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syed hussain - The Power Sector and the Renewable Energy Sector in

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					  Climate Action Bangladesh
   Climate Action Bangladesh
 An Environment and and Services
An Environment ClimateClimateCompany
Services Company




 The Power Sector and the
Renewable Energy Sector in
       Bangladesh


      Prospects for Indian Investment
                   Either
              Independently
                   Or as
              Joint Ventures




                                        1
The Power Sector
       in
   Bangladesh




 Installed Production Capacity
    and Highest Producion
    FY        Installed (MW)   Highest Production (MW)
  1995-
  1995-1996   2908                  2087
  1996-
  1996-1997   2908                  2114
  1997-
  1997-1998   3091                  2136
  1998-
  1998-1999   3611                  2449
  1999-
  1999-2000   3711                  2665
  2000-
  2000-2001   4005                  3033
  2001-
  2001-2002   4230                  3218
  2002-
  2002-2003   4710                  3458




                                                         2
          Installed Production Capacity and Highest Production
                                   Cont-
                                 - Cont-


       FY          Installed Production Capacity (MW)                          Highest
      Production (MW)



      2003-
      2003-2004                         4471                                           3622
      2004-
      2004-2005                         5025                                           3751
      2005-
      2005-2006                         5275                                           3812
      2006-
      2006-2007                         5262                                           3718
      2007-
      2007-2008                         5262                                           4130
      2008-
      2008-2009                         5560                                           4037




                          2001-
                          2001-02   2002-
                                    2002-03   2003-
                                              2003-04   2004-05
                                                        2004-     2005-
                                                                  2005-06   2006-
                                                                            2006-07    2007-
                                                                                       2007-08
                                                                                      (projected
                                                                                           )

       sector’
Power sector’s             1.27      1.30      1.34      1.37      1.38      1.35
contribution to GDP (%)




GROWTH IN POWER SECTOR     7.78      7.29      9.19      8.58      7.45      4.52
(%)




                                                                                                   3
   Installed Capacity (2009)                                      Installed Capacity (2009)
                                                                   FURNACE
                                                                      Oil  Diesel Coal
                                                                     5.0%   3.5% 4.5%
    Private                                                       Water
    31.35%                                                        4.6%

                                  Govt
                                                                                                      Gas
                                                 Govt                                                82.4%
                                                68.65%
     Total Installed Capacity   5560 MW †gtIt                     Total Installed Capacity   5560 mwwmmMMW
                                                                  †gtIt




      Installed Production Capacity                                        Use of Installed Energy




FINANCIAL                 Natural                     Liquid Fuel (MCF)
   YEAR                     Gas              Furnace Oil      HSD , SKO and LDO
                          (MCF)
                  Power Sector : Use of ENERGY
   1995-
   1995-96                         1,06,593              16.629                                 44.113

   1996-
   1996-97                         1,07,240              27.389                                 66.915

   1997-
   1997-98                         1,20,376              23.865                                 70.431

   1998-
   1998-99                         1,36,802              11.692                                 53.916

   1999-
   1999-00                         1,41,330              30.220                                 24.311

   2000-
   2000-01                         1,51,312              25.088                                20.2432

   2001-
   2001-02                         1,51,577              22.464                                 14.521

   2002-
   2002-03                         1,31,180              33.927                                 16.300

   2003-
   2003-04                         1,34,482              46.021                                 25.152
   2004-
   2004-05                         1,42,321              49.052                                  34.294
   2005-
   2005-06                         1,53,920              45.07                                    32.92
   2006-
   2006-07                         1,46,262               24.6                                    26.22
   2007-
   2007-08                         1,50,992              36.22                                    29.46
   2008-
   2008-09
                                    77,453               18.18                                    13.24
(Upto Dec 08 )




                                                                                                             4
                                  (Govt
          Power Production Public (Govt Sector)


     PRODUCTION        CAPACITY MW      Operation
                                        Operation Date

Khulna 150 MW Peaking Power Plant
                               150            2009-
                                              2009-10
Serajganj 150 MW Peaking power plant
                                150              2009-
                                                 2009-10
Sylhet 150 MW Gas turbine power plant
                               150              2010-
                                                2010-11
Chandpur 150MW Combined Cycle Power Plant
                               150               2011-
                                                 2011-12
Bhola 150MW Combined Cycle Power Plant
                               150               2011-
                                                 2011-12
Haripur 360 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant
                               360              2011-
                                                2011-12




                              (Govt
      Power Production Public (Govt Sector)

PRODUCTION                 CAPACITY MW         Operation Date

Siddhirganj 2x 150 MW Gas Turbine Power Plant
                                  300
2013-
2013-14
Barapukuria 125 MW Power plant (3rd Unit)
                                  125
2012-
2012-13
Kaptai Power Plant 6th and 7th Unit
                                  100
2012-
2012-13
Bheramara 360 MW Combined Cycle Power Plant
                                 360
2013-
2013-14




                                                                5
                      PRIVATE SECTOR
                      Power Production

PRODUCTION                    CAPACITY MW                  Operation Date
Bibiyana Combined Cycle 450 MW
                              450                                2012-
                                                                 2012-13
Serajganj 450 MW Combined Cycle
                              450                                2012-
                                                                 2012-13
10-
10-30 MW small power plants
                              132                                2008-
                                                                 2008-09

Rental Power Plants ( 15 year terms)

                                       50                         2008-
                                                                  2008-09

Rental Power Plants ( 3 year terms)

                                      215                         2008-
                                                                  2008-09




               Projects Under         Implementation


Project Name   Target upto Dec 08   Progress Upto Dec 08     Source of Funding


Ishurdi- Baghabari- Sirajganj-
Ishurdi-Baghabari-Sirajganj- Bogra line Implementation Period
2002-       2008-
2002-03 to 2008-09

                          95.12%            88.29%
ADB,KFW,Suppliers
credit and GOB
                                                     2008-
National Load Despatch Centre Implementation Period 2008-09
                          87. 93 2%         88.229%         ADB – GOB
Compensation at Grid Substations by Capacitor Banks Phase 1
                       2005-      2008-
Implementation Period 2005-06 - 2008-09
                  91.10%                   64.71%
                                           64.71%           ADB - GOB




                                                                                 6
                 Projects Under          Implementation

 Project Name     Target upto Dec 08   Progress Upto Dec 08     Source of Funding



 New Grid substation construction and transmission line extension Implementation
        2008-
 Period 2008-09

                      35.03%                30.32%                ADB,JBIC,GOB
                                                                  ADB,JBIC,GOB
                                                    2006-      2009-
 3 Transmission line Projects Implementation Period 2006-07 to 2009-10
                        33.10%               36.1%                    ADB,GOB
 Meghnaghat-                                                              2006-
 Meghnaghat- Amin Bazar 400 KV Transmission Line Implementation Period 2006-07
 to 2008-09
    2008-
                        4.55%                2.71%                  ADB GOB
                                                                 substations
 Amin Bazar Old Airport 230 KVA Transmission line and associated substations

                       2006-      2009-
 Implementation Period 2006-07 to 2009-10
                       13.55%               13.55%                  ADB GOB
                                                            compensation
 Transmission Efficiency Improvement through reactive power compensation at grid
                                                                           2007-
 substation and reinforcement of Goalpara substation Implementation Period 2007-08
    2009-
 to 2009-10
                     3.00%0.0               54%                     KFW GOB




Electricity produced by different types of fuel is
                   as follows:

 Energy in GWh Percentage
 (a) Natural Gas 14,758            86.70 %
 (b) Hydro 1,012                    5.95 %
 (c) Diesel 812                     4.77 %
 (d) Furnace Oil 439                2.58 %
 ----------------------------------------------------
 Total 17,011                       100.00 %




                                                                                     7
 Renewable
   Energy




   Renewable
resources include
sunlight, wind, and
       trees.


                      8
                    Clean Energy

               Wind Energy
                Small Hydro
                Photovoltaic
          Combined Heat & Power
             Biomass Heating
             Solar Air Heating
            Solar Water Heating
           Passive Solar Heating
  Ground-
  Ground-Source Heat Pump Project Analysis
               Refrigeration




The six largest categories having emissions above
                 one megatonne are

    1.   urea fertilizer plants,
    2.   natural gas-based steam thermal electricity generation plants,
    3.    vehicles transmission and
    4.   distribution losses of electricity,
    5.   agricultural diesel pumps, and,
    6.   natural gas-based combustion turbine electricity generation
         plants.


         It is clear, therefore, that when a priority
               list of mitigation projects is being
                             prepared,
              these emission sources must be
                         considered first.




                                                                          9
       WIND ENERGY
 Wind energy in the world is increasing at a
  faster rate than other forms of renewable
                     energy.
From 1998 to 2002 wind energy generation
 increased from 4.5 billion kilowatt hours to
          10.5 billion kilowatt hours.
       There are many advantages to using
  wind energy: no air emissions; no fuel to
mine, transport or store; no cooling water; no
        water pollution; and no waste.




        Four Waste Projects Developed By Waste Concern

                      CERs (CO2 eq.           Total            Sustainable
                         Emission          Investment      Development Benefits
                        Reduction
 Matuail Landfill         (tons)
                     990,000in 8 years   US$ 3.5 million   Reduction of odor and
                                                           ground water pollution,
                                                           saving of municipal land
                                                           and fire hazard.
 Roufabad Landfill   200,000in 8 years   US$ 975,000



 Composting-      480,000in 8 years      US$ 6.4 million   Reduction of odor, dust
 Dhaka (700t/day)                                          and fire hazard. Saving
                                                           of land. Large number of
                                                           jobs for women. Very
                                                           high quality fertilizer
 Composting-         138,000in 8 years   US$ 2.6 million   (adaptation benefit by
 Chittagong                                                enhancing         organic
 (200 t/day)                                               content of soils)




                                                                                       10
            Potential CDM Projects In Bangladesh

            (1) Methane recovery from landfill with or without
                          electricity generation
                  (ii) Composting of urban solid waste

            (iii) Biogas from a wide variety of wastes, such as
       (a) poultry dropping
       (b) tannery waste
        (c) effluent from food processing industries
       (d) human excreta, and
       (e) sewage, to replace fossil fuel directly or after electricity generation

                  (iv) Solar home systems in off grid areas
         (v) Efficient lamps to replace incandescent light bulbs
                       (vi) Efficient brick manufacturing
                            (vii) Sugar cogeneration
            (viii) Cogeneration - policy to buy electricity from
                             cogenerators required




              Methane Recovery From Landfill



 Of these seven categories, recovery of Landfill Gas has the
                          most potential.
    The outskirts of all major cities are becoming severely
      environmentally hazardous areas due to open and
 haphazard dumping of urban solid wastes. The recovery of
               landfill gas has been shown to be
    financially very profitable because the CDM financing
 amounts to more than 150% of the investment. If a portion
   of the benefits of the CDM project can be channeled to
                          convert these
     dumps into sanitary landfills, the country will benefit
tremendously because the municipal corporations simply do
      not have the money to upgrade the exiting landfills.




                                                                                     11
Composting Of Urban Solid Waste


Composting of urban solid waste has also
been shown to be viable CDM project. The
  output from the composting plants is a
   saleable product and along with the
prevention of land fill gas emission, which
 would otherwise have occurred, this is a
            good CDM project.




  Biogas From A Wide Variety Of Wastes



   Biogas production can not only give the
  business enterprise a fuel to replace their
 present fossil fuel use, but also tackle their
    aggravating environmental concerns.
  All these waste are becoming significant
                environmental
       concerns, and the Department of
 Environment is going after the offenders in
                  all earnest.




                                                  12
  Solar Home Systems In Off Grid Areas

      Of all the renewable energy options for
Bangladesh, solar photovoltaic has been identified
by various independent sources as the are with the
                  highest potential.




 Efficient Brick Manufacturing
      The production process of bricks in
       Bangladesh uses crude inefficient
technologies and coal as their fuel. Over 90%
of the bricks are manufactured in this manner.
               The emission from
 brickfields constitutes more than 10% of the
 total GHG emission from the energy sector.
  Use of efficient technology, retrofitting the
  exiting technology and fuel switching from
 coal to natural gas can have a big impact on
                GHG emission.




                                                     13
 Sugar Cogeneration
 Sugar cogeneration is a well-known GHG
 emission option. The 20 sugar mills in the
country can be potential candidates for this
                  technology.
The only drawback is that all these mills are
      public sector entities and are losing
                   concerns.
  If those challenges can be tackled CDM
  projects can be done in this sub-sector.




 Support Is Required In The Following
                Areas

  Research on Baseline Data Collection
Training of potential private sector and NGO
   leaders on carbon issues (in-country)
         Capacity Building of DNA
 Training fellowship by the PCF Plus, CDF
            Plus and other funds




                                                14
LISTING OF RENEWABLE
ENERGY PROJECTS IN
BANGLADESH




             Physical Units    Energy Units     (%)    % of
                                                       Fossil
  Natural    450 bcf           445 million      35.1    69.1
  Gas                          GJ
  Oil        3.7 million       158 million GJ   12.5   24.5
             tons
  Coal       1.5 million       41 million GJ    3.2     6.4
             tons
  Hydro      1.0 TWh           --                --
  Biomass    50 million tons   625 million GJ   49.2
  Solar PV   3 MW (2           --                --
             GWh)
  Wind       1 MW (2           --
             GWh)




                                                                15
•   50 million tons of biomass fuel used annually

•   Use of FIREWOOD for Brick Burning is BANNED

• Loss of organic matter of agricultural soils is a
leading environmental concern

• Minimum price of biomass is Tk. 2/kg, and even
poultry waste is Tk. 1/kg, water hyacinth Tk. 0.50/kg




                                                        16
  THE ONLY REAL SUCCESS STORY
      Solar Home Systems (SHS)
Stakeholders              Number of installed    Installed
                          SHS and locations      capacity
Grameen Shakti            42,000 SHSs all over   2150 kW
                          the country

Bangladesh Rural          10,456 SHSs all over    300 kW
Advancement Committee     the country

Electricity Utilities +   Various                 170 kW
Local Govt. Engg. Dept.

All Others                3192 Solar Home         165 kW
                          Lighting System




                                                             17
              BIODIESEL
Vegetable oil such as soybean and palm
oils can be very easily converted
(transesterification) into a diesel like
substance (complete substitute)
At $50-60 barrel of OIL- Biodiesel can
easily compete with oil
Indonesia is seriously considering going
for biodiesel instead of importing oil




                                           18
 •   Rice bran oil

 •   Energy plantation is feasible on unproductive land

 •   We can even look into palm oil plantations

 • If oil price is sustained above US$ 50/bbl, then
 biodiesel is feasible, and will enhance energy security

 • We save FOREIGN CURRENCY, therefore paying
 even slightly higher price is justified




List of Renewable Energy Projects

 1. Improved Cookstoves
 2. Efficiency Improvement in all Industrial
    Applications of Biomass
 3. Biomass cogeneration in sugar mills
 4. Increasing cattle population followed by
    biogas plant expansion program
 5. Study the pros and cons of poultry
    waste (i) Composting (ii) Biogas +
    Composting, and even (iii) Incineration




                                                           19
 List of Renewable Energy Projects
                New Renewables
1. Continue with the EXCELLENT SHS
   program in Non-Grid Areas + explore SPV
   for irrigation pumps
2. Continue with the WIND program in
   potential areas (should reach 50 MW)
3. In not-so potential areas, explore the
   biodiesel hybrid
4. Explore mini and micro hydro
5. 2-3 Biomass gasification pilot plants




 List of Renewable Energy Projects
             NEW BIOMASS

1. Bioethanol – extending sugar cultivation
2. Bioethanol – new species such as
   Miscanthus and switch grass, or
   agricultural waste for cellulosic ethanol
3. Biodiesel – new plantations of Jatropha
4. Biodiesel – chicken fat, tannery waste
5. Energy plantation for biogasification and
   direct use




                                               20
  Energy Efficient Buildings




Mitigation and Adaptation

                                                      Energy Planning


                             Policy Strategies
                             and Frameworks
         Risk Analysis
         and Planning




Water, Flooding and Mitigation and Adaptation
Extreme Weather
                                               Carbon Management
                                               and Financing



   Infrastructure,
   Buildings and Nature

                          Coastal Protection



                                                              Energy Efficiency in
                                                              Industry and Building




                                                                                      21
         Indian Investors Should Now Take a Good, Hard Look At
                  India – Bangladesh Ventures in
               Power and Renewable Energy and CDM




           Trend of Primary Energy Mix for Power
                      Generation, GWh

Type    1990       1995    2000   2005     2010    2015    2020


Total Generation
Low Scenario        8207    11584 18315    26063   30994   46491   61998
Ref. Scenario       8207    12280 18971    28060   39750   59858   92402
Gas      7285       10500 15000 15000      15000   15000   15000
Coal     0          0       1030    2000   2000    2000    2000
Hydro 800           800     1000    1000   1300    1300    1300
Total Generation   from Indigenous Fuel
         8085       11300 17030 18000      18300   18300   18300
Deficit+
Low Scenario       122     284    1285     8063    12694   28191   43698
Ref. Scenario      122     980    1941     10060   21450   41558   74102




                                                                           22
      Sl. No.          Sources and Sinks         CO2 Equivalent




 Percent of Total CO2 Equivalent
 Net National Emissions 72000                           100.00%
 All Energy (Fuel Combustion + Fugitive) 21186          29.43%
                   A. Fuel Combustion
 1.   Energy and Transformation Industries   4392 .     10%
 2.   Industry                               3050 .     24%
 3.   Transport                              1875       2.60%
 4.   Commercial-institutional                259       0.36%
 5.   Agriculture                              680 0.     94%
 6.   Residential                            5523 7.    67%




Sl. No.           Sources and Sinks                CO2 Equivalent


 7. Others                 400                               0.56%

 8. Traditional biomass Burned for Energy          4084      5.67%

                     B. Fugitive Emission
 1.   Oil and Natural Gas Systems            149            0.21%
 2.      Industrial Processes               1491            2.07%
 1.   Cement Production                      153            0.21%
 2.   Ammonia Production                   1130             1.57%
 3.   Metal (Iron & Steel)                   208            0.29%
 3.   Agriculture                         28667             39.82%
 4.   Land use Change and Forestry        19738             27.41%




                                                                     23
                        Contact
               Climate Action Bangladesh
      An Environment and Climate Services Company


       Email:        thussain09@gmail.com
                     thussain@bangla.net

               Cell : 0171 304 8821
Address :     Road # 8 House # 5
              Flat 3A
              Gulshan One Dhaka    .




                                                    24

				
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