Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually Transmitted

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually Transmitted Powered By Docstoc
					 Sexually
Transmitted
  Diseases
    What is a Sexually Transmitted
               Disease?
• STD’s are infections that are spread from person to
  person through intimate sexual contact.

• STD’s are dangerous because they are easily spread
  and it is hard to tell just by looking who has an STD.

• 1 in 4 teenagers has an STD.
•Pregnant teen girls are carrying on average 2.3
sexually transmitted diseases.


•Each day 33, 000 Americans become infected
with an STD.


•Today 12 thousand teenagers will contract a
sexually transmitted disease
•It is estimated that 20 percent of all Americans age
12 and older are infected with genital herpes.


•It is estimated that there are more than 68 million
current STD infections among Americans. Each year,
15.3 million new STD infections occur, including over
3 million infections in teens. The two most common
STDs, herpes and human papilloma virus (HPV),
account for 65 of the 68 million current infections.

•Source: American Social Health Association. Sexually Transmitted Disease
in America: How Many Cases and at What Cost? Menlo Park, Calif.: Kaiser
Family Foundation; 1998.
•In l980, four million people were reported to have
been infected with an STD. By 1990 that number
tripled with 12 million people reported to have a new
STD infection that year.

•Today, one in every five Americans between ages 15
and 55 is infected with at least one sexually
transmitted disease.

•The Centers for Disease Control reports there are
now more than 50 known STDs. Some STDs can
make you sterile. Some are incurable.
   Prevention is the Key
• The virtue of Chastity: Sexual self-control.
  Saving sexual intercourse for marriage, the
  context in which God intended for sexual union.

• It is possible to get an STD even without having
  intercourse, through skin-to-skin contact.
           Prevention is the Key
• It is possible to get any one of the following STDs
through oral sex. Oral sex is not safe sex.


• The Safe-Sex Message has given and continues
to give a false sense of security. Condoms have a
high failure rate when attempting to prevent
STDs.
 15% - 25% for preventing pregnancy (a woman can only get
pregnant within a window of a few days a month. An STD
can be contracted any day of the month.
                Common STDs

•   Chlamydia                •   HIV and AIDS
•   Gonorrhea                •   Pubic Lice
•   Genital Herpes (HSV-2)   •   Syphilis
•   Genital Warts (HPV)      •   Trichomoniasis
•   Hepatitis B
    How do I know if I have an
              STD?
• Most people who have an STD have no
  symptoms. A test from your health care
  provider or local health clinic may be the only
  way to tell for sure if you're infected.

• If you do become infected, symptoms may
  appear right away. Or, they may not show up
  for weeks or months or even years. They may
  come and go. Even if the signs and symptoms
  go away, you can still infect other people if you
  have sex with them. Or, they can still infect
  you!
    Common Symptoms for Girls
Some symptoms you may have are:

• Sores, bumps or blisters near your genitals, anus or mouth
• Burning or pain when you urinate
• Itching, bad smell or unusual discharge from your vagina
  or anus
• Bellyache (pain in your lower abdomen)
• Bleeding from your vagina between your menstrual
  periods
• Remember: Sometimes symptoms don't show up for
  weeks or months or years.
    Common Symptoms for Guys
Some symptoms you may have are:

• Sores, bumps or blisters near your genitals, anus or
    mouth
•   Burning or pain when you urinate
•   Drip or discharge from your penis
•   Itching, pain or discharge from your anus
•   Remember: Sometimes symptoms don't show up for
    weeks or months.
What do I do if I have
    symptoms?
• If you think you have an STD you need to see a
  healthcare provider for treatment.

• The tests are expensive, but usually quick, and
  it may help to remember that the nurses and
  doctors are there to help you, and do this kind
  of test all the time.
How will they know I have an STD?
• The doctor or nurse will probably ask for you to
  urinate in a cup. They can look under a
  microscope at the organisms in your urine.
• Some STDs are diagnosed by taking a swab of the
  vagina or penis for secretions.
• Other STD’s can be diagnosed by looking at the
  sores or bumps on your genitals.
• Some STD’s are diagnosed by testing
  your blood.
Treatment and Facts


   Know the Facts!
                   Chlamydia
• Caused by bacteria called Chlamydia Trachomatis.

• Chlamydia is one of the most common sexually
  transmitted infections.

• Chlamydia is curable.

• Your healthcare provider will give you antibiotics
  for treatment.

• Anyone with whom you’ve had sex will also need
  to be treated
One attack of Chlamydia leaves you with a 35% chance
of infertility (never being able to have children)

A second attack of Chlamydia raises that percentage to
close to 50%.

A third attack of Chlamydia, and there is a very good
chance you will never have children.
Untreated chlamydia infections in women may lead to:

   •Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID). PID is a serious infection
   of a woman's reproductive organs. Left untreated, PID can
   cause infertility.

   •Cystitis (inflammation of the urinary bladder)

   •Mucopurulent (muke-o-PURE-you-lent) cervicitis,
   characterized by a yellow discharge from the cervix
Untreated chlamydia in men may lead to:


   •Prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland)
   •Urethral scarring
   •Infertility
   •Epididymitis (inflammation of the epididymis, which are
   the elongated, cord-like structure that runs along the back of
   the testes)
Untreated chlamydia in infants may lead:


  •Blindness




  •Complications of pneumonia, which can include death
               Gonorrhea
• Caused by a bacteria known as Neisseria
  gonorrhoeae.
• Gonorrhea is treatable.
• Your healthcare provider will give you
  antibiotics for treatment.
• Anyone with whom you’ve had sex will
  also need to be treated
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      Genital Herpes (HSV-2)
• HSV-2 is caused by the herpes virus.
• You can still get HSV-2 even when you use
  a condom.
• After contracting the herpes virus you will
  have it FOREVER. There is NO cure.
• A doctor can prescribe antiviral medication
  to help control recurring outbreaks and clear
  up painful sores.
             Birth Acquired Herpes
Intrauterine herpes (baby) can cause severe brain damage, eye disease,
such as inflammation of the retina (chorioretinitis), and skin lesions.


Birth acquired herpes can produce localized disease. Infants may
develop only a localized skin infection consisting of small fluid-filled
blisters (vesicles) that rupture, crust over, and finally heal, often leaving
a mild scar behind.
A second type of birth acquired herpes infection leads to encephalitis, an
inflammation of the brain that can result in seizures and later
neurological problems. If untreated, it may lead to death.

The third type of infection, disseminated herpes infection, is the most
dangerous. In this type, the herpes virus can affect many different
internal organs including the liver, lungs, kidneys, and brain. There may
or may not be vesicles on the skin. This type of infection is frequently
fatal.
Symptoms: The baby may exhibit:
   •Poor feeding
   •Appears unwell or stressed
   •Skin lesions, fluid filled blisters
   •Breathing difficulties
        oGrunting
        oFlaring of the nostrils
        oRapid breathing (tachypnea)
        oShort periods without breathing (apneic episodes)
        oBlue appearance (cyanosis)
   •Shock
   •Lethargy
   •Seizures
   •Enlarged liver and spleen
   •Kidney failure
   •Jaundice, Bleeding easily, Coma
        Genital Warts (HPV)
• Genital warts are caused by human
  papillomavirus (HPV).

• There is NO cure for the virus. You may
  have more outbreaks and you can spread the
  virus to anyone you have sex with.
         Genital Warts (HPV)

•You can still get HPV even when you use a condom.


•Some warts can be dissolved with special
medication or the doctor can “freeze” them off with a
special chemical.
The New England Journal of Medicine (April 18, 1996) reported that
approximately one in every three female college students in America is
infected with the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). The Medical Institute for
Sexual Health (April, 1994) reported that the greatest danger of HPV is
that it is the probable cause of almost all cervical cancer. Based on
statistics provided by the American Cancer Society, it is estimated that in
1994 there were 16,000 new cases of cervical cancer and 5,000 related
deaths in the United States.

HPV also causes genital warts on both men and women that range in size
from a small tick to the size of a cauliflower. These warts can be very
difficult to cure, and sometimes require surgery.

Dr. Stephen Curry of the New England Medical Center in Boston was
quoted in TIME magazine as saying “This virus (HPV) is rampant. If it
were not for AIDS, stories about it would be on the front page of every
newspaper.”
Cervix with HPV virus
HPV infection in the throat



            Normal larynx




 HPV infected larynx
 exhaling
Venereal warts caused by HPV
                HPV and cancer
Anal dysplasia (abnormal development of tissue/cells)
and anal cancer

Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VAIN) and vaginal
cancer

Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VIN) and vulvar cancer

Cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer.
                       Hepatitis B
• Hepatitis is a disease of the liver.

• Hepatitis B is transmitted person to person
  through blood and body fluids.

• There is no treatment for the virus after it has been
  contracted.

• The only treatment is prevention:
   – Abstain from sex, avoid contact with other people’s blood, get
     immunized
                HIV and AIDS
• AIDS is one of the most deadly diseases in history.

• AIDS is caused by HIV (Human immunodeficiency
  virus).

• HIV destroys the body’s defense system (the immune
  system).

• Thousands of teens in the U.S. become infected each
  year.
       How do you get HIV?
• HIV can be transmitted from an infected
  person to another person through blood,
  semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk.

• People who have another STD are at higher
  risk for contracting HIV during sex with
  infected partners.
 How do people know they have
            HIV?
• Many people do not know they have it.

• Symptoms may not appear for up to 10 years.

• Some people may feel and look healthy for
  years while they are infected with HIV.

• It is possible to infect others with HIV, even if
  the person has absolutely no symptoms.
           Symptoms of AIDS
• Extreme weakness and •       Minor infections that
    fatigue                    cause skin rashes and
                               mouth, genital, and anal
•   Rapid weight loss          sores.
•   Frequent fevers with   •   White spots in the mouth
    not explanation            or throat
•   Heavy sweating at      •   Chronic diarrhea
    night                  •   A cough that won’t go
                               away
•   Swollen lymph glands
                           •   Short-term memory loss
      Kaposi’s sarcoma
      (Cancer associated with AIDS)




                                        Oral Leukoplakia



Oral Thrush (yeast infection)
Common infection associated with AIDS
        How is HIV treated?
• There is NO cure.
• If you think you or your partner may have
  HIV or AIDS you need to see a healthcare
  provider who can do blood tests.
• Prevention is the only way to protect
  yourself from contracting the virus.
              Pubic Lice (Crabs)
• Pubic lice are tiny insects that can crawl from the pubic
  hair of one person to the pubic hair of another person
  during sex.

• You will be prescribed or told to buy medication that
  kills the lice and their eggs.

• You will also need to dry clean or use very hot water to
  wash all of your bedding, towels, or recently worn
  clothing to kill the lice.
• Pubic lice can be spread even when you use a condom.
                    Syphilis
• Caused by bacteria called Trepenoma pallidum.
• If not treated Syphilis can be very dangerous and
  can cause brain damage and other serious health
  problems.
• If you are diagnosed as having the disease you can
  be treated with antibiotics.
• Anyone with whom you’ve had sex will also need
  to be treated
               Trichomoniasis
• Sometimes called “trich” it is a parasite that can be
    passed from person to person during sexual
    intercourse.
•   One of the most common STD’s
•   Can be passed on via damp towels, washcloths,
    and bathing suits if someone has the parasite.
•   If you have the disease your healthcare provider
    will give you antibiotics.
•   Anyone with whom you’ve had sex will also need
    to be treated.
      What Happens if I don’t get
              treated?
• If you have an STD and don’t get treatment
  you can have some long-term effects such
  as:
  –   Infertility (Unable to have babies)
  –   Cancer
  –   Long-term pain
  –   Can pass disease from mother to baby
  –   Death
                1960s           1970s             80s          90s           2000

As the production and distribution of condoms rose, so too the level of STDs, abortion,
teen pregnancy and other problems
  Conclusion
• It is much easier to prevent an STD than to cure one.
• The ONLY way to prevent STD’s is to abstain from
  ALL types of sexual intercourse.
• Condoms do not always protect you from STD’s such
  as HSV-2, HPV, and Pubic Lice.
• Remember, just because you and your partner may be
  monogamous with each other, the risk of getting an
  STD is increased by the number of previous sexual
  partners either partner has had.
What is secondary virginity?

Secondary virginity is possible for teens who have been
sexually active and who may want to stop being
sexually active and wait until marriage to initiate sex
again. Secondary virginity is becoming more and more
common among young adults. In view of the sexually
charged society that teenagers live in, it seems
appropriate for parents, educators and society as a
whole to design strategies that encourage all single
people who are sexually active to cultivate chastity.

 http://www.medinstitute.org/medical
    Is abstinence realistic?

    More than 50 percent of high school students have
    not had sex. And recent studies show this number is
    increasing. Of teens who are sexually experienced-
    have had intercourse at least one time-approximately
    25 percent are currently abstinent (which means
    they've had no sexual involvement within the prior
    three months).


Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1998). Youth Risk Behavior
Surveillance-United States, 1997. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 47(SS-3).
Chastity is Beautiful
      Cee Cee Michaela
      (actress and singer)




                             Lakita Garth
                             (Miss California)