Safety Welding by januar88

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This course will provide you with a basic understanding of the Welding and Cutting Safety requirements.

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									         SAFETY IN
          WELDING


PURPOSE
This course will provide you with a
basic understanding of the
Welding and Cutting Safety
requirements.
INTRODUCTION

A safe job is no accident; it takes work to make the job safe. Each person
working must do what it takes to keep the job safe.

The most important components of an effective safety and health program
are leadership, support, and direction.


Management must clearly state objectives and show its commitment to safety
and health by consistent support of safe practices.


You must approach new job with your safety in mind. Your safety is your own
responsibility, and you must take that responsibility.
BURNS
Burns are one of the most common and painful injuries that occur in the
welding shop.

Burns can be caused by ultraviolet light rays as well as by contact with hot
welding material. The chance of infection is high with burns because of the
dead tissue.

Burns are divided into three classifications, depending upon the degree of
severity. The three classifications include first-degree, second-degree, and
third-degree burns.
First-degree Burns
First-degree bums have occurred when the surface of the skin is reddish in
color, tender, and painful and do not involve any broken skin.


The first step in treating a first-
degree burn is to immediately put
the burned area under cold water
or apply cold water compresses
(clean     towel,   washcloth,  or
handkerchief soaked in hot water)
until the pain decreases.


Then cover the area with nonfluffy
sterile or clean bandages.


 Do not apply butter or grease.
Second-degree Burns
Second-degree burns have occurred when the surface of the skin is severely
damaged, resulting in the formation of blisters and possible breaks in the
skin.
Again, the most important first step in treating a second-degree burn is to put
the area under cold water or apply cold water compresses until the pain
decreases.

Gently put the area dry with a
clean towel, and cover the area
with a sterile bandage or clean
cloth to prevent infection. Seek
medical attention.

Note: any cold liquid you drink- for
example, water, cold tea, soft
drinks, or milk shake- can be
poured on a burn. The purpose is
to reduce the skin temperature as
quickly as possible to reduce
tissue damage.
Third-degree Burns
Third-degree burns have occurred when the surface of the skin and possibly
the tissue below the skin appear white or charred.

Do not remove any clothes that are stuck to the burn. Do not put ice water or ice
on the burns; this could intensify the shock reaction. Do not apply ointments,
sprays, antiseptics, or home remedies to burns.

Place a cold cloth or cool (not
iced) water on burns of the face,
hands, or feet to cool the burned
areas.

Call for an ambulance
immediately; people with even
small third-degree burns need to
consult a doctor.
EYE AND EAR
PROTECTION
ELECTRICAL SAFETY
                  ELECTRICAL SAFETY
Most electric shocks in the welding industry does not occur from contact with
welding electrode holders, but as a result of accidental contact with bare or
poorly insulated conductors.

Injuries and even death can be caused by electric shock unless proper
precautions are taken.

Most electrical equipment in a welding shop is powered by alternating-current
(ac) sources having input voltages ranging from 115 volts to 460 volts.
However, fatalities have occurred when working with equipment operating
at less than 80 volts.

The workpiece being welded, and the frame or chassis of all electrically
powered machines, must be connected to a good electrical ground.

Cable connectors for lengthening leads must be insulated. Cables must be
checked periodically to be sure that they have not become frayed, and, if
they have, they must be replaced immediately.
SPECIAL PROTECTIVE
          CLOTHING
  HANDLING AND STORING CYLINDERS
Cylinders equipped with a valve protection cap must have the cap in place
unless the cylinder is in use. The protection cap prevents the valve from being
broken off if the cylinder is knocked over.


If the valve of a full high-pressure cylinder (argon, oxygen, C02, and mixed
gases) is broken off, the cylinder valve can fly around the shop like a
missile if it has not been secured properly.

Never lift a cylinder by the safety cap or the valve. The valve can easily break
off or be damaged.

The cylinders must never be dropped or handled roughly.
Acetylene cylinders that have been lying on their sides
must stand upright for 15 minutes or more before
they are used
                       FIRE PROTECTION
Fire is a constant danger at welding shop. The possibilities of fires cannot
always be removed, but they should be minimized.

Highly combustible materials should be 10.7 m or more away from any welding.

When it is necessary to weld within 10.7 m of combustible materials, when
sparks can reach materials farther than 10.7 m away, or when anything more
than a minor fire might start, a fire watch is needed.

A fire watch can be provided by any person who knows how to sound the
alarm and use a fire extinguisher.

The fire extinguisher must be the type required to put out a fire of the type of
combustible materials near the welding.

The four types of fire extinguishers are type A, type B, type C, and type D.

Using the wrong type of fire extinguisher can cause the fire to spread,
cause electrical shock, or cause an explosion.
               Type A Extinguishers

Type A extinguishers are used for combustible solids (articles that
burn), such as paper, wood, and cloth. The symbol for a type A
extinguisher is a green triangle with the letter A in the center
            Type B Extinguishers

Type B extinguishers are used for combustible liquids, such
as oil, gas, and paint thinner. The symbol for a type B
extinguisher is a red square with the letter B in the center
              Type C Extinguishers

Type C extinguishers are used for electrical fires. For example,
they are used on fires involving motors, fuse boxes, and welding
machines. The symbol for a type C extinguisher is a blue circle
with the letter C in the center
              Type D Extinguishers

Type D extinguishers are used on fires involving combustible
metals, such as zinc, magnesium, and titanium. The symbol for a
type D extinguisher is a yellow star with the letter D in the
center
       Location of Fire Extinguishers

Fire extinguishers should be of a type that can be used on the types
of combustible materials located nearby.
         Location of Fire Extinguishers

They should also be placed at a level low enough to be easily lifted off
the mounting
                 Location of Fire Extinguishers

The location of fire extinguishers
should be marked with red paint and
signs, high enough so that their
location can be seen from a distance
over people and equipment. The
extinguishers should also be marked
near the floor so that they can be found
even if a room is full of smoke
                     MATERIAL HANDLING
Improper work habits can cause serious personal injury as well as cause damage to
equipment and materials.
If it is necessary to pull a load, use a rope. It is advisable to stand to
one side of ropes, chains, and cables that are being used to move or
lift a load. If they break and snap back, they will miss you.
                             VENTILATION
The actual welding area should be well ventilated.

Excessive fumes, ozone, or smoke may collect in the welding area; ventilation
should be provided for their removal. Natural ventilation is best, but forced
ventilation may be required.

Areas that have 283 cubic meters or more per welder, or that have ceilings 4.9
meters high or higher may not require forced ventilation unless fumes or
smoke begin to collect.

General room ventilation must be at a rate of 2,000 cu ft (56 m3) or more per
person welding. Localized exhaust pickups must have a suction strong enough to
provide 100 linear feet (30.5 m) per minute velocity of welding fumes away
from the welder.

Small shops or shops with large numbers of welders require forced ventilation.
Forced ventilation can be general or localized using fixed or flexible exhaust
pickups
                          SAFETY FIRST
Usually manufacturers have a safety department with one individual in charge
of plant safety.

The safety officer's job is to make sure that all welders comply with safety rules
during production.

The proper clothing, shoes, and eye protection to be worn is emphasized in
these plants. Any worker who does not follow established safety rules is subject
to dismissal.

Equipment is periodically checked to be sure that it is safe and in proper
working condition. Maintenance workers are employed to see that the
equipment is in proper working condition at all times.
                            SAFETY FIRST
If an accident does occur, it's important that appropriate and immediate first aid
steps be taken.

You should take time to learn the proper procedure for accident response and
reporting before you need to respond in an emergency.

After the situation has been properly taken care of, you should fill out an
accident report.
           INDONESIAN REGULATIONS
              REGARDING HEALTH &
             SAFETY OF EMPLOYEES

    Undang-Undang No.1 tahun 1970 tentang Keselamatan Kerja


   Undang No.3 tahun 1992 tentang Jaminan Sosial Tenaga Kerja


Undang-Undang No.25 tahun 1997 tentang Ketenagakerjaan Pasal 108

								
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