16 News Timeline Police Federation – 90 years Photography: Alamy The Police Federation will Constable Albert Goodsall of the Metropolitan Police, should be the first full-time official of the Federation have been in existence for 90 G 1931 – Police face a pay cut. The government decided to reduce police pay by ten percent in two instalments of five years this month and is still percent, taking into account the reduction in police pay when pension contributions were increased in 1925. The Federation fighting for the rights of its held a series of mass meetings of the membership to protest members. In this month’s against the pay cuts G 1932 – Two pay scales are introduced for recruits and existing Police we look at just some of officers and open meetings are banned on the grounds that they were being used to criticise government policy the issues the organisation G 1933 – Lord Trenchard, Met police commissioner attacked the Met Federation accusing them of attempting to stir up has faced and celebrate some discontent in the force. Metropolitan chief inspectors were of its victories taken out of membership of the Police Federation G 1934 – The ten percent pay ‘cut’ was reduced by one-half (and abolished altogether the following year) 1919 - The Police Federation of England and Wales is born G The Police Federation came to fruition after a police strike in Wartime and Beyond 1918 in London which had soured relations between an G 1939 – World War II impacts on the service. With the outbreak unofficial body entitled the National Union of Police and Prison of war, the right of police officers to retire on pension was Officers and the Met commissioner suspended, and they were classed as a reserved occupation. G The government appointed Lord Desborough to head a Thousands of officers who were military reservists were called committee looking into the issues facing the police service and up and their places were taken by temporary police officers, recommended standard conditions across all forces and the members of the wartime Police Auxiliary Service inception of a Police Federation to represent the interests of G 1941 – Snell Report recommends pensions of police widows rank and file officers and allowances paid to dependent children should be G The Home Secretary first became responsible for the police increased, provided that the pension contribution was service and the advisory Police Council was set up to advise increased to seven percent. The Federation opposed any on issues in the police service increase in contributions and the Snell Report was shelved. G 1920 – First meeting of the Police Council JCC chairman, Inspector Strangeways, resigned after being G 1921 – Police Pensions Act standardised pensions for all censured for supporting increased contributions forces requiring officers to serve 30 years G 1943 – The ban on open meetings, imposed in 1932, was lifted G 1923 – Pay scales under threat G 1944 – The Federation national committee are summoned to G 1924 – Lord Desborough’s Committee on pay recommended the Home Office by Home Secretary, Herbert Morrison, where levels remain the same they were told they were entitled to submit representations but G 1925 – Pension contributions are doubled to five percent if Morrison refused their requests, it was their job to justify his G 1926 – Police work during the General Strike is recognised decisions to their membership, not to continue to press when the Times newspaper set up a National Police Fund in their claims public gratitude of their work G 1945 – Pay Scale B, the lower pay scale for post-1932 recruits, G 1927 – Police given more rights of appeal against disciplinary was abolished. Police pay was formally increased for the first decisions time since 1919 G 1928 – The Federation faces collapse as the national committee G 1946 – The ban on married women serving in the police was unable to find a secretary after station sergeant Berry service was lifted resigned because there were no official facilities. After much G 1947 – Rent allowances are increased argument, the Home Secretary agreed to an annual grant of G 1948 – National Police College opens £300 a year to cover all Federation expenses, and agreed that G 1949 – The Oaksey Committee published its First Report after the JCC secretary, although not a full-time Federation official, a lengthy examination of pay and conditions of service. It would be given ‘every facility’ to do the work recommended a modest pay increase. It did nothing to solve G 1931 – The Home Office agreed that the new JCC secretary, the great post-war shortage of police officers, caused because Photography: Simon Dell police pay continued to lag behind rates available in other areas G 1958 – Lump sum pensions are introduced G 1950 – Oaskey Part 2 recommends a new Police Council to act G 1959 – The Police Federation Act of 1959 granted full as a police negotiating body. The report also recommended membership of the Police Federation to policewomen and that for the first time the Federation should be permitted to restored membership to chief inspectors of the collect voluntary subscriptions from its members Metropolitan Police G 1951 – The first ‘arbitration’ award of police pay was made by G 1959 - Public anxiety over cases of police corruption and Sir Malcolm Trustram Eve, who sat with two assessors to hear the investigation of complaints led to the appointment of a the submissions of the Police Federation and the police Royal Commission to examine these subjects Strenuous efforts authorities, after the Police Council failed to reach agreement by James Callaghan led to the Commission being asked to G 1952 – The Federation gets a new constitution which gave examine the broad principles governing the pay of a constable. policewomen associate status, although without voting rights This decision was fiercely opposed by the police authorities Photography: Simon Dell There was a complete ban on using Federation funds for Sixties and Seventies (1960 - 1979) political or trade union purposes G 1960 – The Royal Commission, led by Sir Henry Willink, G 1953 – The first meeting of the Police Council for Great Britain recommended that the pay of a police constable should be took place in November. Among the agreements reached at increased by a maximum of 30 percent, bringing the pay of a this meeting was an eight percent pay increase and the London PC with 17 years service to £970 a year. The Allowance was doubled to £20 a year (a decision which caused recommendation was accepted by the government, and much argument within the Federation) similar increases were negotiated for ranks above constable G 1955 – The Federation was first allowed to collect subscriptions G 1962 – The Second Part of the Willink Report recommended (threepence per week) and appointed James Callaghan MP as new procedures for investigating complaints against the police, its first Parliamentary adviser the amalgamation of very small police forces, the inclusion of magistrates on police authorities and the abolition of the powers of watch committees to discipline and promote police otos Photography: PA Ph G 1955 - The first hearing before the new Police Arbitration Tribunal resulted in a major pay increase. officers. The Police Council The Tribunal recommended that the award be backdated, but reached agreement on a system of bi-annual reviews of police the government argued that there was no legal power to do so. pay, intended to uphold the standards of pay set out by the Callaghan and the Federation organised a Parliamentary Willink Royal Commission campaign, and the government gave way, passing legislation G 1963 – The working week is reduced to 42 hours enabling the back pay to be granted G 1964 – The Police Advisory Board (PAB) is established to deal G 1957 –The Federation publishes its first journal, The Newsletter with professional matters G 1964 - The Federation clashed with the government over its Police Federation walked out of the Police Council. Federation refusal to extend the lump sum payable to the widows of branch boards began to ballot their members on the question officers killed on duty to those who had died accidentally of the right to strike. All forces which held ballots recorded whilst trying to make an arrest. Callaghan initiated a cross- majorities in favour of this right party debate, and the government was forced to give way. PA Photos Photography: G 1977 – The Home Secretary used his powers to impose The right to commute part of their pensions was extended to a five percent increase in police pay. At conference, he all officers retiring on full or ill-health pensions was received by the delegates in total silence, as part of G 1966 – The Police Arbitration Tribunal rejected a Federation a planned demonstration of no confidence in the claim for higher pay and under-manning allowances, government. Conference decided to press for the upholding more modest proposals by the Official Side. The Federation to become a ‘free association’ and for the government announced a total pay freeze for 12 months, as police to have the right to strike. The Federation part of a package designed to deal with the economic crisis. launched a public relations campaign in favour of a The police were partly exempted, and their pay was only substantial pay increase, which attracted widespread frozen for six months public support. G 1967 – The reports of the three Police Advisory Board Working Parties on Manpower, Equipment and Efficiency 1978 – The Edmund-Davies Report were published, including recommendations for more civilianisation. James Callaghan, no longer the Federation’s announced a substantial increase in police adviser, became Home Secretary. He immediately angered pay, which included an unspecified the Federation by vetoing Police Council agreements to amount to take account of the absence of award under-manning allowances to several forces. He also the right to strike rejected proposals to improve police uniforms because of the costs involved and overrode the recommendation of the G 1977 - Addressing the annual meeting of the Metropolitan PAB Working Party to abolish numerals on police uniforms Branch Boards, the Home Secretary was shouted down G 1968 – POLICE magazine is launched, replacing the by a packed audience of angry police officers. Soon newsletter as a key channel of communicating Federation afterwards he announced that Lord Edmund-Davies activity to the membership would head an independent inquiry into police pay and G 1969 – In it’s golden jubilee year, the Federation bought its that the government would accept its findings own headquarters in Surbiton, Surrey G 1978 – The Edmund-Davies Report announced a G 1971 – The police struggle to maintain pay standards as substantial increase in police pay, which included an inflation and manpower shortages continued to dominate unspecified amount to take account of the absence of police negotiations the right to strike. The report also proposed linking G 1972 – A major review of the police pension scheme brought future pay rises to an index of all non-manual workers improvements to the benefits payable to widows and children The government accepted the findings, but insisted on and contributions went up by seven percent staging the pay increases over two years. The committee G 1974 – The Police Council again investigates pay scales also proposed replacing the Police Council with a Police G 1974 - The police service was reorganised into 43 forces in Negotiating Board. At a special conference, the England and Wales Federation accepted the Edmund-Davies Report and G 1975 - Following the Joint Report of the Police Council Working abandoned the policy of seeking ‘free association’ and Party, there was a very substantial increase in police pay the right to strike G 1976 – Following a dispute over police pay, the Police G 1979 – Edmund-Davies Report is implemented in full Federation of England and Wales and the Northern Ireland Our Recent History (1980 - 2006) with an open meeting in Wembley Arena attended by G 1981 – Unprecedented mass urban rioting broke out in 23,000 off-duty officers. Michael Howard, who had recently inner cities across the country, notably in Brixton, Toxteth, replaced Ken Clarke, rejected the vast majority of Sheehy, Moss Side and Handsworth, and marked a serious but he did abolish the housing allowance, and linked future deterioration in community relations. The riots, and the pay increases on an index of non-manual private sector police’s lack of adequate training and defensive equipment, pay settlements. led to intense lobbying by the Federation to ensure police G 1996 – First Police Federation Bravery Awards in officers were better protected conjunction with the Sun newspaper G 1984 – The miners’ strike leads to further deterioration in G 1999 – Changes to the conditions of service proposed by the community relations. The Federation secured an Official Side, including the abolition of the plain clothes amendment to the PACE Act 1983, allowing police officers allowance, the detectives’ expenses allowance and the gratuity the right to legal representation in serious disciplinary for searching and fingerprinting dead bodies, went to the Police cases Arbitration Tribunal. Much of the Staff Side’s demands were G 1985 – The CPS is established upheld, although the detectives’ expenses allowance was ended G 1985 - Major rioting again broke out in inner cities, culminating with the murder of PC Keith Blakelock on the Consultations over replacing PNB with new Broadwater Farm estate in North London G 1986 – The Home Secretary refuses to ratify a PNB pay negotiating mechanisms were also agreement to improve widows’ pensions brought to a halt. The Federation saw this as a G 1989 – The rent allowance was abolished for new recruits, success in the face of a recession and many and they instead received a new housing allowance worth cutbacks to public spending. two-thirds of its predecessor G 1991 – The Police Federation updates the ‘Nine Points of the Law’ G 2000 – After years of declining police numbers, the government announced plans to recruit an extra 9,000 G 1992 – Ken Clarke announces ‘independent’ inquiry into officers over the next three years, after considerable lobbying police pay to be led by Sir Patrick Sheehy, head of British by the Federation American Tobacco G 2002 – David Blunkett, the new Home Secretary, unveiled a G 1993 – The Sheehy Report made clear that the Inquiry did White Paper on Police Reform at the end of 2001. Whilst the not consider policing to be a unique occupation, and Federation supported some of the planned measures, such as recommended a reduction of police numbers, a £2,000 cut shorter pay scales, bonus payments for priority staff and a to the constable’s starting pay, the abolition of the housing scheme to help those with 30 years or more service to remain allowance and a reduced rank structure. New recruits were in the force, it was staunchly opposed to proposed cuts in to join on a fixed ten-year contract, renewable at the chief overtime pay, changes to duty rosters and sickness and ill- officer’s discretion for five year periods, and they would health pension arrangements, and the abolition of the plain only be eligible to a full pension after 40 years service. It clothes and the subsistence, lodging and refreshment also abolished uniform incremental scales in favour of a allowances. The Federation conducted a ballot on the White matrix based on an evaluation of the roles, responsibilities Paper: over 70 percent of the membership participated, and performance of individual officers. Future pay rejected the proposals by a majority of 10:1. The vote was increases would be based on the pay of non-manual private followed by a mass ‘Bobby Lobby’ on Parliament, when more sector workers, and one-third of each increase would be than 10,000 off-duty officers lined the streets of Westminster performance-related. in an attempt to lobby their MP. That day the Prime Minister The Federation immediately rejected the report, and announced that the government was prepared to re-open launched a massive ‘Say No to Sheehy’ campaign, starting negotiations with the Federation, and David Blunkett later admitted at conference that his original stance had G The Police Negotiating Board, which represents both the been wrong. Staff and the Official side, has served as a special industrial A new agreement was eventually accepted by the Federation, relations body since 1980 and there had been no disputes for which included new short pay scales for the federated ranks, a years as both sides abided by its findings. If they failed to agree, new competence-related threshold payments scheme, more the decision would then be referred to the independent Police flexible working patterns, the rationalisation of allowances Arbitration Tribunal to make a binding decision for both sides. and a new scheme to encourage officers to stay on for more G The Home Office wanted to change the system by which than 30 years. police pay is negotiated and replace the Police Negotiating The Police Reform Act introduced Community Support Board with a pay review body to keep public spending in Officers to the streets, and announced the creation of the check. The Federation argued that this would take no Independent Police Complaints Commission, to start work account of the special status police officers have through in 2004. risking their lives, not having the right to strike and being G 2004 – On October 3 2004 the first National Police Memorial on duty in a way ordinary public servants are not. Day service was held at St Paul’s Cathedral in London to G 2008 – The pay dispute led to many police officers calling for a honour over 4,000 officers who had lost their lives in the line of ban on the right to strike being lifted as they were now being duty since modern policing began treated in line with other public sector workers. G 2006 – At the beginning of the 2006 pay review, the Official Side announced plans to revise the pay indexing system PA Photos Photography: In January around 22,500 police officers ensured the strength of feeling over the pay dispute was known and that had stood for almost 30 years. After many months of marched through central London in a protest over pay. Some stalemate, the Staff Side referred their three percent claim, officers visited Parliament to lobby MPs and a rally was held based on the index, to arbitration, at which point Official Side at Central Hall, Westminister and a petition presented to tabled, without explanation, a 2.2 percent rise. The PAT upheld Downing Street. the three percent, and condemned Official Side’s failure to In October talks with the Home Secretary and Official side provide a concrete alternative. The Home Secretary had hinted resulted in a three-year pay deal, with 2.65 percent for 2008, that he would not uphold a decision of more than 2.2 percent, 2.6 percent for 2009 and 2.55 percent for 2010 to take effect but immediately ratified the increase after the Federation’s from September 1, 2008. Consultations over replacing PNB vociferous ‘Fair Pay’ campaign with new pay negotiating mechanisms were also brought to a G The government then announced a review of police pay by Sir halt. The Federation saw this as a success in the face of a Clive Booth to “consider the options for replacing the current recession and many cutbacks to public spending. arrangements for determining changes to police pay.” G The Federation fights for retired officers to receive the G A new 35-year pension scheme finally came into effect, after pensions they are entitled to, winning a judicial review on seven years negotiation. Contributions were set at 9.5 percent, pension commutation and the pension was payable from 55 or deferrable until 65. The Federation persuaded the independent Police The maximum pension was half of the final salary with a lump Arbitration Tribunal that police officers should be entitled sum of four times the pension, and it was also payable to to an on-call allowance as they are increasingly required to unmarried partners as well as spouses and civil partners be available on the end of a phone, close to work and fit G 2007 – The Federation wrote an open letter to Home Secretary for duty. Jacqui Smith to say police officers were ‘angry and bitterly disappointed’ that she decided not to backdate a 2.5 percent For further information see our About us section at: pay rise for officers. This effectively meant they would only www.polfed.org receive 1.9 percent and the Home Office had reneged on the deal.