# Ions and Isotopes Worksheets by ejb19527

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Atoms, Ions and Isotopes

Purpose: To use M&M candy to model the construction of atoms. In this lab you will
discover the wonders of a just recently discovered element. The symbol for the
element is Mm. Its name is M&Mium (pronounced em-en-em-ee-um).

I.    Single atom of Mm
1.    Gather 4 protons (red) and 4 neutrons (brown). Put them close together to form
the nucleus of the atom.
2.    Gather 4 electrons (yellow). Place the electrons in “orbits’ around the nucleus.
3.    Make a sketch of your Mm atom. (Use colored pencils/crayons and mark the
positive, negative and neutral particles.)

(Don’t eat it yet!!) From this atom, some very important information can be collected.
The importance of the atomic number of an element is that it is unique for each
element. THE NUMBER OF PROTONS DOES NOT CHANGE! If you change the
atomic number, you change the element.

A second vital piece of information that can be obtained from your Mm is the
Mass Number. The Mass Number is the total number of protons and neutrons in the
nucleus of an atom.

Atomic Number = ________________(number of __________, color _______)

Mass Number     = ________________(number of _________ + ___________)

Does your Mm atom have a charge?                  Yes    or     No

How can you tell if there is a charge?
II. Ions of Mm
Atoms that are not neutral, or as is usually stated, atoms that are “charged” are
called ions. Ions can be either positively charged or negatively charged. Since it has
already been stated that the number of protons in an atom is unique for each element,
an atom becomes an ion by either gaining or losing electrons.

1. Construct an ion of Mm by adding an electron to the atom.
2. Make a sketch of your Mm ion.

Symbol and Charge _____________

3. Below your sketch, write the symbol with the charge of the ion. The charge of an
ion can easily be found by subtracting the number of negative charges from the number
of positive charges. That is to say, the number of protons (atomic number) minus the
number of electrons is the charge of the ion.
4. Create and sketch an ion of Mn that has a +2 charge.

Symbol and Charge _____________
5. Create one more ion of Mm (your choice of charge). Sketch it and indicate   the
charge.

Symbol and Charge ___________

What is the charge of your ion? ________ Symbol and charge _______________
III.     Isotopes of Mm
Besides the ions of Mm, there are also other forms of Mm in existence. In these
other forms, the charge does not change, yet its mass increases. These other forms of
Mm are known as isotopes. Isotopes are atoms of an element with the same number of
protons, but a different number of neutrons. Thus, this change does not affect
charge, but does affect the mass, since the protons and neutrons are the “heavy”
particles in the atom.
Your original Mm contained 4 protons and 4 neutrons. However, Mm also exists
commonly in a form that has 4 protons and 6 neutrons. Create this atom.
 Make a sketch of this isotope of Mm and indicate the atomic number and mass
number below the sketch.

When isotopes of an atom esist, it is easy to calculate the number of neutrons in a
specific isotope when the atom is written in the following form.
Mm with atomic number 4 and mass number 8 would be written like this.
Mass #      8
Mn             or Mn – 8
4
Atomic #

   Write the 2 possible symbols for the isotope of Mm you created above.

1. ___________                  2. ____________
   Create and sketch 2 more isotopes of Mm and correctly write the symbols.

   Write the 2 possible symbols for the isotope of Mm you created above.

1. ___________                 2. ____________

   Write the 2 possible symbols for the isotope of Mm you created above.

1. ___________                 2. ____________
Questions:

1. What real element is most closely represented by the Mm you created?

___________________

2. What is the definition of mass number? _______________________

________________________________________________________

3. What is an ion? _________________________________________

________________________________________________________

4. What is an isotope? ______________________________________

________________________________________________________

5. If someone told you they had a form of Mm with 5 protons, what would

you tell them? ____________________________________________

________________________________________________________

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