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Workers Organize

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					Chapter 14 section 3 notes
   Please write down the key terms and people
    on pg. 472
   Please define all ten of them using either the
    glossary in the back or the text from pgs.472-
    476
   1890- the government passed the Sherman
    Antitrust Act
   This act made it illegal to form trusts and
    prohibited monopolies
   Only 18 suits were filed from 1890-1901
   The law was vague and gov’t didn’t actively
    enforce it
   10% of the population controlled 75% of the
    nation’s wealth
   The rich was very rich and the poor was
    extremely poor
   Many factory workers
    were immigrants
   Most were white or
    European
   African Americans could
    get jobs but they didn’t
    pay as much as factory
    jobs
   Most workers were
    children
   1900- 1 in 6 children held
    jobs outside the home
   10 hour work days
   6 days a week
   No paid vacation
   No sick leave
   No compensation for injuries
   Accidents resulted from pressure to speed up
    production
   The worst working conditions were called
    sweatshops- typically made garments
   Employers banded together to pressure
    employers to make the workplace safer
   First organized union was in 1794 in
    Philadelphia- group of shoemakers
   National Labor Union- NLU organized in
    1866. They pushed for 8 hour work days
   They were unsuccessful and folded in 1872
   The Knights of Labor
   Founded in Pennsylvania in 1869
   Leader was Terence V. Powderly
   Knights of Labor accepted women, African
    Americans, and unskilled workers
   There was over 700,000 members by 1886
   They fought for 8-hr. work day, end of child
    labor and equal pay
   1877
   Northern railroads cut wages that year
   Workers for Baltimore and Ohio railroads
    walked off the job
   They also blocked the movement of trains on
    their rail lines
   Governors called their state militias to put
    down the strikes
   Baltimore- 10 deaths
   Pittsburgh- 20 civilians killed
   Mobs in Pittsburgh set trains and buildings on
    fire totaling $4million in damages
   The U.S. Army put an end to the strike of 1877
   More than 100 people died before it was over
   Haymarket square in Chicago
   Crowds gathered to protest violent police
    action the day before at a strike
   Someone threw a bomb into the crowd
   People panicked and began firing guns
   11 died and 100 suffered injuries
   People blamed foreign unions for the
    violence
   Police arrested 8 foreign people
   5 of the 8 were not even in Haymarket Square
    when the bomb went off
   All of the men were sentenced to death
   4 were hung
   1 killed himself in prison
   3 were pardoned by the new governor
   They forced employees to sign documents
    stating they wouldn’t join unions
   They made blacklists of trouble makers
   When workers protested they were replaced
    by scabs- strike breakers
   Led by Samuel Gompers in 1886
   They used strikes and won wage increases
    and shorter work weeks
   1892- workers at the Carnegie Steel Company
    in Homestead, Pennsylvania protested when
    the manager wanted to step up production
   The workers seized the plant for days
   Private guards were hired to take control
   A battle went on for 14 hours and 16 people
    died
   The state militia was called in to restore order
    and the steel union withered
   1893- Pullman Co. laid off 1/3 of its employees
   It also cut the wages of the remaining
    employees (did not lower their rent)
   Workers went on strike led by Eugene Debs
    (ARU)
   U.S. gov’t stepped in and demanded they call
    off the strike because it was interfering with
    the U.S. mail
   President Grover Cleveland called in federal
    troops to end the strike
   H.W.-
   Create a chart like I have below:
   Record the causes and effects of key labor
    incidents
       Incident             Cause   Effect
       The Great Railroad
       Strike

       The Haymarket
       Riot
       The Homestead
       Strike
       The Pullman Strike

				
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