Who gets malaria How is malaria spread Symptoms of malaria How

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Who gets malaria How is malaria spread Symptoms of malaria How Powered By Docstoc
					     mosquito-borne disease caused by any one of four different blood parasites, called Plasmodia.

     disease is transmitted to people by the Anopheles mosquito.

     disease is a leading cause of debilitating illness, with over 200 million cases each year from around the world.

     most cases reported in USA each year are acquired in foreign countries. (few acquired in U.S.)

Who gets malaria?
     persons residing in or traveling to a country where malaria is prevalent is at risk for contracting the disease.

     currently a problem in tropical or subtropical areas of Asia, Africa and Central and South America. (Most black
     Africans show a natural resistance to some species of malaria. Otherwise, susceptibility to malaria is
     universal.)

How is malaria spread?
     by the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito.

     With certain malaria species, dormant forms can be produced which may cause relapses of malaria months to
     years later.

      Malaria may also be transmitted by transfusion of blood from infected people or by the use of contaminated
     needles or syringes.

Symptoms of malaria
     include fever, chills, sweats and headache, and in some instances may progress to jaundice, blood coagulation
     defects, shock, kidney or liver failure, central nervous system disorders and coma.

     Cycles of chills, fever and sweating occurring every one, two or three days is a good indicator of malaria in a
     person recently returning from a tropical area.

How soon do symptoms occur?
     12 to 30 days = time between the infective mosquito bite and the development of malaria (symptoms can range
     depending on the type of Plasmodia involved.)

     One strain of Plasmodium, called P. vivax, may have a prolonged incubation period of eight to 10 months.

     When infection occurs by blood transfusion, the incubation period depends on the number of parasites
     transferred but is usually less than two months.
When and for how long is a person able to spread malaria?
       Untreated or inadequately treated cases may be a source of mosquito infection for one to three years
       (depending on the strain of Plasmodium.)

       Direct person-to-person transmission does not occur.

       Stored blood products can remain infective for 16 days.

Treatment for malaria

Due to the changing pattern of drug-resistant strains, current recommendations can be obtained from your local,
county or state health department. Counterfeit and substandard drugs are sold in some areas and should be avoided.

What can be done to prevent the spread of malaria?
       Since malaria is not native to the United States, exposure to American citizens occurs most frequently during
       foreign travel to malarious areas.

       The liberal and frequent use of mosquito repellents as well as using a bed net can be very effective in
       preventing mosquito bites.

Most drugs used in treatment are active against the parasite forms in the blood (the form
that causes disease) and include:

       chloroquine
       sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (Fansidar®)
       mefloquine (Lariam®)
       atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone®)
       quinine
       doxycycline
       artemisin derivatives (not licensed for use in the United States, but often found overseas)

How to treat a patient with malaria depends on:

       The type (species) of the infecting parasite
       The area where the infection was acquired and its drug-resistance status
       The clinical status of the patient
       Any accompanying illness or condition
       Pregnancy
       Drug allergies, or other medications taken by the patient

Counterfeit and substandard drugs are sold in some areas and should be avoided.

History Malaria is probably one of the oldest diseases known to mankind that has had profound impact on our
history. The outcomes of many a wars and destinies of many a kings would have been different, if malaria did not
exist. It has been responsible for the decline of nations and crushing military defeats, often having caused more
casualties than the weapons themselves. For centuries it prevented any economic development in vast regions of the
earth. It continues to be a huge social, economical and health problem, particularly in the tropical countries. History
of malaria and its terrible effects is as ancient as the history of civilization, therefore history of mankind itself.
Malaria was linked with poisonous vapours of swamps or stagnant water on the ground since time immemorial. This
probable relationship was so firmly established that it gave the two most frequently used names to the disease
mal’aria, later shortened to one word malaria, and paludisme. The term malaria (from the Italian mala “bad” and aria
“air”) was used by the Italians to describe the cause of intermittent fevers associated with exposure to marsh air or
miasma. The word was introduced to English by Horace Walpole, who wrote in 1740 about a “horrid thing called
mal’aria, that comes to Rome every summer and kills one.” The term malaria, without the apostrophe, evolved into the
name of the disease only in the 20th century. Up to that point the various intermittent fevers had been called jungle
fever, marsh fever, paludal fever, or swamp fever.




   Time Line For Spread of Malaria

                                                                     >10000 years ago
                                                                       Malaria in Africa
                                                                   10000-5000 years ago
                                                Mesopotamia, the Indian peninsula and South-East Asia
                                                                       5000 years ago
                                                                       Malaria in China
                                                                       3000 years ago
                                                                P. falciparum reaches India
                                                                  2,500 - 2,000 years ago
                                                        Malaria reaches the Mediterranean shores
                                                                    1000-500 years ago
                                                             Malaria reaches northern Europe
                                                                  End of 15th century AD
                                                                Malaria reaches New World
                                                                    Mid 18th century AD
                                                           Malaria spreads across North America
                                                                      19th Century AD
                                                             Malaria almost all over the globe
                                                                   Early 20th Century AD
                                                     Millions die of malaria almost all over the world
                                                                         Early 1950s
                                          Malaria almost disappears from North America and from almost all of
                                                              Europe; deaths mainly in Africa