Name _______________________ Date ________________________ Period _______________________ World History II – SOL Exam Review Part II: The Age of Exploration Please complete this Review Packet and bring it to class for a notebook check grade. ACCESS NOTES: Geography and Early Trade Routes Trade Patterns 1. Trade Patterns describe the routes along which goods are traded. They’re important because trade helps support the exchange of ideas and products (and people!). Some of the most important products traded in 1500 were gold and spices. Age of Exploration 2. The Age of Exploration refers to the period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans began to travel vast distances across the world and make new contacts with other cultures. During this time, Columbus “discovered” the New World (that’s us!). Factors which led to the 3. The following factors led to the Age of Exploration: Age of Exploration a. GOLD: demand for gold, spices, and natural resources in Europe b. GOD: support for the diffusion (the spread) of Christianity c. GLORY: political and economic competition between the European empires The Silk Road 4. The Silk Road was an overland trade route that carried goods across Asia and Europe. It went from China to the Mediterranean Sea coast. This was one of the most important trade routes maritime trade 5. Trade over water is known as maritime trade (maritime = water). Here are the major maritime trade routes in 1500 CE: a. Indian Ocean b. Black Sea (connects to Northern Europe through rivers) c. Western European sea and rivers d. South China sea and Southeast Asia 6. The Trans-Saharan Trade routes connected sub-Saharan Africa Trans-Saharan Trade (reminder: sub-Saharan means south of the Sahara) with the Saharan desert, North Africa, and the Mediterranean Sea. Directions: please use your Geography and Early Trade Route Access Notes to complete the following activities. 3 Gs – please illustrate the 3 factors that promoted the Age of Exploration Map It! – please draw the following trade routes on the map below: Trans-Saharan Trade Route the Silk Road Quick Questions 1. When was the Age of Exploration? Put down both the centuries and the actual years. 2. What’s a “trade pattern”? 3. What does “maritime” mean? ACCESS NOTES: Explorers and Conquistadors Explorers 1. Explorers were men who sailed across the oceans. They drew new maps, made contact with other cultures, and opened up trade. 2. Conquistadors (meaning “conquerors” in Spanish) were soldiers sent Conquistadors by the Spanish royalty to fight wars and build empires in the New World. Vasco da Gama 3. In 1497, the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama (1460-1524) led a fleet of four ships around the Cape of Good Hope into the Indian Ocean. By 1502, he seized key spice trading ports all around the Indian Ocean, laying the groundwork for a Portuguese trade empire. Christopher Columbus 4. Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) wanted to sail west in order to reach the rich spice ports of Asia. In 1492, with funding from Spain, Columbus reached what he thought was Asia (but really he found us, America!). 5. Hernando Cortes (1485-1547) is the most famous conquistador. In Hernando Cortez 1519, he set out with a small army to conquer the Aztecs (in what is now Mexico) for Spain. By 1521, Cortes conquered them with superior weaponry (such as horses and guns) and a smallpox outbreak which killed many Aztecs. 6. In 1532, Francisco Pizarro (1471-1541) took his own army into what is Francisco Pizarro now Peru, determined to conquer more land for Spain. Pizarro fought against the Inca and took their capital at Cuzco. Ferdinand Magellan 7. Ferdinand Magellan (1480-1521) explored for Spain. He believed that he could sail around the Americas to Asia and come home by continuing around Africa. In 1519, he set out with a fleet of five ships. Magellan died in the Philippines, and only one ship made it back to Spain in 1521. circumnavigate However, his men reported that the world was much larger than most people had thought. Going around the world is called circumnavigation. Francis Drake 8. Francis Drake (1540-1596) sought to counter the growing power of the Spanish for the glory of his own nation, England, by attacking Spanish merchant vessels carrying cargo back from the New World. At one point, the Spanish chased Drake so far around the globe that he succeeded in duplicating the route sailed by the crew of Ferdinand Magellan. 9. The French explorer Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) led several Jacques Cartier expeditions that explored the St. Lawrence River. He hoped to find a route through North America that would lead to Asia. Cartier made contact with the powerful Iroquois Confederacy, and mapped some of the land that later became French Canada. Directions: please use your Explorers and Conquistadors Access Notes to complete the crossword puzzle. Across Down 1. the people conquered by Cortes 2. the Spanish word for "conqueror" 4. French explorer who sailed up the St. Lawrence 3. country that Vasco da Gama explored for River 5. his fleet was the first to circumnavigate the globe 6. English explorer who circumnavigated the globe 8. the explorer who "discovered" the New World in 7. the conquistador who conquered the Inca 1492 8. country that paid Columbus and Magellan to explore ACCESS NOTES: Colonization of the Americas 1. After Columbus’s first visit in 1492 many European nations began to explore and colonize. The most damaging effect of exploration was the measles death of millions of Native Americans due to European diseases such as smallpox measles and smallpox. Why did so many Native Americans die? because they had not built up immunities to the various diseases. 2. With the help of diseases, the Spanish conquered most of the native peoples in North and South America and the Aztec and Incan empires were destroyed. In their place Spain ruled colonies that imitated Spain’s class system culture (especially the Spanish language and Catholic religion) and politics. hierarchy The Spanish also established a rigid class system based on a hierarchy – with pure-blooded Spanish people at the top and Native Americans and African slaves at the bottom. The Spanish brought African slaves to their colonies because so many Native Americans had died from disease. mercantilism 3. The main reason that European nations wanted colonies was to accumulate wealth. They operated under the theory of mercantilism. Mercantilism is an economic theory that says a nation’s exports (goods sold to other countries) should exceed a nation’s imports (goods bought from other countries). In other words, European nations had colonies solely for their own economic benefit. 4. Because of its colonies Spain was now the richest nation in the world. When they saw this, many other European nations like England, France, and the Netherlands set up their own colonies. As nations got richer a new economic system emerged, one that focused on mercantilism and new money and banking systems. Historians call the creation of this new Commercial Revolution economy the Commercial Revolution. 5. As part of the Commercial Revolution a system of trade emerged that Triangular Trade System linked the Americas, Europe, and Africa called the Triangular Trade System. The Triangle Trade saw the shipment of slaves, gold, silver, sugar, rum, and many other items between these three places. The part of the Triangle Trade that included the passage of slaves from West Africa to the Middle Passage Americas is called the Middle Passage. 6. Historians refer to this movement of people, food, animals, diseases, and ideas that went back and forth between the Americas (the West) and Asia Columbian Exchange and Europe (the East) as the Columbian Exchange. Goods that were transported from the Americas to Europe included: corn, potatoes, and cocoa. Some items that went to the New World (Americas) were diseases, horses, and Christianity. Directions: please use your Colonization of the Americas Access Notes to complete the following activities. Columbian Exchange – use the map on the front of this packet: list 5 things that went from East to West (don’t forget the diseases!) list 5 things that went from West to East From East to West From West to East 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. Triangle Time You Ain’t Got No Class! – label the pyramid Triangle Number Two! – label the map of the describing the class system in Spain’s colonies Triangle Trade Quick Questions 1. Think like a mercantilist! – for what does a country use its colonies? 2. Give two examples of the effects of the Commercial Revolution in today’s world. ACCESS NOTES: Global Impact of Exploration Ottoman Empire 1. The Ottoman Empire was originally located in Asia Minor, a region of the Middle East that is now modern day Turkey. The Ottomans emerged as an Islamic political and economic power following the conquest of Constantinople. Constantinople became their capital, renamed Istanbul. The Ottomans brought much of the Muslim territory in Southwest Asia and North Africa under their rule. They traded in coffee and ceramics. 2. The Mughal or Mogul Empire is descended from the Mongols. They Mughal/Mogul Empire were Muslims who established an Islamic empire in northern India. They traded in textiles and spices with the Europeans, who established bases on the coasts of India. 3. The Ming Dynasty ruled China when Europeans began to arrive in Ming China East Asia. Europeans wanted Chinese goods like tea and porcelain. The Ming limited the influence and activities of foreign merchants through the use of policy and the establishment of enclaves. In other words, the Ming wanted to keep China isolated from outside influence. isolated 4. An enclave is a community that is segregated from the rest of the enclave community. In China, foreigners were forced to live in enclaves. This kept them from influencing the Chinese population. 5. The shogun was the top military official, or general, in Japan. The shogun actually ran the country. The Japanese Emperor had no power. The shogun’s government was called a shogunate. Warriors were called shogun samurai. Like China, Japan wished to remain isolated from outside influences. 6. The Tokugawa shogunate brought an end to the civil war in Japan. Tokugawa shogunate They used European guns to help gain victory, but later they distrusted Europeans. They concentrated all political power in the hands of the shogun and pursued a policy isolationism to limit foreign influences. African kingdoms 7. Africa was divided into many different kingdoms when Europeans began to arrive. Some African kingdoms engaged in trade with Europe, giving slaves and raw materials in return for manufactured goods from around the world. The exportation of slaves and demand for imported goods from Europe began to alter traditional economic patterns in Africa. The arrival of new food crops in Africa like corn and peanuts was one important change. However, some African kingdoms sought to limit the influence of Europeans and resisted the foreigners. Directions: please use your Global Impact of Exploration Access Notes to complete the following activities. Map It! – please circle, shade, or somehow mark the locations of: the Mughal Empire the Ottoman Empire Quick Questions 1. What did the Mughal Empire and the Ottoman Empire have in common? 2. Who’s this dude? Which country did he rule? Who (which specific one) made him so powerful? 3. Mr. Kishore’s dad was from India? What religion did he most likely practice? 4. How did China and Japan feel about foreigners, especially those from Europe?