]: Ability to produce mechanical engineering drawings that are Apply CAD software to orthographic accurate, legible, un-ambiguous and sufficient for fabrication drawings & 2-dimensional assembly and assembly of mechanical components, as per SABS 0111 drawings for fabrication Part 1; Parametric modelling with 3D software Interpret mechanical engineering drawings so that a clear understanding of the make-up and function of the component Mechanical Engineering Drawing 1 or assembly is achieved; [MED1111/2]: Operate a solid modelling software package to be able to Physical drawing ability of: produce detailed mechanical engineering drawings as stated Geometric constructions & tangencies above; Orthographic projection Sketch free-hand in order to communicate engineering Isometric projection concepts and functions; Application of 2 dimensional drawing on Deliver a multi-media presentation using applicable software, SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 76 CAD to further aid the communication of conceptual ideas and systems in tandem with all the above; Have a general knowledge of the support structures and methods utilised and available in engineering drawing and communication of engineering concepts. Engineering Mechanical Engineering Practice 1 Practice [MEP1211/2]: Experiential learning formally integrates the student’s academic studies with work experience in participating employer organisations. Focuses on: Developing hand skills by participating in physical work in an artisan work environment. Communication Communication theory Skills Oral presentation skills Technical writing skills Data gathering & interpretation skills Basic report writing skills Meeting procedure & documentation skills SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010 77 Conclusion: With the possible exception of the Engineering Design modules, the vastly different knowledge blocks making up the first year of each of the Diploma in Mechanical Engineering and the BEng Mechatronics, mean that there is no possibility to create an articulation pathway between the two. For example, the BEng Mechatronics year 1 is heavily weighted with Mathematical Sciences which the Diploma in Mechanical Engineering is not. At this stage it appears as if a Diploma in Mechanical Engineering student, who wishes to undertake BEng (Mechatronics) studies, would have to complete the diploma qualification and then start again with the first year of the BEng Mechatronics, applying for appropriate exemptions / credits for any specific modules already passed (if any). However, a further analysis is still to be taken, initially of the Mathematical Sciences and Engineering Design modules in order to verify this conclusion. SANTED ENGINEERING CASE STUDIES: Final Report: October 2010