SOL Review Age of Exploration

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     World History II – SOL Exam Review
Part II: The Age of Exploration




Please complete this Review Packet and bring
    it to class for a notebook check grade.
   ACCESS NOTES: Geography and Early Trade Routes
Trade Patterns             1. Trade Patterns describe the routes along which goods are traded.
                           They’re important because trade helps support the exchange of ideas and
                           products (and people!). Some of the most important products traded in
                           1500 were gold and spices.

Age of Exploration         2. The Age of Exploration refers to the period during the 15th and 16th
                           centuries when Europeans began to travel vast distances across the world
                           and make new contacts with other cultures. During this time, Columbus
                           “discovered” the New World (that’s us!).

Factors which led to the   3. The following factors led to the Age of Exploration:
Age of Exploration             a. GOLD: demand for gold, spices, and natural resources in Europe
                               b. GOD: support for the diffusion (the spread) of Christianity
                               c. GLORY: political and economic competition between the
                                   European empires
The Silk Road
                           4. The Silk Road was an overland trade route that carried goods across
                           Asia and Europe. It went from China to the Mediterranean Sea coast. This
                           was one of the most important trade routes
maritime trade
                           5. Trade over water is known as maritime trade (maritime = water).
                           Here are the major maritime trade routes in 1500 CE:
                               a. Indian Ocean
                               b. Black Sea (connects to Northern Europe through rivers)
                               c. Western European sea and rivers
                               d. South China sea and Southeast Asia

                           6. The Trans-Saharan Trade routes connected sub-Saharan Africa
Trans-Saharan Trade        (reminder: sub-Saharan means south of the Sahara) with the Saharan desert,
                           North Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea.
Directions: please use your Geography and Early Trade Route Access Notes to complete
the following activities.

3 Gs – please illustrate the 3 factors that promoted the Age of Exploration




Map It! – please draw the following trade routes on the map below:
 Trans-Saharan Trade Route
 the Silk Road




Quick Questions
1. When was the Age of Exploration? Put down both the centuries and the actual years.




2. What’s a “trade pattern”?




3. What does “maritime” mean?
ACCESS NOTES: Explorers and Conquistadors
Explorers              1. Explorers were men who sailed across the oceans. They drew new maps,
                       made contact with other cultures, and opened up trade.

                       2. Conquistadors (meaning “conquerors” in Spanish) were soldiers sent
Conquistadors          by the Spanish royalty to fight wars and build empires in the New World.

Vasco da Gama          3. In 1497, the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) led a
                       fleet of four ships around the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean.
                       By 1502, he seized key spice trading ports all around the Indian Ocean,
                       laying the groundwork for a Portuguese trade empire.
Christopher Columbus
                       4. Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) wanted to sail west in order to
                       reach the rich spice ports of Asia. In 1492, with funding from Spain,
                       Columbus reached what he thought was Asia (but really he found us,
                       America!).

                       5. Hernando Cortes (1485-1547) is the most famous conquistador. In
Hernando Cortez        1519, he set out with a small army to conquer the Aztecs (in what is now
                       Mexico) for Spain. By 1521, Cortes conquered them with superior
                       weaponry (such as horses and guns) and a smallpox outbreak which killed
                       many Aztecs.

                       6. In 1532, Francisco Pizarro (1471-1541) took his own army into what is
Francisco Pizarro      now Peru, determined to conquer more land for Spain. Pizarro fought
                       against the Inca and took their capital at Cuzco.

Ferdinand Magellan     7. Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) explored for Spain. He believed that
                       he could sail around the Americas to Asia and come home by continuing
                       around Africa. In 1519, he set out with a fleet of five ships. Magellan died
                       in the Philippines, and only one ship made it back to Spain in 1521.
circumnavigate         However, his men reported that the world was much larger than most
                       people had thought. Going around the world is called circumnavigation.

Francis Drake          8. Francis Drake (1540-1596) sought to counter the growing power of the
                       Spanish for the glory of his own nation, England, by attacking Spanish
                       merchant vessels carrying cargo back from the New World. At one point,
                       the Spanish chased Drake so far around the globe that he succeeded in
                       duplicating the route sailed by the crew of Ferdinand Magellan.

                       9. The French explorer Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) led several
Jacques Cartier
                       expeditions that explored the St. Lawrence River. He hoped to find a route
                       through North America that would lead to Asia. Cartier made contact with
                       the powerful Iroquois Confederacy, and mapped some of the land that later
                       became French Canada.
Directions: please use your Explorers and Conquistadors Access Notes to complete the
crossword puzzle.




Across                                              Down
1. the people conquered by Cortes                   2. the Spanish word for "conqueror"
4. French explorer who sailed up the St. Lawrence   3. country that Vasco da Gama explored for
     River                                          5. his fleet was the first to circumnavigate the globe
6. English explorer who circumnavigated the globe   8. the explorer who "discovered" the New World in
7. the conquistador who conquered the Inca              1492
8. country that paid Columbus and Magellan to
     explore
ACCESS NOTES: Colonization of the Americas
                          1. After Columbus’s first visit in 1492 many European nations began to
                          explore and colonize. The most damaging effect of exploration was the
measles                   death of millions of Native Americans due to European diseases such as
smallpox                  measles and smallpox. Why did so many Native Americans die? because
                          they had not built up immunities to the various diseases.

                          2. With the help of diseases, the Spanish conquered most of the native
                          peoples in North and South America and the Aztec and Incan empires
                          were destroyed. In their place Spain ruled colonies that imitated Spain’s
class system              culture (especially the Spanish language and Catholic religion) and politics.
hierarchy                 The Spanish also established a rigid class system based on a hierarchy –
                          with pure-blooded Spanish people at the top and Native Americans and
                          African slaves at the bottom. The Spanish brought African slaves to their
                          colonies because so many Native Americans had died from disease.

mercantilism              3. The main reason that European nations wanted colonies was to
                          accumulate wealth. They operated under the theory of mercantilism.
                          Mercantilism is an economic theory that says a nation’s exports (goods sold
                          to other countries) should exceed a nation’s imports (goods bought from
                          other countries). In other words, European nations had colonies solely for
                          their own economic benefit.

                          4. Because of its colonies Spain was now the richest nation in the world.
                          When they saw this, many other European nations like England, France,
                          and the Netherlands set up their own colonies. As nations got richer a new
                          economic system emerged, one that focused on mercantilism and new
                          money and banking systems. Historians call the creation of this new
Commercial Revolution     economy the Commercial Revolution.

                          5. As part of the Commercial Revolution a system of trade emerged that
Triangular Trade System   linked the Americas, Europe, and Africa called the Triangular Trade
                          System. The Triangle Trade saw the shipment of slaves, gold, silver, sugar,
                          rum, and many other items between these three places. The part of the
                          Triangle Trade that included the passage of slaves from West Africa to the
Middle Passage            Americas is called the Middle Passage.

                          6. Historians refer to this movement of people, food, animals, diseases, and
                          ideas that went back and forth between the Americas (the West) and Asia
Columbian Exchange        and Europe (the East) as the Columbian Exchange. Goods that were
                          transported from the Americas to Europe included: corn, potatoes, and
                          cocoa. Some items that went to the New World (Americas) were diseases,
                          horses, and Christianity.
Directions: please use your Colonization of the Americas Access Notes to complete the
following activities.

Columbian Exchange – use the map on the front of this packet:
 list 5 things that went from East to West (don’t forget the diseases!)
 list 5 things that went from West to East

        From East to West                                                        From West to East
   1.                                                                       1.

   2.                                                                       2.

   3.                                                                       3.

   4.                                                                       4.

   5.                                                                       5.


Triangle Time
You Ain’t Got No Class! – label the pyramid        Triangle Number Two! – label the map of the
describing the class system in Spain’s colonies    Triangle Trade




Quick Questions
1. Think like a mercantilist! – for what does a country use its colonies?



2. Give two examples of the effects of the Commercial Revolution in today’s world.
ACCESS NOTES: Global Impact of Exploration
Ottoman Empire        1. The Ottoman Empire was originally located in Asia Minor, a region of
                      the Middle East that is now modern day Turkey. The Ottomans emerged as
                      an Islamic political and economic power following the conquest of
                      Constantinople. Constantinople became their capital, renamed Istanbul.
                      The Ottomans brought much of the Muslim territory in Southwest Asia
                      and North Africa under their rule. They traded in coffee and ceramics.

                      2. The Mughal or Mogul Empire is descended from the Mongols. They
Mughal/Mogul Empire   were Muslims who established an Islamic empire in northern India. They
                      traded in textiles and spices with the Europeans, who established bases on
                      the coasts of India.

                      3. The Ming Dynasty ruled China when Europeans began to arrive in
Ming China
                      East Asia. Europeans wanted Chinese goods like tea and porcelain. The
                      Ming limited the influence and activities of foreign merchants through the
                      use of policy and the establishment of enclaves. In other words, the Ming
                      wanted to keep China isolated from outside influence.
isolated
                      4. An enclave is a community that is segregated from the rest of the
enclave               community. In China, foreigners were forced to live in enclaves. This kept
                      them from influencing the Chinese population.

                      5. The shogun was the top military official, or general, in Japan. The
                      shogun actually ran the country. The Japanese Emperor had no power. The
                      shogun’s government was called a shogunate. Warriors were called
shogun                samurai. Like China, Japan wished to remain isolated from outside
                      influences.

                      6. The Tokugawa shogunate brought an end to the civil war in Japan.
Tokugawa shogunate    They used European guns to help gain victory, but later they distrusted
                      Europeans. They concentrated all political power in the hands of the
                      shogun and pursued a policy isolationism to limit foreign influences.

African kingdoms      7. Africa was divided into many different kingdoms when Europeans
                      began to arrive. Some African kingdoms engaged in trade with Europe,
                      giving slaves and raw materials in return for manufactured goods from
                      around the world. The exportation of slaves and demand for imported
                      goods from Europe began to alter traditional economic patterns in Africa.
                      The arrival of new food crops in Africa like corn and peanuts was one
                      important change. However, some African kingdoms sought to limit the
                      influence of Europeans and resisted the foreigners.
Directions: please use your Global Impact of Exploration Access Notes to complete the
following activities.

Map It! – please circle, shade, or somehow mark the locations of:
    the Mughal Empire
    the Ottoman Empire




Quick Questions
1. What did the Mughal Empire and the Ottoman Empire have in common?



2. Who’s this dude? Which country did he rule? Who (which specific one) made him so powerful?




3. Mr. Kishore’s dad was from India? What religion did he most likely practice?



4. How did China and Japan feel about foreigners, especially those from Europe?

				
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