sd-paper-1 by xiangpeng

VIEWS: 544 PAGES: 146

									          H.E.M.S.
Home Energy Monitoring System




         Group #: 24

       Group members:

        Jacques House
         Larry Lowe
        Guercy Metayer
        Louis Chrispin




              1
                                 Energy Monitor
                                                     Table of Contents


Chapter 1: Inspiration
1.1 Incentive for Project
1.2 Humanity Improvement
1.3 Consumer Profit
1.4 System Overall Saving and functionality
1.5 Overall trend of System Design

Chapter 2: Introductory Material
2.1 Executive Summary
2.2 Problem Statement
2.3 Challenge
2.4 Proposed solution
2.5 Operating Environment
2.6 Intended Users and Intended Uses
2.7 Assumptions and Limitations
2.8 Expected End Product

Chapter 3: Approach and Results
3.1 End Product Functional Requirements
3.2 Resultant Design Constraints
3.3 Approaches Considered and One Used
3.4 Detailed Design
3.5 Implementation Process Description
3.6 End-Product Testing Description
3.7 Project End Results

Chapter 4: Block Diagram
4.1 General Diagram
4.2 Introduction
4.3 Block Descriptions
4.4 Design overall
4.5 Performance Requirement

Chapter 5 :Block Diagram Parts Description
5.1 Main panel power
5.2 Voltage Transformer (CT)
5.3 Current Transformer (CT)
5.4 ADE7763 chip
5.4.1General Description
5.4.2 Appraisal Kit ADE7763 chip
5.5 Looking the Designing with the ADE 7763 itself


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5.5.1 General Description
5.5.2 Measurement Error


Chapter 6: Components
6.1 Why go wireless
Bluetooth
ZigBee
IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN
IR receiver/transmitter setup
6.2 Wireless technology of choice
Why this particular choice
Product picture, specs
6.3 LCD Overview
6.4 Available LCD viewing technology
Monochromatic and Color LCD
       Price, interface, picture, display, size, backlight
Active matrix Color LCD
       Price comparison, interface, picture, display, size, backlight
Passive matrix Color LCD
       Price comparison, interface, picture, display, size, backlight
 Touch screen LCD (resistive, capacitive, infrared, etc.)
       Price comparison, interface, picture, display, size, backlight, controller
6.5 LCD technology of choice
Why this choice
6.6 Microcontroller and Development Board considerations
ATmega 324P
       Prices comparison, interfaces, picture, program language
PIC16F917 microcontrollers
       Prices comparison, interfaces, picture, program language
Rabbit 3000
       Prices comparison, interfaces, picture, program language
Chosen MCU
ATmega 324 P
Sample Code
Development board
6.7 Printed Circuit Board
PCB Express
Advanced Circuits PCB
UCF PCB Certified
Recommendations

Chapter7: Closure Material
6.1 Project Evaluation
6.2 Commercialization
6.3 Recommendations for Additional Work



                                             3
6.4 Lessons Learned
6.5 Risk and Risk Management
6.6 Project Team Information

Chapter 7: Installation
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Microcontroller
7.3 Power supply
7.4 Database
7.5 Sensor

Chapter 8: Quality Perfection
8.1 Testing
8.2 Troubleshooting
8.3 Conclusion

Chapter 9: Suppliers
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Suppliers

Chapter 10: Cost Estimates
10.1 Introduction Design Costs

10.2 Cost and Schedule Cost Analysis

10.3 Financial Budget

Chapter 11: Time effort and Schedule
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Personal Effort Budget
 11.3 Engineering time on project


Chapter 12: The comparing industrials
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Commercial, residential, and industrial energy monitoring
12.3 Comparison: similarities and differences
12.4 Conclusion

Chapter 13: Future Advance
13.1 Introduction
13.2 General Advances
13.3 Improvements

Chapter 14: Milestone
14.1 Milestone



                                           4
14.2 Gantt Charts
14.3 Milestone Flow Diagram

Chapter 15: Group Member Responsibilities
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Responsibility Breakdown by Group Member

Chapter 16: Summary and Conclusions
16.1 Conclusion
16.2 References


Resources                                         125-127
Bibliography
Businesses, Organizations & Government Agencies




                                        5
                                                                  Chapter 1
                                                                Inspiration

1.1 Incentive for Project
In leaving in this modern time in the world; families consume a big portion of their
monthly pay check their basic electricity bill. The situation is even harsh, due to
the fact; they do not have anyway to observe these high costs of electricity
payments. Since, at this time there is not a commercial device for homeowners
to monitor their energy consumption by themselves. The only information, they
have to go by is what they have used for the month utilization that is what they
get from their electric bill for the end of the month for their whole house. Which
mean a homeowner does not have anyway of knowing how efficient their home is
at the end of the month. What make this case worse is that today‟s energy
demands increase at an overwhelming rates which mean energy monitoring and
reduction have become ever increasing concerns.

For example, all of us in the group have been living in an apartment with other
roommates for many years now. We all have our own bedroom and bathroom.
At times at least one of the four of us doesn‟t even stay in the apartment or goes
back home for a while and the bill still come out too much over what it should be.
We have discussed and tried methods to at least decrease the overage costs but
to no avail. We get the overages every month and every year it seems as though
the overage fees are multiplying. It‟s hard to say for sure whether we are being
ripped off, or something isn‟t working properly, or whether the other roommates
aren‟t playing a part in trying to shrink the costs.

From researching so far, it seems that power is one of the major reasons for
improving the most basic home and businesses. For instance, whenever there is
a related energy put at risk at a home or business, you can highly guess it has
something to do with the equipment to damage or interruption of critical activities
from the home or business; the eventual result is loss efficiency and diminished
revenue. Monitoring power can be a major help role in allowance home and
companies to control and reduce energy costs. Moreover, monitoring your power
usage can help reduce a lot of cost in home and businesses. Which in turn can
and prevent many power-related problems by estimating electric supply and
distribution, learning to identifying power quality trends and accepting a basic
maintenance activities; the greatest benefiting come from monitoring big major
facilities from their power factor that can help with the power maneuver; as a
result; As one can see the energy monitoring is an essential tool for bring about
and directing power monitoring programs to address such energy-related issues.
In recent times, Energy monitoring has begun to use only by some homes and
plant managers for power monitoring. Conventionally, Energy monitoring was
used to help produce utility bills for commercial building inhabitant based on their


                                         6
accurate energy usage. Energy monitoring are now being leveraged to analyze
and manage industrial energy usage with today‟s technology advancements,
further more to tracking and allocating energy costs.

Today‟s Energy monitoring technology allows home and business industrial to
give a boost to and implement power- monitoring programs in a single system. If
one is looking at it from a the business side, the technician time is saving by
reducing to do list walk-about monitoring automate information gathering is
saving time and preventing of data entry errors. As for the regular home, it saves
the homeowner lot of money. They can monitor their cost in their bill on a regular
base. For example, if one leave in any size home bedroom house, the time it
takes a person to check how much he or she has used in the house or monitor
how house, he or she would be able to know what are their billing statement look
like. They also have a change to reduce their bill to the level they want it. When a
person buys an energy monitoring him or she will be able to put it in their house
very easy; faster more efficient troubleshooting is possible because information is
available more quickly reducing equipment maintenance and downtime. From my
normal research, here is an architected by my area; I found that he used this
system of energy monitoring system in his house for the last couple of years.
When I asked him for some



                              energy monitoring

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                                 Month bills

Figure 1: comparing Non-Energy Monitoring w/ Energy monitoring




Saving proof of his bill; here is what he gives me for about a year‟s bill statement.
From looking at figure 1; one can see how much saving that person did for this
home had make over the cost of the year. Additionally, Energy monitoring
continues to provide excellent data for tracking and allocating energy



                                             7
consumption costs across departments and manufacturing lines. It provides
some home and manufacturers businesses with the ability to analyze energy
information and enables them to evaluate and adjust usage to affect cost
savings. Energy monitoring, technology also can any user with vital data on
power quality and peaks or shifts in their power supply, which helps address
these power trends with their utility provider. It also delivers data that, when
analyzed, van improve a manufacturer‟s ability to perform predictive maintenance
with on equipment. (Reference is that the end of research paper)

As young engineers, this team has therefore believed it important to be able to
determine how much energy the entire house is being consume, which can be
checked at the meter, all the way down to individual load energy consumption. In
this senior design paper, the team will detail the steps the energy monitoring will
take to design, assembly, and testing of the device. Most importantly the design
will be a low cost system that will monitor the electric energy used in a residential
home to solve this problem and also can be afford by any family class. Which
should enable the home owner to ask questions like: how much it cost to operate
the material in the house? With this information the homeowner will be able to
conserve energy by either turning appliances off or by purchasing more energy
efficient appliances.

1.2 Humanity improvement
Now a day the homebuilding industry is focusing in Energy monitoring; they are
becoming high demands in the united state, especially in the western part of the
country; with every energy company focusing on energy efficiency. Due to a built
in system –design being easier on the pocket, economical, comfortable; and in all
cases, the energy monitoring home is more durable than standard normal
practices home that are build in beginning construction time. From my research
for this project; I found that the habitat at the humanity affiliates throughout states
or in the country are try to make this new way of life more practicable and
approachable to the normal people or as one can say the meddle class. For this
approach the habitat home are begin support by supplying them with worth
housing; and all cases; diminishing the energy with high cost on families homes.
In today world this new type of way of life has becoming very demanding and is
dramatically increasing.

In today markets, the habitat humanity affiliates are beginning to ask themselves
an important question. They are asking; how the local home are going to be
having as a feature this type of design approach? And improve building energy
efficient business. The good thing about going with that type of home is that it will
save on a large range of energy and make it more efficient. The major benefit
with this type of home is that it gained a lot of reconnection with the low and
middle class.




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1.3 Consumer Profits
Looking at it from the home or business prospective; one can see there are many
Obstacles in those departments that those not have energy monitoring system.
But their major general parts of the building that face many challenges like
greater than before rivalry, big energy costs, and the overall environmental.
Well, to fix all those major problems facing in the energy sector bill will greatly
depend on the type of position you play. Now In other to get the most out of
those major problem one would need to have an energy monitoring system in the
home or business place at all time. This type of system will help you save money
or at least you know where most of the electricity‟s are wasting.

This little system, will make sure your energy at is entering your home is in good
quality. In all cases, it will monitor your incoming power in the main panel to
make sure you get the right level of energy and to make sure what you get in
your bill pay-sub is right. What even great about this energy monitoring system,
is that it will manage how much energy that has been used or let you know which
room is using most energy in an excel spreadsheet. The spreadsheet will be able
to tell you all the history one need to make an important decision about their
power or look back at the history to see where and how much power was used in
a particular time and space. The great things about the energy monitoring is that
one can save big money in the system and one now what they get in their bill is
lower and the right.

With this energy monitoring customer would be able to get a lot of benefit with it.
The system will be a do give you the actually bill detail before one get it in the
mail from the utility company. Other advantage of having the system is that when
one look at their bill they will be able to tall exactly where the most electricity is
been used and which lot is been overused the energy entering your panel. For
most customer that would be a major advantage for them. They can reduce
usage of that particular load or monitor it for future usage. With this energy
monitor one can see every expect of the place in an electrical stand point of view.
For example, having the system in a housed, image that same house has a
power leakage in it. With the system one would be able to tell where is such
problem happening. With this system one can forget about panel overloading or
a switch to get burn.

1.4 System Overall Saving and functionality
Overall coming up with this design system process is beneficial for everyone in
the home industry whether it was a residential, commercial, or industrial. The
consumers need to learn how to monitor their energy usage; so that they can
make better decision on their power usage and stop depending utility company.
Looking at it from the consumer point of viewing getting a energy monitoring will
give you the advantage one need to know where exactly he/she is over usage


                                          9
the electricity; that can be a great saving chances for residential and commercial
that want to take the advantage.

With this system you are going to get the best out of your money. One will be
able to get his or her usage summary of the month. With this one can tell how
much enter there panel every minute; one can even look at a particular part of
the home for saving purposes, which can let you look at in a period of time how
much energy is been used in this particular area. The other advantage this team
is tried to incorporate in this project is getting into your system any where in the
USA. If the team does accomplish that phase of the project, the advantage one
has with this system is end list. You would be able to get a graph look at your
project. Overall with a project like this one can tell the future of his or her
residential, commercial, or industrial place. Overlong time usage one would be
able to have enough data in the record to determine how much they may used in
a particular month.

At the end some may say to who is this system is mostly profit. From doing
researching this project the most how benefit is everybody that what to save
money on their bill or people that what to monitor their bill usage. Image a
commercial or industrial that used their energy all the time, this type of project
would benefit them a great deal and inform them on a particular part of the
building that is using too much energy.

1.5 Overall trend of System Design
From doing research for the design “The Cold Facts”; the normal people that live
here in the spend 4% of what they are making from there normal wages to pay
there electricity bill. What even more shocking people that receive help from the
government like SS, warfare, or low income seem to spend more on light bill,
they spend between 19-25% of their wage on paying electricity bill [1]. The major
problem facing electricity is the change in the price consumer get in different
months, for some family that can cause a major problem. Looking from a graph
prospective at the figure giving shows that consumer need to really devote their
time on a cheap and friendly user device that will monitor and track energy used
in a home or business in real time. Where the consumer will be able to tell what
is going on with their bill and see where they need to cut back their energy
usage.




                                         10
                    Figure 2: Contrast of Energy Expenses [2]




What this team planned of building design to do is design an energy monitoring
that will make customers make some decision on there billing expense. It will
them reduce their bill by a big merge of foot and at the same time cross
referencing their energy bill. This system is going to be user friendly and self-
governing due to the fact it going to get it energy rates from the utility company,
instead of getting input from the customer themselves. Looking around other like
it price the team has not found any prices that cheap and affordable to the low
and middle class people, with this design the team try to help the people of those
roam by charging $79.95 and a low yearly maintain fee for only $9.95; where a
field maintain group come look at it for you.


The team feels after this project has been design in Senior Design II. Customer
was not able to purchase this, will not only able to buy one, but monitor their
home business very easily. With this device that will show the way to a lot of
money and electricity for hard-working customers and responsibility for utility
company to bill consumers correctly. With this technology begin an up trend in
the industry that give power company a chance to adopted this technology as
part of the Energy and Water Saving Measure that was pass as a Bill in 2005;
which authorization from the government that the powers companies have to
used innovative technology to give confidence customers to be preserve energy.




                                          11
                                                                 Chapter 2

                                             Introductory Material
Executive Summary
Since the price of gas has gone up tremendously there has been a need for
families to save money in other aspects of their lives to make up for the price
increase. One aspect would be energy that is used in the house. For most
people during the month they are not aware of how much energy they are
consuming on a day to day basis until the bill comes at the end of the month. If
they had that information they would be able to change their bad energy
consumption habits.

The purpose of this project is to build a device that will monitor how much energy
that a person is using on a day to day basis. With this design we want to mainly
focus on how much kilowatts per hour the family is using and turn that into a
price, so if they have a price range that they want to stay in they will know when
they are getting close to the end of that range. The most important part of our
project is how the customer will be able to monitor how much energy they are
using everyday.

Our project has three main aspects to it: power, hardware, and microcontroller
software. We have to be familiar with power because we are using current and
voltage transformers. We will be designing circuit to interface with the
microcontroller. We need to program the microcontroller to make it output what
we need to show to the customer.

There are many things to be considered when designing this project. We have to
consider how to change the saved data on the microcontroller into something
that the customer can understand, whether it be through excel or as an option on
the LCD screen. We have to consider if we are even using an LCD screen or if
we are going to use a palm pilot. We have to consider whether to use wireless or
another method to transfer the data to another device.

The basic functionality design of our project is the power that is used is
measured and saved on the microcontroller. The microcontroller then changes
that data into kilowatts per hour. The data that is collected from the
microcontroller is then sent to the liquid crystal display or palm pilot.




                                        12
This is a basic picture of how are project works.




                           Communication
                           Link




 Base unit with                                     Data from microcontroller
 microcontroller
Figure 2.1.1: Basic diagram to show how project works

Problem Statement
The reason for doing this project would be so that people can see their energy
consumption and know when to cut down on using energy. The use of this
technology is not only for residential use but for commercial use. While
researching and designing our monitor we addressed problems and constraints
that may occur.

      The user interface has to be able to display how much energy is being
       used today, the total energy used for the month, and temperature.

      There has to be enough system memory to hold the information
       throughout the month. The information will have the total of how much
       energy is being used as well as how much your bill should be at the end of
       the month. The information will then be transmitted to the interface.

      In order to transmit information from the microcontroller to the user
       interface we have to use wireless technology. The use of wireless will
       demolish the need for any extra wires. The technology should be able to
       transmit information through a typical house.

      When designing the monitor we must make it compatible with 120 to 240
       VAC. A typical house has between 120 and 240 VAC.




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      The cost of the system should be less than 400 dollars. We want the price
       of the unit to not be that expensive so in case we wanted to reproduce it or
       if someone else wanted to reproduce our design it will not cost that much.
       We are trying to make this project so that people can save money it would
       not be in our best interest to make the monitor expensive.

      We want to make the system safe for us as well as someone else using it.
       Therefore we have to harbor all materials that are connected to the
       voltage source so they will not be in the open and also not touching any
       other part of the project.

      The use of wireless technology comes with a risk that someone down the
       street will be able to see all the information that is transmitted. We have to
       make sure that the information is only transmitted within the house. We
       can do this by setting security measures in the wireless protocol.

      If we decide to implement the application where the customer is able to
       compare the monthly energy usages with another month, then we have to
       make the software compatible with most computers. Most people use
       windows so we have to make our software application compatible with
       windows.


Challenge
Be able to apply current technology to design a home energy monitoring system
that will be able to tell the user how much energy they are consuming in the
house. The system should be able to save the data that is collected on the
system and it should be easily accessible for the user. This system will greatly
reduce the electric bill of the homeowner.


Proposed Solution
Design an energy monitoring system that will be able to measure energy and tell
the user how much energy he or she is using. The system should consist of all
of the following:

      Current and voltage transformers that will be able to measure the voltage
       and current that is coming into the home.

      A microcontroller that will be programmed to tell the interface what
       information to put on the screen.




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       A LCD screen that shows information such as kilowatts per hour and
        price.

       Wireless technology so that the information from the microcontroller can
        be sent to the LCD and also be sent to a computer if necessary.

Operating Environment
We have designed our monitor so that is able to work in many different places.
Our monitor can be used in many different environments from a residential house
to a company. It is mainly intended to be used in a residential environment.
Therefore it will not be exposed to the weather in any way. In the environment
that it will be in the temperature might fluctuate or dust might build up, but circuit
will be covered so those attributes will not affect the system.



Intended users and Intended Uses
The basis of our project is based on what kind on users will be using the monitor
and what they will be using the monitor for. We will conduct our research and
design based on who we intend the users to be and how they will use the
monitor.

Users:
   A homeowner who wants to monitor how much they are using on a day to
       day basis on energy.

       A business owner who wants to monitor his or her energy consumption.

       The Owner does not need to know about the hardware and software of the
        system to work it.

       All electrical material should be kept away from children and animals.

Uses:

       Monitor energy consumption on a day to day basis.

       The user is able to know when he or she is getting close to being over
        their price range.

       Measure voltage between 120 and 240 VAC.

       User is able to see when which day they consumed the most energy.



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Assumptions and Limitations
Assumptions and limitations give limits to what we can and cannot do with our
monitor. We want our monitor to not surpass the limitations that are set and to
try and meet our assumptions if possible.

Assumptions:

           The system should be out of the reach of children so the system should
            not be abused and there should not be a need for new parts.

           Weather should not be an issue.

           Though able to perform at different temperatures the system should be
            able to perform accurately at a particular temperature range.

           User friendly and easy to use so even the non computer illiterate people
            will have no trouble using it.

Limitations:

          The maximum incoming voltage is 240 VAC.

          The maximum incoming current is 200 Amps.

          The LCD screen should be small enough so that it can fit in the kitchen
           and not make the kitchen seem cluttered, but be big enough to be able to
           fit enough information on the screen.


Expected End Product
Our energy monitoring system will help homeowners by letting them know how
much energy they consume on a day to day basis, which will lead the
homeowner saving money. With a simple push of a button the homeowner is
able to see how much energy they are consuming and how much money they will
have to spend thus far. The system is similar to the meter that the power
company uses but this one is beneficial to the customer because it shows the
kilowatts per hour in a price format. After we finish the testing and building of our
project we expect it to do all of the following:

          Be able to measure energy consumed and display it on the user interface
           in kilowatts per hour and



                                           16
       Be able to update the system periodically and display the change on the
        liquid crystal display.

       The system should be easy to use so that the technological deprived
        people will still be able to use it.

       If implemented with buttons on the user interface it should be able to show
        different information on the LCD when we push those buttons.
                                                      Chapter 3
                                           Approach and Results

3.1 Functional Requirements
Compatibility      Designed for use in 120/240v AC, 60hz North American
                   households

Storage            Should hold enough data for at least 1 billing cycle

Data Link          Should be linkable to an external personal computer for data
                   transfer and saving

GUI                Easy to modify display and values though user interface

Range              Wireless range will be sufficient to cover part of the home

Display            Up-to-date power consumption and billing should be displayed
                   at specified rate, plus optional graph or chart should be
                   available to display data


3.1.1 Compatibility

Every home in North America uses a 60 Hz frequency at 120/240v AC single-
phase power. These specifications are for residential zones only, not industrial.
The energy monitor will be based upon these specifications only.

3.1.2 Storage

The amount of storage on this device should at least hold enough data for one
complete billing cycle, or else it will not serve much purpose. The product may
store up to 12 months of data but, for now, only the minimum will be necessary in
order to provide a useful function. Most of this data will be stored on the flash
ROM of the PDA, which is quite large. This data will remain in storage even in
the event of a power failure, or a reboot of the system. The other portion of the


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memory will be stored temporarily in an EEPROM chip, prior to being transferred
to the PDA. Again, the EEPROM is also non-volatile, and will retain its data even
when it is no longer supplied with power.

3.1.3 Data Link

For extended amounts of data storage, as well as a more robust interface with
detailed charts, the energy monitor must connect to an external personal
computer. The best way to accomplish this is either through Bluetooth
connectivity, or through IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN. Many of the PDA devices
have both of these functions integrated already. Since Bluetooth modules tend
to be expensive, the best alternative will be a laptop computer with an integrated
wireless LAN card already installed. This will provide an easy ad-hoc
connection, and data can be shared between the two machines. Also, the PDA
can attach to a desktop computer through the serial port. This is done using a
sync cable, which many PDA devices come with upon purchase.

3.1.4 Graphical User Interface (GUI) & Display

The GUI will be an excel spreadsheet, with a few modifications. The data will be
listed and calculated in the background, while the total power consumed as well
as total money owed will appear in the foreground. There will also be an option
to display this data in the form of a graph or chart. A visual representation such
as this will be more eye catching, and possibly easier to read to the user.
Comparisons can also be made about power consumption at various times of the
day, or different days of the week. Also, a major part of the GUI is the user
interaction with the system. This will be accomplished using the programmable
buttons on the face of the PDA. In addition, the stylus and resistive touch screen
will also be essential in the use of this device. Although buttons are simple in
themselves, there is nothing better than being able to touch the screen and see
ones interaction with the system.

3.1.5 Range

Ideally, this product‟s range should entail the entire household, whatever the size
may be. However, due to the PDA‟s weak class 2 Bluetooth modules, only a 32-
foot range will be permitted. In order to extend the range, another Bluetooth
module must be placed every 32 feet. This acts as a relay for the signal.

3.2 Design Constraints
Cost              In an effort to design unique project, cost is not a major issue

Safety            Power monitoring components will be sealed in non-conductive
                  plastic encasement to prevent shock



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Monitor           Power monitoring station will be mounted inside, or around the
Mounting          electrical panel

Display           Display will be a PDA device mounted in its charging cradle.
Mounting          Display device may be removed and carried around as well

Security          Wireless transmission will be secure connection


3.2.1 Cost

Typically, cost would be a major issue, and this product would be created to be
as inexpensive as possible. For this unique design however, cost will not be an
issue, within reason. The application of a PDA as a display terminal, and user
interface device, warrants the use of excess funds. The idea of a home energy
monitor has been done repeatedly, but never with an interface like this.

3.2.2 Safety

This device will be contained in a plastic non-conductive encasement. This is to
prevent any user from accidentally handling the device and being shocked by the
components, most likely charged to 120 volts. It is also important that the
transformers are non-conductive as well. Should they loosen and fall, they would
land directly onto the non-insulated metal connections of the 120-volt main lines.
This could be disastrous.

3.2.3 Monitor Mounting

If there is sufficient space, and not too much interference, this device may be
stored behind the metal sheath covering the live wires of the electrical panel. As
shown in Figure 21, the open electrical panel, there is a ridge, which appears to
have sufficient space for the monitor to rest on. All of the components will remain
behind the gray covering. One of the slots, reserved for circuit breakers, can be
removed to provide a hole for the AC adaptor cord to flow through. This
mounting would also add to the products safety.

3.2.4 Display Mounting

The PDA will spend most of its time in the charging cradle, since the Bluetooth
connection (and possibly Wifi) will put an extreme drain on the battery. It will be
in an upright position, easy to read from anywhere. The device can also be
removed from its cradle, and carried around. Taking this technology even
further, the PDA can synchronize data with a PC using a sync cable or even a
Wifi connection. This will allow the PDA data to be displayed on the PC, which is
another mounting option.




                                        19
3.2.5 Security

The wireless transmission will be sent primarily through Bluetooth, which has
fantastic security, detailed in the Bluetooth section. Also, the Wifi connection is
secure as well, which is discussed in the IEEE 802.11 section. Both mediums
will transfer data quickly and securely.




                                         20
                                                                                               Chapter 4
                                                                                           Block Diagram
4.1 General Diagram
                                 Current Transformer




             Power line                                  Power line                        Internal
                                                                                           Power


 The main panel at a home                                   The ADE 7763 Chip



                                                                                          Main Micro-
                                                                                          controller




                                                                                          Storage
                    Power line                           Power line                       Data using
                                                                                          Excel or
                                   Volt Transformer                                       EEPROM




                                             Type B
                                                                                          LCD Display


                                                                             Sub-Micro-
                                                                           Main Micro-
                                                                             Controller
           Wireless                           Wireless                     controller
           Zigbee                             Zigbee

          Transmitter                        Transmitter




                                                                      21
              Figure 3: Overall Block Diagram of system. With part B



                                      Type A



                Wireless
                Zigbee

               Transmitter




                   Figure 4: Overall Block Diagram of system. With part A


Introduction
In this chapter the team is going to talk about the block diagram. They are going
to show in great detail what every parts function is all about the block diagram.
The overall project is going to be building a prototype that will monitor the power
consumption for the home. The system is going to get some energy and monitor
it. They will first present the block in a great detail, second trying to explain the
block diagram is going to be the next phase of action, and lastly explain what
each of the part in the block diagram does; the function of each part of project.

Block Descriptions
Looking at the block diagram, the panel board is where all the power comes from
the utility company and after word it in turn gets distributed to the home and the
major appliances. It‟s that same energy floating that the team is going to get for
their experience. It‟s that same reading the team get from in the panel is going to
be transferred to data and stored into a database. Keep in mind that the load is
what the team is going to monitor. They are going to see how much it is used on
a thirty day monitoring period




                                            22
Design overall
The objective of this block diagram is to follow the design procedure for the
application function.

       -   By using a current and volt transformer (CT/VT), the CT will read the
           power consumption in the panel, which is the main load of the home or
           business.

       -   From the data we get from current and power transformer it will be
           send to an ADE 7763 chip that will convert the AC power in to a DC
           low power volt that is able to read by the micro-controller.

       -   As of the data we get from the ADE 7763 it will be send to a Micro-
           controller data collector and scatter it appropriately. Looking at the
           micro-controller one can tell that there are two main other source there.
           The internal power supply and the storage data. The power supply is
           what start up the micro-controller and give it power. As for the storage
           data the team is going to used Excel or EEPROM chip. Right know the
           team is not really sure switch one they are going to used, the debate is
           on the flexibility that excel have over the EEPROM chip. The team
           going to try both at the beginning of the designing phase and which
           ever one come up with the best result will be the one the make it to
           the final presentation

       -   From the microcontroller, the data we collect will go to a wireless
           Zigbee or a Bluetooth chip where it will send signal to the next Zigbee
           that is attach to the LCD display board.

       -   From the first Zigbee the second one will get the signal to interact the
           data collect to receiver where it will display it in a way that it is easy for
           user get the information they need.

       -   The interface will have the ability to signal or store any over power
           consumption based on the given. This will be done both visually and
           audibly.

       -   To make it simple, we will use a spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel where
           any user can see the trend over consumption power.

Performance Requirement
The team is going to build this design on within 7 to 10% accurate of actual
current and voltage that is in an actual situation.It will be required to have a
sampling rate of 1 sample per second in fast mode and a sampling rate of 1
sample per minute in slow mode.


                                           23
                                             Chapter 5
                        Block Diagram Parts Description
5.1 Main panel power
If one go look at the side of a house or in a commercial business under the
garage or basement of that building they will see an electric meter box that is the
central distribution of electricity in the areas that need electricity energy. It looks
just like that drawing in the block diagram for residential and for commercial it‟s a
bigger than the residential. In this main panel, looking at it is where three major
wires coming from the utility company to distribute it into the house and due to
safety you always have to ground your panel to a metal rod that drive to the
ground or pipe water.

Know looking into the panel you will see the circuit breakers, fuses, or levers that
disconnecting any of your home wires in the case of an emergency. Looking at
the past history of home built in the old days one can see that the circuit breakers
was used to disconnect the power in the home due to it being affordable at the
time and feasibility for the electrician workers. Looking at those switch they
where easy to turn on/off at any giving time or trip automatically, if it became
ware of any hazard like fire or anything with danger; in some case, the
overloading. While back in the 60‟s home, where using fuse or levers as a form
of disconnects. According to the standard of the industry fuse and circuit
breakers have a maximum amount of energy or current they can protect it usually
be 15 or 20 amps for lighting, receptacle circuit, and switches. In the same
manner electric water heaters, ovens, electric clothes dryers, and high-usage
appliances requires bigger capacity wiring and fuse or circuit breakers. Research
reference supports by:”Main Electrical Panel” Picture by Don Vandervort‟s article
“The Home Problem Solver by Hometips” ”The Main Electrical

Voltage Transformer (CT)
While there are many approach to define what a volt transformer. From doing
many researching on website the principle of operating for this volt transform is
stated to be the to a large extent comparative to the primary volt and is change in
the phrase from it by an angle which almost zero for the suitable route of the
connections. With this approach one can see that this definition is as close to the
ideal term defines. The thing is in an ideal case the secondary volt vector is
precisely differing and be the same as to the primer volt vector, when increase by
the it turns ratio.

Know in practical usage transformer has errors that are present due to the fact
some current is haggard to the core magnetization, and also for the reason that
drops that goes on in the primary and secondary windings due to winding


                                          24
resistance and leakage reactance. Now with the little background giving one can
think or talk about the error voltage, which is the total by the which the volt is a
smaller amount than the practical primary volt, also due to the phase error, that is
the phase angle by which the reversed secondary voltage vectors is displaced
from the primary voltage vector. Research supported by article “ Technical
information on Kappa products”

Current Transformer (CT)
The way the current transformer work is a little different from the volt transformer.
For the current transformer the it‟s stated to be the large extent comparative to
the primary current and is change in the phrase from it by an angle which almost
zero for the suitable route of the connections. This some what explain the
correctness obligation of the current transformer, but it very important to mention
the isolating function, that is no matter what the system volt the secondary
circuit need be insulated only for the low voltage.

 With this approach one can see that this definition is as close to the ideal term
defines and if work on the idea for variable flux. In the idea case of the current
transformer the secondary current would be about the same as the differing to
the primary current. However, as the volt transformer, some of the primary side is
used for magnetizing the core or the primary Amp turn is used for it. Which would
leave the less than the actual primary amp turn to be transformed into the
secondary amp turn? Which naturally turn error transformer? The error is
classified into two current or ratio error and phrase error.
  Article “Technical information on Kappa products”



ADE7763 chip

General Description
Analog Devices Energy (ADE) measurement IC‟s are the most used, ideal
energy measurement proficiency and the world today and well proven to be the
industry top choose. Measuring the meter or using the meter with the ADEs‟ are
the in most accomplishment part in the world, dependability, and EMC at the best
price chip in the market. For instance, looking in the ADE 7500 and ADE75100
families, cheap cost, complete SoCs optimized for dependable, and adaptable
single phase LCD display electricity meters.

Appraisal Kit ADE7763 chip
Looking into more detail into the one the group has choosing for the other chips.
The whole team decides to use the ADE7763 due to the fact it the most accurate



                                         25
energy dimension in IC that has a pulse output and serial interface. It even in the
two second order sigma-delta ADCs, also a digital integrator, recommendation
circuitry, temperature sensor and all the signal processing necessary to carry out
energetic and apparent power and energy measurement, as well as RMS
dimension on both volt and current. Into the bargain, the ADE7763 even has a
built in digital integrator the case of interfacing with di/dt current sensors such as
a Rogowski coil. With this peace in build part, it is very easy to eliminate outside
analog integrator, and with this solution the design can have long term constancy
and even in the accurate phrase corresponding between the volt and current
channel.

Looking the Designing with the ADE 7763 itself

General Description
The reason the team decide to use the ADE 7763 is that facial appearance
proprietary ADCs and unchanging function DSP for high precision over huge
variations in environmental circumstances and time. This chip also have two
second-order, with 16 bit, digital integrator on ch1, reference circuit, sensor that
get them temperature, and also all signal processing necessary to execute active
apparent energy capacity and apparent energy dimensions, line volt period
measurement, and RMS computation on the volt and current passages.

 The ADE7763 make available a serial interface to read data and a pulse output
frequency that is comparative to the real power. There is a lot of scheme
calibration features such as channel offset modification, phrase and power
calibration that make certain high precision. The best part about this system is
that it distinguish short interval, high or low volt discrepancy. Looking at the
block diagram in the Figure 5 below and reading the manual on the ADE7763 the
team learn that the up side only increase form gives the option to collect energy
only when positive power is detected. There is an inside non-load threshold
make certain part doesn‟t put on display any move stealthily when there is non-
load. Where the crossing zero output produce a pulse that is synchronized to the
zero-crossing point of the line voltage. With such signal one can used the on the
inside in the line sequence active and perceptible energy buildup modes, which
allows more rapidly calibration.

The break off position registry point toward the nature of the disrupt, and the cut
short enable resister have power over which event manufacture an output on the
IRQ pin, an open-drain, active low logic output. The ADE7763 is obtainable in a
20-lead SSOP package.




                                          26
Figure 5: ADE 7763 Chip Picture from the Analog Devices Datasheet


Given constrain of this senior design this chip seem to need the project need in
every type of way. Since the team has not built this project yet, the team does
not really know if the chip is going to work on 100 percent, but from the research
we did and looking at all the possible chip at would work this one chip same to
do the job. And what more on this chip is that more things can be add up to it, if
need to be done. As for the timing characteristics, this chip is ideal with the time,
with this type of chip the time is within our specifications need. Looking at the
picture below Figure 6 one can see that the load circuit timing specification is
good enough for this project.




Figure 6 Timing Specification (Picture from the Analog Devices Datasheet)

With this chip there is a fixed utmost rating. The rating of this chip is given into
table below in figure 7 from the analog device company. The range they give is
the absolute max ratings chips. With that said any things above these rating are
can and will cause everlasting damages to the devices overall. The rating of that
test by itself is just a rating stress only, and well-designed process of the design
at these or any other situation on top of those suggestion in the prepared section




                                         27
of this requirement evaluation circumstances for comprehensive phases may
have an effect on devices dependability
.




      Figure 7 Maximum Rating (Picture from the Analog Devices Datasheet)

Measurement Error
In the ADE7763 chip any energy measurement that is an error relate is formula
to:




                            Equation 1
          (Formula taking from the Analog Devices Datasheet)

As for the pin configuration and function is description in the table of content that
was taking for the datasheet of ADE7763. The chip looks like this picture below
and the table below it provides what each one of the pin does or there function
position in the chip.




                                         28
Figure 8 Actual Chip (Picture from the Analog Devices Datasheet)




                                29
                              Table is taking from the Analog Devices
Datasheet

Most of the information on this chapter was taking from the datasheet of analog
devices




                                                               Chapter 5

                                       30
                                                             Components
5.1 Why go wireless?
The initial costs incurred by going wireless will in fact be significantly higher than
that of a wired configuration. However, in order to make the product universal
among users, a wireless setup is essential.
There will be diminishing costs throughout
this products life cycle, thus a wireless
setup will turn out to be far less expensive
in the end. Moreover, it will give an overall
professional look to the décor of any
residence. The alternative is to run wires
throughout. Tearing apart walls and
placing the wires inside is not an option,
since this product has a design suited
towards the typical home user. Having the
                                                  Figure 1 - Cluttered Wires
wires extend from the display, run all
across the floor, and finally reach the main
console inside of the circuit panel would be unsightly and cluttered like the setup
in Figure 1. Although exaggerated, it does give a good example of how wiring
can give an overall distasteful appearance to a room. Originally, the plan was to
build just one unit, which would encompass the visual display along with the main
console. Problems began to arise with this setup concerning the end user. Most
panels are located in a garage, so a user would have to go out of their way to
view the information. The end user may not discover any visual or audio
indication of power consumption going over the specified budget in time.
Therefore, the idea of building two separate units is ideal. This way, the user can
place the visual display in any location that they believe would suit their purpose.
Moreover, the user can relocate the display with ease should they find the
current location to be insufficient. Wireless technology makes this all possible.
However, with such a huge market of wireless solutions available, we must find
one that will best suit the needs of this project.

5.1.1 Bluetooth Overview
Bluetooth has the means to replace cables for short-range communication, and
clear up the clutter that has come to plague many computer workstations. It as
been seeing action in numerous WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Networking)
applications such as notebook-to-notebook file transfer, wireless connectivity
between nearby computers, wireless headsets, shared printer usage, and cellular
phone-to-notebook connections for internet purposes. [5.]

5.1.2 Bluetooth ISM Frequency Band


                                         31
Minimal power consumption combined with ease of use and low cost makes
Bluetooth a tempting choice that one must take into consideration. However, a
few problems may arise though the use of this technology. Bluetooth operates
on an unlicensed band that caters to a plethora of devices such as 802.11
networks, baby monitors, garage door openers and microwave ovens. [6.]
Interference may prove to be a huge obstacle to overcome, or so it may seem.
This unlicensed band is also known as the Industrial-Scientific-Medical Band
(ISM). The ISM band is between 2.400 GHz and 2.4835 GHz. The ISM name
stems from an international reservation of this frequency for non-commercial use
of RF electromagnetic fields for industrial, scientific and medical purposes. [10.]

5.1.3 Bluetooth Frequency Hopping
In reality, the interference issues mentioned above are of no concern. When
transmitting data, Bluetooth incorporates a frequency-hopping spread spectrum
(FHSS) rather than using only one frequency within the 2.4 GHz ISM band. The
idea behind FHSS is that it is much more difficult to catch something that is in
constant motion. Therefore, as data is transmitting, the frequency is constantly
alternating in a pattern known only to the transmitter and receiver. This can be
metaphorically seen as a sports team trying to switch between offensive
strategies to get through the opposing defense. To an unintended receiver, this
FHSS will simply appear as brief noise. This is due to the small size of the
information packets sent out. The data is broken down into small fragments, and
then sent over a constantly changing signal. It is nearly impossible for
unintended receivers to be in synchronization with the almost random frequency
changes. A lapse with an unintended receiver may only appear briefly. During
such a lapse, detection is only possible for a small packet of data during that time
interval. The transmitter will operate on one of seventy-nine frequencies, and
alternate at a rate of 1,600 times per second, which should ensure data security.
[11.]

5.1.4 Bluetooth Power Class
One major flaw of Bluetooth may be its range. A low power Bluetooth setup will
draw around 30mA, and have a range of about 30 feet. This may be just the
right distance for a small house. However, it may pose a problem for larger
domiciles. This power arrangement also carries the classification of a class 2
setup. It is possible to increase this range up to 300 feet, but this would
necessitate the use of a high-powered Bluetooth device. This classification is a
class 1 setup. [12.] Some devices, however, allow the use of an interchangeable
antenna to increase range. This may be a viable solution. It is also worth noting
that despite the low power consumption, Bluetooth does not require line-of-sight
transmission. This means that the walls of a house will have no effect on signal
reliability. [13.] Another apparent flaw seems to be the battery life. Most
Bluetooth devices must go through a daily charging cycle. A good way around



                                        32
this will be to find a way to power the device through a constant source, such as
an AC adapter.

5.1.5 Bluetooth Physical Link Types
Bluetooth typically transfers data at a speed of 1Mbps, which is far superior to
serial and parallel connections. Consider the fact that this setup‟s soul purpose
is to transfer data to the display LCD. Numerous custom LCD setups currently
use the parallel port for communication with computers. Since Bluetooth appears
to be a faster connection, its speed would be ideal for our application.
The energy monitor will need to transmit data via an Asynchronous
Connectionless (ACL) link, which is set aside for the transmission of data only.
The other Bluetooth transfer type is Synchronous Connection Oriented (SCO),
but its dedication is to the transmission of audio and voice data. The SCO link
will not be necessary for this project.

5.1.6 Bluetooth Protocol Stack
This section will dissect the building blocks that enable Bluetooth functionality.
The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) created the Bluetooth protocol stack.
A more in depth discussion of this group follows in a proceeding section. These
protocols are essential in ensuring that every Bluetooth product not only works,
but can also operate concurrently with a device that is manufactured by an
entirely different organization. Every company needs a common base on which
to build its Bluetooth technology in order to have cooperation between them all,
with no interference. Figure 2, below, represents an example protocol stack.




                                        33
Figure 2 - Bluetooth Protocol Stack

The following components are all located in yellow blocks in Figure 2, above.
These protocols are essential for nearly every Bluetooth device to work properly.
The remaining protocols are not required by every product, and may only be
used depending on the nature of the application. Therefore, only a discussion of
the core protocols, and their usefulness in this project, must follow. The highest
block contains the Service Discovery Protocol (SDP). Working down the stack,
below RFCOMM, lays the Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP).
Next, in a small block, is the Link Manager Protocol (LMP). The Baseband
follows. Finally, the Bluetooth Radio lays the foundation for the entire stack.

5.1.6.1 Bluetooth Radio

This protocol makes up the base of the stack, and is used as a communication
transceiver.

5.1.6.2 Baseband

This is also called the baseband and link controller. This layer provides a
physical RF link, needed between Bluetooth units. In addition, in using the FHSS
discussed earlier, the packets must be disbursed in specified time slots as well
as within specific frequencies. This layer is used to synchronize these events in
various devices. Moreover, this layer also supplies the Bluetooth physical links
mentioned earlier, the Synchronous Connection-Oriented and Asynchronous
connectionless. [7.]



                                        34
5.1.6.3 Link Manager Protocol (LMP)

This layer establishes the link set-up between Bluetooth devices. This usually
involves security features such as authentication and encryption. The power and
duty cycle for the Bluetooth radio are also controller here, as well as the state of
the particular Bluetooth unit within a piconet. [7.] Bluetooth piconets will be
described in an upcoming section.

5.1.6.4 Host Controller Interface (HCI)

Although not an official protocol, this layer does have significance. The Host
Controller Interface allows for an organized method of using the Bluetooth
baseband. It is essentially an interface directly to the baseband controller and
link manager, allowing access to the commands in each layer. [9.]

5.1.6.5 L2CAP

The Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol will bridge the information path
between upper layer protocols and the baseband. This layer uses protocol
multiplexing, segmentation, reassembly, and group abstractions to supply the
upper layer with connection-oriented as well as connectionless data services. An
important note, despite the baseband‟s support of both SCO and ACL physical
links, the L2CAP is only supported under ACL links. [7.]

5.1.6.6 Service Discovery Protocol

Considered a key component of the Bluetooth framework, this protocol allows for
the connection between Bluetooth devices upon queries of device information,
services and characteristics. [7.] This layer is essential in having plug-and-play
applications that anyone can use quickly and easily.

5.1.6.7 Radio Frequency Communication (RFCOMM)

Although not a required layer by all applications, this particular project will make
great use of the Radio Frequency Communication (RFCOMM) protocol, which
emulates RS232 serial ports. This layer is essential in connecting with legacy
applications that have serial port access. The RFCOMM protocol relies on the
L2CAP for multiplexing over a solitary connection, in order to provide multiple
concurrent connections. [18.]

5.1.6.8 Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)

This layer runs over the RFCOMM protocol described above in an effort to create
point-to-point connections.

5.1.6.9 Object Exchange (OBEX)



                                         35
The Object Exchange Protocol, not as high in importance on the stack, is a
useful layer. It was developed by the Infrared Data Association (IrDA) in an effort
to exchange data between objects simply and spontaneously. [8.]

5.1.6.10 Wireless Access Protocol (WAP)

The Wireless Access Protocol is used to build gateways that allow data to be
taken from a PC and placed on a handset, or any mobile device.

5.1.6.11 Telephony Control Protocol (TCP)

Telephony Control Protocol is a binary, bit oriented service, which controls the
signaling for the generation of speech and data calls between units. It also
manages the handling of TCS devices in groups.

5.1.7 Bluetooth Profiles
5.1.7.1 Serial Port Profile (SPP)

The most essential Bluetooth profile to use on this project is going to be the
Serial Port Profile (SPP). This makes use of the RFCOMM protocol, and defines
the establishment of an RFCOMM connection between two devices. [18.] In
other words, when interfacing with a microcontroller, one preferred connection
choice is the serial port. Through an SPP, it is possible to connect Bluetooth
devices to the serial port corresponding to the microcontroller and to the interface
device with relative ease. This provides a direct wireless link, which replaces
cables.

5.1.8 Bluetooth Piconets/Scatternets
The piconet is defined as an ad-hoc network of Bluetooth devices. Ad-hoc
means that the devices communicate directly with one another, like computer-A
connects with computer-B, and computer-C connects with computer-D, etc. This
network has one master device, which is the first line of communication. This
master device can then connect with up to seven slave devices simultaneously.
Around 255 other slave devices may be on stand-by. Should the master decide
to drop one of the existing slaves, one of the 255 secondary slaves can be
picked up easily. In a piconet, the point-to-point communication described earlier
is done by having each slave communicate with only the master. The slaves are
not permitted to talk to one another; they must only communicate through the
master. A Bluetooth scatternet, however, is a network of connected piconets.
This is usually done by making a master from one piconet, into a slave of another
piconet. For this project, a standard ad-hoc piconet is required. This will entail
only one master and one slave.



                                        36
5.1.9 Bluetooth Special Interest Group
As mentioned earlier, the SIG created the Bluetooth protocol stack. These
specifications are essential in the unification of Bluetooth technology. This is to
ensure that the devices created by every company will comply with one another,
on both the hardware and software level. Founded by five companies in 1998,
the SIG now consists of over 6,000 companies, most of which are leaders in
many facets of business and technology. These members are the driving force
behind Bluetooth technology, which is implemented in many of their products.
This information may establish a false view of the SIG, possibly as a monopolistic
empire. But in reality, the SIG is a not-for-profit trade association. This private
association does not produce Bluetooth products. Nor does it sell Bluetooth
products. Only the member companies can do this. [14.] A company must be a
member of this organization, and its product must pass the SIG‟s strenuous
qualification tests in order to have the Bluetooth trademark branded anywhere on
it. Listed below are the most active members of the SIG, which have a vast
amount of influence over the direction of this technology [15.]:

      Agere Systems                      (since 1999)
      Ericsson Technology Licensing      (founding member)
      IBM                                (founding member)
      Intel                              (founding member)
      Microsoft                          (since 1999)
      Motorola                           (since 1999)
      Nokia                              (founding member)
      Toshiba                            (founding member)

5.1.10 Bluetooth Products (Transmitters)
This section will cover Bluetooth transmitter modules. Implementing Plan-A will
entail the need of only one Bluetooth module. The receiving end will be covered
by the PDA‟s integrated Bluetooth technology. However, implementing Plan-B
will omit these Bluetooth devices entirely. It is far too expensive to purchase two
modules for this type of setup.

5.1.10.1 BlueSnapXP™ Mobile Bluetooth RS-232 Dongle
Made by Serial IO (https://serialio.com/)




   Figure 3 – BlueSnapXP

      Rechargeable battery runs 24 full hours on a single charge


                                        37
      Interchangeable antenna supports up to 100 meters distance
      Master and Slave operations
      Power-on LED indicator
      Bluetooth connection LED indicator
      Data transfer LED indicator
      Easily programmed over any RS-232 cable using software
      Bluetooth v1.1 compliant
      Complete onboard Bluetooth stack
      AC adaptor included for charging or powering
      Operating temperature range -40C to +70C
      Estimated cost $199.95+

This device would suit all of the needs of the project. The battery would not be
necessary, since there is an included AC adapter to power the device. However,
it would add to aesthetics if the Bluetooth device could be powered onboard,
rather than externally. The LED indicator lights are an excellent addition, and
make it very easy to see if the product is functioning. This saves lots of time
when it comes to troubleshooting issues that could arise. The operating
temperature is ideal, and more than suits the range that this product will endure
throughout its life. There is a problem with the antenna though. The included
antenna appears to be standard, meaning that the expected range should be
around 10 meters. In order to attain the 100 meter advertised range, a second
antenna would need to be purchased. This is shown below.

5.1.10.2 BlueSnapXP 2” Long-Range Antenna
Made by Serial IO (https://serialio.com/)




   Figure 4 - BlueSnapXP 2" Antenna

      Interchangeable antenna with range of 100 meters
      Estimated cost $22.00+

Adding this cost to the above would bring the starting price of this device to
around $222.00, which is extremely high. Despite the praise that this product
has received through testimonials on the companies website, the price is simply
too great for this project. However, there is a simpler Bluetooth dongle made by
the same company at a much lower price. The difference is that this second
dongle does not have an onboard battery. This would be a great alternative
since the battery is not necessary. The lower priced product is listed below.

5.1.10.3 BlueSnap™ Mobile Bluetooth RS-232 Dongle


                                       38
Made by Serial IO (https://serialio.com/)




   Figure 5 – BlueSnap

      Master and Slave operations
      Power-on LED indicator
      Bluetooth connection LED indicator
      Data transfer LED indicator
      Easily programmed over any RS-232 cable using software
      Bluetooth v1.1 compliant
      Complete onboard Bluetooth stack
      AC adaptor included for powering
      Operating temperature range -40C to +70C
      Estimated cost $99.95+

Add this to the cost of the long-range antenna and the new total is around
$122.00, which is still a bit high. However, this product is closer to a sensible
price range when compared the XP model. As mentioned earlier, every aspect
of this device is identical to that of the XP version, with the exception of an
onboard battery. This is hard to believe, however. According to the picture,
there does not appear to be an antenna. An email to the Serial IO support team
revealed these facts. The range of the standard BlueSnap is 10 meters. An
external antenna cannot be added. As it turns out, this product is actually not as
similar to the XP model as the website proclaims. Therefore, the estimated price
will be a little over $99.95, and will not include the added cost of an extended
range antenna.

5.1.10.4 AIRcable Serial module
Made by AIRcable (http://www.aircable.net/)




                                        39
   Figure 6 - AIRcable serial

      Included null-modem adapter supports onboard power through pin 9
      Allows configuration of PIN code, authentication, UART, etc.
      Power-on LED indicator
      Bluetooth connection LED indicator
      Hardware handshaking can be disabled
      Estimated cost $69.00+

Another product that looks promising is this Bluetooth serial adapter made by Air
Cable. Again, the Bluetooth indicator lights are a nice touch and are a commonly
overlooked feature. This device has the ability to be powered onboard, for a
pleasing appearance without too many wires. The price is also decent, and
cheaper than that of the predecessors. There is also an add-on antenna to boost
the range up to 500 feet, sold separately. The stock range is not mentioned on
the website, however. Some quick email correspondence with Juergen
Kienhoefer over at AIRcable brought some much needed answers. For starters,
the standard range is around 60 feet. An external antenna cannot be added,
because the standard antenna is built in. Using this device in conjunction with a
weaker device on the other end, such as a PDA‟s integrated Bluetooth, will yield
a shorter range. In order to reach the increased range, an intermediate
Bluetooth device must be used as a relay. Therefore, two of these would need to
be purchased. This could have an effect on the plans of the entire project. Since
every PDA has a class 2 Bluetooth interface, this means that it will be considered
the weaker side. This means that the total range will be reduced to 10 meters,
no matter which Bluetooth module is used on the other end. The only remedy
seems to be the use of relay modules, which may become an accessory for
larger homes.

5.1.10.5 LMX9830 Simply Blue - Bluetooth™ Serial Port Module
Made by National Semiconductor (http://www.national.com/)




                                       40
   Figure 7 - Simply Blue

      Bluetooth 2.0 pre-certified
      Configurable UART speed up to 921.6 kbps
      High data throughput over SPP
      Includes GAP, SPP, and SDAP
      ACL and SCO links
      Small size (6 x 9 x 1.2 mm)
      Embedded Bluetooth stack and profiles
      Class 2 power output
      Expected cost: $14.09+

National semiconductor produces this Bluetooth module. This is a trusted and
well-known organization. The distributor that this module will be purchased from
is called Digi-key. The module is Bluetooth 2.0 compliant, which is newer than
many of the other products being considered, and allows for high-speed data
transfer. The class 2 power output usually entails a low power device with a
range of only 10 meters. As mentioned earlier, the range may be forced down to
10 meters due to the limitations of the PDA‟s Bluetooth connectivity. This device
sells at the perfect price, much cheaper than the competition. This seems to be
a complete solution with integrated antenna, along with the upper and lower
layers of the Bluetooth stack. However, the Design Support Group of National
Semiconductor addressed a few uncertainties over this products abilities though
email correspondence. There seems to be a trend in many of the Bluetooth
distributors in having misleading product pages. According to the Design
Support Group, this product will require an antenna, crystal, loop filter, voltage
regulator, and EEPROM in order to operate. Therefore, it is not a complete
solution. The price of $14.09 will only purchase a single module, not the
complete dongle pictured in Figure 7. That dongle would cost around $300. The
additional components seem like a burden, but this setup may prove to be the
least expensive, should budget concerns arise.

5.1.10.6 Blue2i Module
Made by TDK Systems (http://www.tdksystems.com/)


                                        41
Sold by Tek Gear (http://www.tekgear.com/)




Figure 8 - Blue2i

      Simple integration with existing embedded application
      Hayes AT-style command protocol
      Stand-alone module with integral Antenna
      Fully Bluetooth 1.1 pre-qualified
      Class 1 Bluetooth transmission
      Range up to 100 meters
      Data transfer rates up to 200,000 bps
      Size 24 x 69 x 5 mm
      5 general purpose spare digital I/O lines
      Supported profiles : GAP, SDAP, SPP
      Temperature range -20C to 75C
      Complete RS232 to Bluetooth adapter solution
      Estimated cost $106.00+

This is another excellent product. It is completely stand-alone, meaning no
external parts such as an antenna are necessary. However, as with other
Bluetooth devices, the price is a bit steep. This may simply become a tradeoff in
using this type of technology. Overall excellent product, which the company
touts is “so easy to use, the application can be up and running within a day”. [16.]

5.1.11 Bluetooth Products (Receivers)
In this section, the focus will be on Palm Pilots and Pocket PCs, particularly
those that have integrated Bluetooth protocols. As mentioned before, this will
only apply to Plan-A
.
5.1.11.1 Palm TX
Manufactured by Palm, INC (http://www.palm.com/us/)




                                        42
   Figure 9 - Palm TX

      Integrated Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and Infra-Red connectivity
      128 MB flash memory
      320x480-pixel touch screen
      312-MHz Intel CPU
      Screen can be viewed horizontally or vertically
      Palm Operating System
      Estimated cost $200.00+

This PDA has Bluetooth as well as Wi-fi. However, it also has an Infrared port. It
is unknown if this additional port will be utilized, but it is good to have it just in
case. The Palm OS interface is compatible with the Bluetooth connectivity
software to be installed.

5.1.11.2 MyPal A716
Manufactured by ASUS (http://www.asus.com/)




   Figure 10 - MyPal A716

      Integrated Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivitiy
      400 MHz Intel Processor
      64MB Flash and 64MB SDRAM



                                         43
      TFT LCD supports 65,536 colors
      Windows Mobile 3.0 operating system
      Estimated cost $150.00+

This device includes the essential combination of integrated Bluetooth and Wi-fi.
It also sells at a reasonable price right now, because it is not new technology.
However, because of the fact that it is slightly outdated, the company no longer
sells them. They have shifted to promoting their more innovative, and expensive
products. Therefore, the supplier for this unit is going to be EBay. A problem
may exist with this choice, however. The serial IO Bluetooth software, which will
interface the PDA with the Bluetooth dongle, has only been tested to run on
windows mobile 5.0. The operating system for this PDA is outdated and may not
work. The updated operating system may need to be purchased separately,
which would be a costly option. Due to this problem, this may not be the best
choice.

5.1.11.3 Axim X51v
Manufactured by Dell (http://www.dell.com/)




   Figure 11 - Axim X51v

      Intel 624MHz processor
      Integrated Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and Infrared Port
      64MB RAM, 256MB ROM flash memory
      3.7 inch, 480x640 resolution TFT display
      65,536 colors (VGA)
      Wireless on/off switch
      4 programmable buttons
      Windows Mobile 5.0 operating system
      Estimated cost $399+

This device appears to have everything necessary to be a success. However,
the price leaves much to be desired. This would cost twice the price of other
solutions, and may have more power than is necessary.

5.1.12 Bluetooth Software


                                        44
5.1.12.1 SerialMagic LC – Palm OS
Made by Serial IO (https://serialio.com/)




       Figure 12 - SerialMagic LC

      Data entry from any RS232 device
      Usable on multiple platforms (operating systems)
      Usable with many programs
      Works with all web technologies (XML, SOAP, JavaScript, etc)
      Expected cost $39.95+

This software is the backbone of the file transfer scheme. Once installed on a
PDA running the Palm operating system, this device will enable direct
communication with any configured Bluetooth module. Any data transferred from
the Bluetooth module will be instantly detected by the PDA‟s integrated Bluetooth
transceiver. From there, the SerialMagic software will input the data directly into
an excel spreadsheet, as if the user was inputting the data by hand. This is done
without any additional programming necessary. The program is used in barcode
scanning, to help simplify the process of organizing an inventory database. The
home energy monitor will provide an interesting application of this product.
Figure 12, above, is an example of how this software looks in-action. It is taking
the scanned barcode values and displaying them in a Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet on the PDA screen.

5.1.13 ZigBee / IEEE 802.15.4
ZigBee is an up and coming application that is gaining popularity for small in-
home networking solutions. Devices that use the ZigBee standard have low data
rates and power consumption. This leads to a very long battery life. According
to a comparison conducted by the ZigBee Alliance, this technology is better
suited to static networks with many infrequently used devices. [17.] Although our


                                        45
network will be more dynamic and frequently transmitting data, ZigBee may still
suit our needs. There have been similar projects created which took advantage
of ZigBee‟s strengths. For example, the peek transfer rate is about a quarter of
Bluetooth‟s 1mbps speed. Transferring the small amount of data involved in
energy monitoring through 1mbps is like trying to cut paper with a chainsaw. It
will work, but it may be too much power. Due to the extra power consumption,
batteries running from Bluetooth must charge regularly, as mentioned earlier.
Compare this to ZigBee technology running for over two years using standard
batteries. [17.] This should not be a huge problem with the energy monitor since
it will operate on AC power from a nearby receptacle. Yet, the power
comparisons may not appear be as staggering as one goes deeper into
comparisons. ZigBee has improved battery life, but these measurements came
about through ideal conditions. For ZigBee, these ideals involve extensive down
time and inactivity. Thus, the system spends a majority of its operating time in
“sleep mode”, awaking only briefly to perform a simple task. Should the system
maintain a dynamic state, there is a strong possibility that the battery life would
suffer a similar fate to that of Bluetooth technology. However, there is a
maximum data rate transfer. As mentioned in the preceding paragraph, this
value is a quarter of the Bluetooth rate. Using less energy to send and receive
data should save a considerable amount of power. Another comparison involves
the possibility of a reboot. Should the Bluetooth system shut down due to power
failure, the startup time upon reactivation would be close to three seconds. That
could lead to valuable data loss due to the system not booting up soon enough.
With ZigBee however, the startup time is closer to 30ms. These comparisons
are astounding. The importance of the ZigBee protocol is evident in time critical
situations such as this. The typical range of this technology is around 50 meters.
[17.] Compare this to Bluetooth‟s unaided range of 10 meters. The purchase of
an additional antenna would be required in order to boost the Bluetooth device‟s
range to 100 meters. This may be overkill. It all depends on the total distance
necessary. The point is, ZigBee comes stock with adequate range and does not
require the incurrence of additional costs in buying accessories.

5.1.14 ZigBee Products (Transceivers)
This section will cover ZigBee transmitters and receivers. These are not
necessary for the implementation of Plan-A, but will be essential if Plan-B is
used. These cannot be used in Plan-A due to the simple fact that Palm Pilots do
not have integrated ZigBee. However, the paired use of two ZigBee modules
would be a low-cost, easy to use alternative when used in the Plan-B setup.

5.1.14.1 XBee™ ZigBee OEM RF Module
Made by MaxStream (http://www.maxstream.net/)




                                        46
   Figure 13 – Xbee

      Low-cost, low-power wireless solution
      No configuration needed out-of-box
      Indoor/Urban range up to 30 meters (100 feet)
      Outdoor/RF line-of-sight range up to 100 meters (300 feet)
      Power output 1 mW (0 dBm)
      Supply voltage 2.8 – 3.4 volts
      Size 2.438 cm x 2.761 cm
      U.FL. RF connector, chip, or whip antenna options
      Data Rate up to 115.2 Kbps
      Temperature range -40C – 85C
      Estimated cost $19.00+

Keep in mind that these modules will need to be purchased in pairs. The actual
cost will be multiplied by a factor of 2, brining it up to $38.00 plus any shipping
charges. This would be an excellent module to purchase, especially with the low
profile chip antenna option. The price is fantastic, especially when compared to
many of the expensive Bluetooth solutions. The indoor range is ideal, and the 3-
volt power supply can be easily implemented with a voltage regulator.

5.1.14.2 XBee-PRO™ ZigBee OEM Module
Made by MaxStream (http://www.maxstream.net/)




   Figure 14 - XBee-PRO

      No configuration needed out-of-box
      Indoor/Urban range up to 100 meters (300 feet)
      Outdoor/RF line-of-sight range up to 1.6 km (1 mile)
      Power output 60 mW (18 dBm)
      Supply voltage 2.8 – 3.4 volts
      Size 2.438 cm x 3.294 cm
      U.FL. RF connector, chip, or whip antenna options
      Data Rate up to 115.2 Kbps


                                        47
      Temperature range -40C – 85C
      Estimated cost $32.00+

Again, these modules will need to be purchased in pairs; therefore, the final cost
will be $64.00 plus applicable shipping rates. This PRO version has a slightly
longer length, and increased range. It is not certain if this extended range would
be necessary. It is not likely to serve a need, unless the domicile is extremely
large. Despite the obvious gains in using this module, this project can perform
quite well with something less expensive.

5.1.15 IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN
As the name states, this technology was in fact founded by the Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). This uses the same frequency as
Bluetooth, in the 2.4 GHz range. It seems completely impractical when
compared to the small amount of data in transmission necessary, yet its
advantages cannot be overlooked. Using Wifi may open the door for a host of
other in-house applications. One must take particular interest in homes that
already have existing Wifi connections. This would make it easier to implement
the home energy monitor into a home network, seamlessly.

5.1.15.1 Physical Layer
This layer consists of 3 parts, two of which are spread-spectrum radio
techniques. The third is an infrared specification. The two spread-spectrum
techniques are known as frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS), and direct
sequence spread spectrum (DSSS). The first one, FHSS, is much similar to the
technique discussed in the Bluetooth section. In fact, using FHSS, the original
802.11 standard could only transfer data at 1 to 2 Mpbs. These specs are nearly
identical to Bluetooth. The DSSS, however, is a much different type of
communication. It will be discussed in its use by the 802.11b standard.

5.1.15.2 Data Link Layer
Dual sub-layers make up this component. These are the Logical Link Control
(LLC), and the Media Access Control (MAC). There is no difference between the
LLC of a wireless connection, to that of the LLC of any hard-wired Ethernet
connection. The MAC, however, is a wireless LAN exclusive. [131]

5.1.15.3 Wireless LAN Standards
A number of Wifi standards exist, each with unique benefits and downfalls.

5.1.15.3.1 IEEE 802.11b



                                        48
This standard was created through the frustration of general businesses working
with the slow, original 802.11 standard. The transmissions are now capable of
reaching up to 11 Mbps, which is a huge leap from the 1 or 2 Mbps of its
predecessor. This is achieved through a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
(DSSS). [131] This type of transfer divides the band into 14 different channels,
each 22-MHz in size. All data is transmitted across one of the 14 channels in a
direct manner, with no hopping across other channels. The key feature of
802.11b lies in the physical layer technique of DSSS.

5.1.15.3.2 IEEE 802.11a

This standard was ratified some time after IEEE 802.11b, which may seem
confusing to many. The letter following the 802.11 insignia is recognition of the
order of scientific introduction for the standards. In other words, 802.11a was
actually proposed long before 802.11b. However, the later came to market first
due to its DSSS communication. This technology was relatively simple when
compared to the Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) used by
the 802.11a standard. This technology can reach transfer rates up to 54 Mbps.
[131]

5.1.15.3.3 IEEE 802.11g

One major problem that arises between the two previous standards is that they
are not interchangeable. The products from one cannot operate on a network of
the other. Therefore, 802.11a devices cannot be used on an 802.11b
connection, and vice versa. This is where the 802.11g standard fills the void. It
makes use of both the complementary code keying (CCK) mode from 802.11b,
as well as the OFDM mode from 802.11a. [131] This leads to a clear advantage
in being usable on all platforms. Although this may seem like the complete
solution, there are reasons why it is not. For starters, there are only 3 channels
available over the 802.11g connection.

5.1.15.4 Security
There are a number of security features in place to provide a safe networking
experience. The primary security concerns involve unwanted intrusion into ones
network resources, and eavesdropping. Unwanted access is prevented through
authentication. This entails the use of a complex pass code, or security key.
Without this key, one cannot authenticate their station, and is thus prevented
from accessing the network. The Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) algorithm
handles the risk of eavesdropping. The 802.11 committee provides this feature
to thwart intruders through a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG). [131]




                                        49
5.1.15.5 IEEE 802.11 Products
5.2.14.5.1 Wifi to Serial RS232 Module (WLAN 802.11b)
Made by RF Solutions (http://www.rfsolutions.co.uk/)




   Figure 15 - Wifi RS232 Module

      Link to WLAN Access Point (referred as infrastructure mode)
      Link to another WLAN station (referred as “Ad-Hoc” mode)
      Full-duplex serial RS232 data link
      Programmable baud rate (9600, 38400, 57600, 115200 bps)
      Hardware flow control
      Provide 4K byte buffer
      Supports full mobility and seamless roaming from cell to cell
      Firmware upgrade through console port
      Easy set up via console or web configuration
      Estimated price £98.00 = $189.85+

This would make an excellent product, with the exception of the price. The full-
duplex operation means that this module can be used as either a receiver or a
transmitter. If this product were used as a transmitter, then a PDA with
integrated Wifi could easily be used to exchange data. In addition, a Wifi-
enabled laptop could connect to the module and read data as well. The first
setup would entail a point-to-point ad-hoc mode. Whereas in the second setup,
the infrastructure mode would be established, connecting to both the PDA and
the laptop simultaneously. Both of these are supported. Nevertheless, the price
may be too high for this project.

It is likely that wireless internet will be used in this project as an added benefit,
but not as a main source of data relay. Therefore, the PDA devices listed in the
Bluetooth section are an ideal choice for this section as well. They all have
integrated Wifi technology, which would allow them to connect to any Wifi-
enabled computer to exchange data. This would only apply to Plan-A. Should
one implement Plan-B, then Wifi may not be used at all.

5.1.16 Radio Frequency (RF)

                                          50
A wireless RF setup appears to be quite tempting. They are relatively easy to set
up, and are a favorite among hobbyist. The downside is that Custom RF setups
are risky, due to lack of security. They use free space transmission, which any
local source can demodulate. Another problem is with interference. It may be
possible to pick up interference from devices from miles away. Jonathan
Mohlenhoff, A member of the UCF robotics club, shared his experience in using
a common RF transceiver package to control a small boat during the Great Naval
Orange Race, which is a traditional competition among UCF freshmen
engineering students. The objective is to race a floating apparatus from the
southeast corner of the Reflecting Pond to the northern midpoint, where it must
stop in order to load an orange onboard. The student must then redirect the
apparatus in order to finish its route and reach the far southwest side of the pond
as soon as possible. He recalls a number of problematic encounters in using a
common RF transceiver package. These were mainly interference related, and
he found it nearly impossible to get his controller to maintain communication with
the boat. He also speculates that a user would have to write their own protocol in
order to avoid this interference from nearby transmitters. The product he
purchased was the rfPIC. It may be possible that this device did not come with
an embedded encoder/decoder. If that is the case, then the solution could have
been simple. Eventually, he abandoned the RF modules and purchased a
controller setup from a hobby airplane. This package was an excellent
alternative since it was user friendly and seemed to work right out of the
package, with no adjustments necessary. This experience leaves a bad mark on
the idea of using RF communication with the home energy monitor. However,
there have been numerous successes with this technology. If it were this
horrible, then it would not be popular. Therefore, in an effort to avoid the
previous mishap, an onboard encoder and decoder combination must exist. The
necessity of an onboard module will be less time-consuming, with fewer
resources wasted on the research and implementation of additional chips.
However, a non-integrated solution could be viable, as encoder/decoder modules
are inexpensive.




                                        51
5.1.16.1 RF Products
5.2.15.1.1 FM Hybrid Transmitter and Receiver Modules
Made by RF Solutions (http://www.rfsolutions.co.uk/)

                                            Range up to 250 meters
                                            Data Rate up to 9.6Kbps
                                            Miniature packages
                                            No adjustable components
                                            Very stable operating frequency
                                            Available as 315, 433 or 868 MHz
                                            Temp range -20 to +85C
                                            Estimated cost £8.81 = $17.07+

                                    Transmitter

                                            3-12V supply voltage
                                            SIL or DIL package

                                    Receiver

                                            PLL XTAL design
                                            CMOS/TTL output
                                            RSSI Output
                                            Standby mode (max 100nA)
                                            5V supply voltage


                         Table 1 - FM Modules by RF Solutions

This setup appears to be simple and easy to assemble. The 5-volt supply
simplifies the circuit, since all of the other components will be using the same
level of power (microcontroller, ac-dc converter, etc). An external antenna may
be required, however. Also, an encoder and decoder would each need to be
purchased in addition to these modules.

5.1.16.1.2 KH Series RF Modules
Made by Linx Technologies (http://www.linxtechnologies.com/)




                                            52
       Figure 16 - Linx KH Series

      Low Cost
      On-Board Encoder(TX)Decoder(RX)
      8 Parallel Lines Allow Direct Interface
      310 Address Lines for Security and Uniqueness
      No External RF Components Required
      Ultra-Low Power Consumption
      Compact Surface-Mount Package
      Stable SAW-Based Architecture
      No Production Tuning
      Estimated cost – Transmitter $9.98+
      Estimated cost – Receiver $15.98+

This product appears to be an excellent solution. Although slightly higher in
price, the modules include an onboard encoder and decoder. This may help
avoid interference from surrounding frequencies. An antenna will be required,
and it will be a separate purchase. Many of the embed modules have been
missing this accessory, so a discussion of the various antenna types must follow.

5.1.17 Antenna Types
Possibly the most overlooked feature when purchasing wireless modules. Many
do not come with an antenna, neither embedded nor external. The embedded
modules are particularly guilty of this, as many external modules are designed to
be a complete solution. The following antenna comparison table was taken
directly from the Linx Technologies KH Series manual.

Whip Style              A whip-style antenna provides outstanding overall
                        performance and stability. A low-cost whip is can be easily
                        fabricated from a wire or rod, but most designers opt for the
                        consistent performance and cosmetic appeal of a


                                          53
                         professionally made model. To meet this need, Linx offers a
                         wide variety of straight and reduced height whip-style
                         antennas in permanent and connectorized mounting styles.
                         The wavelength of the operational frequency determines an
                         antenna‟s overall length. Since a full wavelength is often
                         quite long, a partial 1/2- or 1/4-wave antenna is normally
                         employed. Its size and natural radiation resistance make it
                         well matched to Linx modules. The proper length for a
Where:
L = length in feet of    straight 1/4-wave can be easily determined using the
quarter-wave length      formula below. It is also possible to reduce the overall
F = operating            height of the antenna by using a helical winding. This
frequency                reduces the antenna‟s bandwidth, but is a great way to
in megahertz             minimize the antenna‟s physical size for compact
                         applications. This also means that the physical appearance
                         is not always an indicator of the antenna's frequency.

Specialty Styles         Linx offers a wide variety of specialized antenna styles and
(Helical)                variations. Many of these styles utilize helical elements to
                         reduce the overall antenna size while maintaining
                         reasonable performance. A helical antenna's bandwidth is
                         often quite narrow and the antenna can detune in proximity
                         to other objects, so care must be exercised in layout and
                         placement.

Loop Style               A loop- or trace-style antenna is normally printed directly on
                         a product's PCB. This makes it the most cost-effective of
                         antenna styles. The element can be made self-resonant or
                         externally resonated with discrete components but its actual
                         layout is usually product specific. Despite the cost
                         advantages, loop-style antennas are generally inefficient
                         and useful only for short-range applications. They are also
                         very sensitive to changes in layout and PCB dielectric,
                         which can cause consistency issues during production. In
                         addition, printed styles are difficult to engineer, requiring the
                         use of expensive equipment including a network analyzer.
                         An improperly designed loop will have a high SWR at the
                         desired frequency, which can cause instability in the RF
                         stage.

Planar Style             Linx offers low-cost planar and chip antennas that mount
                         directly to a product's PCB. These tiny antennas do not
                         require testing and provide excellent performance in light of
                         their small size. They offer a preferable alternative to the
                         often-problematic "printed" antenna.
                        Table 2 - Antenna Types (From KH Series Manual)




                                              54
5.1.18 Wireless technology of choice
Looking over the choices, there will be a few products selected. For Plan-A, the
best device appears to be the BlueSnap serial module, made by Serial IO. This
product was selected due to its price in comparison to the other modules. It did
not have an extremely low price, as all of the Bluetooth solutions appear to be
quite expensive. The price was, however, quite sensible in comparison to the
competition. In addition, the same company also sells the file transfer software
called Serial Magic. This program is discussed in the Bluetooth software section.
It will be essential in steaming the voltage and current data from the micro
controller, to the Bluetooth module, and into the PDA for display. To create a
perfect balance, the PDA to be purchased also happens to be sold by the same
company. The Palm TX, which contains both Bluetooth as well as Wifi, is
guaranteed to work with this software. Plus, the screen can be viewed in either
portrait or landscape view. This feature may come in handy, depending on the
type of graph used to display the data on the PDA. Should one encounter
difficulty, the company should provide excellent support since it is their own
product. Should the design go through the Plan-B route, then the selected
technology will be the XBee ZigBee module by Maxstream. This module is
extremely inexpensive and covers a huge distance. It is also simple to
implement, and three antenna options are provided, with one being selected and
shipped with the product. There is only a minimal number of external
components to add. ZigBee is also a relatively new standard, which many would
love to see in home networking applications. Plus, the fact that these modules
are typically ready to go right out of the box makes this an even more exciting
solution. This means that there is no need to purchase the expensive
development board for this product.

LCD Overview
The use of a LCD is vital to our experiment. An LCD or Liquid Crystal Display
utilizes layers of polarized sheets and two transparent electrodes. Submerged
between these two sheets are liquid crystals. Liquid crystals are vital to the
image because without them light would be able to pass through the first sheet
but not the second. An electric charge will be needed to make the device work
but before one is applied the liquid crystals are in a relaxed state. After a
charged is distributed to the molecules then the molecules embed themselves in
grooves in the electrodes. This allows the molecules to organize themselves in a
twist structure. After light passes through the first polarized filter the liquid
crystals twist the light so that it is able to pass through the second polarized filter.

After electric charges are applied to the electrodes the light that passes through
the liquid crystals are not rotated as much. If the light is not rotated it will be
polarized perpendicular to the second polarized filter which will the not allow light
to passes through. Therefore depending on how each crystal is formed it can
either allow or not allow light to pass. Just by the amount of twist there is on a


                                          55
crystal can determine how much light is allowed to pass. This will make the pixel
seem lit or unlit.




Figure 5.3.1: Diagram to show how a LCD works
http://www.dragonlcd.com/Technical_Info.htm

Liquid Crystal Display‟s are found everywhere in our every day life. They are in
our calculators, watches, computer monitors, televisions… Here are some of the
different technologies to make LCD‟s work, and the different types of LCD‟s that
we looked into while researching for our experiment.


Pixels
Any and every liquid crystal display has pixels on the screen. The word pixel is
short for picture element. A pixel is one dot or point on a larger picture or
graphical image. Liquid crystal displays are configured in rows and columns
which have thousands of pixels in them. If you took a closer look at the screen it
would seem that the each pixel is connected because they are so close together.
There can be many colors in one pixel. The number of colors in each pixel
depends on how many bits it has. For example if a pixel had eight bits then it
would have 256 colors. This is found by raising two by the number of bits per
pixel. Here are some common bits and how many colors they have.


                                        56
             Bits Per Pixel                                Colors
8                                           2^8 = 256
16                                          2^16 = 65,536
24                                          2^24 = 16,777,216

Colors in the thousands are known as highcolour and colors in the millions are
known as truecolor. For color liquid crystal displays each pixel has three
subpixels. These subpixels are arranged in three different colors red, blue, and
green. The clarity and quality of a screen depends on the resolution or how
many pixels it has. The more pixels it has the better the picture looks. Here is a
table of different types of screens and how good the resolution is.

         System                     Resolution                      Pixels
VGA                           640*480                      307,200
SVGA                          800*600                      480,000
XVGA                          1024*768                     786,432
SXGA                          1280*1024                    1,310,720
UXGA                          1600*1200                    1,920,000
QXGA                          2048*1536                    3,145,728
QSXGA                         2560*2048                    5,242,880

As you can see the better the resolution the more pixels there are. This is also
the case when it comes to price. The better the resolution the more expensive
the display will be.



Multiplexing

A LCD that is multiplexed it will be less expensive than other types of display
panels. Multiplexing in a LCD works by grouping and wiring electrodes, on one
side of the display, in a column format so that they can be connected to a voltage
source. Like this side the electrodes on the other side are grouped and wired
together in a row format so they can be in sink with a voltage source. One thing
that makes these groups important is that they allow each pixel has its own sink
and source. When the system is functional the sinks turn on in sequence.


Backlit V.S. Reflective

When looking at the screen of a liquid crystal display it seems that it is lit, but in
fact liquid crystals do not produce any light. Therefore an external light source is
needed to make the screen light up. A reflective light source is usually used in
small and inexpensive LCD screens. This means that they must reflect light from


                                          57
another source near by to show an image on the screen. An advantage to this
type of LCD is that it does not consume that much power. On the other hand it is
not very visible in dark areas. If you take for example a seven-segment LCD
watch you will notice how the numbers are arranged into seven different
segments, which appear when the electrodes charge the liquid crystals and they
begin to untwist so light will not be transmitted through the polarized sheet.

A Backlit LCD has built in fluorescent tubes above, beside, and behind the
screen. Most computer and television screens use backlit technology. Backlit
screens work well in low light areas unlike its counterpart reflective which needs
light to work. A disadvantage is that if an LCD has a backlight then it consumes
power quicker. www.Howstuffworks.com

There is a LCD that uses both reflective and backlit technologies. This type of
LCD is called transflective. It has a backlight which can be used in any lighting
condition and it also has a rear polarizer which is able to reflect light. To
conserve power if you are in a well light area you can turn of the backlight. When
you are in a dark environment you can turn the backlight back on.

As you can see, both backlit and reflective have their strong points as well as
their faults. If we were to choose a LCD that is reflective then the customer
would not be able to use it in the dark, but it would not consume that much
power. If we were to choose a backlit LCD then it could be used at anytime, but
it will consume power quickly. Or we could choose the alternative transflective
which utilizes the good qualities of both types.




Twisted Nematic
Many LCD‟s use twisted nematic technology (TN). These particular displays use
nematic liquid crystals which are submerged between two polarized sheets. If
there is an absence of an electric field, which means there is no applied voltage,
then the light is easily polarized and passed through the cell. This is due to the
light being rotated by 90 degrees because of the nematic liquid crystals, which
matches the 90 degrees of the filter. Since they are aligned the light is able to
pass through easily. When an electric field is present, which means that a
voltage is applied, the polarization effect is not as substantial as when a voltage
is not applied. This means that the light and the filter are perpendicular with each
other and light is not able to pass through.

Nematic liquid crystals are used because the amount of light that is passed
depends on how much voltage is applied to the crystals. These types of displays
are widely used in wristwatches, cell phones, and even calculators. The demand
for a twisted nematic display has gone up in recent years due to the fact that it is


                                         58
less expensive and the pixel response time is considerably faster than other LCD
screens. There are some downfalls to the system:

Disadvantage:

      The range at which you can view the screen is limited.

      Another downfall would be that a TN display is not able to show all the
       available colors to a modern day graphics card. To try to compensate for
       this the designer implements something called Frame Rate Control (FRC).
       Frame rate control cycles pixels over and over to try and reduplicate a
       given shade of color. These reduplicated shades are noticed by most
       people especially for dark colors. This could be discomforting to some
       and not so to others.

This particular type of technology is usually accompanied with active matrix
LCD‟s.



Super-Twisted Nematic
Super-Twisted nematic (STN) displays are used with passive matrix liquid crystal
displays. The difference between STN and TN is the degree of the twist. A
super-twisted nematic display is able to twist liquid crystals up to 270 degrees.
This is far better than twisted nematic which is only able to twist up to 90
degrees. The advantage to using a super-twisted nematic display is that the
extra rotation makes for a steeper response curve. This allows for a wider
viewing angle and a better contrast to colors. Multiplexing is greatly increased
when using STN. The disadvantage is that there will be a slower response time,
which means that ghosting might occur.




                                        59
Figure 5.3.2: Figure of multiplexing scheme
http://www.meko.co.uk/stnlcs.shtml

Another nematic technology that uses the same concept as super-twist nematic
is color super-twist nemaic technology (CSTN). Color super-twist nematic is a
technology that was developed by Sharp Electronics Corporation. CSTN offers
about an average of 100ms response time and a viewing angle of 140 degrees.
A newer version of CSTN is high-performance addressing (HPA) which is able to
show up to 16 million colors and has a faster response time. This is a great
alternative to active matrix LCD‟s.

An upgrade to the STN technology is reflective color STN-LCD technology.
Reflective color STN LCD‟s should promise to be a great seller because of their
low cost and it doesn‟t consume that much power. For this technology to be a
success the use of ambient light that enters through the front of the screen is
necessary. After the light passes through the front only the light that meets
certain requirement will be polarized and twisted by the liquid crystals. Inside the
LCD there is a mirror which fluctuates the polarization also while reflecting the
light. After the light gets reflected it follows its path back which on the way it is
twisted again. Now that the mirror has shifted the polarized film, only light that
has been twisted two times can pass through the film at the front of the screen.
Inside a reflective color STN LCD there is a color filter. Compared to other LCD
technologies these color filters are more transmissive and less saturated
because light has to pass through the system two times. Some things that make
this technology different from other LCD technologies are:

             There are no backlights which make the LCD thinner.

             They are usually used on hand held devices.



                                         60
             The brightness depends on how much ambient light is present.


Dual Scan Super Twist Nematic
Dual scan super twist nematic display is another type of technology that is used
with passive matrix liquid crystal displays. This is an upgraded version of the
regular super twist technology. This technology divides the screens into sections
then scans and refreshes them coincidentally. This gives the screens a faster
refresh rate. It also decreases the number of rows by half, which reduces
multiplexing and leads to an even better contrast than super-twist nematic.
Though superior in price and power consumption it is inferior in sharpness and
brightness to other LCD technologies.


Double-layer super-twist nematic
Like the other nematic technologies, double-layer super-twist nematic (DSTN) is
related to passive matrix LCD screens. DSTN screens use two display layers
which are addressed separately. This helps with the color shifting and improves
visibility. The response time for this kind of technology is about 300ms, that is to
say it refreshes itself about every .3 of a second. It may seem fast but coming
from a computer standpoint that is rather slow. This is basically an upgrade to
the dual scan and the super-twist nematic technologies.


Passive Matrix
Smaller liquid crystal displays like those found on older laptops and personal
organizers use a passive matrix or dual scan structure. The passive matrix
structure implements super twist nematic technology (STN), dual scan super
twist nematic technology, or double-layer super-twist nematic technology
(DSTN). These types of technologies twist and untwist liquid crystals to a degree
which makes an image visible or not visible on the screen. Passive matrix LCD‟s
are molded such that each row and column are in a grid format so that each pixel
on the display can receive an electrical charge. The charges are distributed by
transistors that are on the top and left of the screen. This method of charging
each row and column is called multiplexing. Passive matrix liquid color displays
are called passive because during refreshes they are not constantly being
electrically charged. Though the passive matrix system is very simple it has
many significant disadvantages:




Disadvantages:


                                         61
      When you increase the pixel count the desired display is not as attainable.

      Slow response time. A slow response time means that the displayed
       image will take longer to refresh. A slower refresh time means that there
       will be a ghost or blur to a fast moving object on the screen.

       If one of the transistors were to malfunction there would be a line across
       the screen where the transistor malfunctioned.

       Inaccurate voltage control. An inaccurate voltage control only allows the
       passive matrix system to control one pixel at a time. Therefore when a
       voltage is applied to twist and untwist the liquid crystals it affects the
       surrounding pixels making the blurry and the contrast poor.

   Though there are many disadvantages to the passive matrix structure it does
   have some good qualities. Some of those good qualities are:


   Advantages:

          It does not consume power as quickly which means it does not need
           to power each pixel to work.

          It is more affordable than other types of LCD‟s.

          Passive matrix LCD screens will not have any burnt out pixels.

           Only the person in front of the screen can see it. For the size that we
           are looking for a passive matrix LCD would not be very expensive.

To conclude, passive matrix screens have come a long way from earlier versions
and they still remain affordable, but the quality is still inferior to other types of
LCD screens.


Active Matrix
An active color matrix display is a flat-panel display where the screen refreshes
itself more often than other types of LCD screens. Active color matrix liquid
crystal displays mainly rely on TFT which stands for Thin Film Transistors. Thin
film transistors are switching transistors and capacitors. The basic layout of an
active matrix is a wire grid covered with diodes. After a current is applied the
diodes are activated and a transistor is used to keep the diode in an on or off
state, which in turn leads to images. Here are some advantages to using Active
Matrix liquid crystal displays:


                                         62
Advantages:

      Opposed to passive matrix, active matrix LCD‟s have transistors and
       capacitors at every pixel. This direct addressing scheme is convenient
       because it uses the highest contrast and has a wider temperature range.
       This design is useful because the transistors and capacitors are able to
       hold a charge until the next refresh cycle.

       The ability to control the voltage that is distributed to each crystal. This
       makes it easy to untwist so that it will only allow some light to pass
       through.

      An active matrix screen refreshes itself 30 to 60 times per second.

       Unlike its counterpart, dual scan or passive matrix, active matrix display
       provides more of a vivid picture and provides more viewing angles. The
       contrast on this type of display is about 40:1.

   The active matrix structure seems like a good solution but there are some
   disadvantages to the structure:

   Disadvantages:

          Battery life is drastically decreased because it has to power each
           transistor at every pixel.

          Active matrix LCD‟s will have burnt out pixels.

           If something happens to the screen and you have to replace it the
           price is considerably more expensive than passive matrix.

           An active matrix screen can be viewed by many viewers at different
           angles. This can be a good thing or a bad thing depending on if you
           want the person next to you to see what is on your screen.

Early applications of active matrix LCD‟s were widely used in notebook and
laptop computers. Now Active Matrices are not only being used in laptops but
televisions. The use of this technology makes the price of active matrix display
go up significantly. For the specifications in our project the price for an active
color matrix LCD would range from $100.00 and up, but when pricing an active
matrix display for a computer monitor then the prices are in the thousands. Like
anything electronic the prices depend on size, brand, and accessories.

Comparison: Active V.S. Passive


                                          63
  Comparison Topic                    Active                      Passive
  Power Consumption                                                  X
        Display                          X
     Refresh Rate                        X
       Contrast                          X
       Longevity                                                      X
         Price                                                        X
    Viewing Angles                       X                            X

To conclude, passive and active matrix LCD‟s both have their advantages and
disadvantages. It would seem from the discussion above that active matrix
would be a better choice but that technology is not needed for what we are using
the display for. After a quick comparison it seems that there is a tie between the
two but that factor that counts the most is price. Passive is the less expensive
and therefore wins this battle and be the choice thus far.



Monochromatic LCD
The term monochrome is defined as having or being one color. A monochrome
image would most likely be grayscale, but for some cases they can be two colors
like green-and-white or green-and-black. In the cases where it is two colors
there will be one color for the image and the other color for the background.
Therefore a monochromatic liquid crystal display would only display one color at
a time or shades of that color. The color that it displays is not confined to being
only grayscale but colors like green, amber, red, and white. A monochromatic
screen was used in the early stages of personal computers. It is widely used
with the passive matrix LCD structure. This would be a good choice for our
project because we do not need to see various colors on the screen to read
words and numbers.


Color LCD
A color liquid crystal display is practically the opposite of a monochromatic liquid
crystal display with regards to the display. In a color LCD each and every pixel is
split into three „subpixels‟ which have colors red, green, and blue. There are
millions of different color combinations for each pixel because the subpixels can
be controlled individually. For each subpixel there are about 256 different
shades of that color. For a color display to function it takes a large number of
transistors. If you take a laptop that is equipped to support resolutions of 1,024 *
768 it will need 2,359,296 transistors to function properly. If something goes
wrong with one of the transistors then there will be a bad pixel which will show up




                                         64
on the screen. Color displays are associated with active matrix liquid crystal
displays.


Comparison: Color V.S. Monochromatic


  Comparison Topic                    Color                  Monochromatic
  Power Consumption                                               X
        Display                         X
     Refresh Rate                       X
       Contrast                         X
       Longevity                                                     X
         Price                                                       X
    Viewing Angles                      X                            X

Because monochromatic and color are just types of passive and active matrix
LCD‟s they have the same attributes. So like above the best choice would be
monochromatic mainly because of price. We do not need color to show
characters.


Touch Screen LCD
Between of all of the LCD‟s described above and a touch screen LCD a touch
screen LCD is the most user friendly. It is an input device. There are three main
components that make a touch screen LCD work. They are touch sensor,
software driver, and controller. A touch sensor is a clear screen that is placed
over the regular screen. It is equipped with a touch responsive surface. The
sensors on the screen have an electric current and when you touch it the voltage
changes letting the controller know where you touched the screen. The software
driver basically updates the system so that it works coincide with the system that
is already used. The controller decides what type of interface they system will
use. It translates the information from the sensors into computer language.
Touch screen displays have five different types: resistive, capacitive, infrared,
surface acoustic wave (SAW), and strain gauge. http://industrial-
computers.globalspec.com/LearnMore/Industrial_Computers_Boards/Computer_
Peripherals/Touch_Screen_Displays




                                        65
   1.   Polyester Film
   2.   Upper Resistive Circuit Layer
   3.   Conductive ITO (Transparent Metal Coating)
   4.   Lower Resistive Circuit Layer
   5.   Insulating Dots
   6.   Glass/Acrylic Substrate
   7.   Touching the overlay surface causes the (2) Upper Resistive Circuit Layer to contact the (4) Lower Resistive
        Circuit Layer, producing a circuit switch from the activated area.
   8.   The touchscreen controller gets the alternating voltages between the (7) two circuit layers and converts them
        into the digital X and Y coordinates of the activated area.


Figure 5.4.1: Figure showing how a touch screen LCD works

   http://www.fastpoint.com/touchscreens/resistive-touchscreens.html

Resistive Touch Screen

A resistive touch screen uses a glasses or panel that is covered with electrically
conductive and resistive layers. Separator dots isolate the conductive and the
resistive layers. When the screen is turned on an electric current runs through
the screen, and when pressure is applied to the screen the electric current
changes telling the controller that a touch event has occurred. Resistive touch
screens are very durable. You hardly ever have to recalibrate it even in the worst
kind of weather. You can touch a resistive touch screen with ether your finger or
a stylus. Resistive touch screen LCD‟s are less expensive than other touch
screen LCD‟s. The price comes with a downside. It only offers about 75%
clarity. Resistive touch screen displays are usually used for sale system kiosks,
restaurant registers, control or automation systems, and other standard kiosks
applications.


Capacitive Touch Screen

A capacitive touch screen uses a glass panel that has a material that is able to
store charges. Capacitance from someone touching the screen is measured by
circuits that are located at the top of the screen. After the screen is touched a


                                                        66
charge is attracted to the contact point which lets the controller know t turn it into
computer language. Unlike resistive touch screens capacitive touch screen have
great clarity and they must be touched by a finger. This type of touch screen
offers 90% clarity where as resistive offers only 75%. Like resistive touch
screens capacitive touch screen are very durable and unaffected by the weather.
Capacitive touch screen are usually used for public access, sales registers, ATM
machines, and kiosks.


Infrared Touch Screen
An infrared touch screen implies some of the same techniques as a resistive
touch screen would. An infrared touch screen implements infrared beams that
are in a grid like appearance. When the beams are distorted by someone the
system can determine where the disruption has occurred. These particular types
of LCD‟s are widely used in military applications which means they have to be
very durable.


Surface Acoustic Wave Touch Screen
Surface acoustic wave touch screens have two transducers that are located on
the X and Y coordinates on the screen. The screen also contains reflectors that
reflect an electrical signal from the X transducer to the Y transducer. The
transducer that receives the electrical charge is able to determine where a touch
event has occurred and can locate it quickly. Due to the fact that surface
acoustic wave touch screens do not have any metallic materials covering the
screen, the clarity is excellent at 100 percent. Surface acoustic wave touch
screens are used for applications that need detailed graphics. This system is
highly based on the ability to relate time and path length. Some advantages to
using this type of system compared to the other types of touch screen systems
are:

Advantages:

      The rate at witch light is transmitted is very high.

      After touching the screen the response is high.

      Magnificent picture clarity.

      Superb durability.

      Great resolution.

      A glove can be used to prompt the system.


                                          67
      The initial screen does not need to be covered by any other material.

      Is only activated when someone touches the screen.

      The screen sensibility is not changed by other elements.


Final Comparison: Touch Screen V.S. Passive Matrix

  Comparison Topic               Touch Screen                Passive Matrix
  Power Consumption                                                X
        Display                         X
     Refresh Rate                       X
       Contrast                         X
       Longevity                                                     X
         Price                                                       X
    Viewing Angles                      X                            X
    Easy use factor                     X

The fact that touch screen LCD‟s are easy to use and are highly durable makes
them a considerable choice. Touch screen LCD‟s are like using a home
computer and a mouse which makes them easy to use. Though it is very easy to
use it still does not meet our standard for price. Therefore we will have to choose
a passive matrix LCD.


LCD Choice:
The LCD that we have chosen to use for our design project will be a passive
matrix monochromatic LCD. We made this choice based on the fact that the
other LCD choices had more technology than we need and they are more
expensive. All we need to show on our LCD are characters all of the other things
are irrelevant. We have chosen a LCD that is able to show 20 characters on 4
lines. While looking at different companies for prices we saw that a LCD with
these characters ranged from 20-70 dollars brand new. There were used LCD
screens but if we were to get a used one we might be taking a chance. We
chose the LCD because it is able to show 20 characters on 4 lines. We will
probably be getting our LCD from crystalfrontz because out of all the other
companies we researched they were the cheapest and they are also ISO 900x
certified.




                                        68
Figure 5.5.1: Display of our LCD screen

Specifications:
                Item                                     Dimensions
Number of Characters                        20 Characters x 4 Lines
Module Dimension                            98 x 60 x 13.6 (max) mm
View Area                                   77 x 25.2 mm
Active Area                                 70.4 x 20.8 mm
Dot size                                    .55 x .55 mm
Dot Pitch                                   .60 x .60 mm
Character Size                              2.95 x 4.75 mm
Character Pitch                             3.55 x 5.35 mm
LCD Type                                    STN, Positive, Transflective, Yellow
                                            green
Duty                                        1/16
View Direction                              6 o‟clock
Backlight Type                              LED Yellow green


Max and Min Ratings:
          Item                            Max                           Min
Operating Temperature       70 C                           -20 C
Storage Temperature         80 C                           -30 C
Supply Voltage for Logic    7V                             -.3 V
Supply Voltage for LCD      12 V                           -.3 V



Electrical Characteristics:
        Item         Condition        Min                Normal              Max
Supply Voltage for ------------ 4.5 V               -----------------   5.5 V



                                          69
Logic
Supply Voltage for      0 deg C         ---------------      -----------------     4.8 V
LCD                     25 deg C        --------------       4.5 V                 -----------------
                        50 deg C        4.2 V                ------------------    -----------------
Input high voltage      -------------   2.2 V                -----------------
Input low voltage       ------------    ------------------                  .6 V
                                                             -------------------
Output High             ------------    2.4 V                               -------------------
                                                             -------------------
Voltage
Output Low           -------------- ------------------- ------------------- .4 V
Voltage
Supply Current       VDD = 5 V ------------------- ------------------- 1.6 mA
http://www.crystalfontz.com/products/2004a/index.html#CFAH2004AYYHJP

Microcontrollers
The Energy Monitoring System (EMS) will use two physical systems in order to
receive, transmit, and display the power consumption. The Box will have
received the measured power which will be used as the input to the
microcontroller within. The Box will then send the considered power to the
transmitter and the transmitter will send the signal to the receiver in Personal
Digital Assistant (PDA). The receiver in the PDA will transmit the signal to the
microcontroller in the PDA and display the results on the LCD.




                 Energy Monitoring System: PDA & Panel Device
                         (Created by Guercy Metayer)




                                                70
ATmega324P
High performance and low power consumption are the two elements that AVR
has and continues to boast. AVR has incorporated picoPower Technology to
three of its microcontrollers (MCU) including the ATmega324P. picoPower
extends battery life and reduces power consumption in MCU‟s. According to
AVR the technology facilitate the lowest power consuming microcontrollers with
650 nA with a RTC running and 100 nA in power down sleep. The ATmeg324P
has 32-kbyte flash memory, 32 I/O pins, with 20MHz throughput. It is a low
power CMOS structure based on an enhanced RISC architecture.

The 8-bit AVR MCU‟s are of the Harvard and RISC architecture which means an
instruction is executed in one clock cycle. The MCU‟s include thirty-two general
purpose registers. They operate between 1.8 volts to 5.5 volts and have memory
capacity from 1 Kbyte to 256 Kbytes. Not only can one program in Pascal and
Basic but the AVR MCU‟s are C friendly. Atmel does have samples available to
developers.




                            AVR Microcontrollers
                           (Permission Requested)

Advantages
Among the many upsides to AVR microcontrollers the cost sticks out the most.
You can get an AVR microcontroller that‟s comparable or more powerful than
most but pay less. When the ATmega324P is put side by side with similar
microcontrollers from Microchip and Rabbit Semiconductors, the AVR MCU is
$.24 and $11.72 in the black respectively. Moreover, the MLF package of the
ATmega324P MCU is smaller than the same MCU‟s that it‟s matched up to.

There are six sleep modes incorporated in the AVR MCU which allows for low
power consumption and efficient use of batteries. This element ensures that the
right amount of power is being used at the right time.

Disadvantages

                                       71
While the ATmega324P architecture operate between 1.8-5.5 V for 10 MHz, the
20 MHz clock speed is consumes between 2.7-5.5 V. This setback comes at a
price for higher frequency. The MCU has one-hundred and thirty-one
instructions available to the programmer which means a lot of the instructions are
variations of one another. This can throw a programmer off if not careful.




PIC16F917
PIC microcontrollers are a popular choice for beginning programmers because
you can program in BASIC. If you can program in C++ or Java then BASIC will
come easy because BASIC was derived from a combination of high-level
programming languages. PIC MCU‟s have extensive amounts of documentation,
customer service, and production programming services. One of the featured
PIC MCU‟s is the PIC16F917 which is an 8-bit high performance RISC instruction
processor. It uses nanotechnology and includes Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
drivers for LCD‟s up to ninety six pixels.

The 44-Lead Plastic package of the PIC16F917 is approximately 8mm long,
8mm wide, and 9mm thick and peaks at 20MHz for clock speed. The MCU has
watchdogs, interrupts, and sleep modes to enhance its structure. Other
application features that some of Microchip MCU‟s offer are radio frequency and
motor control. Microchips also have MCU‟s and other products to sample.




                              PIC Microcontrollers
                            (Requested Permission)




                                       72
Advantages
PIC‟s more noticeable advantage among other MCU‟s is the around the clock
technical support and it‟s Regional Training Centers. The training centers offer
tons of resources in the form of designs, libraries, and notes, on-site and online.
More specifically, the PIC16F917 only has thirty-five instructions to master and
consume between 2-5.5 V.

Disadvantages
The disadvantage of the PIC16F917 MCU is in the memory. It has 14 Kbytes of
flash memory and processes 8 Kbytes words. Its total data memory is just over
512 bytes with 352 bytes allocated to the SRAM and 256 bytes allocated to the
EEPROM. The program memory and the flash memory for the ATmega324P are
two times and almost five times bigger than that of the PIC16F917, respectively.




Rabbit 3000
Rabbit Semiconductors is the one stop location for all your microcontrollers
needs. Rabbit has MCU‟s with a wide-ranging list of application features that
include Zigbee to camera interface to secure embedded web applications. The
Rabbit 3000 is an 8-bit architecture that proclaims to out due most 16-bit
architectures. It includes 6 serial ports which allows for more connectivity and
makes it very fast in its computing. Rabbit 3000 has a capacity of up to 50,000
lines of code.

According to Rabbit Semiconductors, if you are familiar with Z80 or Z180 then
your transition to Rabbit will be easy. The Z-World architectures have been
closely modeled by Rabbit and both are compatible with each other. Online
demos, downloads, and seminars are some of Rabbit‟s interactive tools available
to the programmer on the website (www.rabbitsemiconductor.com). To
compliment the list of tools the website also includes documents such as
datasheets, manuals, and a designer‟s handbook. Rabbit MCU‟s are C-friendly.




                                         73
                            Rabbit Microcontrollers
                            (Requested Permission)


Advantages
The 128-ball TFBGA version of the Rabbit 3000 has low operating voltage
between 1.8-3.6 V in its microprocessor. It can also operate and connect to
other peripherals with up to five volts. The 3000 architecture will execute its
operations with 54 MHz clock speed. Its clock rate more than doubles both the
PIC and AVR MCU‟s. The Rabbit MCU contains 56 digital input/output lines.

Disadvantages
The cost and size of the Rabbit 3000 is a definite disadvantage. The 128-ball
package of the Rabbit 3000 measures at 10mm long, 10mm wide, and 1.2mm
thick. To purchase anywhere between three and ninety-nine MCU will be $14.50
and obviously the higher the quantity is above range the higher the cost.
Although trivial, you can not purchase one or two MCU‟s for learning or testing
purposes.

Another possible issue that may occur is the familiarity with the architecture. The
Rabbit architectures are upgrades to Z-world architectures like the Z80 or the
Z180. The Rabbit architecture is probably not a good choice for beginners.



Chosen Microcontroller
The ATmega324P is the unanimous choice among the other two
microcontrollers. One of the appealing features about the ATmega324P that is
not as obvious but just as important is the sleep modes. Although, all the
microcontrollers have sleep modes none have six modes of operation like the
Atmel microcontroller. With the variation of sleep modes the Atmel MCU uses
batteries for low power operations. All unnecessary components are shut off
until a power on command is received. Another special feature that the


                                        74
ATmega324P includes is the fact that the Universal Asynchronous Receiver
Transmitter (USART) can go into Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) mode. In this
mode the SPI takes control of the UART resources like the receiver/transmitter
shift registers or buffers. As a matter of fact, it doubles the buffers and it
increases the throughput on each bus. Ultimately, this adds more functionality to
our ATmega324P MCU as a whole because of the compatibility between the SPI
and the UART.




                              Considered Microcontrollers
                        ATmega324P             PIC16F917        Rabbit 3000
                           MLF 44              44 ML QFN       128-ball TFBGA
   Chip Size (mm)        7 by 7 by .9          8 by 8 by .9    10 by 10 by 1.2
 Chip Cost (in vol.)        $2.78                 $3.02            $14.50
     Board Cost              $79                  $199              $239
 Clock Speed (MHz)            20                   20                54
 Operating Voltage
          (V)              2.7-5.5                2-5.5            1.8-3.6
    # of I/O Pins            32                     35                56
    Package Pins             44                     44               128
                       MLF 44, PDIP 40,        40/P, 44/ML,   128-pin LQFP, 128-
      Packages
                          TQFP 44                 44/PT          ball TFBGA
    # Instructions           131                   35                57
  Watchdog Timers            yes                   yes               yes
      Interrupts             yes                   yes               yes
    Sleep Modes              yes                   yes               yes
      Oscillator             RC                  Crystal           Crystal
   Flash (Kbytes)            32                    14               N/A
   SRAM (Kbytes)              2                  0.352              N/A


                                          75
  EEPROM (Kbytes)             1                0.256               N/A
      C-Friendly             yes                no                 yes
    Free Samples             yes                yes                no

                       Microcontroller Comparison Table
                         (Created by Guercy Metayer)



The size and cost presented in the comparison table was the critical determining
factor in choosing the ATmega324P. The MLF 44 package of the ATmega324P
boasts the smallest size frame among the three MCU at 7mm long, 7mm wide,
and .9mm thick. The chip prices in the table represent the cost in volumes from
each of the microcontroller corresponding companies or their distributors. The
prices also reflect the least amount of chips that can be purchased from the
companies. Of course, as the number in volumes increases, the cost of the
chips decreases. Thus, this is a representation of an inverse relationship
between the two entities. The Atmel MCU is $2.78 while the other two
microcontrollers are $3.02 and $14.50 as can be seen in the table. One may say
that the price difference between the PIC and Atmel MCU are negligible but the
pennies add up. Secondly, if price of Atmel‟s development board is added to the
price of the chip then the total cost is still less than that of PIC‟s total cost. As
matter of fact, it is $120.24 less which makes the total cost of the PIC set twice
as much as Atmel‟s set. The fact that Atmel provides samples of its C-friendly
chips makes the cost of buying the chips from Atmel‟s distributors that much
more economical. At Atmel‟s website, www.atmel.com, there are plenty of
documents to reference from like the datasheets, source code, and application
notes. Aside from the documentations, there is the technical support center and
a plethora of third party assistance listed. Outside of Atmel‟s website, one of the
websites that we plan to use for suggestions and related issues is
www.avrfreaks.net . We can get involve in forums to obtain pertinent information
about the project from some of the AVR microcontroller gurus.



ATmega 324P Architecture




                                         76
             Block Diagram of AVR’s ATmega324P Architecture
                         (Permission Requested)


The ATmega324 has the Harvard architecture which has different storage and
signal pathways for data and instructions. This allows the structure to be fast
and increase performance, because the processor can read instructions and data
at the same time. In the ALU is trying to execute an operation the file register
outputs two operands; they get executed, and stored back into the file register.
The ALU handles both logical and arithmetic operations of registers and or
constants. The flash program is separated into two sections, a boot program
section and an application program section. There are 64 addresses for
processor peripherals like the control register, the SPI, or other I/O functions.



Development Board
As I researched microcontrollers, I found out that I would also have to have some
sort of development board to test and program that microcontroller. So I asked


                                       77
one of my friends which route to go and he said spending $80 on the AVR starter
kit is the best $80 you will ever spend. Atmel‟s ATSTK500 development board is
definitely cheaper than the other two company‟s development boards as proven
by the comparison table. The starter kit comes with two sample microcontrollers,
the board, the software, and the cables for the ATSTK500, 9-pin RS-232, and DC
power.




                 ATSTK 500 Development Board Starter Kit
                        (Requested Permission)

Features
      AVR Studio compatible
      RS-232 Interface
      Regulated Power Supply (10-15 V)
      8-pin, 20-pin, 28-pin, 40-pin sockets for devices
      Parallel & Serial high-voltage Programming (ISP)
      In-System Programmer for Programming in External Target System
      Reprogramming of AVR devices
      8 general use Push Buttons
      8 general use LEDs
      All I/O Ports easily accessible through Pin Header Connectors


                                      78
      Additional RS-232 port for general use
      Expansion Connectors for plug-in Modules and Prototyping Area
      On-board 2-Mbit DataFlash for Nonvolatile Data Storage


Sample Code
Among the many resources available on Atmel‟s website are the example source
codes. Here is an example source code writing to the EEPROM memory and is
translated in assembly language and c-language. When inputting something in
the EEPROM memory it has to wait for any of the requests made prior to finish.
Then it sets up the address and data registers. Then it continues to write
information to the EEPE register.




                AVR’s Sample Code for Writing to EEPROM
                        (Requested Permission)




                                      79
Printed Circuit Boards
To implement our design we will need to use Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs).
There more than one approach to choosing making the PCBs, so we will look at
three options to the PCBs. We will use Printed circuit boards to support and
connect our electronic components using pathways carved out of copper sheets
laminated onto non-conductive substrates. PCBs are supported mechanically
and connect electrically. After adding electronic components to the board, a PCA
(printed circuit assembly) is created.

PCBs are rather cheap, and are very reliable compared to either wire-wrapped or
point-to-point built circuits. Even though more effort and initial cost is needed
than the other two, the bottom line is that they are cheaper, faster, and steady in
high volume production.

Created with between one and sixteen conductive layers, most PCBs are
separated and supported by layers of insulating material called substrates
laminated together. Gluing with heat, pressure, or sometimes a vacuum is what
finishes the lamination process. These layers may be combined together
through drilled holes called vias. Via is a pad with a plated hole that connects
copper tracks from one layer of the board to the other, either the holes are
electroplated or small rivets are included to guarantee stability. High-density
PCBs use blind vias, which are evident only on one surface, or buried vias, which
are not evident on either surface.




                                        80
                                 Wikipedia PCB

                               (Requested Photo)



The most common way of making PCBs are by sticking a layer of copper over
the entire substrate, then after fastening a temporary mask, eliminating the
unneeded copper, which leaves only the needed copper traces. There are a
small number of PCBs that are produced by adding traces to the substrate or one
with a very thin layer of copper. This is usually accomplished by a multifaceted
process of multiple electroplating steps.

The three most common methods that remove copper or „subtractive‟ methods,
used for the production of printed circuit boards are PCB Milling, Photoengraving,
and Silkscreen Printing. PCB Milling uses a 2 or 3 axis mechanical milling
system to mill away the copper foil from the substrate. A 'PCB Prototyper' or
milling machine, receives commands from the host software that controls the
position of the milling head in the x, y, and z axis. The data that is able to drive
the Prototyper is taken away from files created in PCB design software and
stored in HPGL or Gerber file format. A chemical etching and a photomask is
used in Photoetching to remove the copper foil from the substrate. A photomask
is prepared with a photo plotter from data produced by a technician using
Computer-aided manufacturing software. With Silk screen printing, etch-resistant
inks are used to guard the copper foil while the subsequent etching eradicates
the undesired copper.

„Additive‟ methods exist as well. Of these „additive‟ methods, the most common
is the „semi-additive‟ process. In the „semi-additive‟ process an un-patterned
board already has a thin layer of copper on it. Then reverse mask is applied,
which unlike a subtractive process mask, this mask reveals those parts of the
substrate that will eventually become the traces. Additional copper can then be
plated onto the board in the unmasked areas. Other surface plating‟s such as
tin-led are applied as well. The mask is ripped away and negligible etching



                                        81
eradicates the exposed copper laminate from the board, isolating the individual
traces.

Additive processes are mostly used for multi-layer boards, facilitating the plating-
through of the vias in the circuit board.



PCB EXPRESS by Sunstone Circuits
PCB Express by Sunstone Circuits offers a variety of premade Prototype Circuit
Boards anywhere from two to six layers. Their preset boards can be made lead
free RoHS compliant and there a request can be made for a sample board. They
use High Tg, High Td, and Low CTE laminate which comply with all RoHS
requirements and can withstand several heat cycles. There can be special
ordered PCBs up to eighteen layers.




                                PCBexpress DCB

                            (Requested Permission)

Features:
• 2-6 layers up to 100pc.
• Industry standard 0.062" FR-4 laminate.
• Standard 1oz. finished copper weight.
• Minimum trace & space to guarantee manufacturability .006
• Routed to customer provided outline (see details)
• Smallest board dimension .35 inch in one direction; Smallest square board =
.64 x .64.
• Maximum board size is 12 x 14 (to 168 sq-inches)
• Tin lead or Silver finish


                                         82
• 24 drill sizes available (finished size after plating):.008, .014, .020, .025, .029,
.033, .036, .040, .043, .046, .053, .061, .067, .080, .087, .093, .100, .110, .125,
.141, .151, .167, .193, .251 (.008 available with 4 and 6 layer only)
• Green soldermask over bare copper (SMOBC) Hot Air Level (HAL).
• 1 or 2 sided silkscreen (also known as “legend” or “nomenclature”).

The PCB Express website offers a tutorial that describes step by step with
detailed pictures that show the processes. They also provide a glossary and
contact support.




Advanced Circuits PCB Manufacturers
Advanced Circuits provides a capabilities chart that describes what specifications
are available in each category. Along with this easy to follow flow chart,
Advanced Circuits also includes an extensive glossary in their webpage with a
detailed list of specific terminology and acronyms that are considered common
terms used in the printed circuit board industry.




Layer Count                   0-8                           11 - 14 layers
                              9 - 10 [5\5 trace\space]      Poly Clad 370 HR
Material                      FR4                           Arlon AR25N
                              FR406                         Arlon 350
                              IS410                         Cyanate Ester
                                                            FR406
                                                            Getek
                                                            Nelco N4000
                                                            Rogers RO4350 [Double or
                                                           Multi]
                                                            Rogers RO4003 [Double or
                                                           Multi]
                                                            Kapton
                                                            Polymide
                                                            Kapton "Flex application"
                                                            Adhesive Based Polymide
                                                           "Flex application"
                                                            Adhesive less Polymide
                                                           "Flex application"
                                                            PEN [Polyethylene
                                                           Naphthalate] "Flex
                                                           application"
                                                            GI/Polymide "Flex
                                                           application"



                                           83
                                                         GF/FR4 Adhesive "Flex
                                                        application"
                                                         Teflon/Duroid"Flex
                                                        application"
 Stiffeners "flex app"     -                             Thermo set & PSA Based
                                                         FR4
                                                         Polymide
                                                         Aluminum
                                                         Stainless Steel
 Final Thickness            2 layer .020" min .125" max <.020"-.005"
                            2 layer .010" bare copper
                            4 layer .020" min .125" max
                            6 layer .031" min .125" max
                            8 layer & up .062" min
                           .125" max
 Max Board Size            -                            -
 2-layer                    16 x 22                      21 x 27
 4-layer                    16 x 22                      21 x 27
 6-layer                    16 x 22                      19 x 23
 8-layer                    12 x 18                      18 x 22
 10-layer                   10 x 16                      18 x 22
 12-layer                  -                             10 x 16
 Finish Plating             HASL\Solder\SMOBC            Selective Gold
                            Bare Copper                  Nickel
                            Immersion\Electroless\Soft White Tin
                           Gold                          OSP
                            Deep\Electrolytic\Hard Gold Flash Gold
                            Lead Free Solder
                            Immersion Silver
 Finished CU weight        -                            -
 Outer Layers               1 oz min 3 oz max            4 oz
 Ground plane inner layers .5 oz min 2 oz max            4 oz
 Signal inner layers        .5 oz min 2 oz max           4 oz
 Minimum space & trace -                                -
 Outer layers               1 oz cu .005”                1 oz cu <= .004"
-                           2 oz cu .007”                2 oz cu <= .005"
-                           3 oz cu .010”                3 oz cu <= .008"
-                          -                             4 oz cu <= .010"
 Inner Layers               .5 to 1 oz .005”             2 oz cu <= .007"
                            2 oz cu .007"                3 oz cu <= .010"
                                                         4 oz cu <= .012"
 Inner layer clearances     0.010 [.5 - 1 oz cu]        > .008"
 Smallest fished hole size  Final thickness<.093" .010" Final thickness <.125" .008"
                           hole                         hole
                            Final thickness .093" .015"



                                         84
                         hole
                          Final thickness .125" .020"
                         hole
Gold fingers              1 edge                        -
                          2 edges
                          See our Tolerances page for
                         standard configuration
Soldermask Type           LPI                           SR1000
LPI Soldermask Colors     Green                         Top & Bottom mix
                          Blue                          Side to side mix
                          Black
                          Red
                          Clear
                          White
Silkscreen                White                         Carbon Ink
Legend Options            Yellow
                          Min line width .005"
                          Black
CNC Functions             Scoring Panel Edge             Skip Scoring
                          to Panel Edge                 -
                          60 degree Countersink          non 60 degree Countersinks
                                                         Plated Countersinks
                                                         Counterbores
                                                         Controlled z axis rout
                                                         Offset or recessed beveling
Other Services            Plated Slots                   Plated Edges
                         -                              -
                          Controlled Dielectric          Controlled Impedance
                          (one inner layer copper       -
                         thickness)                      .003 Cores
                          Tented Vias                    Hybrid/Mixed Material
                                                         CAP Construction
                                                         Mixed Copper Weights
                                                         Plugged Vias
                                                         Via Caps
Quality and Testing      Inspect to IPC class 2          Class III MilSpec ss110

  Advanced Circuits
(Requested Permission)




                                      85
                              Advanced Circuits
                            (Requested Permission)



Advanced Circuits produce lead free boards that are RoHS compliant as well.
These boards are using laminate materials of different temperatures. They are
completed with a solder finish of SN100CL – a lead free alloy of 99.3% tin/ 0.6%
copper and a trace of nickel. This type of finish adds an alternative to other
expensive lead free finishes and it makes a flatter pad surface than its lead
counterpart. These boards can withstand processing temperatures between 260°
and 288° C depending on the laminate system that is chosen.

Another useful aspect of the Advanced Circuits website is their useful page on
file content. They offer a keep in mind list that contains useful information such
as: Gerber formats should be in ODB++, 274x, or 274d. Gerber files should use
English units or Metric Units. Include fabrication print showing printed circuit
board outline with drill pattern and sizes in Gerber format. An aperture file needs
to be included if the files are 274D Gerber format. Some layout packages need 1
for each layer. A CNC drill file in Excellon format needs to also be included.
These are some of their useful guidelines that will assist in the order of the
proper product.




UCF‟s Printed Circuit Board Certification
The Printed Circuit Board Practical Course is a free course offered by UCF in
order to teach computer and electric engineering students about the hardware
and software involved in creating a PCB. During the course real current market
products are used to demonstrate examples throughout the course. One of the
main goals of this course is to enable a student to implement a PCB at home at
an affordable price. Other important skills about the hardware include how to
etch, drill, tin and assemble a PCB, and how to solder.

The course also explains the usage of sophisticated PCB software, the
transference of project ideas into computer schematics, and automatically


                                        86
converting those ideas into a PCB layout. During the second part a student will
also learn how to design single and multilayered boards and work with track
widths as small as 0.3mm.


Recommendations
All three sources are viable options to learn about PCBs and get experience in
creating PCBs. The advantage that the Printed Circuit Board Certification offered
by UCF has over the other two sources is the fact that the course is free, the
practice materials are free and the hands on experience with a specialized
technician rather than a tutorial can often times be priceless.

PCB Express by Sunstone Circuits and Advanced Circuits PCB manufacturers
offer special incentives to aid in getting started namely sample boards and other
discounts. Advanced Circuits has an exceptional Engineering Student Program
that offers a free Domino‟s pizza coupon with every order, special pricing (three
boards for $33 each with certain specifications), no minimum quantity
requirements, free software, free file check, 50% discount on multi-layer PCBs,
and sponsorship opportunities for robotic and solar car/boat competitions.




                        Wikipedia Printed Circuit Board
                           (Requested Permission)

With all of this in mind PCB Express is an overall harder to navigate webpage.
Advanced Circuits is easily navigable and offers great incentives for engineering
students. For a person who likes to learn on their own time this is clearly the
best choice. However, for the student that gains the invaluable experience of
hands on instruction and has the hours to spare to attend class and wants to
become certified, the Printed Circuit Board Certification offered by UCF is the
best route.



                                        87
Approaches Considered
When designing a project to accomplish all the tasks that are laid out, there is
usually more than one approach. As the brainstorming process begins, ten ideas
may arise but after investigating the requirements and constraints then that
amount starts to dwindle. First, our project ideas are reviewed until the
unanimous decision is made, then the different approaches are explored and
decided upon. We considered three routes in which to pursue the Energy
Monitoring System.

EMS 1: Image Recording Device
The first method considered for observing how energy is being consumed was
with and image recording device. The device would have sensors attached to it
and placed above of a meter to capture the digits. The sensors would log the
pattern of the possible six sides of a digital number into the image recorder and
send it to a remote Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). If successful, it could have
been a very lucrative project to be a part of. This approach also has a lot of
engineering involved.

To purchase an image recording device would be an overly expensive
investment. As college students with no money and no sponsorship, we decided
that factor is not feasible at all. Other concerns that arise, is making it weather
proof and securing it from being stolen.
EMS 2: Panel Connected Device
This second method makes use of the panel and an LCD display box. It would
measure the current coming from the panel and then sent to the LCD display
box. In addition to the connections to the panel, the LCD system would be
powered by an adapter to the wall outlet. This system would definitely work and
would be easy on the pockets.




                                        88
This method already exists so we would have to be creative in our efforts to
improving the method. The conciseness of the system lacks the flexibility that
would boosts interest in it.


EMS 3: PDA-Panel Device
The third method utilizes the second method as a base and expands on it. It
uses the panel to draw the power signals into a non-interactive box. When the
box receives the signals it calculates the power in watts and dollar amount and
sends them over to a PDA system to be displayed. The PDA system has the
LCD and the user interface to configure settings and monitor data.

The cost of the PDA would multiply the total cost of the system and in turn affect
our pockets. Fortunately, our group Larry planned on purchasing the PDA prior
this project so it will not affect the group collectively. This is the more reasonable
project because it has enough engineering in it to make the project a learning
experience and would solve the problem of not being able to monitor power.
Moreover we don‟t have to worry about it being outdoors and it is not costly.




                                                             Chapter 7
                                                       Closure Material

                                          89
Project Evaluation
This section is dedicated to show how the project and research has been going
thus far. We will rate the evaluation by a percentage 100 percent being the best
and 0 percent being the worst. We are rating each evaluation on how much
effort and time has been put into that portion of the project thus far.

      Definition of the project: Has the project been defined to the point that
       every one knows what the project does and who we intend will be using
       the project. 100% Complete

      Parts Selection: Have all of the technological parts been researched and
       has the group decided on which parts we are going to use for the project.
       90% we have done all of our research but once we begin to build we will
       know if the parts that we picked are the right ones for our project.

      Documentation: While doing research keep track of all websites and
       material to where the information was found so that when the time to build
       comes it will be accessible. 100% complete.

      Design: Design all of the different circuits and boards needed for the
       project. 50% we have designed most of the things needed for the project
       but only on paper we have not built anything yet.

      Building Process: After research and design build the project. 0% we
       have not begun to build the project yet.

      Testing: When the monitor is built run different tests on it to make sure
       that it meets the qualifications that we have set. 0% we can not test the
       system yet because we have not built it yet.

      Revisions: Make changes to the system while doing research and testing.
       15% we have made some changes to the project through the research
       process so far.

      Presentation: Final demonstration to show our project and how it works.
       0% that will be taking place next semester after we have built and tested
       out project.




Commercialization


                                        90
Our monitor would be very good to commercialize. The monitor fits the needs of
people who want to save money. It would fit the needs of many pretentious
homeowners who want to monitor their energy consumption on a daily basis. If
we were to buy the materials in bulk needed to make the monitor it would cost
between 50 and 100 dollars for one unit, and we would probably 20 to 30 dollars
more than the cost. The monitor could also be sold to a small business owner
who wants to monitor his energy usage. This item is basically for whoever wants
to when and how they are consuming energy. If we were really going to
commercialize out product we should see how much the other systems like ours
are going for, and also see why our product is better than the competitors. We
would also want to get parts that are not that expensive but they are affective
enough to get the job done sufficiently.



Recommendations for Additional Work
Our product is basic but still efficient as it is now. The best solution is that we
could add more functions to make the functionality better and more attractive.
This would be a good solution for our technology junkies.

If the monitor were able to not only monitor the total energy consumed, but be
able to show which appliance is using the most energy the user could turn off
that appliance, and not wonder which appliance is consuming energy. If the
monitor could also send information to the computer that could show a bar graph
of how much energy each appliance is consuming that would make for a better
monitor.


Lessons Learned
Overall researching for our project has been a great success we did run into
some difficulty though. It is fair to say that everyone in the group has learned
something about one another as well as something educational. All in all it has
been a good experience thus far but there are things that I gone back in time we
would change.

Throughout the researching phase we had fairly good communication between
group members. There were a couple times that we did not communicate as we
should have but nothing to serious.

Doing research was an area of our project that everyone did well in. During our
research there were many paths that could have been taken to solve a particular
problem, but we found the best solution to solve the problem.




                                          91
One problem that occurred at the beginning of the semester when we first started
our research was getting motivated. We were able to fix that problem really
quick and get to researching and writing our paper.

We learned plenty when it came to technical issues. We have not built our
monitor yet and we have learned about measuring the currents and voltages of a
house and turning that into kilowatts per hour. We also learned about the
functionality of microcontrollers and how they pertain to our project.

Besides technical issues we also learned how to work in a group. We had to
have meetings come up with ideas that the whole group approved of. That is
probably the most important part of researching and building our project,
because once we get into the industry we will have to work in groups all of the
time.

Thus far the researching aspect of the project has been good. We can bring the
lessons that we have learned from researching to the building aspect of the
project. There should not be any procrastination because we already know what
we have to do, and we want to get started as soon as possible incase we want to
change or add something to our monitor. We also want to finish the project early
so that we have time to test and get the system to where we want it to be. All in
all, the project thus far has been a big learning block for the team.


Risk and Risk Management
With any project that you do there are always risks involved especially when it
comes to a group project. It is very imperative that each member shared
information that they learned with the other members in the group, because if
someone felt left out and decided to leave the group it would be very difficult to
finish this project with three members. We avoided this problem because the
group had good communication skills. We shared ideas and preferences to
certain things with on another. It was good that everyone in the group came into
the project with an open mind because we were able to listen to each others
ideas and discuss them amongst each other. A problem that could have
happened but did not would be finding times where everyone in the group could
meet. At the beginning of the semester each member in the group wrote down
times where they were free and we picked times where we could all meet.
Another problem that could have come about would be that some group
members did not get along well with each other, but everyone‟s personalities
complimented each others. Throughout the research part we managed not to
run into anything risky and complete the first half of the project.
Project Team Information
Jacques House
5021 Ashford Falls Ln.


                                        92
(407)341-8436
Jacques.house@gmail.com
Electrical Engineering

Guercy Metayer
(407)923-2209
Soulsuviva84@hotmail.com
Computer Engineering

Larry Lowe
(407)414-9724
Larry.Lowe@gmail.com
Electrical Engineering

Lewis Chrispen
(407)733-4594
crisl@hotmail.com
Electrical Engineering




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                                                                   Chapter 8
                                                                      Power
Power Supply
The basic layout for this section is going to be a wall wart, which will transform
the voltage from 120 volts AC into 12 volts of DC output. The inside of a wall
wart, also called an AC adaptor, is a simple circuit. First, there is a step down
transformer, which decreases the voltage to a specified output level across its
secondary winding. In this case, the output is going to be 12 volts AC, but this
may change according to the adapter purchased. For an AC output power
supply, this is most of what is inside. Nothing else is necessary. However, for
this project, a DC power source is required. For a DC output, the next section
though which the power must flow is a diode bridge. This consists of four diodes
arranged in a diamond formation; the illustration for this setup is shown in Figure
17, below:




       Figure 17 - AC adapter schematic

This diode bridge is also called a rectifier. This part of the circuit transforms the
AC voltage into a DC output. The problem with using this as a standalone
solution is that this device does not have a voltage regulator built in. This could
be potentially hazardous to our circuit components. Therefore, this must connect
to a voltage regulator. For now, focus on the selected AC adaptor. One must
look for a few key attributes in this product. Randy Jones has created a quick
reference list of AC adapter questions one must ask at glitchbuster.com, which is
written below: [19.]

      Will it be able to maintain the required voltage when delivering the
       maximum current demanded by the application – even if the wall outlet
       voltage is a bit low?
      Does it have a little “breathing room” – rather than running at its maximum
       output specification? Since wall warts tend to be kind of [cheap], or
       inexpensive, running them at their maximum rating might not be the best
       plan.
      Is it UL listed, and does the appearance give the impression of quality
       rather than shoddiness?
      A Class 2 rating, which relates to shock hazard, is not a bad thing either.



                                          94
Following this list will ensure that the specified adaptor is not running at its
maximum output level in delivering voltage and current. The next step is to
connect this device to a voltage regulator, which will be located on the printed
circuit board. In connecting this to the PCB, an adaptor is necessary. A male or
female input adaptor is necessary, depending on the output adaptor on the wall
wart. Typically, the wall wart will have a male connection, followed by a female
connection located on the PCB. From here, the adaptor connects to the positive
and ground terminals of the voltage regulator. There are two types of regulators
listed below.

5.1 Single-output Voltage Regulator
The first type, converts various input voltages into a single constant output
voltage. It can be assembled with a simple circuit, typically requiring one
capacitor over the input line, and one over the output line. These capacitors are
necessary in preventing unwanted voltage spikes. A good module to use in this
application is the LM7805, which supplies a constant +5 volt DC output. This
module has three prongs, one for input, one for ground, and the last for output.
Many hobbyists try to limit the input voltage to no more than 3 volts above the
output. The idea behind this is that the difference between the output and input
voltages will appear as heat. Having an extremely high input will lead to an
excessive production of heat. This may destroy the regulator unless an
equivalent portion of this heat is dissipated through heat sinking. [131] The
typical circuit application of this module is shown below, in Figure 18.




       Figure 18 - Voltage Regulator

      Output Current up to 1A
      Output Voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 15, 18, 24V
      Thermal Overload Protection
      Short Circuit Protection
      Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection
      Estimated cost $0.60

5.2 Variable Voltage Regulator

                                        95
The second type is capable of outputting a variable voltage level. This design,
however, depends heavily on the other components of the circuit. Much like the
single output regulator above, the variable regulator also has three pins. The first
pin is for input, and the last pin is for output. The center pin, however, is the
adjustment pin, instead of ground. The different input voltages go into the
module, and are converted into various output voltages depending on the resistor
values placed over the adjustment pin. An excellent module for this task would
be the LM317T, which can supply a range of voltages from 1.2 to 25 volts.
Figure 19, below, represents a typical application of this regulator. The figure is
taken from the LM317 data sheet from national semiconductor. An LM117
module is shown, but this figure still applies to the LM317.




       Figure 19 - Variable Voltage Regulator

      Guaranteed 1.5A output current
      Adjustable output from 1.2V to 25V
      Current limit constant with temperature
      P+ Product Enhancement tested
      80 dB ripple rejection
      Output is short-circuit protected
      Estimated cost $0.60+

In a product comparison, the single-output LM7805 uses fewer components to
operate. At the same starting price, the decision is clear that it would be cheaper
and easier to implement the LM7805 module. Both products offer nearly
identical results in every other category.

5.3 Onboard Power
   An external AC adapter must be used to power a few of the Bluetooth devices
    mentioned in the wireless products section. Having more than one AC power
source would make this project appear less professional. The goal is to cut down
 on excess wires, and unify all of the PCB components under one power source.
   With such standalone solutions as the BlueSnap serial port module, there may
be a way to get rid of the external power supply. A simple, potentially hazardous,


                                                96
   solution would be to remove the outer casing. From there, use a de-soldering
station to remove the female AC adaptor input from the device. Then solder two
       wires in place of the adapter, one for ground and one for input voltage. Of
         course, one will need to read over the documentation to see what power
requirements would satisfy the needs of the device. From here, connect the two
    wires to a voltage regulator, which will supply sufficient power to the module.
    That voltage regulator, in turn, will be connected to the primary line supplying
 power from the 12-volt AC adaptor. It would be ideal if every component on the
 board could run off 5-volts DC. That way, only one regulator would be required.
   Should other components, such as the Bluetooth module, require more or less
  than 5-volts, then other regulators will need to be purchased. Once again, this
 design could potentially damage the Bluetooth module. In theory, it should work
  easily. Attempting to modify a device, particularly its power source, is always a
gamble. Of course, upon opening the encasement, the products warranty will be
     void. The idea of potentially damaging a $100+ device may lead to the non-
                                                        implementation of this idea.




                                        97
                                                                      Chapter 9
                                                                    Installation

9.1 DESIGN OVERVIEW PHASE I
This section will attempt to describe a basic layout of
the project in the beginning stage. This beginning
stage will encompass the part of the project that will
be embedded inside, or in the vicinity, of the electrical
panel. From beginning to end, the descriptions will
flow in a simplifying manner so that the common
person can get an understanding of the goals and
challenges of this project. Only generic terminology is
necessary since the actual products used are of no
concern. The idea is the most important aspect here,
and it will be explained in such a way that almost
anyone can capture it.                                       Figure 20 - Electrical Panel
The journey begins at the source of all power in the
home. This one place seems to harness power from the outside world, and allow
it to flow into the home almost through a gate. From this entry, there exist
various paths for the power to travel through, in order to reach different areas of
the house. This entry point is the circuit panel. The image in Figure 20, to the
right, shows an example of a North American electric panel. Upon opening the
flat grey panel door, the typical homeowner will see a parallel series of switches.
At the apex of these towers, there will typically be a large solitary switch. This
switch is the circuit breaker. It acts as a gatekeeper for the incoming electricity.
When it is in the “off” position, it can be safe to assume that all of the power in
the house is off. Upon further dissection, beneath
the mask of the grey exterior, one will see two thick
power lines going into the circuit breaker. The home
energy monitor will utilize these lines in monitoring
the power consumption of the house. It may be
dangerous since each of these lines can encompass
an average of 120 volts of electricity, for a combined
total of 240 volts.

Figure 21, on the right, shows an example of a circuit
panel without its protective sheath. There is also a
third wire, white in color, which goes to neutral. It is
in the top right corner of the picture, with white
stripes. It has no direct utility in this project, therefore
is of no concern in this section. However, it is vastly
important in the grand scheme of understanding                 Figure 21 - Open Electrical
electrical power systems, and may appear in another            Panel



                                            98
section of this paper. All of the power flowing into the home must pass through
these main lines. Therefore, this is the ideal place to set up a monitoring device.

Total power consumption is the combination of voltage
and current multiplied together. In mathematical terms,
the equation would look like this: P = V x I. Seeing as
how 120 volts will destroy just about any low-cost
monitoring device, this value must decrease
substantially. A voltage transformer can easily
accomplish this task. In addition, a current transformer
will be necessary. One will attach to each of the two
lines. One important aspect about these transformers is
that they must be split core.                                   Figure 22 - Solid Core
                                                                Transformer
This means that they are able to come apart and
reassemble easily. Most inexpensive transformers are solid core and cannot
split into parts. An example of a solid core transformer is in Figure 22, along with
an example of a split core transformer in Figure 23. The only way to attach such
a solid transformer is to push the power line through it,
meaning a homeowner would have to cut the main lines
in their panel and loop them through. Then find some
way to reattach the lines without any damage. This
idea is ridiculous and impossible to the average person.
Despite the higher costs, a split core transformer is
essential; it can easily open up, attach, and enclose the
line within seconds. Once attached, the transformers          Figure 23 - Split Core
duties are twofold. The first task is to monitor how          Transformer
much voltage and current are passing through the
monitoring point. The second task is to step down this monitored voltage, for the
voltage transformer, and to step down the current, for the current transformer.
These values will be stepped down until they reach a useable value, no more
than 5 volts for voltage and no more than 5 amps for current. This technique
may change as the project progresses, as there are a number of transformer
arrangements for monitoring power. Some tend to work better than others do.

Upon exiting each transformer, the stepped down voltage and current travel to a
chip to undergo AC to DC conversion. AC stands for alternating current, and is
the type used to help electric power travel the long distance in order to reach
homes. DC stands for Direct Current, which is the type of power used in most
electronic devices. It is very similar to a person driving to work. The individual
person can symbolize DC current. This person is useful in the workplace, once
inside the building. However, in order to get to the building, it would be
impractical for that person to walk under his or her own power. They would be
exhausted by the time they arrived. This is very similar to DC, as great power
losses would occur in attempting to transfer the power over long distances in this
state. The person must use a vehicle to transport them to work. Converting
power in AC is very much like a person using a vehicle to reach a far destination.



                                          99
The conversion chip will make the necessary adjustments to the inputs, and then
proceed to output clean DC values to travel into the microcontroller.

Next comes the microcontroller. As mentioned earlier, in order to attain total
power, two variables are necessary: voltage and current. These values will
arrive from the conversion chip, in DC form, and will undergo the necessary
calculations. The output will be stored in the onboard EEPROM. This stands for
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. This basic memory
chip stores information, which will be necessary for maintaining all of the data
calculations until they are ready for relocation to the main viewing station. This
memory is non-volatile, so it will retain its data even during a power outage.
Once a fixed period or a number of calculations have been stored, all of this data
will leave the EEPROM. It will travel through the microcontroller, and across the
RS232 serial communication port. It is through this port that the wireless adapter
is communicating with the microcontroller. Therefore, the data will reach a
milestone in its journey upon reaching the wireless transmitter.

Before going further, one must consider a minor detail.
This device will monitor power consumption, but it
must power itself as well. One may accomplish this
using a very simple design. To start, a 24-volt wall
wart may be used. An example of a wall wart is in
Figure 24, to the right. This will plug into any 120-volt
receptacle in the house, hopefully near the electrical
panel, and quickly convert the AC voltage into DC
while stepping it down as well. Unfortunately, all of the
necessary components require 5 volts to operate. To          Figure 24 - Wall Wart
do this, the wall wart will output its 24-volts into a
custom made circuit. The primary component of this circuit will be a small
voltage regulator chip, which will allow a steady stream of 5 volts to output. This
circuit has further explanation in the power section of this paper. With adequate
power supplied to the microcontroller, the AC to DC converter, and to the
wireless module, the next phase of the project can proceed.

9.2 DESIGN OVERVIEW PHASE II
This is the second part of the design, which will be located inside of the user‟s
home. This section makes up the graphical user interface and is typically the
part of the system that the user will see and interact with on a daily basis. A new
direction is being attempted, one that has not been seen in any other project of
this type. Therefore, success is not a guarantee. It is for this reason that there
must be a Plan-B, in case things go awry. The second plan will be something
that is tried and true, a design that has seen repeated success. The initial
strategy will be titled Plan-A, and the secondary design will be titled Plan-B.

9.2.1 Plan-A


                                        100
This is the unique and complicated plan.
Assuming it works, the overall design will
be extremely satisfying and aesthetically
pleasing. A palm pilot with an integrated
wireless Bluetooth module will pick up the
signal from Phase I. This will require the
use of some software initially made for
wireless barcode scanning. From here,
the data makes its way onto a data sheet
in Microsoft pocket excel, which is the PDA
equivalent to the standard Excel software.
The excel interface is perfect, because it
allows easy customization and the data is
displayed at your fingertips. In pocket
                                                  Figure 25 - Pocket PC
excel, further calculations take place, such
as the total kilowatt-hours consumed, as well as total dollar expenditure. The
rate, in dollars, can vary by user input though the touch screen and the stylus
included with the palm pilot. In addition, the buttons and user interface allow for
a simple design that anyone can learn to use quickly and easily. The wireless
technology bundled with the built-in battery; make this a dynamic solution for
those who like to move things around throughout the home. The excel GUI will
be formatted using macros and visual basic. This programming will hide the
excel data charts, and the user will only see a few selected outputs. These
outputs will most likely be total kilowatt-hours, total dollar amount, and the rate
with an option to adjust to the local utility. Another advantage is that palm pilots
have integrated FLASH memory. This will store data in place of the smaller
EEPROM. In addition, the palm pilot will also have built-in IEEE 802.11 wireless
internet. This will be useful for those who have a wireless-enabled laptop
computer and wish to connect to the palm pilot. This will allow users to
synchronize the excel spreadsheets on both machines and take things a step
further by outputting graphs. This is a limitation of the pocket excel program, not
allowing graphs. However, with the full featured Microsoft excel, there is no limit
to what a user can do.

9.2.2 Plan-B

This will be the backup plan. It seems to have more complexity, but it is a design
that has seen much success. The first step is signal receipt by a wireless
receiver. This receiver will communicate over the RS232 serial port with another
microcontroller. So far, the design seems to be similar to that of Part I, only in
reverse order. This is where things change. This microcontroller will have all
necessary calculations implemented, as well as a function written to
communicate with the LCD display. The LCD will output the total kilowatt-hours
as well as the total estimated bill for that billing cycle. Also, just for this section,
all of the data must be stored on the EEPROM. At the end of each billing cycle,



                                          101
this data will be erased in order to save space. To power this device, the
identical method in Phase I is reused. Using the wall wart, along with a voltage
regulator, all of the necessary power will be supplied. Should the need arise to
change the rate, or make any other adjustments requiring user input; buttons will
be interfaced with the microcontroller. All of this must be placed inside of a nice
pleasing encasement to be displayed in the home. There may also be an
external adapter, such as a USB port or serial port in order to link a computer to
the system and extract data. This feature, along with others such as a sound
and light warning system, may be implemented, depending upon the pace of the
project as well as time and budget restraints.




                                                         Chapter 10
                                                  Quality Perfection
Introduction


                                        102
To be able to complete this project three things will need to be completed testing,
troubleshooting, and design. After the system is built it should be able to
measure the power that is coming from the voltage source. It might seem like a
whole semester is a lot of time but it is not so we have to work diligently and
finish the project. There are many things that can go wrong in a project like this
so it is important to pay attention to everything especially the little things. For
next semester to be successful we have come up with a game plan to make
designing and testing an easier process.


Testing
Testing is very important to the project due to the fact that testing will tell us how
much we need to fix our project or how well our project is working. Each aspect
of the project has to be tested. We have to test the microcontroller before we
connect it to the other circuit. We need to test the wireless aspect and make
sure that it is running correctly for the design of the project. After the other parts
of the project are tested we will test the LCD screen and make sure that it is able
to show the information that we need to be displayed. This will also be testing
the wireless part to make sure it can transfer information to the LCD. Testing the
CT and VT is very important because that is where all of our information comes
from.

While testing the microcontroller we will test the internal power which we will then
set the turn on mode for the controller. This testing aspect will give us an idea of
how the CT and VT work. We will also need to test the power that is needed to
turn on the microcontroller. After all of these have been tested we can do a basic
schematic and begin the building process.

We can properly test the CT and VT after we have determined how much load
that the system can take. After that is tested then we can test the load only if the
CT and VT are working properly. After everything has been tested we move onto
troubleshooting.




Troubleshooting
Like testing troubleshooting is very important to the success of our project. After
testing the different parts of the project if there is something wrong we need to
take the right steps towards troubleshooting and fixing them. Troubleshooting for
a project of this magnitude will not be an easy task because there is a lot that can
go wrong and it might take a long time to find out what.




                                         103
If something is wrong with one of the parts we have to look at every detail of that
part. If we think something is wrong with the circuit board we have to look at all
connections and parts to make sure they are working correctly. This will be an
easy task if the whole group works on it all together. The process of
troubleshooting will become second nature once we begin to build the system.
The most important part of the system is the microcontroller which we will
probably be troubleshooting the most. This is because we have to make the
microcontroller function with the rest of the system and it has to meet certain
specifications.

Troubleshooting is basically a hit or miss idea you either fix the problem or you
keep trying new things until you do. It is best and try to organize the way you go
about trying to solve a problem. If you come up with a plan of attack we can
solve the problem faster.

Though troubleshooting will be a pain to do it has to be done. Companies and
manufactures go through it on a daily basis. Good troubleshooting ensures that
we will have a great project at the end of the semester. Since troubleshooting is
a frustrating process we have to prepare ourselves mentally so that we do not
become discouraged when that time comes.

Conclusion
In conclusion, building a successful energy monitoring system will involve testing
and troubleshooting. At the end of the semester we only have one goal in mind
and that is to be finished with our project. Our research of the project will be a
big help when it comes to the testing and the troubleshooting. This project will be
very time consuming but it is one step towards graduating.




                                        104
                                                                  Chapter 11
                                                                    Suppliers
Introduction
For this project there will be different suppliers which the group members will
research to find the best product that fits the team‟s budget. Some of the
suppliers will provide a specific product part for the energy monitoring while the
others will supply more general parts that will take effect for the overall project.
The suppliers will be researched from all around the world, so as part of the
project‟s time line, it must be ensured that the parts will arrive at the time they are
needed to avoid conflicts when the project is due. Coordinating with these
suppliers is something the group will keep in mind at all times. It is important to
stay on track and to help the group it was decided that one person should be in
charge of gathering all the parts.

Suppliers
The team‟s supplier for the project comes from different venders. The analog
Device Company was choosing among the other company due to their parts
available. The ADE763 chip is going to come from their also their footnote will be
used for not and description of it capability. This company happens to be an
American multinational producer of semiconductor devices. They are specializes
in ADC, MEMS, DAC, and DSP chip for the industrial goods and customers
around the world. They are one of the first companies around the world that is
designing circuits in the 0.09-3 micrometre features size ranges. Research
information from (Wikipedia, the free encryclopedia)

The current and volt transformer will be pick up from the Kappa electrical due to
the fact they are the few company manufactures in the Indian that make current
and voltage transformers up to 33k volt application , both are in/out door. They
are widely acceptance in both in Indian and internally. There product has been
manufactured to BS, IEC, IS and AS standards a dimensions are to DIN
standards. Products have been type-tested. The company has vast expertise in
the design and manufactures of current and voltage transformer for metering,
protection and special protection applications. This research information was
obtained by the Kappa Electricals Company.

 The Parallel Character LCD 20x4 was choosing over all the other LCD. The
reason this LCD was choosing is due to the fact that the screen is big enough to
show everything we need on the screen. It is able to show 20 characters on 4
lines. The team chooses to use crystalfrontz because out of all the other
companies Jacques checked they were the cheapest and they are also ISO 900x


                                         105
certified. From the team research crystalfontz design company was pick overall
the other companies due to it‟s manufacture and it from top to bottom superiority
LCD components it carry. Their company has one of the highest technical
customer quality that in the industry today. They also same to have a pioneering
designs when it come to their LCD display chip. With their straight distribution
method they win over their entire customer over anybody out there in the same
industry. The tem personal call for help about their product and they where able
to send us the prototype they have and free expert advice. Their customer
service and high quality have win them a place in the top sector. They same to
have a lot of years of experience in the servicing people business.

The Palm Pilot comes from the ASUS Company. The reason this product was
choosing in this company is because it includes integrated Bluetooth and Wifi. It
also sells at a reasonable price right now, due to the fact that it is not new
technology. But, because of the fact that it is slightly outdated, the company no
longer sells them. They have shifted to promoting their more innovative, and
expensive products. So the supplier for this unit is going to be EBay. The order
parts are Palm Pilot Software for Windows Mobile / Pocket PC; this product is
coming from serialio due to the fact Serial Magic plus will be the software used.
This will transfer the data from the Bluetooth connection directly into Microsoft
excels, without any additional programming necessary. This company appears
to be in the business of barcode scanning and helping to simplify the process of
updating an inventory database. This should be an interesting application of their
product. The third product is going to be Bluetooth Module; which is coming from
National Semiconductor and digi-Key Corporation. This Bluetooth module is
produced by national semiconductor, which is a trusted and well known
organization. The distributor that it will be purchased from is called Digi-key.
The module is Bluetooth 2.0 compliant, which means is has a 100 meter range.
There are also a number of other improvements over the previous Bluetooth
version 1.1.




                                       106
                                                  Chapter 12
                                     Cost Estimates of Project
Introduction
The estimated cost for parts is approximately $250 table 3. This is a rough
ballpark figure that is subject to change according to unforeseen matters. Keep in
mind labor has not been add to the main factor, the team feel it was best to add it
at the end of the project at senior design II. The estimated time to research the
project and getting the final documentation ready is 650 hours table 3. Since the
team has not done the prepare design of this project to be a marketable project,
and did not consider this to be operational at this time, it is impossible to gauge
how much such a product would cost per unit until the coding bugs have been
worked out. Refer to the figure below for more detail. For that reason cost of this
project are being kept at a minimum. With all the verdure out their in the industry,
the team is going to try to get the one with the most characteristics.

Cost and Schedule Cost Analysis

                            General Estimating Parts
Potential transformer                     $15
Current transformer                       $20
microcontroller                           $7
rectifiers                                $4
capacitors                                $1
diode                                     $1.5
resistors                                 $.30
Evaluation Board                          $0
Bread Board                               $50
Project Enclosure                         $26.20
Poster                                    $80
Miscellaneous Parts                       $45
                           Table 4 the cost of each part
PARTS total: $250.00

Financial Budget
Item                                                            Estimated Cost
Engineering cost                                                $15,750
Equipment and Materials                                         $250
Total                                                           $16,000



                                        107
                       Table 5: the Budget Financial report


Keep in mind that majority of the design parts will be purchase from different
venture and web site sources. The reason for this is that our part needs to be
pretend to the need of this project type. By going to a lot of diverse web site
assist the team in looking at different part in the industry and at the same time it
help the team to know what the price mostly going to look like at the end. The
team feel it was best to buy all the parts and build the project and at the end
when everything was done to add up all the cost for the project and effort and
divide by four so each one of the team members can pay their share of the
project fairly and that also give team members in the team that does have money
at the time to save up some money to pay for their part of the project

Design Cost
When all the parts have been thoroughly researched by every member in the
team, each one of the team members will give their option on the best part they
know of to be reliable. Due to the fact the cost of the project is a major play in
decision making of the final project. At any case if the team can not balance the
fund available to them, this project will straggle at the end. Knowing all this the
one thing that stands out is the communication factor, which will be the only thing
the team will need to another to overcome the right project.

Every part of the energy monitoring wills a set fund for it. As the design
advances, the fund may or can change to fit the new price that the team is facing.
But at the same time everything that can be done to keep the price done will be
done and take into great consideration. The energy monitoring was dividing into
eight different parts. But at the same time there will be other simple part that will
not be mention in the overall price due to the fact it will be donate to the team or
the team already has it.




                                        108
                                                    Chapter 13
                                      Time Effort and Schedule
Introduction
In this part of the chapter the team will be talking about the personal time, effort,
and schedule it take for this project to be built and research.

Personal Effort Budget
This Figure, it shows the estimate time effort for project deliverable schedule
throughout the next semesters. This time may change base on the future
outcome.


Team Member                                                    Estimated Effort
Louis                                                          152 Hours
Larry                                                          158 Hours
Jacques                                                        148 Hours
Gerry                                                          144 Hours
                Table 1 this is the personal budget time estimated

Engineering time on project
Engineering involve in this project    Hours estimated for research and work
         Louis XIV Chrispin                             160
           Jacques House                                150
          Guercy Metayer                                165
             Larry Lowe                                 175
             Totals time:                           650 hours
              Table 2 how much hour spend design phase in part II


The personal effort budget, as shown in table 1, outlines the personal time effort
of all the members of the team based on all meetings, researching, debating on
the project coursework, development, and any other time that may arise table of
2. This is revised version that is put on the final paper that we will turn in at the
end of the semester.




                                         109
                                                                       Project plan report
                   Advisor Meetings




                                                   Fabrication and
                   Group Member




                                                                                             Design report
                                                   integration of




                                                                                                                                Final report
                                                   Interfacing
                                                                                                                                               Revised



                                                   Computer
                                        Research
                   Meetings




                                                                                                                      Website
                                                   Testing
                                                   system




                                                                                                             Poster
                                                                                                                                               Estimated
Team
Members                                                                                                                                         Effort
Guercy             16         15        19         2     8     12         3                    3              4        6          5            93 hours
Jacques            17         15        17         4     2     14         3                    3              4        9          4            92 hours
Louis              17         16        19         5     1     17         5                    3              4        7          6            100 hours
Larry              17         16        20         2     1     16         4                    5              5       12          4            102 hours

Total Effort       67         62        71         23    12    59      14                    14              17       34        19             387 hours

                      Table 3 The Effort of personal budget time


For this table of 3, it shows all the personal effort the team put into achieving all
throughout the semester in great detail. The deliverables are the weekly email
reports, project plan, poster, design report, final report, and the project
demonstration to the industrial review panel. This time is for this semester and
also next semester; so a lot of things may change in the near future that has to
do with the testing, implantation.



                                 Project Time Schedule

Monday
               7:00-4:00              5:00:            6:00      7:00                               8:00                    9:00                10:00
                 P.M.                 P.M.             P.M.      P.M.                               P.M...                  P.M.                P.M.
                                                                                                                            9:15
Louis C.                                                       7:20 pm                                 all hr
                                                                                                                            p.m.
Larry                                                                                                                       9:15
                                                               7:20 pm                                 all hr
lowe                                                                                                                        p.m.
                                                                     7:20                                                   9:15
guercy M                                                                                               all hr
                                                                     p.m                                                    p.m.


                                                         110
Jacques                                   7:20                 9:15
                                                    all hr
H.                                        p.m                  p.m.
Tuesday
            7:00-4:00   5:00:   6:00      7:00      8:00       9:00      10:00
              P.M.      P.M.    P.M.      P.M.      P.M..      P.M.      P.M.
                                                                         10:30
Louisv C.                                                      all hr
                                                                          p.m.
Larry                                                                    10:30
                                                               all hr
lowe                                                                      p.m.
                                                                         10:30
guercy M                                                       all hr
                                                                          p.m.
Jacques                                                                  10:30
                                                               all hr
H.                                                                        p.m.
            7:00-4:00   5:00:   6:00      7:00      8:00       9:00      10:00
              P.M.      P.M.    P.M.      P.M.      P.M..      P.M.      P.M.
                                          7:20                 9:15
Louisv C.                                           all hr
                                          p.m                  p.m.
Larry                                     7:20                 9:15
                                                    all hr
lowe                                      p.m                  p.m.
                                          7:20                 9:15
guercy M                                            all hr
                                          p.m                  p.m.
Jacques                                   7:20                 9:15
                                                    all hr
H.                                        p.m                  p.m.

Thursday
            7:00-4:00   5:00:   6:00      7:00      8:00       9:00      10:00
              P.M.      P.M.    P.M.      P.M.      P.M..      P.M.      P.M.
                        5:45
Louisv C.       .               all hrs   all hrs   all hrs   9;30 p.m
                         p.m
Larry                   5:45
                                all hrs   all hrs   all hrs   9;30 p.m
lowe                     p.m
            work on
guercy M                day       off       off       off       off
             that
Jacques                 5:45
                                all hrs   all hrs   all hrs   9;30 p.m
H.                      p.m
Friday
            7:00-4:00   5:00:   6:00      7:00      8:00       9:00      10:00
              P.M.      P.M.    P.M.      P.M.      P.M..      P.M.      P.M.
                        5:45
Louisv C.                       all hrs   all hrs   all hrs   9;30 p.m
                         p.m
Larry                   6:00                        9:00
                                all hrs   all hrs
lowe                    P.M.                        P.M.
                        6:00                        9:00
guercy M                        all hrs   all hrs
                        P.M.                        P.M.
Jacques                 5:45    all hrs   7:30



                                    111
H.                         p.m                  p.m.

Saturday
             7:00-4:00     5:00:     6:00       7:00      8:00       9:00       10:00
               P.M.        P.M.      P.M.       P.M.      P.M..      P.M.       P.M.
                                     6:00                            9:00
Louisv C.                                      all hrs    all hrs
                                     P.M.                            P.M.
Larry                                6:00                            9:00
                                               all hrs    all hrs
lowe                                 P.M.                            P.M.
                                     6:00                            9:00
guercy M                                       all hrs    all hrs
                                     P.M.                            P.M.
Jacques       work on                6:00                            9:00
                         change                all hrs    all hrs
H.             that                  P.M.                            P.M.
Sunday
             7:00-4:00     5:00:     6:00       7:00      8:00       9:00       10:00
               P.M.        P.M.      P.M.       P.M.      P.M..      P.M.       P.M.
                                     6:00                            9:00
Louisv C.                                      all hrs    all hrs
                                     P.M.                            P.M.
Larry                                6:00                            9:00
                                               all hrs    all hrs
lowe                                 P.M.                            P.M.
                                     6:00                            9:00
guercy M                                       all hrs    all hrs
                                     P.M.                            P.M.
Jacques       work on                6:00                            9:00
                         change                all hrs    all hrs
H.             that                  P.M.                            P.M.

                     Figure 12: schedule

This is the schedule the team follows pretty much the whole semester. Besides
meeting the team tries to write the paper together in some of those meeting time.
Toward the end of the semester the team did not have too much to talk about, so
the rest of the time was devoted into written this paper. So far in this project the
time been following the general format the team had stated in the beginning. In
doing the schedule the team tries to make the schedule toward everybody time
available. The time was dividing in a way that the team could research, discuss
the project planning, and writing as soon as the team got start.




                                        112
                                                   Chapter 14
                                         Comparing Industrials
Introduction
Many Americans look for ways to save money where they are spending most of
there money at. The average house hold spends between $1,300 - $2,200
dollars a year on their electric bill. Many people are going to great lengths to
help decrease that number. There are many ways people can accomplish this
task. They can build or buy a home energy monitoring system, or they can
improve their house by adding features that will lower the need to consume
energy. There are many companies that specialize in both of these categories.
This chapter is dedicated to explain the benefits of both the commercial aspect
which is to improve your house by adding features to it, or by going the
residential rout which would be to buy an energy monitoring system and install it
in you house. It is also dedicated to show other ways to save money on energy
on your house or company.



Commercial, Residential, and Industrial energy
monitoring
There are many factors when it comes to ways on lowering your energy
consumptions. Some of those factors being location are there kids in the house,
size of the house… Location is important because if you live in Florida then most
of your energy cost will be coming from the use of the air conditioning or if you
lived in the north most of your energy cost will be coming from turning on the
heater. If kids are in the house is a big factor because the more people that are
in the house the more energy you will be consuming. The size of the house is
also a big factor because if you have a big house then it will take more energy to
do certain things such as heat or cool the house. If the house is bigger than it
will take longer which means more energy to heat or cool the house. Some of
the factors that affect the cost of energy for a company would be what the
company does, where is the company located, what hours does the company
keep… Here is a list of ways to cut the cost of energy in a residential house and
in a commercial building.

Home:

    One way to save on your energy bill would be to change your regular
     lights to fluorescent lights. This will save you about 50% of your electric
     bill.




                                       113
    If your buying a new home or just want to save money you can add
     double-panned windows and make sure that your house is insulated
     properly this will save you money on heating and cooling your house.
     Also if you are having your house built another way to save money would
     be to put your windows in the right places.

    Invest in solar panels. Solar panels are good because they can insulate
     your house in the winter and keep your house cool in the summer. You
     could also buy a solar water heater.

    You can install ground source heat pumps. These pumps take the energy
     from the earth and use it to heat and cool your house.

    The utility company offers a service that utilizes clean energy such as
     wind power.

    Hand wash and dry your dishes.

    Install low-flow shower heads, faucets, and toilets.

    Replace the older refrigerator with newer energy efficient model.

Apartment building:

    Instead of using electric or oil based heating systems use a natural gas
     system and replace inefficient boilers.

    Fix all water leaks and install low-flow shower heads, faucets, and toilets.

    Replace all the older refrigerators with newer energy efficient models.

    In the common areas of the apartment building use fluorescent bulbs.

Office Building:

    You can lower energy cost by installing energy management systems,
     occupancy sensors, and programmable thermostats.

    When designing an office building try to put many windows so that you will
     be using natural light instead of light bulbs.

    Change all lighting fixtures and put in T-8, compact fluorescent, and metal
     halide fixtures.

    Try to buy office supplies such as computers, fax machines, printers,
     copiers, and other office supplies that are Energy Star.


                                       114
Colleges:

    Install centralized control systems. This system will control the cooling,
     heating, and lighting during the off-hours.

    Across the campus have day lighting systems and change out lighting
     fixtures and replace them with T-8, compact fluorescent, and metal halide
     fixtures.

    Use a solar water heating system and add low-flow faucets, shower
     heads, and toilets.

    Use Energy Star products in offices, classrooms, and student houses.

There are many other buildings to consider but they follow the same format to
conserving energy as the other buildings.
http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/building_america/


Comparison: Similarities and Differences
The way to save energy depends on what kind of structure that you are trying to
consume less energy on. With some of the structures that were discussed there
were similarities in the methods that can be used to save money on the electric
bill, but there were also differences.

Though the structures are different they use some of the same methods to
consume less energy. There is really only one method that all three structures
use and that is to change the regular light bulbs to fluorescent light bulbs. This
will decrease the electric bill greatly no matter the structure.

Most of the other methods from structure to structure are different. There are
similarities when it comes to a residential house and an apartment building.
Some of those similarities are: 1) Install low-flow faucets, shower heads, and
toilets. 2) Replace older refrigerators with newer energy efficient models.

There are also some similarities when talking about and industry or a
commercialized company. Those similarities are: 1) Install energy management
systems or centralized controlled systems. These two systems basically
accomplish the same thing. 2) Use Energy Star products when it comes to
office supplies.

When it comes to the basic idea on how to save on your electric bill there are not
that many differences when talking about the different structures. The main
difference in the structures is the size. You would have to take different


                                        115
measures when you are trying to consume less energy in a residential house
than an office building. Many of the energy saving tips that are used in a
commercialized business or and industrial building will not be used in a
residential house because they are not necessary. A residential house would not
need to use Energy Star products because a computer or a fax machine do not
use that much power in a house unlike an office building where there are several
computers and fax machines.


Conclusion
As you can see, there are ways to customize your house or building and save
money on the electric bill in the process. With the addition of these tips to your
house or business and an energy monitor you will be able save a lot of money. If
these tips are implemented then you will not consume as much energy and the
energy monitor will help you keep track of the energy that you do use. An energy
monitor compliments these tips if used correctly.




                                       116
                                                            Chapter 15
                                                       Future Advance
Introduction
There are advances all the time in technology. Even for the simplest things such
as our basic energy monitor there will be big advances in the future to make its
functionality better. There is a wide range of applications that could be added to
the system in the future. These applications should not only make the energy
monitor better but cost less to produce. The advances could come in the
software aspect or the hardware aspect, either way it will make the product better
for the person who is using the system.


General Advances
People who are blind do not always get to use some of the latest technology
because for the most part you have to use your eyes in order to use the item.
One advance that if added could be beneficial to handicap people would be to
have a smart monitor. This monitor would be able to tell you when you are
coming close being out of your price range, or if you have set a price limit for the
day and you are about to go over that. This would be beneficial to people who
can not see.

A feature that could be added in the near future would be the use of a USB
interface between the user‟s computer and the system itself. Today they are
using a serial connection that is going out of style very quickly and many
computers now days do not have serial connections. For this addition to be a
success the hardware of the system would have to be modified so that the
operating system of the computer should know that the monitor is connected.
The software will be modified as well to fit the new hardware of the system.

It would be a big advantage if the system could not only monitor the total energy
being used, but also monitor the energy of the appliances being used. The
hardware and software would have to be modified in order to fit the system. This
system would be a big seller if it also flashed in big letters on the Liquid crystal
display which appliance is using the most energy. This is very useful because
you would not only know that you are going over your limit but why you are going
over.

The design as it is now you are only able to see only a certain amount of preset
values. If the system LCD had buttons on it you could preset the buttons to show
on the LCD what other values that you do not have. This application would be
for those people who like to know what every appliance is doing at all times. For


                                        117
this particular monitor to work the hardware and software aspects would have to
be very involved. This would make this monitor very expensive and unappealing
to the average homeowner.


Being that we live in Florida, power outages occur very often especially in the
summer season when the use of the monitor would be very substantial. A way to
fix this problem would be to add non-volatile memory to the system. The
memory would be able to store all of the information including the kilowatts per
hour used, the rate at which the power company is charging the user, the energy
usage, and the cost per hour. Without the use of the memory the information will
be lost, because if the power goes out then the system will restart itself putting all
of the information back to zero. Without the memory the monitor will not be able
to give the user an accurate electric bill and thus being useless. The addition of
the memory will make the monitor more flexible and more attractive to
customers. This particular type of system will not have many software issues
because the system does not need to be connected to the computer consistently
only for a short while.

If the power companies were able to implement an energy monitor to every
persons house who want this technology it would make their job easier and the
customer happier. The customer would be able to monitor their energy
consumption and the power companies would not have to use a meter reader.
The power company would be able to update rates and download energy usage
which they can send to their account online. This would save the power
company money and time which would normally be used on the meter readers.


Improvements
There are many ways to improve the system the way it is now. You can improve
the system by just implementing a better circuit to make it faster or even more
accurate. Even the simplest additions or switched can improve the system.

One way to improve the system would be to have the system send to the
computer the total energy consumed and how much it will cost at the middle of
the month. The user can view this information at any time but it will send this
information at the middle of the month every month automatically. Usually when
people are using a service that they have to pay at the end of the month, weather
it be cell phone minutes used or energy consumed they usually like to know their
progress around the middle of the month and towards the end of the month.

If the system were connected to the air conditioning system this would prove to
be a big improvement. For many people the air conditioning is a big reason for
having a high electric bill especially living in Florida. One way that you could
really save money would be to have the system be connected to the air


                                         118
conditioning and have and make the system be able to control the air
conditioning. This is done by programming the system to turn off the air
conditioning during certain times of the day. You can program it to turn off like at
10AM and come back on at like 5PM. During theses hours are when most
houses are empty and many people forget to turn the air conditioning off before
they leave to go to work. Another reason that this addition to the design would
be beneficial to the user would be that if they left work at 5Pm and the air
conditioning is programmed to turn on at 5PM then the house will be cool by the
time they get home. The user will be able to program the system to turn the air
conditioning on and off whenever they program it to. The user will be able to
program the air conditioning through the computer which will transmit it to the
system via wireless technology. This would be a big seller with most
homeowners.




                                        119
                                                                 Chapter 16
                                                                    Milestone
Milestone
The system that this team is going to research and design it afterward; eventually
build will take an adequate amount of time. In the beginning the team was
having a difficult time to get together on a set project; however, when the team
begin to researched more and more into the design they were able to set some
great realistic goals about the project. In the group, the team members decided
that the easiest way to set the milestone was to build a block diagram of how we
thought it would be best devise and separate the design equal among the team
members. Each member will extensively research their expertise portion of the
project; to make this simple on the team we all have agreed to meet four times a
week to do research together and discuss the best, safest, and cheapest way to
implement this project. The great thing about this project and the team is there
have not been any problem with communication and lack of participation on each
part f the group members. Which keep our mind focus on come up with the best
design to the team ability that can be adequately build effectively throughout next
semester in Senior Design II in the spring semester.

The great thing about this project is that it has been design before by many other
university and industry. For this project, the team can find and do something
about this design; that will not be too difficult. The team is going to try to come up
with a lot of different ways to build and put into practice this energy monitoring.
In this project, the team has decide to divided the whole project into four parts
and divide the tasks base on each group members like and expertise. However,
the deal all the group members made was that each group member must follow
the others work, so that we all have complete and understanding what the total
outcome will be of this design. The first part of the project work was for the team
to research all the project, getting an overall understanding of this project was
essential. After, the team gets an overall understanding of the project, discussing
the project among the team was the next stage. The team made sure that
everybody in the group understand what the project potential and capability was
an. Then the third stage was for each member of the team to go research their
part of the project that they choice base on understanding and flexibility. The four
stage was of the research was to go get help and understanding from expert or
professors; making sure understanding was not a problem and implementation
was within the team reach. Finally, as soon as, the team was done researching
their main parts of the design the second phrase came on how the team was
going to find different ways to acquire the different parts the team would need for
the energy monitoring build up next semester.




                                         120
The group members believe that setting a standard on the total cost that the
team will spend on the design will help the team select the best and cheapest
parts. Also the team considers that the total money spent on the design should
be a very important decision. Due to the fact that basis engineering project is to
keep cost and safety as minimum as possible. At the same time the team does
not want to design something that will cost too much money because in real
world designing the designer needs too keep in mind that the ultimate goal is for
the design to be more efficient, but at a lower price to the average consumer.
The team charts will demonstrate how the work will be distributed between the
group members. This project is straight forward in the fact that the team seem to
know what its basic results should be. Everyone of this team members group has
experience with the basic part of this design. However, the designing of it will be
the demanding part to accomplish in some case.

After, spending time visiting all the professors and website the team could thing
of at the time. The team came up with many different ways that this project can
be implemented this energy monitoring. The team haven‟t chosen a specific
design yet, due to the fact that the team limitations regarding parts, and over all
cost involved. Once the design is chosen with the specific detail of building, the
team will begin to acquire the parts needed to build this project design. This part
of the project will be involving everyone in the group. This way each group
member can input their own opinions and ultimately help build the energy
monitoring stated in the research paper. This is a sample of our Milestone which
will be updated as needed on a weekly base.

Therefore, the system that is going to be designed and created is not easily
implemented as was originally thought. The project is straight forward in the
goals and achievements according to the layout. Even though each group
member has a certain amount of education and experience in the basic of this
project. For example, the basic microcontroller programming or power, current,
volt, and volt meter. So far it‟s nowhere near the level of an experienced
electrical and computer engineer, which can develop this design more accurate
and more efficient. Deciding on parts and the original requirements seemed
mind-numbing and time consuming when put beside what had already been
designed and planned out on the theoretical side. One of the largest sections of
this milestone chart would have to be the designing aspects, both on the
controlling and load system side, and the blade and generator side.

As described in the other sections, every selected components of the energy
monitoring has been chosen according to the values to be obtained in the
engineering analysis of the project. Therefore, some parts of the complete
system may suffer a customization to accomplish the desire results.

The group major milestones did not even occur to the group until the
requirements paper had come out stating that the team needed milestones as
soon as possible to get the project rolling. It was simply something that had been



                                        121
overlooked initially, but once the concept was understood by the team members,
then, it made perfect sense. A Gantt chart was laid out (which appears later in
this document) with a flow diagram of the specific milestones and the way they
flow together, as this seemed like the best way to display the group‟s goals and
keep the group on track. In addition, the project was broken up into manageable
modules and responsibilities were given to each group member. These are
detailed in the section titled Group Member Responsibilities.

The design and the practicality of different items is the rational goal for the first
semester. Some potential designs were research, all of which are detailed in the
Designs section. The actual fabrication of current and volt transformer, ADC
7759, microcontroller, and LCD system is going to be designed by group member
design. And, from that design, the parts that meet our standard will be ordered.
The acquired materials and the setting up of the different potential layouts are
going to come in the second semester of senior design. The farthest the group
has gotten into their responsibilities for next semester is to acquire some of the
parts and start some rudimentary experimentation with the initial designs.

Gantt Charts
First Semester
By the beginning of this project, the performance of the group was not as
expected due to the lack of experience when designing a complete system of the
energy monitoring. After splitting the system evenly between the members, the
project took a better performance because each member started to master the
portion of the system assigned that was assign to them.




                                        122
                         Energy Monitoring
                                                                           Aug 2006          Sep 2006                      Oct 2006                 Nov 2006
 ID        Senior Design I             8/21/2006   12/11/2006   Duration
                                                                           20/8 27/8   3/9   10/9   17/9   24/9   1/10   8/10 15/10 22/10 29/10 5/11 12/11 19/11 26/11 3/12


 1      Picking the Group Member      8/21/2006     9/6/2006      13d

 2      Define Project                 9/6/2006    9/28/2006      17d

 3      Brain-Storm of Project        9/11/2006    9/22/2006      10d
      Getting Permission From
 4                                    9/13/2006    9/18/2006      4d
      Teacher
 5    Idea Collect From Groups        9/14/2006    10/5/2006      16d
      Members Selecting Part of the
 6                                     9/25/2006   10/11/2006     13d
      Project
      Planning and Selecting the
 7                                     9/29/2006   10/11/2006      9d
      Venders
 8    Selection of Best Technology    10/2/2006    11/27/2006     41d

 9    The Research Part                9/6/2006    12/8/2006      68d

 10   Project Research Paper          10/2/2006    12/19/2006     57d

 11   Plan Project                    10/16/2006   12/21/2006     49d
      Rough Write-Up Research
 12                                   10/2/2006    11/27/2006     41d
      Paper
      Final Write-Up Research
 13                                   11/1/2006    12/1/2006      23d
      Paper
 14   Turn-In Final Report            12/4/2006    12/5/2006       2d



                     Figure 9 Gantt chart For Senior Design I Fall Semester 2006


This Figure shows the actual Gantt chart for the project this semester. It show all
the project from the beginning thought to end of our research where we have to
write our final report. The project documentation has stayed to schedule
throughout the entire project.


Second Semester

Because the second semester has not started yet, the following Gantt chart is a
projected task schedule. The group is expecting to used the material obtained
during the first semester after an extensive research in order to accomplish the
goals (set up in the just mention period) in our prototype.




                                                                123
                                Energy Monitoring
                                                                                       Jan 2007                   Feb 2007                    Mar 2007                   Apr 2007
 ID                                         01/06/2007   04/27/2007   Duration
          Senior Design II                                                       7/1   14/1   21/1   28/1   4/2    11/2   18/2   25/2   4/3   11/3   18/3   25/3   1/4   8/4   15/4   22/4


 1    Rescheduling Implementing             1/4/2007     1/12/2007      7d

 2    Finishing Ordering Parts              1/3/2007     1/29/2007      19d

 3           Getting all the parts          1/30/2007    1/31/2007      2d

 4      Making Sure all the Parts Working   2/1/2007      2/2/2007      2d
      Analyzing All the parts W/ Each
 5                                          1/30/2007     2/5/2007      5d
      Members
      Members Rewritten Part of the
 6                                          1/25/2007     3/8/2007      31d
      Project that need too
       Set-Up a Specific Time for Design
 7                                           1/3/2007     1/8/2007       4d
                      Project
 8    Keeping Track of Project              1/4/2007     4/18/2007      75d

 9    Start Making Presentation             3/6/2007     4/16/2007      30d

 10   Looking at Overall Design             2/20/2007    2/28/2007       7d

 11   Design Modeling                       2/5/2007      3/1/2007      19d

 12   Current/ Volt Transformer             2/5/2007     2/13/2007      7d

 13   ADC 7759                              2/14/2007    2/23/2007       8d

 14   Microcontroller                       2/22/2007     3/6/2007       9d

 15   EEPrac (Storage Data)                 2/21/2007     3/1/2007       7d

 16   LCD Display                           2/27/2007    3/12/2007      10d

 17   Putting it all together               3/12/2007     4/4/2007      18d

 18   Calculating Power                     3/13/2007    3/15/2007       3d

 19   Micro-Controller                      3/12/2007    3/20/2007       7d

 20   LCD Display the out put               3/14/2007    3/20/2007       5d

 21   Rough Draft Final Assembly            3/26/2007     4/4/2007       8d

 22   Testing Phrase of Project              4/4/2007    4/25/2007      16d

 23   Troubleshooting                        4/4/2007    4/18/2007      11d

 24   Final Report                          4/19/2007    4/24/2007       4d
      Demonstration of Design in front
 25                                         4/26/2007    4/26/2007       1d
      of Engineers Board


           Figure 10

Milestone Flow Diagram

The following diagram illustrates what has been done so far and what still needs
to be done plan to do. Essentially, all research has been completed at this time,
which had to be completed before the project could advance any further.




                                                                       124
           Coming up                  Finding which part
            with the                  of the project goes
             Design                     with each team
          (Group work)                      member
                                                                                                                                      Done


                                                                                                                                  Working on it
                                                            Setting
                                                            goal For
                                                              the
                                                            Design                                                               Planning Design




                                                     Major overall
                                                      research




Current/ volt
                                                                         Storage and
transformer,                           Micro-                                                                  LCD and
                                                                         graphing the
  and ADC                             controller                                                               wireless
                                                                             Data
 7759/7751                            (Quarcy)                                                                  (Larry)
                                                                          (Jacques)
   (Louis)




                   Acquirring
                                                          Project                               Scrutiny
                   materials &
                                                         blueprints                             Projects
                      parts
                                                         (Done by                              (Done by
                    (Done by
                                                          Group)                                Group)
                     Group)




                                                                                        Build prototype
                      Team inspect                   Assemble the
                                                                                        for Energy
                      all parts                      design
                                                                                        monitoring testing
                         (Done by                        (Done by
                          Group)                          Group)                             (Louis)




Testing      the
                                                                                                             Testing the
current/volt                        Testing Micro-                      Testing excel
                                                                                                             Wireless and
transformer and                     controller                          for       Data
                                                                                                             the LCD
the ADC 7759/                       (Guercy)                            storage
                                                                                                             (Larry)
7751                                                                    (Jacques)
(Louis)



       Putting all the
       project design
       together
           (Done by                        Testing
                                           design                            Put the project
            Group)
                                              (Done by                       for display
                                                                             purpose                             Present the
                                               Group)
                                                                             (Done by                            Design to the
                                                                             Group)                              committee
                                                                                                                 (Done by
                                                                                                                 Group)




                                                                       125
                               Figure 11

Conclusion
The current tasks all involve design and research. Once design is completed,
the group can begin actually acquiring parts and building the system. In the
second semester when senior design II takes place, the prototype designed in
senior design I is to be built. It will require dedication of time in order to
accomplish the expecting goals. Thus, even though the design has been done
after meticulous calculations, the group has taken count the possibility of
redesigning the previous design due to the lack of accuracy in the real model.
That‟s the main reason to order parts as soon as possible so that time would not
be the variable that will make the group to fail.

Lastly, the group will start testing the system. A number of stress tests will be
devised, as described in the Testing section. Once each member is satisfied that
the system meets the original requirements that were described at the beginning
of this document, the final report will be made. Thus, in order to reach the final
level, which is to modify and complete the final report, there is the step of
troubleshooting. Troubleshooting will be the part of the project that group
members are expecting to be frustrating and tedious because it is a fact that
theoretical model works perfectly in ideal environments. Even though our project
is going to be developed in a control environment, there are several variables
that make real calculation to have a great margin of errors that in the worst of the
cases will make the design to change completely.

Our milestone diagram design has been made in a way that possible real errors
or calculation mistakes are taking as probable variables. Hence, when
approaching to the installation layer, a set of testing and simulations will be
applied to each of the components in order to record the behavior by itself. The
data acquire will then introduce in a database system for future evaluation when
values record from the prototype model. After obtaining the real specifications of
the components, then it is proceed to the installation layer, which involves long
hours of stress and dedication.

The prototype to be built will be exposed to several tests. These tests will bring a
set of values that will be compared to the ones obtained in the analysis layer. By
doing these practices the group wants to reach a certain level of efficiency, which
will make our project be very useful device in an everyday usage




                                           126
                                              Chapter 17
                              Group member responsibility
Introduction
In this project this semester there were four members that made up the group for
Senior I Design. The names are as follows: Louis Chrispin, Guercy, Jackques,
Larry. Each of the four group members had similar tasks as well as separate
tasks during the process of writing this paper. This way the group members
check up on each other‟s work, as well as performing the types of tasks they are
good at. Getting to know each other at this new group so far has been great,
everybody get along fine and working with each other was a good experience.
Since, all of four members are from different field it made this project very east to
work with. Everybody seems to have different input in the entire right place.
There are three Electrical Engineer Majors and one computer Engineering.
Because of the back ground everybody had, the breakings down the
responsibilities for the paper were done by preference. This chapter will go into
detail about each group member‟s individual task while writing the paper.

Responsibility Breakdown by Group Member


Guercy put last name:

         -   Microcontroller
         -   Grammar Correction
         -   Program the MCU
         -   Picking the right MCU Data Reporter
         -   Talk to professors for input
         -   Sensors Analyst
         -   Call company for parts



Larry:

         -   Finding the best LCD
         -   Researching all the way LCD function
         -   Wireless interfacing
         -   Talk to professors for input
         -   Picking the right LDC
         -   Call company for parts
         -   Grammar Correction



                                         127
Jacques:

      -    Research Storage Date in a MCU
      -    Data Reporter
      -    Team Communicator
      -    Talk to professors for input
      -    Recording meeting time
      -    Team motivator
      -    Grammar Correction
      -    Call companies for parts



Louis Crispin:

      -    Team Leader
      -    Team motivator
      -    Call companies for parts
      -    Current and volt transformer Analyst & Designer
      -    Research the ADE 7752 and ADE 7751
      -    Parts Inspector
      -    Treasurer
      -    Talk to professors for input
      -    Time managing
      -    PCB implementing

For all intents and purposes, the group was divided into four sections to do the
research on the different parts that would make up the energy monitoring. Louis
decide on to take on the task of the power side of the project that is the Current
and volt transformer, the ADE 7763, and ADE 7751, and started-up power, while
Jacques tool on the tasks of Storage Date in a MCU and Data Reporter for
memory. As for Larry all the LCD function and Wireless interfacing was his task,
at the same time as, Quercy task was dealing with the Microcontroller and
program the MCU. This was done for many different reasons. One was the
desire for each group member to learn about those certain parts. Another reason
was the knowledge that each member had about each part from previous
experience.

An additional, everybody pick the part because that what they would like to do
after graduating. Louis had the most power making, transferring, controlling
knowledge in the group, so he was assigned the job of designing the current and
converting AC to DC controller. Quaercy was interested in finding a
microcontroller to fit the group‟s specifications so he was assigned the
Microcontroller parts. Larry pick the part that had to do with LCD display due to



                                       128
the fact he wanted to program and work with one, therefore he was giving that
task. Finally, Jacques was giving rest due to the fact he did not mind working on
parts. Louis had previous knowledge about controllers and power so it was
easier for him to develop a good strategy on how the power would be measured
and send to the Microcontroller for it to work. Larry had an interest to learn more
about how the LCD and wireless interfacing should work given after the power is
done calculating through the microcontroller area of function. It was decided by
the team that each part should be inspected by each member just to have an
understanding of how it would play a role in the over all project beyond these
main divisions, such as those described above, there were also smaller tasks to
be handed out. Some of these involved testing, acquiring parts, keeping records,
gathering data, and several other related tasks. These were divided equally
amongst group members, largely based on which tasks they already had and the
things each member felt they could accomplish. More or less the team wanted to
divide things equally so no conflicts would occur based on work ethics.

The most important thing to remember is that these guidelines can change
accordingly as long as the group is comfortable with the change. If one group
member has a problem on a particular part that was assigned to him, then the
group can step in and help figure out a solution to the problem. Also, as
mentioned above, whenever a task is completed successfully, all other group
members will check on it to make sure it is up to group standards




                                       129
                                                 Chapter 18
                                    Summary and Conclusions

Closing Summary
All in all, the first stage of this project has been a success. We have done the
research on the various aspects of the project and feel that the second stage will
be challenging but we will be able overcome the adversity. The functionality of
this project suits our group with three electrical engineers and one computer
engineer. This project includes hardware for the circuit design and construction,
software for the programming of the microcontroller, and mathematics for the
evaluation of the equations used. From doing research the hardware aspect of
the project seem to be vary tedious and involved, but there are three electrical
engineers to solve any problems that may occur. The software aspect of the
project seems difficult because there is a lot of programming code that needs to
be implemented into the microcontroller. The mathematics aspect of the project
does not seem hard because the equations that we need to use we have seen
before in of networks and electronics classes. This project will consist of us
using knowledge that we learned in earlier engineering classes.

          Even though our project has been done many times by different groups it
is still at a level of difficulty that will make it a difficult task to accomplish. That
being said this project will still be very exciting to design and build.




                                           130
                                                                 Bibliography
[1.]    http://www.dragonlcd.com/Technical_Info.htm
[2.]    http://www.meko.co.uk/stnlcs.shtml
[3.]    http://www.fastpoint.com/touchscreens/resistive-touchscreens.html
[4.]    http://www.crystalfontz.com/products/2004a/index.html#CFAH2004AYYHJP
[5.]    http://www.tutorial-reports.com/wireless/usage.php
[6.]    http://www.tutorial-reports.com/wireless/bluetooth/technology.php
[7.]    http://www.tutorial-reports.com/wireless/bluetooth/bluetoothcoreprotocols.php
[8.]    http://www.tutorial-reports.com/wireless/bluetooth/adoptedprotocols.php
[9.]    http://www.palowireless.com/infotooth/tutorial/hci.asp
[10.]   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISM_band
[11.]   http://www.mobileinfo.com/Bluetooth/FAQ.htm
[12.]   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetooth
[13.]   http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/bluetooth1.htm
[14.]   http://www.bluetooth.com/Bluetooth/SIG/
[15.]   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bluetooth_Special_Interest_Group
[16.]   http://www.tdksystems.com/products/intro.asp?id=1028
[17.]   http://www.zigbee.org/en/resources/documents/zigbeebluetoothcomparison4.pdf
[18.]   http://www.kjhole.com/Standards/BT/BT-PDF/Bluetooth7alt.pdf
[19.]   http://www.glitchbuster.com/wallwart.htm
[20.]   http://www.eidusa.com/Electronics_Voltage_Regulator.htm
[21.]   http://www.tutorial-reports.com/wireless/wlanwifi/introduction_wifi.php
[22.]   http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/building_america/
[23.]   http://www.crystalfontz.com/products/2004a/index.html#CFAH2004AYYHJP

[24.] http://industrial-
computers.globalspec.com/LearnMore/Industrial_Computers_Boards/Computer_Peripher
als/Touch_Screen_Displays

[25.]   www.howstuffworks.com
[26.]   http://www.p2pays.org/ref/04/03309.htm
[27.] http://www.hometips.com/content.html
[28.]   http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/building_america/
[29.]   www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/building_america/for_builders_top25.html
[30.] http://www.habitat.org/env
[31.] http://www.hometips.com/content.html
[32.] http://www.ccontrolsys.com/index.html
[33.] http://www.hickoryconsortium.com/pdf/artistForHumanity.pdf
[34.] http://www.flex-core.com/return-policy.htm
[35.] http://www.smeco.com/customer/homeenergy.html
[36.] http://www.uppco.com/business/monitoring.asp e: http://www.flex-
core.com/return-policy.htm

[37.]   http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/energyenviron/energy/homelessness.cfm
[38.]   http://www.nliec.org/facts.pdf


                                            131
[39.] http://www.campbellsci.com/dade-county-fl
[40.] http://www.p2pays.org/ref/04/03309.htm
[41.] http://www.energymonitor.com/dstrb.html
[42.] https://www.cenergies.com/
[43.] http:/www.ece.msstate.edu/courses/design/ece4512/2005_fall/energy_monitor/ind
ex.html
[44.] http://seniord.ee.iastate.edu/may0318/
[45.] http://www.sensorsmag.com/sensors/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=358200#sidebar1
[46.] http://www.allegromicro.com/sf/0750/
[47.] http://catalog.sensing.honeywell.com/vsg_compare.asp?FAM=CurrentSG&ITEM
LIST=693775,693776,693777,693778,693779

[48.]   http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~elec201/Book/sensors.html
[49.]   http://www.ferret.com.au/articles/cf/0c0354cf.asp
[50.]   http://www.tequipment.net/TMTCurrentTransformers.html
[51.]   http://www.kappaelectricals.com/technical.html

[52.] http://www.hometips.com/home_probsolver/hps05/07_circuitbreaker/hps_mainpa
nel01.html

[53.] http://www.kappaelectricals.com/technical.html




                                        132
                                                                        Appendix
Larry Lowe

On 11/30/06, Webmaster <webmaster@tutorial-reports.com> wrote:

Feel free to use the images, thank you for asking

On 11/29/06, Larry Lowe <larry.lowe@gmail.com> wrote:
Hi, i am looking into using this product in a design project for school. However, i need permission to
repost your pictures in my research report. Please let me know if i may do this. The pictures are
located here:

http://www.tutorial-
reports.com/wireless/bluetooth/protocolstack.php?PHPSESSID=b38fe4559a113df5a6b6a3eabb1386e0

Larry Lowe


On 11/30/06, SerialIO.com Sales <sales@serialio.com> wrote:
Thank you for contacting Serialio.com

Please feel free to use the pictures.

Dave Boydston
805.964.8883
866.546.4523 FAX
Serialio.com - Bringing your bright ideas to Life

Ticket Details
Ticket ID: IGS-249697
Department: Sales
Priority: High
Status: Open




On 11/30/06, Juergen Kienhoefer <juergen@aircable.net> wrote:

These images can be used in your paper.

On 11/28/06, Larry Lowe <larry.lowe@gmail.com> wrote:
I'm trying to contact your webmaster reguarding the pictures on your website. Could i
get permission to repost your aircable serial image in my research paper? This is a school
design project, and i need permission to post the images in my report. Thanks.




                                           133
On 11/28/06, New Feedback <New.Feedback@nsc.com> wrote:

Hello,

In response to your request:

Yes, you may use these pictures in your documentation

Regards,

Design Support Group
http://www.national.com
Please provide a detailed explanation of your technical question?
Simply Blue LMX9830

How can we make the information we provide more useful?




Workin Progress Comments by CAG




On 11/27/06, Larry Lowe <larry.lowe@gmail.com> wrote:
I would like to know if i can repost some pictures of your product that i found here:
http://www.national.com/appinfo/wireless/files/lmx9830_prodbrief.pdf

I am considering this module for a school design project. I would like to repost
the pictures for my paper associated with the project. Thanks.


On 11/30/06, Tony Havelka <tonyh@tekgear.com> wrote:
Hi Larry,

Go right ahead.

-Tony

_______________________________
Tek Gear
1-90 Market Avenue
Winnipeg, MB R3B 0P3

P. 204-988-3000
F. 204-988-3050
E. tonyh@tekgear.com
U. http://www.tekgear.com
   http://www.serial-card.com
_______________________________



                                                         134
From: Larry Lowe [mailto:larry.lowe@gmail.com]
Sent: Thursday, November 30, 2006 3:23 AM
To: sales@tekgear.com
Subject: Permission to repost pictures - 8

Hi, i am looking into using this product in a design project for school. However, i need
permission to repost your pictures in my research report. Please let me know if i may do
this. The pictures are located here:

Blue2i

(http://www.tekgear.com/index.cfm?pageID=90&prodid=320&section=73&nodelist=1,88
)

Larry Lowe



On 11/30/06, Feng Lin <tsd@asus.com.tw> wrote:
Dear Sir/Madam,

Thank you for supporting ASUS products.

We apologize that you have encountered this problem.

You may use ASUS product images as long as it's not reflecting the negative aspect of ASUS products.

Sorry for the inconvenience

---------- Original Message ----------
From : larry.lowe@gmail.com
Sent : 2006/11/30 ?? 05:29:51
To : "tsd@asus.com.tw"
Subject : <TSD> Support Web - Others

[CASEID=WTM20061130172895133]

Apply date : 11/30/2006 5:28:09 PM

[Contact Information]
*Name : Larry Lowe
*Email Address : larry.lowe@gmail.com
*Country : United States
*Problem Type : Others
Browser : Netscape 5

[Problem Description]
Permission to repost pictures:
Hi, i am looking into using this product in a design project for school. However, i need permission to
repost your pictures in my research report. Please let me know if i may do this. The pictures are
located here:




                                                     135
 MyPal A716
(http://www.asus.com/products.aspx?l1=8&l2=0&l3=0&model=334&modelmenu=1)


On 11/30/06, John Crockett <johnc@maxstream.net> wrote:

Hi Larry,

Feel free to use those photos. If you need any other pictures or anything in high resolution, check
out this page:

http://www.maxstream.net/corporate/press/images.php

Good luck,

John Crockett

MaxStream

801.765.9885



On 11/30/06, Michael Hook <mh@rfsolutions.co.uk> wrote:

Hello Larry,

Sure, we have no problem with you doing this.

Best Regards
Mike Hook
Tel: +44 (0)1273 898007
Fax: +44 (0)1273 480661
RF Solutions Ltd
Website | Forum | Knowledge Base


From: Larry Lowe [mailto:larry.lowe@gmail.com]
Sent: 30 November 2006 09:32
To: Michael Hook
Subject: Permission to repost pictures

 Hi, i am looking into using this product in a design project for school. However, i
need permission to repost your pictures in my research report. Please let me
know if i may do this. The pictures are located here:

Wifi RS232 Module
(http://www.rfsolutions.co.uk/acatalog/WLAN_to_RS232_Module.html)



                                                136
FM Modules
(http://www.rfsolutions.co.uk/acatalog/Hybrid_Transmitter_Receiver_Modules.html)




            I, the author of this work, hereby release it into the public
            domain. This applies worldwide.

            In case this is not legally possible:
            I grant anyone the right to use this work for any purpose,
            without any conditions, unless such conditions are required
            by law.
On 11/30/06, Centennial Home Inspection Services, Inc. <centennial.hi@verizon.net>
wrote:

Larry – that should be okay. What is your project?

Joanne MacKintosh/ Centennial Home Inspection Services, Inc.

        -----Original Message-----
        From: Larry Lowe [mailto:larry.lowe@gmail.com]
        Sent: Thursday, November 30, 2006 1:25 AM
        To: centennial.hi@verizon.net
        Subject: Permission to repost pictures - 17

        Hi, i am looking into using this product in a design project for school.
        However, i need permission to repost your pictures in my research report.
        Please let me know if i may do this. The pictures are located here:

        Open Electrical Panel

        ( http://www.centennialhomeinspection.com/images/image05.jpg )

        Larry Lowe



On 11/30/06, Todd Martin <tmartin@mhtc.net> wrote:
Hi Larry-

No problem using the pictures in the research report.

Todd Martin
UpLand Technologies
----- Original Message -----



                                                    137
From: Larry Lowe
To: info@UpLandTechnologies.com
Sent: Thursday, November 30, 2006 3:25 AM
Subject: Permission to repost pictures - 18,19

Hi, i am looking into using this product in a design project for school. However, i
need permission to repost your pictures in my research report. Please let me
know if i may do this. The pictures are located here:

Solid Core Transformer

Split Core Transformer

(http://www.uplandtechnologies.com/current_transformers.html )

Larry Lowe


On 11/30/06, webmaster <webmaster@trantronics.com> wrote:
Yes Larry, you may use the product pictures in your report.

----- Original Message -----
From: Larry Lowe
To: webmaster@trantronics.net
Sent: Thursday, November 30, 2006 2:25 AM
Subject: Permission to repost pictures

Hi, i am looking into using this product in a design project for school. However, i
need permission to repost your pictures in my research report. Please let me
know if i may do this. Picture is located here:

http://secure.transtronics.com/osc/images/medium/wall_wart.jpg

Larry Lowe



            Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
            document under the terms of the GNU Free
            Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version
            published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
            Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-
            Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section
            entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".




                                                 138
On 11/30/06, info <info@linxtechnologies.com> wrote:
Larry,

Yes, you may use the pictures. Let me know if you have any questions about our products.

----- Original Message -----
From: Larry Lowe
To: info@linxtechnologies.com
Sent: Thursday, November 30, 2006 2:28 AM
Subject: Permission to repost pictures

Hi, i am looking into using this product in a design project for school. However, i
need permission to repost your pictures in my research report. Please let me
know if i may do this. Picture is located here:

http://www.linxtechnologies.com/index.php?section=products&category=rf_modules&su
bcategory=kh_series

Larry Lowe


Jacques House

Permission 1:

if it's going to help your paper yes you have our permit. anything we can do to help let us
know
good luck


To: sales@dragonLCD.com
Subject: Picture Permission
Date: Mon, 20 Nov 2006 03:42:17 -0500
From: quezzy18@aol.com

To whom it may concern,

Hi my name is Jacques House and i attend the University of central Florida and i am
doing a design project that involves information on LCD's. Would it be ok if i used one
of your pictures in my research paper.

Thanks
Jacques House

Permission 2:



                                             139
yes,
 it find by the company to used our picture, if it help you.
great day !


To: websales@meko.co.uk
Subject: picture permission
Date: Wed, 22 Nov 2006 03:40:03 -0500
From: quezzy18@aol.com

To whom it may concern,

Hi my name is Jacques House and i attend the University of central Florida and i am
doing a design project that involves information on super twisted nematic LCD's. Would
it be ok if i used one of your pictures in my research paper?

Thanks
Jacques House

Permission 3:

it find by us for you to used the LCD pictures; and you also welcome to buy any parts at
discount rate.
Good Luck!


To: info@fastpoint.com
Subject: picture permission
Date: Mon, 4 Dec 2006 03:34:18 -0500
From: quezzy18@aol.com

To whom it may concern,

Hi my name is Jacques House and i attend the University of central Florida and i am
doing a design project that involves information on touch screen LCD's. Would it be ok
if i used one of your pictures in my research paper?

Thanks
Jacques House

Permission 4:

yes, Mr. Jacques
it's okay by me to used the LCD picture for educational purpose.
 I hope it help you in your project
 Good luck with it!



                                            140
To: sales@crystalfrontz.com
Subject: picture permission
Date: Wed, 15 Nov 2006 03:21:45 -0500
From: quezzy18@aol.com

To whom it may concern,

hi my name is Jacques House and i atend the University of Central Florida. I am doing a
design project and will be using your LCD. Would it be ok if i put a picture of the LCD
and the spesifications in my report.

Thanks
Jacques House

Louis XIV Chrispin

Original Email Draft to everybody:
To Whom It May Concern:

I’m a (n) Electrical Engineering student at university of Central Florida in Florida. I’m
currently a senior that is working on a senior design project with team members of four
students. Our project is energy monitoring, that is going to monitor how much energy
home or business utilized, and while going through my research I found your website
useful toward my team project. I found the picture and paper to be understandable to a
reader. With your permission I would like to use your site as part of my research. I liked
to use some of the pictures and concepts you describe. This project is strictly educational
and is only for a senior design project. I thank you for your time and answer. You have a
great day


Replies:

Dear Louis,

You have my permission.

Sincerely
Bob Erickson


Hi Dr. Robert W. Erickson
It me again Louis my computer just have a crash the email you send me I did not get to
read it can you please send me another one without it I can not write my paper. Thank
you sir


--


                                            141
Robert W. Erickson
Professor and Chair
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
University of Colorado, Boulder
Boulder CO 80309-0425
http://ece-www.colorado.edu/~pwrelect
(303) 492-7003
fax: (303) 492-2758

You can use my pages.
Heinz Schmidt-Walter

> Hi Dr.-Ing. Heinz Schmidt-Walter My name is Louis Chrispin; I’m a (n)
> Electrical Engineering student at university of Central Florida in
> Florida in America. I’m currently a senior that is working on a senior
> Design project with team members of four students. We are working on the
> Energy monitoring, that monitoring the energy a home or business used for a period of
time, and while going through my research I found your website useful toward my team
project. I found the picture and paper to be understandable to a
> Reader. With your permission I would like to use your site as part of my
> Research. I liked to copy some of the pictures and used some of your
> Concept. This project is strictly educational and is only for a senior
> Design project. I thank you for your time and answer. You have a
> Great day

Hello, Louis,
You are welcome to make use of material from HyperPhysics in your
research project. Glad it can be of use. Best wishes on the completion
of your project. With the current and rising price of oil, your project
sounds very relevant.

Regards,
Rod Nave            RodNave@gsu.edu
                         Department of Physics and Astronomy
                         Georgia State University
                         Atlanta, GA 30303-3083



Hello, Cries,

I'm only a TA for that course, and didn't design the project. But, I believe you can use it
as regular reference. The professor would not have any problem. Let me know if you
need any help

Best regards,

Xia Zhao



                                            142
----- Original Message -----
From: Cris Lane
To: xz28@drexel.edu
Sent: Sunday, October 15, 2006 1:05 PM
Subject: permission letter

Louis:
It is fine. Good luck.
Bahram Nabet
________________
Bahram Nabet, Ph.D.
Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Associate Dean, College of Engineering
215.895.6761
215.895.1695 FAX
www.ece.drexel.edu/faculty/nabet.html
Hi,

If you mention from where you get the pics and text, it is OK with me.

Regards,
Leif Norlin, Owner Visionics

-----Original Message-----
From: Cris Lane [mailto:crisl@hotmail.com]
Sent: den 15 November 2006 18:59
To: info@visionics.a.se
Subject: permission letter


Guercy Metayer
ATMEL
Guercy Metayer
(soulsuviva84@hotmail.com)
To:pr@atmel.com
Subject: Permission To Reprint Illustration

Hello!

I am currently in a senior design group at the University of Central Florida and I am
anticipating the use of your photo. I would like to ask permission to reprint the some of
the illustrations in the ATmega324P datasheet to support our argument in the project.
Thank you so much! Have a great week!

Guercy Metayer



                                           143
Guercy Metayer
(soulsuviva84@hotmail.com)
PCBexpress
To:support@sunstone.com
Subject: Permission To Reprint Photo

Hello!

I am currently in a senior design group at the University of Central Florida and I am
anticipating the use of your photo. I would like to ask permission to reprint the PCB
photo on page http://www.pcbexpress.com/technical/tutorial.php to support our argument
in the project. Thank you so much! Have a great week!

Guercy Metayer


Guercy Metayer
(soulsuviva84@hotmail.com)
To:info@4pcb.com
Subject: Permission To Reprint Photos

Hello!

I am currently in a senior design group at the University of Central Florida and I am
anticipating the use of your photo. I would like to ask permission to reprint the PCB
photo on page
http://www.4pcb.com/production_boards_custom_proto_prototype_design_tips.htm to
support our argument in the project. Thank you so much! Have a great week!

Guercy Metayer


Guercy Metayer
(soulsuviva84@hotmail.com)
To: press@wikimedia.org
Subject: Permission To Reprint Photo

Hello!

I am currently in a senior design group at the University of Central Florida and I am
anticipating the use of your photo. I would like to ask permission to reprint the photo
below to support our argument in the project. Thank you so much! Have a great week!

Guercy Metayer




                                          144
Guercy Metayer
(soulsuviva84@hotmail.com)
To: press@rabbitsemiconductor.com
Subject: Permission To Reprint Photo

Hello!

I am currently in a senior design group at the University of Central Florida and I am
anticipating the use of your photo. I would like to ask permission to reprint the photo
below to support our argument in the project. Thank you so much! Have a great week!

Guercy Metayer



Guercy Metayer
(soulsuviva84@hotmail.com)
To:pr@mail.microchip.com
Subject:Permission To Reprint Photo

Hello!

I am currently in a senior design group at the University of Central Florida and I am
anticipating the use of your photo. I would like to ask permission to reprint the photo
below to support our argument in the project. Thank you so much! Have a great week!

Guercy Metayer

APPENDIX C -- Permissions (Table References)

Table 1 - FM Modules by RF Solutions
(http://www.rfsolutions.co.uk/acatalog/Hybrid_Transmitter_Receiver_Modules.html)

         Email: http://www.rfsolutions.co.uk/acatalog/Mail.php

On 11/30/06, Michael Hook <mh@rfsolutions.co.uk> wrote:

Hello Larry,

Sure, we have no problem with you doing this.

Best Regards
Mike Hook
Tel: +44 (0)1273 898007
Fax: +44 (0)1273 480661
RF Solutions Ltd


                                          145
Website | Forum | Knowledge Base




From: Larry Lowe [mailto:larry.lowe@gmail.com]
Sent: 30 November 2006 09:32
To: Michael Hook
Subject: Permission to repost pictures

 Hi, i am looking into using this product in a design project for school. However, i
need permission to repost your pictures in my research report. Please let me
know if i may do this. The pictures are located here:

Wifi RS232 Module
(http://www.rfsolutions.co.uk/acatalog/WLAN_to_RS232_Module.html)

FM Modules
(http://www.rfsolutions.co.uk/acatalog/Hybrid_Transmitter_Receiver_Modules.html)



Table 2 - Antenna Types (From KH Series Manual)
(http://www.linxtechnologies.com/documents/kh-rxd_manual.pdf)
KH Series product manual by Linx Technologies




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