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            PLANT BIOLOGY


               David Warren Morris
               Marta Zetina Morris

    American Indian Museum of Plants and Healing

Published by
Cambridge International Science Publishing
7 Meadow Walk, Great Abington, Cambridge CB1 6AZ, UK

First published March 2002

© David Warren Morris and Marta Zetina Morris
© Cambridge International Science Publishing

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ISBN 1 898326 97 5

Production Irina Stupak
Printed in the UK at the University Press, Cambridge

        The English-Spanish Dictionary of Plant Biology has been
written to fill a need for increased communication between English and
Spanish speaking people who are working in or are being affected by
the many sub-fields of plant biology. Its general purpose is to aid,
stimulate, and facilitate a two-way flow of information and understanding
between the peoples of North, South, and Central America in an era of
economic and environmental interdependence.
       The specific purpose is to provide a representative selection from
the huge vocabulary of plant biology for those who work in the field or
in laboratories, including botanical researchers, students, agriculturists,
conservationists, communicators, translators, educators, and interpreters.
The extensive range of the subject has meant that the authors could not
aim at completeness, nevertheless, care was taken to obtain a
proportionate selection of terms from all areas of plant biology. Included
are plant-related terms from the fields of botany, ecology, genetics,
taxonomy, oceanology, microbiology, physiology, cytology, marine
biology, forestry, silviculture, horticulture, anatomy, organology,
phytopathology, agriculture, biochemistry, paleobotany, phenology,
photobotany, phycology, systematics phytology, phytogeography,
phytochemistry, phytosociology, morphology, pomology, and
       Because of the immensity of the field of plant biology, the problem
of how to present specialized professional terminology and still provide
a useable bridge between language and culture, was a difficult problem
to solve. We addressed this issue by a decision to be more inclusive in
our choices. The range of entries and expressions, while not always strictly
“scientific terms,” are frequently encountered in biological texts,
professional journals, and in field activities.
       We hope this book will prove useful to professionals and
committed amateurs. Your suggestions, additions, or corrections will be
appreciated. They may be sent email to the authors at: dmorris@jas.net

David Warden Morris
Marta Zetina Morris
About the Authors:

                          David W. Morris, Ph.D.
                         Marta Zetina Morris, M.A.

This husband and wife field botanist team have more than 30 years of plant
identification and collecting experience in the rainforests of Mexico, Belize,
Guyana, Honduras, Micronesia, and Hawaii.
        Their academic credentials are from six U.S. and U.K. institutions,
including the University of Texas (Austin), Lamar University, Texas College,
Chadron State, St. Augustine’s (Kent), and Walden University. In addition,
Mrs. Morris is a Maya Indian medicine woman, traditionally trained in the
identification and use of medicinal plants.
        Most recently, their Latin American fieldwork has been in the Yucatan
region of Mexico’s newest state, Quintana Roo. Project funding was provided
by a U.S. government Fulbright grant, a Carlos Robles grant from the
government of Mexico, state government funds from Nebraska, and
corporate assistance from the Polaroid Corporation.
        The authors are curators of the herbarium at the American Indian
Museum of Plants and Healing, located in Jasper, Texas, U.S.A. The Museum
serves as an international center for identifying, collecting, and preserving
the plants and practices of indigenous peoples of North, South and Central

About the Book:

The English-Spanish Dictionary of Plant Biology, Including Plantae, Monera,
Protoctista, Fungi is designed as a tool for both professionals and students. It
is the only one volume dictionary that provides a full range of plant
definitions, English terms, and their Spanish equivalents, currently used
academically and commercially.
        Included are more than 22,000 English and Spanish plant-related
terms from the fields of botany, ecology, horticulture, genetics, taxonomy,
oceanology, microbiology, physiology, morphology, cytology, marine biology,
forestry, silviculture, anatomy, organology, phytopathology, agriculture,
biochemistry, paleobotany, phenology, photobotany, phycology,
phytogeography, phytosociology, and ethnobotany.

This book is divided into two parts.
       Part One is the English-Spanish portion of selected plant
biology terms. The alphabetical arrangement contains more than
twelve thousand English words, phrases, and definitions each
followed by a Spanish equivalent.
       Part Two is the Spanish-English Index. It is composed of more
than ten thousand Spanish words and phrases alphabetically listed
and followed by an equal or similar English term or phrase.
       A bold type is used to identify each Spanish term. A standard
non-bold type is used for the English term. Bold type is also used
when a higher Latinized plant classification is referenced. These
Latinized plant classification terms have not been included as selected
words for translation as they are terms which, in general, do not
need translation.
       Definitional reference to this type of classification terminology
may be found in other types of reference materials.
       Italics are also used when a genus or genus-species is referred
to in a definition.
       In this bi-lingual dictionary, we have not attempted to resolve
conflicts in use or interpretation; that is not the purpose of this
volume. Instead, we have included diverse usage of terms and
spellings so that a variety of users may increase their capacity to use
and share information.

   Royalties from this volume are dedicated to maintaining theAmerican
          Indian Museum of Plants and Healing and its mission to identify,
  collect, and preserve the healing plants and practices of the indigenous
                            peoples of North, South, and Central America.

English – Spanish Dictionary....................................................1

Spanish to English Index...........................................................489

                        Dedicated to those of the
                        past and present who struggle
                        to identify, preserve, and share
                        their understanding of the
                        world of plants.
A                                             1                               absciss(ion)


A. A. A class of flowers with fully                  produced without sexual fusion.
    exposed nectar.                               aboriginal. aborigen. originario. Orig-
a-. a- . A Greek prefix that means,                  inal in the strictest sense; grow-
    “without” or “lacking”, as in                    ing naturally, as corn or cotton are
    asepalous.                                       aboriginal or indigenous to North
a-. a-. A Latin prefix that means, “away             America.
    from”.                                        abort. abortar. To be arrested in growth,
A-spore. spora A. Alpha spore.                       as thorns are sometimes aborted
AB. AB. A class of flowers with par-                 branches.
    tially concealed nectar.                      abortion. abortado. aborto. The fail-
ab-. ab-. A Latin prefix that means,                 ure of an organ or structure to de-
    “from”.                                          velop completely or grow to ma-
abaxial. abaxial. Located on the side                turity.
    away from the axis, as the under-             abortive. abortivo. An imperfectly
    side of a leaf; also, called the dorsal          formed or developed organ, as an
    surface.                                         abortive seed or organ; rudimen-
abbreviated. abreviado. Shorter, as                  tary.
    an abbreviated perianth is shorter            abortus. abortus. Latin for abortion.
    than the tube of the corolla.                 abrupt. abrupto. Terminating suddenly;
aberrant. aberrante. Different from                  blunt or cut off horizontally, as
    the usual; not a normal structure;               abrupt leaves; truncate.
    variable.                                     abruptly. abruptamente. Ending sud-
aberration. aberración. Having an ab-                denly.
    normal structure; a deviation from            abruptly pinnate. abrupto pinnado.
    the normal.                                      Pinnate leaflet ending evenly at the
abhymenial. abimenical. Opposite                     tip without an odd, terminal leaf-
    the spore-producing surface.                     let; even pinnate.
abiotic. abiótica. Non-living; with-              abscise (leaves). desprenderse (hojas).
    out life. See biotic.                            To shed; to separate by abscission.
abjection. abyeción. The forcible sepa-           abscisic acid. ácido abscisico. A plant
    ration of a spore from its stalk by              hormone that facilitates growth in-
    the fungus.                                      hibition, dormancy, and leaf abscis-
abjunction. abyunción. The separa-                   sion; dormin.
    tion of a spore from its stalk by             abscisin. abscisina. See abscisic acid.
    means of a septum.                            absciss(ion). abscisión. The separa-
abnormal. anormal. Contrary to the                   tion or shedding of leaves or fruit
    usual or the natural structure.                  from the stem or body of a plant.
aboospore. aboospora. An oospore                     The normal process is controlled
absciss(ion) layer                            2                                 accentric
   by abscisic acid at the abscission                 habitat.
   zone which causes the breakdown                acanaceous. aculeado. Prickly or sting-
   of thin-walled cells at the base of                ing.
   the structure.                                 acantha. acanta. A prickle.
absciss(ion) layer. abscisión estrato.            acantho-. acanto-. A Greek prefix that
   A layer of parenchyma with cork                    means, “spiny” or “thorny”.
   on both sides which is found at the            acanthocarp. acantocarpo. A spiny
   base of leaf petioles of woody di-                 fruit.
   cotyledons and gymhno-sperms.                  acanthocarpous. acantocárpico. Hav-
   See separation layer.                              ing spiny fruit.
abscission zone. zona de abscisión.               acanthocladous. acantoclado. Spiny-
   A layer of cells extending across                  branched.
   the base of a petiole or peduncle,             acanthoid. acantoide. Having or shaped
   whose breakdown separates the leaf                 like spines.
   or fruit from the stem, resulting in           acanthophysis. acantofisis. A thick,
   the leaf or fruit falling to the ground.           sterile hair with short, pointed
absent. ausente. Without petiole or                   outgrowths on the surface.
   petiolule; sessile.                            acarodomatium. acarodomatio. A hol-
absolute transpiration. transpiración                 low protective structure formed by
   absoluto. The rate of water loss                   some mite-harboring plants. This
   from a plant determined experimen-                 is thought to be a symbiosis.
   tally.                                         acarophily. acarofília. A symbiosis be-
absorb. absorber. To take up water and                tween plants and mites.
   nutrients.                                     acarpelous. acarpelo. A flower with
absorption. absorción. The process of                 no carpel.
   taking up water, light, and nutri-             acarpous. acárpico. acarpelado.
   ents.                                              acarpo. Producing no fruit; ster-
absorption ratio. ratio de absorción.                 ile; without carpels; no gynoecium.
   The ratio of the final internal con-           acaudate. acaudeo. Without a tail.
   centration of a particular ion in plant        acaulescence. acaulescencia. The con-
   tissue (i) to the final external con-              dition of having no stem or ap-
   centration which is written as                     pearing to be stemless; an inflo-
   i / e.                                             rescence arising near the surface
abstrict. abstrictar. To separate by                  of the ground.
   abstriction.                                   acaulescent. acaulescente. Stemless;
abstriction. abstrición. In some fungi                the stem is below ground or the
   and algae, a separating of spores                  stem is so short that all the leaves
   from spore-bearing filaments (hy-                  appear to be basal.
   dra) by the formation of separat-              acauline. acaule. sin tallo. Having no
   ing walls (septa); also, the release               stem; stemless.
   of a spore from its stalk, especially          acaulis. acaulis. Without a visible stem;
   by constriction.                                   acaulescent
abyssal zone. zona abisal. The deepest            acaulous. acaule. acaulescente. Same
   region of an ocean; sunless, high-                 as acaulescent.
   pressure, cold, and an anaerobic               accentric. acéntrico. A chromosomal
accentric chromosome                       3                            accumulator
   fragment formed during cell divi-               thesis.
   sion that lacks a centromere.               accessory spore. espora accesoria. An
accentric chromosome. cromosoma                    asexual spore; also, a conidium dif-
   acéntrico. A chromosome or chro-                fering from the normal type for the
   matid lacking a centromere.                     species.
accelerator. acelerador. Any substance         acessory tissue. tejido accesorio. Tis-
   that increases the efficiency of an             sues that are part of the flower or
   enzyme.                                         inflorescence which contributes to
accessory. accesorio. A secondary or               the fruit as it matures.
   extra part or function; something           accommodation. acomodación. The ca-
   additional, as an accessory bud.                pacity of a plant to adapt itself to
accessory bud. yema accesoria. An                  changes in the environment, pro-
   extra bud, other than the axillary              viding that the changes occur gradu-
   (primary) bud, forming in a leaf                ally.
   axil.                                       accidental species. especies acciden-
accessory cell. célula subsidiaria.                tal. Accidentals are a rare species
   célula accesorio. A cell associ-                in a community, present as a chance
   ated with the guard cell of a stoma,            invader or as a survivor from an
   but differing in structure from it              earlier community.
   and other cells of the epidermis.           acclimate. aclimatar. Acclimatize.
accessory character. carácter acces-           acclimation. acclimación. See ac-
   orio. A characteristic of a species             climatization.
   which is not essential to its diag-         acclimatization. aclimatación. The
   nosis, but is sometime used to dif-             adaptation of a plant to changes
   ferentiate races.                               in climate or other environmental
accessory chromosome. cromosoma                    conditions.
   accesorio. Sex chromosome.                  acclimatize. aclimatar. To adapt to
accessory fruit. fruto accesorio. A                changes in climate or other envi-
   fleshy fruit growing from a suc-                ronmental conditions.
   culent receptacle rather than the           accrescent. acrescente. Sepals growing
   pistil. In strawberries (Fragaria),             larger after flowering (anthesis);
   the ripe ovaries are small achenes              usually associated with aging; also,
   on the surface of the receptacle.               a calyx which enlarges as the fruit
accessory fructification. fructificación           ripens.
   accesorio. An asexual reproduc-             accrete. acrete. Grown together.
   tive structure of lower plants.             acculeate. aculeado. Having narrow
accessory multiplication. multiplicac-             spines.
   ión accesorio. Any asexual re-              accumbent. acumbente. Leaves or
   productive process.                             organs lying against another sur-
accessory organs. órgano anexo. The                face, as accumbent cotyledons lying
   calyx and corolla.                              against the radicle along one edge.
accessory pigments. pigmento acces-                See incumbent.
   orio. Light absorbing pigments that         accumulator. acumulador. In plant suc-
   pass the electrons they emit to pri-            cession studies, a pioneer species
   mary pigments during photosyn-                  whose activities enrich the abiotic
acellular                                  4                              acid humus
    habitat with nutrients.                        ulaceae.
acellular. acelular. Lacking cells; non-       achenial. aquénico. Pertaining to an
    cellular.                                      achene.
acentric. acéntrico. A piece of chro-          achenium (pl. achenia). aquenodio.
    mosome or chomatid without the                 One seeded, like a fruit; an achene.
    centromere.                                achilous. achile. Having rudimentary
-aceous. – áceo. A suffix which means              lips or no lips.
    “having the appearance of” or              achlamydeous. aclamídeo. Having no
    “like”. Used to form descriptive               floral envelope; without a perianth
    forms (adjectives) of botanical                (no calyx or corolla).
    words ending in –aceae.                    achlorophyllous. sin clorofila. Without
acephalous. acéfalo. Headless or lack-             chlorophyll; describes plants that
    ing a clearly defined head.                    are not green.
acerate. acerato. Stiff and needle-            achromatic. acromático. Without color.
    shaped. See acerose.                       achromatic spindle. huso acromático.
acerose. aceroso. Needle-shaped, as                In cell division, a system of ap-
    the leaves of a pine (Pinus) or                parent fibers which are not stained
    spruce (Picea).                                by basic dyes. They join the poles
acervate. acervado. Growing in dense,              of the nucleus and diverge toward
    compacted clusters; heaped.                    the center of the cell.
acervulus. acérvulo. A compact mass            achroos. incoloro. sin color. Colorless.
    of hyphae bearing condiophores and         aciclum. aciclo. Acicula.
    conidia formed by some parasitic           acicula. acícula. Small, needle-shaped
    ascomycetes. The corresponding                 spines or bristles.
    structure of saprophytic ascomyc-          acicular. acicular. Needle-shaped; more
    etes is called sporodochium.                   slender than acerose; having a slen-
acetabuliform. acetabuliforme. acet-               der pointed shape, as some leaves.
    abulado. Shaped like a cup or a            acicular leaf. hoja acicular. Needle-
    saucer; saucer-like.                           shaped, long and slender.
acetaldehyde. acetaldehido. aldehido           aciculate. aciculado. Needle-shaped;
    acético. An intermediate in the                also, marked with randomly ar-
    aerobic and anaerobic respiration,             ranged pin pricks. See acerose.
    retarding or inhibiting germination        aciculiform. aciculiforme. Having
    and growth of some fungi.                      the shape of a needle.
acetylation. acetilación. The produc-          acid. ácido. A chemical substance that
    tion of an acetyl radical, coenzyme            yields hydrogen ions when dis-
    A, from pyruvate during photosyn-              solved in water; serves as a pro-
    thesis.                                        ton donor, accepts electrons, and
achene. aquenio. Any small, hard,                  has the capacity to react with bases
    usually one-seeded, dry fruit with             and some metals to form salts.
    a thin outer covering that does not        acid dye. colorante ácido. Dyes having
    burst open when ripe, as a sunflower           an active acid radical, combining
    (Asteraceae) seed.                             with metal and staining cytoplasm.
achenecetum. aqeneceto. An aggre-              acid humus. humus ácido. A humus
    gation of achenes, as in Ranunc-               formed in soil lacking calcium, and
acidity                                     5                             acrocarpous
    other bases.                                    transformed into D-isocitrate, by
acidity. acidez. The degree of acid                 the addition of a water molecule.
    quality, as the acidity of the soil.        acorn. bellota. The dry, hard, one-
    See acid soil.                                  celled, one-seeded, indehiscent fruit
acid plant. planta ácido. A plant hav-              of an oak (Quercus), in a cup-like
    ing acid sap (with pH less than 7)              base.
    due to the production of ammonium           acotyledon. acotiledón. A plant with
    salts of organic acids, e.g. malic              no cotyledons, as a fern (Filic-
    or oxalic acid, as in many species              opsida).
    of Begoniaceae and Oxalidaceae.             acotyledonous. acotiledóno. Having
acid rain. lluvia ácido. Rain that con-             no cotyledons or seed-leaves; with
    tains a high concentration of acid              very indistinct or no seed lobes,
    (5.6 pH or less) from atmospheric               composing a large division of the
    pollution, especially sulfur and ni-            plant kingdom, including ferns, li-
    trogen oxides.                                  chens and others; cryptogamous.
acid soil. suelo ácido. A soil that has         acquired character. carácter adquirido.
    a pH of less than 7; often peaty.               A change in the structure or func-
acidophile. acidófilo. Of cells or cell             tion of a plant as a result of con-
    content stained by acid dyes; also,             tinuous use or disuse, or altered
    see acidophilous.                               environmental conditions (e.g. pros-
acidophilous. acidófilo. Acid loving;               trate habit developed by individuals
    describes plants that grow best in              of normally erect populations when
    acid soil.                                      exposed perpetually to wind-blown
acies. acies. The edge.                             conditions).
aciform. aciforme. Shaped like a nee-           acquired variation. variacion adquir-
    dle.                                            ido. A structural variation which
acinaceous. acináceo. Having numer-                 becomes evident as the individual
    ous pips.                                       develops.
acinaciform. acinaciforme. Having               acramphibrya. acramfibria. Plants pro-
    the shape of a scimitar, as acinaci-            ducing side as well as terminal buds
    form leaves.                                    or growths.
aciniform. aciniforme. Growing in               acrandrous. acrandro. Having anther-
    clusters, as grapes (Vitis).                    idia at the top of the stem, as in
acinous. acinosa. A cluster of small                some mosses (Musci).
    berries.                                    acrid. acre. A sharp, bitter taste, or
acinus. ácino. One of the small, fleshy             smell.
    berries in compound fruits, such            acro-. acro-. A Greek prefix than
    as raspberries (Rubus).                         means, “apical”.
acme. punto culminante. The period              acroblast. acroblasto. The part that
    of maximum vigor of an individual,              forms the acrosome in spermatogen-
    race, or species.                               esis.
aconitrase. aconitrasa. An enzyme               acrocarpous. acrocárpico. Producing
    involved in the Citric Acid Cycle               fruit at the top of the stem or at
    (Kreb’s Cycle). It dehydrates citrate           the end of a branch, as some mosses
    forming cis-aconitrate, which is then           (Musci).
acrocentric                                6                           actinomycete
acrocentric. acrocéntrico. Having the              Borne at the tips and along the sides.
    centromere located at one end so           acrosarcun. acrosarco. A berry pro-
    that the chromosome has one long               duced from an ovary with an adnate
    and one short arm.                             calyx, as the cranberry (Ericaceae).
acrocidal capsule. cápsula acrocidal.          acroscopic. acroscópico. acróscopo.
    A capsule that dehisces through                Facing the apex (tip), as acroscopic
    terminal slits, as in Staphyleaceae.           leaves.
acrodrome. acrodroma. Having the               acrosome. acrosoma. A small struc-
    principle veins uniting and join-              ture at the front end of a sperm cell
    ing at the tip of the leaf, as an              which produces enzymes involved
    acrodrome leaf.                                in the perforation of the egg cell.
acrodromous (veins). acródroma                 acrospire. acrospira. The first sprout
    (nervadura). Veins of a leaf which             to appear in germinating grain; also,
    having run parallel to the edge of             to sprout; plumule.
    the leaf, fuse and terminate at the        acrospore. acrospora. A spore borne
    tip.                                           at the tip of a hypha; also, a na-
acrogen. acrógeno. A flowerless plant,             ked spore borne at the end of the
    such as a fern (Filicopsida) or moss           mother cell, in some fungi.
    (Musci), that grows only from the          acrosporous. acrósporo . Bearing
    apex (tip) of the perennial stem.              acrospores.
acrogenic. acrógenico. Acrogenous.             acrostichoid sorus. soro acrosticoide.
acrogenous. acrógeno. Increasing in                A fern sorus consisting of several
    size by growth at the apex.                    fused sori.
acrogyny. acroginia. Said of the game-         acrotonic. acrotonico. Of orchids
    tophyte of some Bryophyta when                 (Orchidaceae) having the tip of the
    growth stops on the formation of               anther next to the rostellum.
    the archegonia. The apical cell usu-       actino-. actino-. A Greek prefix that
    ally forms the last archegonium.               means rayed or star-like.
acronychius. acronicio. Curved like            actinocytic. actinocítico. A type of
    a claw.                                        stomatal complex where the sub-
acropetal. acropetal. Developing up-               sidiary cells form a circle radiat-
    ward toward the apex from the base,            ing outward from the guard cells.
    as the flowers in an indeterminate         actinodromous. actinodroma. Hav-
    inflorescence; usually applied to              ing the main veins of a leaf radi-
    the sequence of blooming in an in-             ating from the tip of the petiole.
    florescence.                               actinomorphic. actinomorfo. Having
acropetal inflorescence. inflorescencia            a radial symmetry so that a line
    acropetal. Raceme.                             drawn through the middle along any
acropetal movement. movimiento                     plane will produce a mirror image
    acrópetal. Movement of substances              on either side; often used to de-
    within a plant toward its root and             scribe a regular flower.
    shoot apices.                              actinomorphy. actinomorfía. Arrange-
acrophytium. acrofitio. An alpine plant            ment of parts of the flower in ra-
    formation.                                     dial symmetry.
acropleurogenous. acropleurogeno.              actinomycete. actinomiceto. A group
actinorrhiza                                  7                   adaptive breakthrough
    of soil-living bacteria that are struc-       aculeate. aculeado. Covered with
    turally similar to certain fungi.                 prickles or needle-like outgrowths;
actinorrhiza. actinorizo. Root nodule;                prickly.
    small, gall-like growths resulting            aculeolate. aculeolado. Covered with
    from bacteria on the roots of some                very tiny prickles.
    plants, especially legumes.                   aculeus. aculeo. A prickle growing
actinostele. actinostela. A protostele                from bark, as on roses (Rosaceae).
    which is stellate in a cross-section          acumen. ápice. Apex or tip; also, a
    with the protoxylem at the star tips;             tapering point.
    a primitive stele found in the early          acuminate. acuminado. The gentle ta-
    Pteridophytes.                                    pering of a leaf to a sharp point
action spectrum. espectro de acción.                  with concave sides forming along
    Relates the amount of photosyn-                   the tip; ending in a tapering point.
    thetic activity for an equal amount           acutangular. acutangular. Said of a stem
    of light to the wavelength of the                 which has several sharp, longitu-
    light.                                            dinal edges.
activation energy. energia de activac-            acute. agudo. The tapering of a leaf
    ión. The energy required for a sys-               to the apex with straight sides; form-
    tem to increase the incidence of a                ing less than a right angle; less ta-
    reaction; also, the energy at which               pering than acuminate; also, char-
    ions or molecules are no longer sta-              acterized by a rapid onset and short
    ble; also, enzymes are able to act                duration.
    in various metabolic reactions by             acutifolius. acutifolio. acutifoliado.
    reducing the activation energy of                 With an acute leaf.
    a reaction.                                   acyclic. aciclico. Not cyclic; arranged
activator. activador. agente activador.               in spirals rather than in circles or
    Accelerator.                                      whorls.
active site. centro activo. locus activo.         ad. ad. A Latin prefix that means, “to,”
    The portion of the enzyme molecule                “toward” or “against”.
    that binds it to the substrate(s) to          adapt. adaptarse. To change in form,
    form an enzyme-substrate complex.                 structure, or habits in response to
active transport. transporte activo.                  altered conditions.
    Within a cell, the chemical proc-             adaptable. adaptable. Able to originate
    ess that moves substances or par-                 an ecad.
    ticles through the membrane in a              adaptation. adaptación. A change in
    direction opposite to that of dif-                structure, form, or habits to fit or
    fusion; also, the accumulation of                 better adjust to different conditions,
    materials in a cell against the con-              as environmental stress.
    centration gradient i.e. involving            adaptive. adaptivo. Characterized by
    the use of energy.                                adaptation or showing evidence of
actium. actio. A rocky seashore for-                  adaptation.
    mation.                                       adaptive breakthrough. cambio adapt-
actophilous. actófilo. ripario. Liv-                  ivo. An evolutionary change that
    ing on the bank of a river.                       permits a species or population to
acuate. acuado. Sharp pointed.                        move from one zone or taxon to
adaptive capacity                           8                  adenosine diphosphate
   another; the most extreme exam-                 whose stamens, instead of grow-
   ple being from water to land or from            ing singly, have one or more par-
   land to air.                                    cels of fused filaments.
adaptive capacity. capacidad de                 adelphogamy. adelfogamia. A con-
   adaptación. Having the ability to               dition in plants in which the sta-
   fit into a certain environment or               mens instead of growing singly,
   condition.                                      combine by the filaments into one
adaptive character. carácter adaptivo.             or more parcels; also, union be-
   carácter de adaptación. Charac-                 tween a vegetative mother cell and
   ters that respond to the changing               one of its daughter cells.
   environmental conditions enabling            adelphous. adelfo. Joined in a group,
   the organism to survive by an al-               as an androecium with the filaments
   teration of its structure and/or func-          of the stamens partly or wholly
   tion.                                           united.
adaptive convergence. convergencia              aden-. aden-. A Greek prefix that
   adaptivo. The tendency in distantly             means, “gland”.
   related plants, under similar con-           adeniform. adeniforme. Shaped like
   ditions, to take on comparable shape            a gland.
   and structural characteristics.              adenine. adenina. 6-aminopurine which
adaptive enzyme. enzima ap(ta)tiva.                combines with the sugar ribose to
   enzima inducible. An enzyme pro-                form the nucleoside adenosine;
   duced, especially by bacteria in                found in beet juice and tea leaves.
   response to growing on an unu-               adenoid. adenoide. Gland-like.
   sual substrate; inducible enzyme.            adenophore. adenóforo. A stalk sup-
adaptive radiation. radiación adaptivo.            porting a gland.
   The tendency in closely related              adenous. adenoso. Having glands;
   plants to evolve into sharply dif-              gland-like.
   ferent forms as a result of changed          adenophyllous. adenófilo. Having glan-
   environmental conditions. Some-                 dular leaves.
   times used as a synonym for                  adenosine. adenosina. A nucleoside
   cladogenesis.                                   derived from the combinating of
adaptive value. valor adaptativo. valor            adenine with a ribose sugar which
   de adaptación. See fitness.                     gives rise to the nucleotide ade-
adaxial. adaxial. Located on the side              nylic acid, one of the nucleic ac-
   nearest to the axis, as the upper               ids; adenylic acid.
   surface of a leaf facing the stem.           adenosine diphosphate (ADP). aden-
   See abaxial.                                    osina difosfato (ADP). The diphos-
adcrustation. adcrustación. The de-                phate ester of adenosine. It is closely
   positing of a substance on a cell               linked with the adenosine triphos-
   wall in contrast to being laid down             phate in the transfer of energy
   between the existising molecules;               through ‘high energy” bonds dur-
   referred to as encrusting.                      ing the respiration of carbohydrates.
adelphia. adelfia. One or more bunches             The energy is released during the
   or groups of stamens with combined              production of ester phosphates by
   filaments; also, describes plants               the ADP, which acts as a phospho-
adenosine monophosphate                    9                             adventitious
   rylating agent; also, a high energy,           that permits haustoria or holdfasts
   phosphoric ester (nucleotide).                 to adhere to a surface.
adenosine monophosphate. adenosina             adiabatic. adiabatico. Incapable of
   monofasfato. A nucleotide that is              translocation.
   a monophosphate derivative of ad-           adnascens. adnascens. A Latin term
   enosine.                                       that means, “growing upon some-
adenosine triphosphate (ATP). adenos-             thing”.
   ina trifosfato (ATP). The triphos-          adnate. adnato. The fusion or grow-
   phate ester of adenosine. Two of               ing together of unlike parts, as the
   the phosphate ‘high energy’ radi-              stamens to the corolla.
   cals are changed to ‘low energy’            adnate stipule. estípula adnato. Hav-
   links during the formation of es-              ing the stipule attached to a peti-
   ter phosphates by the ATP; energy              ole.
   is thereby released during phospho-         adnation. adnación. One organ attached
   rylation. ATP also acts as a phos-             to another by its whole length; also,
   phate donor by converting glucose              the fusion of the vascular bundles
   to glucose-6-phosphate which is                of floral parts; also, sometimes used
   necessary for glucose to be further            as an equivalent to adhesion; the
   converted to a disaccharide or                 condition of being adnate.
   polysaccharide. ATP is the major            adnexal. adnexal. Connected to or
   source of metabolic high energy for            adjunct to one or more other parts,
   biochemical reactions that is pri-             as gills and tubes of Basidio-
   marily stored in the terminal phos-            mycete, touching but not attached
   phate ester linkage (nucleotide).              to the stipe.
adenylic acid (AMP). ácido adenílico           ADP. ADP. Adenosine diphosphate.
   (AMP). Adenosine monophosphate.             adpressed. adpreso. See appressed.
   A constituent of DPN.                       adsorption. adsorción. The process
adermin. adermina. A B vitamin nec-               where chemical ions or molecules
   essary for the growth of lactic acid           stick to the surface of other mate-
   bacteria, certain yeasts, and fungi;           rials; usually related to clay or
   pyridoxine.                                    humus.
adesmy. adesmia. An abnormal con-              adspersed. adsperso. Widely distrib-
   dition in a flower, when parts that            uted; scattered.
   are normally united are separated.          adsurgent. adsurgente. See ascending.
adherent. adherente. The growing or            adult. adulto. A fully developed in-
   sticking together of unlike parts,             dividual plant, mature to the point
   as the anthers to the style; not as            of being capable of sexual repro-
   firm or solid as adnate.                       duction.
adhesion. adhesión. adherencia. The            aduncate. aduncado. Hooked.
   fusion of members of distinct whorls        adventitia. adventicia. A membrane
   of a flower, as occurs when the calyx          that covers an organ but is not con-
   grows up with ovary wall; also, the            sidered part of the organ.
   union of dissimilar organs.                 adventitious. adventicio. Structures
adhesive cell. célula adhesivo. Any               or organs growing in unusual po-
   cell that secrets a sticky substance           sitions or locations; usually indi-
adventitious root                          10                    aerobic fermentation
    cates roots or buds growing on a            aerate. airear. To supply with oxygen.
    stem or hair where it does not usu-         aerate roots. raíz airear. Vertical or
    ally grow.                                      horizontal above ground roots; knee
adventitious root. raíz adveniticia. Fi-            roots; stem roots; also, roots grow-
    brous, aerial roots growing out from            ing in soft mud which contain
    the stem.                                       aerenchyma, which stand above the
adventive. advenedizo. Not native; in-              surface of the ground, acting as
    troduced but not well established.              ventilating organs.
    Refers to plants moving into new            aeration. aeración. The exchange of
    areas.                                          oxygen and carbon dioxide within
adverse. adverso. Turned toward the                 the soil, which is necessary for the
    stem or main axis.                              respiration of roots; also, bubbling
adynamandry. adinamandria. Self-                    air through water to increase the
    sterility.                                      dissolved oxygen; also the proc-
aecidiosorus. aecidiosoro. See aecium.              ess by which air in the soil is repaced
aecidiospore. ecidióspora. Aeciospore.              by air from the atmosphere.
aecidium. ecidio. In rusts, a cup-shaped        aerenchyma. aerencima. Tissue with
    structure that produces a chain of              large air spaces, commonly occur-
    spores formed by the fusion of                  ring in aquatic plants providing
    spores of opposite mating types;                bouyancy for them, and in the roots
    often occurs on the underside of                of many bog plants.
    the host plant leaf; also, a cup-           aereolae. aereolae. Cracks in the sur-
    shaped aecium with the free edge                face of a crustaceous lichen due
    of the periderm toothed. Sometimes              to growth strains which aid in aera-
    considered synonymous with aec-                 tion.
    ium.                                        aerial. aéreo. Growing in the air, out
aeciospore. ecióspora. A spore formed               of soil or water, as roots or shoots
    in a aecium. See aecidiospore.                  above the ground or water.
aecium. ecidio. A globular, cup-shaped          aerial bulb. bulbo aéro. Bulbs emerging
    fungus fruit body which bursts                  from above ground level.
    through the epidermis of the host.          aerial mycelium. micelio aéreo. Part
    Typical of the rust fungi (Uredinio-            of a mycelium held aloft from the
    mycetes).                                       substrate.
aenius. aenius. latón de color. Brass-          aerial plant. planta aéreo. An epiphyte.
    colored.                                    aerial root. raíz aérea. raíz epigea.
aequalis. aequalis. igual. Similar in               A fibrous, adventitious root, of-
    size.                                           ten with an adhesive disk; cram-
aequi-. aequi-. A Latin prefix that                 pon.
    means, “equal”.                             aerial shoots. brote aéreo. Shoots grow-
aequi-hymeniferous. aequihimenífero.                ing above the ground.
    Having the hymenium developed               aerobe. aerobio. A plant that needs
    equally over each gill surface.                 elemental oxygen for respiration.
aequilateral. aequilátero. In describing        aerobic fermentation. fermentación
    leaves, equal sided, as opposed to              aerobio. Cellular respiration, re-
    oblique.                                        quiring oxygen, glycolysis. the citric
aerobic                                      11                     agamic reproduction
    acid cycle, and the respiratory chain.        aestivation. estivación. The arrange-
aerobic. aerobic. Living and growing                  ment of sepals, petals, and other
    only in the presence of atmospheric               floral parts in an unopened bud;
    oxygen.                                           also, summer dormancy due to
aerobic respiration. respiración aer-                 drought; prefloration.
    obio. Enzymatic destruction of                aethallium. aetalio. The fruit body of
    substrate to release energy, involv-              some myxomycetes. It is sessile or
    ing elemental oxygen and evolv-                   slightly raised, involving nearly all
    ing carbon dioxide and water.                     of the plasmodium and consisting
aerobiology. aerobiología. The study                  of a number of incompletely indi-
    of the biological composition of                  vidualized sporangia.
    the atmosphere, such as spores, pol-          affinity. afinidad. A structural resem-
    len, bacteria, viruses, and their ef-             blance between species, genera, or
    fects on plants.                                  other natural characteristics that
aerobiosis. aerobiosis. Living in the                 makes common ancestry presum-
    presence of oxygen.                               able; likeness.
aerogenic. aerogénico. A bacteria that            affixed. unido. That part or organ which
    produces gas during the metabo-                   is joined.
    lism of certain types of substrate.           afforestation. aforestación. plantación
aeropalynology. aeropalinologia. The                  de bosques. The changing of open
    study of pollen grains and spores                 land into forest by planting and
    in the atmosphere.                                seeding trees.
aerophyte. aerófito. A plant receiv-              aflatoxin. aflatoxina. Any of a group
    ing nourishment from the air rather               of poisonous substances produced
    than soil; epiphyte.                              by molds that contaminate stored
aerotaxis. aerotaxis. The movement                    food crops.
    of a motile plant or gamete in re-            after-ripening. postmaduración. Meta-
    lation to the oxygen concentration                bolic changes that must take place
    in the water.                                     in a dormant seed before germi-
aerotolerante. aerotolerante. Organ-                  nation can occur.
    isms, usually bacteria, that are              agamandroecious. agamandroecio.
    normally anaerobic, but can sur-                  Having male and neuter flowers in
    vive or tolerate the presence of air.             the same inflorescence.
aerotropism. aerotropismo. A growth               agamete. agámeto. agámeta. An asex-
    curvature in relation to the oxy-                 ual reproductive cell.
    gen concentration.                            agamic. agámico. Asexual generation
aeruginous. aerugino. Bluish-green                    or produced without gamete for-
    or verdigris-colored.                             mation, as agamic plants or agamic
aestival. estival. Flowering or appear-               reproduction; asexual. Produced
    ing in the early summer; to spend                 without sexual union.
    the summer in dormancy; also, used            agamic generation. generación agám-
    in reference to the six part divi-                ico. Formation of seed without
    sion of the year: aestival, autum-                meiosis or fertilization; agamo-
    nal, hibernal, prevernal, serotinal,              spermy.
    and vernal.                                   agamic reproduction. reproducción
agamogenesis                               12                                agronomy
   agámico. Being formed asexually;                stools and mushrooms.
   agamogenetic.                                agaricolous. agaricole. Living on mush-
agamogenesis. agamogenesis. Asexual                rooms or toadstools.
   reproduction.                                agent. agente. Any substance capa-
agamogenetic. agamog¾netico. Re-                   ble of producing a change, as phos-
   producing or being reproduced                   phorus, which is an important agent
   asexually.                                      in stimulating heavy, unintended
agamogynoecious. agamoginoecio.                    growth of algae in many bodies of
   Having female and neuter flowers                water.
   in the same inflorescence.                   agglomerate. agglomerado. agregado.
agamohermaphrodite. agamoherm-                     conglomerado. Crowded into a
   afrodita. Having hermaphrodite and              dense cluster but not fused.
   neuter flowers in the same inflo-            agglutinate. aglutinado. Stuck together.
   rescence.                                    aggregate. agregado. Densely crowded
agamospecies. agamospecie. A type                  together but not united, as many
   of plant that produces seeds asexu-             florets arranged in a dense mass.
   ally, by agamospermy.                        aggregate fruit. fruto agregado. A clus-
agamospermy. agamospermia. Asexual                 ter of drupelets, making a single
   reproduction in plants without                  berry, formed from separate pis-
   meiosis or fertilization; apomixis.             tils within a single flower, such as
agamospore. agamospora. A spore                    a raspberry (Rubus) or blackberry
   produced asexually.                             (Rubus). Also referred to as com-
agamotropic. agamotrópica. Said of                 posite fruit and compound fruit.
   a flower which does not shut af-             aggregate ray. radial agregado. A group
   ter having opened.                              of closely placed, narrow vascu-
agamous. ágamo. asexual. neutro.                   lar rays.
   Refers to species which usually              aggregate species. especie agregado.
   produce seeds asexually; also, hav-             A group of closely related species
   ing no flowers or seeds.                        called by a single name.
agar (-agar). agar (-agar). A carbo-            aggregation. agregación. The coming
   hydrate free of nitrogen produced               together of plants into groups.
   by various seaweeds and used as              agrad. agrado. A cultivated plant.
   a mucilage where microorganisms              agrestal. agrestal. Growing wild in cul-
   are grown.                                      tivated fields, as weeds.
agar gel. gel de agar. A gelatinous             agrestis. agrestis. A Latin word that
   extract from certain seaweed used               means, “growing in fields”.
   in making culture media for bac-             agrobiology. agrobiologia. biologia
   teria and fungi.                                agrícola. The study of plant growth
agaric. agaric. Any fungus that has                in relation to soil and nutrition, es-
   an umbrella-like shape and gill; a              pecially to increased crop produc-
   fungus of the genus Agaricus                    tion.
   (Agaricaceae).                               agroclimatology. agroclimatología.
agaricaceous. agaricaceo. Belong-                  The study of climate and its effect
   ing to the gill fungi family (Agaric-           on plant production.
   aceae), which includes most toad-            agronomy. agronomia. The study of
agrostology                                   13                                   albumin
     soil with the purpose of improv-                  especially movement of some kind.
     ing crop production; also, the sci-           aitionastic. aitionástico. Said of the
     ence of farm mangement; also, the                 curvature of a plant-member in re-
     study of the cultivation of field                 sponse to a diffuse simulus.
     crops.                                        akene. aquenio. See achene.
agrostology. agrostologia. The branch              akenium. aquenio. See achene.
     of botany that specializes in grasses         akinete. acinete. A thick-walled, non-
     (Poaceae); also, the study of                     motile spore which contains oil and
     grasses.                                          other food reserves with the spore
agynous. agino. Said of an abnormal                    wall indistinct from the cell wall.
     flower in which the gynecium is               ala (pl. alae). ala. A wing-like structure
     not developed.                                    or part; the membranous border of
A-horizon. horizonte A. The top layer                  some seeds; one of the two side
     of soil; topsoil.                                 (lateral) petals of a papilionaceous
aiphytium. aifitia. An ultimate forma-                 corolla, such as a sweet pea
     tion.                                             (Lathyrus); also, a narrow, leafy
air. aire. A colorless, tasteless, and                 outgrowth down the stem of a de-
     invisible mixture of gases that is                current leaf.
     necessary for all life.                       alabastrum. alabastra. A flower-bud.
air bladder. vejiga llenade aire. A                alanine. alanina. An amino acid oc-
     large sac of air growing on certain               curring combined in proteins.
     water plants that help hold it up             alar. alar. Situated in the fork of a stem.
     when covered with water.                      alate. alado. alatus. Having thin, wing-
air chamber. cámara aerífera. A cavity                 like extensions or parts; winged,
     in the upper surface of the thallus               as alate leaves.
     of some liverworts, opening extern-           albescent. albescente. Whitist, or turn-
     allly by an air pore and contain-                 ing white.
     ing chains of photosynthetic cells;           albidus. albidus. A Latin word that
     also, an intercellular space in a leaf            means, “whitist color”.
     into which a stoma opens.                     albinism. albinismo. A deficiency of
air layering. acodo aéro. A method                     chromoplasts, the carotenoid-con-
     of vegetative propagation causing                 taining plastids, that provide color
     a branch or stem to form roots by                 to mature fruit and flowers.
     making a cut half way through the             albino. albino. A plant or plant part
     branch and wrapping it in moss                    with a pale, defective coloring,
     (Musci) or soil.                                  occasioned by the incapacity of the
air plant. planta aérea. Epiphyte.                     plant to process chlorophyll; also,
air pollution. contaminación del aire.                 an abnormal form lacking pigment
     polución del atmosférica. The                     or nearly so.
     contamination of the atmosphere               albumen. albumen. In some seeds, a
     with various pollutants, as indus-                nutritive material or tissue that
     trial gases, auto exhaust fumes,                  occurs outside the embryo. (An old
     smoke, and other human activities.                term usually replaced by endo-
aitiogenic. aitogénico. Said of a re-                  sperm).
     action of a plant to external stimuli,        albumin. albúmina. Water soluble pro-
albuminous                                  14                                       alga
    tein of many cereal seeds and an                 ferent alcohols during the anaerobic
    enzyme constitituent of various                  respiration of carbohydrates by vari-
    plant cells; soluble in water and                ous microorganims, e.g. the pro-
    coagulates with heat.                            duction of ethyl alcohol by yeasts
albuminous. albuminoso. Pertaining                   fermenting the sugars in malt during
    to or containing albumen. See al-                the brewing process.
    bumen.                                       aldehyde. aldehído. Oxidation prod-
albuminous cell. célular albuminoso.                 ucts of primary alcohols that are
    A densely cytoplasmic cell in the                liquid, colorless, pungent, and
    phloem of gymnosperms with ex-                   volatile.
    tensive interconnections to sieve            aleuriospore. aleurispora. A single-
    cells; are thought to control their              celled, asexual fungal spore at the
    metabolism. Albuminous cells are                 tip of aerial hypha; also, an asexual
    analogous to the companion cells                 cell that is released when the spore-
    in angiosperms but differ in that                bearing hypha bursts open.
    they are not usually sister cells to         aleurone layer. capa de aleurona.
    the associated sieve cells.                      aleurónica. A row of cells, con-
albuminoids. albuminoides. A general                 taining aleurone, rich in protein
    term for proteins.                               granules, located in the endosperm
alburnum. albura. The white, softer                  of a plant embryo.
    part of wood (xylem), between the            aldohexose. aldohexosa. An aldose with
    inner bark and the heartwood; gen-               six carbon atoms.
    erally considered an obsolete word           aldol. aldol. The condensation prod-
    for sapwood.                                     ucted of two acetaldehyde mol-
albus. albus. A Latin word that means,               ecules.
    “white”.                                     aldopentose. aldopentosa. An aldose
alcohol. alcohol. A hydrocarbon in                   with five carbon atoms, as ribose.
    which a hydrogen atom is replaced            aldose. aldosa. A monosaccharide sugar
    by a hydroxyl (OH) group; also,                  with an aldehyde (CHO) in the first
    the colorless, flammable, liquid in              position and a HCOH group in the
    wine, beer, whiskey, gin, and other              second position.
    fermented and distilled, intoxicating        aldotetrose. aldotetrosa. An aldose
    liquids, derived from plants.                    with four carbon atoms.
alcohol series. serie de soluciones              aldotriose. aldotriosa. An aldose with
    alcohólicas. The alcohols occur-                 three carbon atoms.
    ring in plants include the mono-             alepidote. alepidota. Smooth; with-
    hydric alcohols, e.g. ethyl alcohol;             out scales or scurf.
    the trihydric alcohols with three            aleuriospore. aleuriospora. A thick-
    OH groups, e.g. glycerol that oc-                wall, terminal spore, formed from
    curs as oxidized derivatives and the             the end of a hypha from which it
    polyhydric alcohols, e.g. sugars with            is separated by a cross-wall.
    the general formula ROH, where               alga (pl. algae). alga. Any of a large
    R is a long chain or cyclic.                     group of single or multi-celled
alcoholic fermentation. fermentación                 photosynthetic organisms, aquatic
    alcohólica. The production of dif-               or sub-aquatic, that contain chlo-
alga fungi                                  15                               allogamous
    rophyll but not water; formerly clas-            stamens alternatively inserted on
    sified as plants, but currently con-             the torus and on the petals.
    sidered as moneransand protists.             allantoid. alantoide. Sausage-shaped.
    There is never any vascular tissue           allele. alelo. One member of a pair of
    and the reproductive organs are                  genes for a given trait at a specific
    essentially one-celled with the gam-             locus on homologous chromosomes;
    etes mostly flagellates                          a shortened form of allelomorph.
alga fungi. ficomicetos. See phyco-              allelic exclusion. exclusioón alélico.
    mycetes.                                         The principle that in an antibody-
alganin. alganin. See algin.                         producing cell, the DNA splicing
algicolous. algícolo. Living on algae.               process required for the formation
algin. algin. A magnesium–calcium salt               of an active antibody gene occurs
    of alginic acid which is present in              in only one allele.
    brown algae. It is used commer-              allelism. alelismo. The relationship be-
    cially in the manufacture of confect-            tween alleles.
    ionaries and man-made fibers.                allelomorph. alelómorfo. A term com-
alginic acid. ácido alginico. The ge-                monly shortened to allele; also, in
    latinous compound in the cell wall               Mendelian terms, either of a pair
    of brown alage (Phaeophyta).                     of contrasting characters inherited
algology. algología. The branch of                   alternatively.
    botany that pertains to algae;               allelopathy. alelopatia. The anti-
    phycology.                                       competition effect which occurs
alien. extranjero. exótico. introd-                  when a plant reaches a toxic sub-
    ucido. A plant that has been in-                 stance that inhibits the growth or
    troduced by humans, and has be-                  germination of other organisms.
    come naturalized.                            allergen. alergeno. Any substance that
aliform. aliforme. Resembling a wing                 provokes an allergic response.
    in shape; wing-shaped.                       allergy. alergia. The altered, usually
alkaline soil. suelo álcali. suelo                   exaggerated, immune response to
    alcalino. A soil with soluble min-               an allergen.
    eral salts in amounts sufficient to          alliaceous. aliaceo. With the odor of
    reduce or prevent the growth of                  garlic or onion.
    plants; found mostly in arid regions;        alliance. alianza. A grouping used in
    also, soil with a pH factor more                 phytosociology of closely related
    than 7.                                          associations. See protocooperation.
alkaloid. alcaloide. One of a group of           allocarpy. alocarpia. Fruiting after
    nitrogen-based compounds with a                  cross-fertilization.
    heterocyclic ring, derived from              allochronic speciation. especiación
    plants with pharmacological sig-                 alócrona. The formation of new
    nificance, including alkaloids as                species during the passage of time,
    morphine, strychnine, and cocaine.               tending to form a gradation from
    Sometimes used to include nitro-                 one species to the next.
    gen bases that do not have a hetero-         allochrous. alocro. Changing from one
    cyclic ring, e.g. caffeine.                      color to another.
allagostemonous. alagostémono. With              allogamous. alógamo. Caused by or
allogamy                                     16                               alpha helix
    pertaining to cross-fertilization.                tion on a protein molecule in a
allogamy. alogamia. Cross-fertiliza-                  manner that affects the properties
    tion.                                             of the same molecule at another
allogene. alógeno. See recessive allele.              location.
allograft. alotransplantar. A relatively          allosyndesis. alosinde. The pairing in
    compatible tissue exchange between                a cross of two polyploids or of chro-
    non-identifical members of the same               mosomes derived from opposite
    species; homograft.                               parents; also, pairing in an allo-
allometry. alometría. The growth of                   polyploid between chromosomes
    one part of a plant at a different                derived from ultimate diploid an-
    rate than the remainder.                          cestors.
allopatric. alopátrico. Two populations           allotetraploid. alotetraploide. An allo-
    occurring in different, widely sepa-              polyploid formed by the doubling
    rate geographic areas. See sympatric              of the chromosome number in a
    and parapatric.                                   diplid hybrid, i.e. tetraploid with
allopatric speciation. especiación                    a diploid set of chromosomes from
    alopátrico. A new species forma-                  each parent. See amphidiploid.
    tion from an ancestral species as             allotropous flower. flor de alotropo.
    a result of geographical separation               A flower with the nectar freely
    that produced climate changes such                exposed and available to a wide
    as glaciation, growing aridity, or                variety of insects.
    chance migration across major dis-            allotype. alotipo. A single specimen
    persal barriers.                                  of the opposite sex of the speci-
allopatry. alopatria. The occurrence                  men (holotype) on which a plant
    of species in different geographic                description is based.
    areas are known as allopatric spe-            allotypic. alotipico. Of or pertaining
    cies.                                             to an allotype, as an allotypic char-
allophanoids. alofanoides. Hydrated                   acter.
    aluminium silicates found in soils.           alluvial soil. tierra aluvial. A soil de-
allopolyploid. alopoliploide. A apolypl-              rived from marine, esturine, or river
    oid organism in which the differ-                 depoists. A young soil with an un-
    ent chromosomal sets originate from               developed profile but usually with
    different species, i.e. the individual            high fertility.
    has two or more sets of chromo-               alone. solo. See solitary.
    somes, which have different chro-             alpestrine. aplestrino. Subalpine.
    mosome compliments; polyploid                 alpestris. alpestris. A Latin word that
    derived from hybridization between                means, “growing at a high altitude
    widely different species.                         but below the snow-line”.
allosome. alosoma. An abnormal chro-              alpha amino acid. aminoácido de alfa.
    mosome; also, a sex chromosome.                   The basic building compounds of
allosomal inheritance.herencia alosóm-                peptides and proteins.
    ico. Inheritance of characters car-           alpha helix. hélice alfa. The right-
    ried on an allosome.                              handed, but sometime a left-handed
allosteric effect. efecto alostérico. The             spiral of a polypeptide chain, which
    binding of a ligand to one loca-                  is the secondary structure of some
alpha-ketoglutarate oxidase                 17                                   altitude
    protein molecules, especially the                heteroecious rust. See alternative
    globular type.                                   host.
alpha-ketoglutarate oxidase. alfa-               alternation of generations. alternación
    cetoglutarado oxidasa. An enzyme                 de generación. In the life cycle,
    in the Citric Acid Cycle (Kreb’s                 alternational of a generation is
    Cycle) which oxidizes aketoglutar-               having sexual reproduction with a
    ate to succinic acid, by oxidative               generation having asexual repro-
    decarboxylation.                                 duction. The sexually and asexu-
alpha spore. espora alfa. A fertile spore            ally reproducing forms are often
    of the imperfect state of the                    different, especially in plants and
    Diaporthaceae. This family of the                animals. In animals, such as
    fungi also produces beta-spores,                 hydroids, jelly fish and tapeworms,
    which are generally filiform and                 both generations are independent.
    sterile.                                         The fern is a diploid sporophyte
alpha taxonomy. taxonomia alfa. The                  and reproduces asexually by the
    stage in botanical development in                formation of haploid spores, fol-
    which taxonomists are engaged in                 lowing meiosis. Germination of the
    the exploration and description of               spores begins in the gametophyte
    plant species; current in most tropi-            generation, with a small prothallus,
    cal and some sub-tropical regions                which reproduces sexually. Male
    of the world.                                    and female gametes fuse, forming
alpine. alpino. Living or growing on                 a zygote, that develops into a new
    mountains above the timberline, but              fern. However, it must be noted that
    below the snow-line.                             there are great differences between
alpine zone. zona alpino. A region with              the various plant-like forms as to
    different altitudes in temperate and             the prominence and degree of in-
    tropical mountain areas that occurs              dependence shown by gametophyte
    above the tree-line and below the                and sporophyte generations. Among
    snowline but is characterized by                 Algae and Fungi, this may be fur-
    the absence of trees.                            ther complicated. If the two gen-
alsad. alsade. A grove plant.                        erations look alike, the alternation
alsium. alsio. A grove formation.                    is homologous, and if they do not
alternate. alterno. Of leaves or branches            look alike, the alternation Is anti-
    that are arranged singly on the par-             thetic; heterogenesis.
    ent axis; usually refers to one leaf         alternative host. huésped alternativa.
    per node and occurring at inter-                 One of the hosts of a plant patho-
    vals along the stem, but not op-                 gen, usually referred to the wild
    posite each other; also, occurring               host(s) of a disease-causing organ-
    between other parts such as sta-                 ism of a cultivated plant. See al-
    mens between petals; also arranged               ternate host.
    at differing levels or in spiral po-         alternative inheritance. herencia altern-
    sitions, especially used for leaves              ativa. See allelomorph.
    on a stem. See opposite.                     altitude. altitud. The height above the
alternate host. huésped alternativo.                 earth’s surface, as measured from
    One of the two unlike hosts of a                 sea level.
altitudinal zone                             18                                aminoacid
altitudinal zone. zona altitudinal. zona          amensalism. amensalismo. A type of
     de altitud. Usually as altitudes                symbiotic relationship in which an
     increase, conditions become cooler              organism affects or inhibits another
     and damper, so that vegetation in               without being affected or inhibited
     the mountains show correspond-                  in return.
     ing changes; in the tropics, zonal           ament. amento. A dense, often droop-
     changes may extend from the rain                ing flower cluster (inflorescence)
     forest on the lower slopes to al-               consisting of small, scale-like,
     pine communities. In the higher                 apetalous, unisexual flowers, grow-
     latitudes, the elevation of the tree-           ing on birches (Betulaceae) and
     line gradually declines to sea level.           willows (Salicaceae); catkin.
alveolate. alveolado. Pitted, like a hon-         amentaceous. amentáceo. amenti-flo-
     eycomb with the pits separated by               ras. Ament-like or ament bearing;
     thin, ridged membranous partitions;             bearing catkin or catkin-like.
     honeycomb-like.                              amentiferous. amentífero. Bearing cat-
alveolus (pl. alveoli). alvéolo. A small             kins, as the pussy willow (Salicac-
     surface pit; also, a pore of a poly-            eae).
     porous fungus.                               amentiform. amentiforme. Resembling
amber. ámbar. The fossilized resin of                an ament or catkin in shape.
     ancient trees.                               amentum. amento. A catkin.
ambi-. ambi-. A Latin prefix that means,          ameristic. ameristico. Unable to com-
     “around’ or “ round about”.                     plete development due to lack of
ambient. ambiente. Relating the en-                  nutrients.
     vironment or surroundings.                   amerospore. amerospora. A one-celled
ambient temperature. temperatura                     spore.
     ambiente. Air temperature at a               amide. amida. A derivative of an or-
     given time and place, as distin-                ganic acid in which the hydroxyl
     guished from radiant temperature.               group is replaced by an amino
ambiguous. ambiguo. ambigua. Of                      group.
     uncertain origin or doubtful sys-            amide plant. planta amida. A plant
     tematic position.                               which accumulates amides, espe-
ambilinearity. ambilinearidad. The in-               cially asparagine or glutamine,
     heritance of cytoplasmic particles              rather than ammonium salts.
     (plastogenes or plasmagens) from             amine. amina. A salt (ester) of an anino
     the male or female parent.                      acid.
ambiparous bud. bulbo ambiparo. A                 amino acid. aminoácido. ácido amin-
     bud containing both young vegeta-               ado. Any of a large group of or-
     tive leaves and young flowers.                  ganic compounds synthesized from
am(o)eboid. ameboide. Like an amoeba,                simple inorganic compounds by
     constantly changing shape.                      autotrophic plants and many
ameiosis. ameiosis. Having one divi-                 microorganisms. They are deriva-
     sion of the nucleus instead of two              tives of acetic acid in which one
     at meiosis so that the chromosome               hydrogen of the alkyl group is re-
     number of the mother cell is not                placed by a nitrogen group; involved
     reduced.                                        in protein synthesis.
amino acid sequence                         19                            amphidiploid
amino acid sequence. secuencia de                   ous.
   aminoácidos. The sequence of                  amorph. amorf. A recessive mutant
   amino acid residues in a polypep-                gene which has no obvious effect
   tide chain; the primary structure                on the characteristics affected by
   of a protein.                                    the non-mutant allelomorp.
amino group. grupo amino. The                    amorphous. amorfo. Shapeless, without
   chemical part of a molecule that                 any definite form.
   imparts basic properties to an amino          AMP. AMP. Adenosine monophos-
   acid.                                            phate; adenosine monophosphoric
amino sugar. azúcar aminado. amino-                 acid.
   azúcar. A monosaccharide that has             amphi-. anfi-. A Greek prefix that
   an amino group rather than one or                means, “double” or “on both sides
   more hydroxyl groups.                            of”.
amitosis. amitosis. A type of cell di-           amphiaster. anfiáster. The spindle and
   vision of the nucleus by a median                two asters that form during the
   constriction where the cell sepa-                prophase of mitosis.
   rates into two new cells without              amphibian. anfibio. A plant that grows
   the appearance of the usual mitotic              on land or in water.
   chromosomal configurations. The               amphibiotic. anfibiótico. An organ-
   chromosomes do not become vis-                   ism that can be parasitic or sym-
   ible and it is unlikely that two iden-           biotic, depending on the host.
   tical nuclei result.                          amphibious. anfibio. Living both in
amitotic. amitótico. Reproducing with-              water and on land; usually grow-
   out mitosis.                                     ing submerged, but can live for long
ammonia. amoniaco. A colorless gas                  periods out of water.
   composed of nitrogen and hydro-               amphicarpic. anficárpico. Same as
   gen; an intermediate in the metabo-              amphicarpous.
   lism of nitrogen.                             amphicarpous. anficárpico. Bearing
ammonification. amonificación. The                  two different kinds of fruit or bear-
   biochemical process of infusing                  ing at two different times.
   ammonia in the nitrogen cycle, when           amphicarpy. anficárpia. A type of
   nitrogen is made available to green              heterocarpy where a plant produces
   plants from nitrogen-containing                  one type of fruit above ground and
   organic compounds; also, the pro-                a different type of fruit below
   duction of ammonia in the decom-                 ground.
   position of organic matter.                   amphiclinous hybrid. híbrido anfícl-
ammonium. amonio. An ionic form by                  ino. A family resulting from a cross
   which (a) nitrogen is absorbed by                with some of the progeny resem-
   roots from the soil, or if nitrogen              bling one parent and some the other.
   is absorbed as a nitrate, form which          amphidiploid. anfídiploide. Forming
   nitrate is reconstituted within the              new species through polyploid
   plant, and (b) nitrogen is utilized              speciation; a hybrid organism with
   in the synthesis of an amino acid.               a diploid set of chromosomes do-
ammophilous. amófilo. Living and                    nated by each parent; double dip-
   growing well in sand; psammophil-                loid; allotetraploid.
amphigastria                              20                                ampliate
amphigastria. anfigastr(i)os. Minute,          amphitrichous. anfítrico. Having a
   rudimentary leaves on the under-               flagellum at each end of the cell.
   side of the stem of some liverworts         amphitrophic. anfitrófico. An organism
   (Hepaticae).                                   that can use photosynthesis in
amphigean. anfiges. Global; species               lighted conditions or can use chem-
   found throughout the world.                    osynthesis in darkened conditions.
amphigenous. anfigeno. Growing in              amphitropical species. especie anfitr-
   many lateral directions, as with li-           opical. Species with disconnected
   chens.                                         distribution patterns; one part of
amphigynous. anfígino. Said of the                the range north of the equator and
   antheridium of the Pythiaceae                  the other to the south, with a sharp
   which has the oogonial incept grow-            geographical separation.
   ing through it.                             amphitropous. anfitropo. Of an ovule
amphikaryon. anficario. A normal dip-             that bends both ways on the stalk.
   loid nucleus with two haploid sets          amphitropous ovule. óvulo anfitropo.
   of chromosomes.                                A half-inverted, immature ovule
amphilepsis. anfílepsis. Inheritance of           attached near the middle of one side
   characteristics from both parents.             and parallel with the placenta.
amphimixis. anfímixis. The fusion of           amphivasal bundle. haz anfívasal. A
   two distinct cells and nuclei, as              vascular bundle in which the xy-
   antheridium and archegonium, re-               lem surrounds the central strand
   sulting in the formation of a new              of phloem.
   individual.                                 amphora. anfora. A pitcher-shaped
amphiphlole. anfiflóle. Pertaining to             organ.
   a stem that has the phloem on both          ampholyte. anfolito. Amphoteric elec-
   the inner and outer surface of the             trolyte.
   xylem.                                      amphoteric electrolyte. electrólito
amphiploid. anfíploide. Polyploid re-             anfótero. electrolito anfótero. A
   sulting from hybridization between             substance that can exist as posi-
   two or more diploid species sepa-              tively or negatively charged ions
   rated by barriers of hybrid steril-            in solution, as proteins and their
   ity.                                           derivatives.
amphispore. anfíspora. A thick-walled          amplectant. amplectante. Twining or
   uredospre produced in drought                  clasping, as an amplectant tendril.
   conditions by some Uredinales and           amplective. amplectivo. Encircling or
   germinating after a period of dor-             clasping, as an amplective tendril.
   mancy.                                      amplexicaul. amplexicaule. Encircling,
amphitene. anfíteno. The stage in meio-           as leaves that surround and clasp
   sis when the spireme threads are               or encircle the plant at the base of
   paired.                                        the stem. See stipule.
amphithecium. anfitecio. The outer             amplexus. amplexo. In vernation, the
   layer of cells in moss spore cases             overlap of two sides of one leaf
   that surround the endothecium; also,           with the two sides of the leaf di-
   the thalline margin of a lichen                rectly above it.
   apothecium.                                 ampliate. ampliado. Enlarged.
ampulla                                       21                               anagenesis
ampulla. ámpula. A flask or bladder-                  metabolism which uses energy from
   shaped sac on some aquatic plants.                 food and water to construct com-
ampullaceous. ampuláceo. Swelling                     plex compounds of living tissue;
   outward; bladder-shaped.                           constructive metabolism.
ampulliform. ampulíforme. Flask or                 anadromic helicoid branching. ramific-
   bottle-shaped.                                     ación helicoide anádromico. A type
amygdaliform. amigdalíforme. Having                   of branching found in some fern
   the shape of an almond.                            leaves (Filicopsida) in which new
amygdoloid. amigdoloide. Almond-                      branches arise from only one side
   shaped.                                            of the main axis. This results in a
amylaceous. amilaceo. Starchy.                        helix developing. If the side bearing
amylase. amilasa. One of a group of                   the branches faces away form the
   enzymes that hydrolyses starch or                  main axis of the leaf, the helix is
   glycogen, producing the sugars glu-                anadromic.
   cose, dextrin, or maltose.                      anadromous. anádromo. Running up.
amyloid. amiloide. Of spores turning               anaerophyte. anaerofito. A plant which
   blue with iodine solution with the                 does not require a direct supply of
   presence of starch; also, starch-like.             air.
amylopectin. amilopectina. A polysac-              anaerobe. anaerobio. A microorganism
   charide composed of branched                       that can live where there is no at-
   chains containing a large number                   mospheric oxygen; getting oxygen
   of glucose units linked in the 1:4                 by the decomposition of compounds
   or 1:6 position.                                   containing it.
amyloplast. amiloplasto. A colorless               anaerobic. anaerobio. Without oxy-
   body in plant cells which form gran-               gen; living or growing where there
   ules; plastids that are specialized                is no atmospheric oxygen, as in
   for the storage of starch.                         swamps or peat bogs.
amylose. amilosa. A long straight-                 anaerobic respiration. respiración
   chained polysaccharide composed                    anaerobio. A process involving the
   of about 300 glucose units linked                  decomposition of organic com-
   in the 1:4 position. It is a constituent           pounds without the intake of at-
   of starch and is responsible for the               mospheric oxygen, resulting in the
   typical blue color of starch when                  formation of carbon dioxide and
   treated with an iodine solution.                   alcohol, the most common form
amylostatolith. amilostatolito. A starch              being alcoholic fermentation; also,
   grain acting as a statolith.                       the enzymatic breakdown of a sub-
anabolic. anabólico. Pertaining to the                strate releasing energy without using
   process where proteins are synthe-                 oxygen. Facultative anaerobes can
   sized through a chemical combi-                    use free oxygen and obligate anaer-
   nation of amino acids.                             obes do not. anaerobiosis.
anabiont. anabionte. An organism in                anaerobiosis. A process by which life
   which anabolic processes predomi-                  is being continued or sustained with-
   nate over catabolic processes, as                  out oxygen.
   green plants.                                   anagenesis. anagénesis. The type of
anabolism. anabolismo. The phase of                   evolutionary change that takes place
anakinetic                                 22                         androdynamous
   within a species which results in               during meiosis
   phyletic evolution, in contrast to           anastomose. anastomosar. To connect
   cladogenesis.                                   or unite by anastomosis, commonly
anakinetic. anacinética. Leading to the            used for the merger of two ducts,
   restoration of energy and the for-              pits, or vascular bundles.
   mation of reactive, energy-rich              anastomosing. anastomosado. After
   substances.                                     forming, veins that connect and
anakinetomere. anacinétomera. Reac-                become an interveining network,
   tive, energy-rich molecules.                    as in leaves, roots, and stems.
analog(ue). análogo. An organ analo-            anastomosis. anastomosis. The linking
   gous to another organ; also, in                 or connecting, as in woody plants;
   chemistry, a compound that closely              the twining of branches; also, a cross
   resembles another in structure.                 connection in a branching system,
analogous. analógico. Having a similar             as the veins of leaves. See anas-
   function, but not a similar struc-              tomosing and strangler.
   ture or origin; in contrast to ho-           anatomy. anotomia. Structural details
   mologous.                                       revealed in dissection; sometimes
analogous variation. variación analóg-             used synonymously with morphol-
   ico. Characteristics that have simi-            ogy.
   lar functions but have developed             anatropous. anátropo. An ovule that
   independently in unrelated taxo-                is inverted so that the micropyle
   nomic groups in response to similar             is next to the hilum, and the em-
   environments, as phyllodes (flat-               bryonic root is at the other end.
   tened petioles providing leaf func-          ancad. ancad. A canyon plant.
   tions).                                      anceps. anceps. A Latin word that
anamorphosis. anamorfosis. An unu-                 means, “two-edged”.
   sual change of form in a plant; also,        ancipital. ancipital. A fattened plant
   a gradual change in form in a group             stem with two sharp edges, espe-
   of plants over a long period of time.           cially in grasses (Poaceae).
anandrous. anandro. Without stamens.            ancipitous. ancipito. Two-edged.
anantherous. anantero. Without an-              ancistroid. ancistroide. Shaped like
   thers.                                          a hook.
ananthous. ananto. Without flowers;             andro-. andro-. A Greek prefix that
   flowerless.                                     means, “male”.
anaphase. anáfase. The third stage in           androcyte. androcito. A pair of andro-
   mitosis or meiosis when the two                 cytes are formed by the division
   sets of daughter chromosomes move               of the androgonal mother cell and
   to the opposite ends of the spin-               are metamorphosed into atherozoids
   dle; occurring after metaphase and              in the antheridium of the Bryophtya
   before telophase.                               and Pteridophyta; a sperm mother
anaphysis. anafisis. A sterigma-like               cell.
   thread in the apothecium of some             androdioecious. androdioico. Flowers
   lichens.                                        staminate on one plant, perfect on
anascistic. anascistico. Said of tetrads           another.
   that divide twice longitudinally             androdynamous. androdinamo. Hav-
androecious                                23                               aneuploid
   ing stamens of unusual develop-                 anth; a column of united stamens,
   ment.                                           as in Malvaceae.
androecious. androecio. Plants with             androsporangium. androsporangio.
   only male flowers.                              A sporangium producing andros-
androecium (pl. androecial). androceo.             pore.
   The collective name for all the sta-         androspore. andróspora. A special form
   mens in a flower; the male organ                of zoospore produced by the
   of a flower; also, a group of                   Oedogoniales which germinates to
   antheridia of mosses (Musci).                   form the dwarf male filament.
androgenous. andrógeno. Bearing sta-            androtomous. andrótomo. Having the
   mens only.                                      filaments of the stamens divided.
androgenesis. androgénesis. Develop-            anemo-. anemo-. A Greek prefix that
   ment from a male cell.                          means, “wind”.
androgonal cell. célula andrógino. The          anemochoric. anemocoro. Dispersed
   developing antheridium of the                   by wind.
   Bryophyta and Pteridophyta con-              anemochorous. anemocoria. Plants
   tains four primary androgonal cells             whose fruits and seeds are wind-
   which divide repeatedly to form the             dispersed, especially plants that re-
   cubical androgonal cells. At their              tain their seeds or fruit through-
   last division, they are called andro-           out the winter, ready for dispersal
   cyte mother-cells. These divide di-             in the spring.
   agonally to give the androcytes.             anemochory. anemocoria. The dispersal
androgyne. andrógeno. Hermaphro-                   of pollen by the wind; wind dis-
   dite; an androgynous plant.                     persal.
androgynophore. androginóforo. The              anemophile. anemófilo. A plant that
   supporting stalk for the androecium             produces seeds or spores that are
   and gynoecium in some flowers.                  dispersed by the wind.
androgynous. andrógino. In the same             anemophilous. anemófilo. Fertilized
   spike, having staminate flowers                 by wind-carried pollen, as grasses
   above and pistillate flowers below,             (Poaceae), sedges (Cyperaceae),
   as on certain sedges (Cyper-aceae);             and pines (Pinaceae); wind- pol-
   also, having stamens and ovaries                linated; also, wind-loving.
   in distinct parts of the same inflo-         anemophily. anemofília. The pollina-
   rescence.                                       tion of plants by the wind.
androgyny. androginia. Hermaphr-                anemochory. anemocoria. Wind dis-
   oditism.                                        persal.
andromonoecious. andromonoico. A                anemosis. anemoe. A crack in young
   single plant with both staminate and            trees resulting from the force of
   perfect flowers.                                intense winds.
andropetalous. andropetalario. Hav-             anemotropism. anemotropismo. The
   ing double flowers by the stamens               active response of a plant to air
   changing into petals.                           currents.
androphore. andróforo. A single stalk           aneuploid. aneuploide. Having a
   supporting a group of stamens above             number of chromosomes that are
   the point of attachment of the peri-            not a multiple of the haploid number
aneuploidy                                  24                           anisophyllous
   for the species.                                  unites with water to form an acid
aneuploidy. aneuploidia. A loss or in-               or base.
   crease of chromosome from its basic           anion. anion. anión. An ion that carries
   number.                                           a negative electrical charge. anion
aneurine. aneurina. The vitamin thia-                exchange capacity.
   mine which promotes root, fungus,             capacidad de cambio anion. See ex-
   and bacteria growth.                              change capacity.
anfractuosus. anfractuosus. A Latin              aniso-. aniso-. A Greek prefix that
   word that means, “sinuous”.                       means, “unequal” or ”unlike”.
angiocarp. angiocarpo. Any fruit that            anisocarpic. ansiocarpico. With fewer
   grows enclosed in an external cov-                carpels than other floral parts.
   ering.                                        anisocotylous. anisocótilo. Having
angiocarpous. angiocarpo. Of a fun-                  cotyledons of unequal size in the
   gus fruit body which is closed dur-               seedling.
   ing maturation.                               anisocytic. anisocitico. A type of sto-
angiocarpy. angiocarpia. A type of                   matal complex in which there are
   fungal fruit development where the                three subsidiary cells of unequal
   spore-bearing tissue is enclosed for              sizes.
   part of the period.                           anisogamete. anisogameto. Either of
angiosperm. angiosperma. A plant pro-                the pair of conjugating gametes that
   ducing flowers and bearing seeds                  differ from one or the other in form
   (ovules) enclosed in an ovary (fruit),            or size.
   as grasses (Poaceae), and straw-              ansiogamous. anisogamo. Character-
   berries (Rosaceae); one of two                    ized by anisogamy.
   groups, angiosperm and gymno-                 anisogamy. anisogamia. The union of
   sperm, that make up the seed-bear-                motile gametes of unequal size, as
   ing classification spermatophytes.                with some algae; heterogamy.
angle. angulo. The region between two            anisogenomatic. anisogenomatico.
   rays (sides) having a common end                  Having a chromosome complement
   point (vertex).                                   of unlike sets of chromosomes.
anguilluliform. anguilluliforme. Worm-           anisogeny. anisogenie. Having different
   like in form.                                     inheritance in reciprocal crosses.
angular. angular. Having angles or               anisomerous. anisomero. Having asym-
   being irregularly shaped.                         metrical floral parts; also, having
angular divergence. divergencia ang-                 an unequal number of parts in each
   uloso. The angle between the lines                whorl.
   of insertion of two adjacent leaves.          anisomery. anisomeria. Of flowers
angulate. angulado. See angular.                     having different numbers of flowers
angustate. angusto. Narrowing rapidly                in successive whorls.
   in width, as with some leaves.                anisometric. ansometrico. Having non-
angusti-. angusti-. A Latin prefix that              symmetrical parts or unequal meas-
   means, “narrow”.                                  urements.
angustifoliate. angustifolio. Narrow-            anisopetalous. anisopétalo. Having
   leaved.                                           unequal petals.
anhydride. anhídrido. Any oxide that             anisophyllous. anisofilo. Having un-
anisophylly                               25                               anthcyanin
    equal leaves; producing large and          annulate. anular. Marked by or made
    small leaves on the same plant.                up of ringed segments; also, hav-
anisophylly. anisofilia. Difference in             ing a membranous ring on the stipe
    form between upper and lower                   (of Agarics); annular.
    leaves of a horizontal shoot, or           annulus. anillo. A ring of specialized
    between upper and lower surfaces               cells along one side of a fern
    of such leaves, frequently as a                (Filicopsida), moss (Musci), or
    result of external forces, as grav-            some mushroom sporangium that
    ity and light; heterophylly.                   assist in the spore dispersal; ring-
anisoplanogametes. anisoplanog-                    like markings.
    ametos. Flagellate gametes of              anode. ánodo. A positive electrode
    different sizes.                               to which anions are attracted.
anisosepalous. anisosépalo. Having             anomaly. anomalía. Deviation from
    unequal sepals.                                the norm or type.
anisostemonous. anisostémono. Hav-             anomocytic. anomocitico. A type of
    ing stamens not equal in number                stomatal complex in which there
    to the petals or the sepals.                   are no obvious subsidiary cells.
anisotropic. anisotropico. Responding          antagonism. antagonismo. Growth
    differently or unequally to envi-              inibition of one organism by an-
    ronmental conditions; also, crys-              other; also, the ability of one toxic
    talline.                                       xalt to reduce or remove the toxic
anisotropy. anisotropia. The condi-                effect of another.
    tion or state of being anisotropic.        antagonist symbiosis. simbiosis anta-
annexed. anexo. adnato. Adnate.                    gonista. The parasitism of one
annotinal. anotinal. Yearly.                       organism on another, especially of
annotinous. anotino. One year old, as              one lichen on another.
    annotinous branches; also, yearly,         ante-. ante-. A Latin prefix that means,
    or in yearly growths.                          “before” or “in front of”.
annotinus. anotinus. A Latin word that         antecedent genom(e). genoma ante-
    means, “applied to the branches of             cedente. The genom when it plays
    the previous year ’s growth”.                  it the principle role in determin-
annual. anual. A plant that completes              ing inheritance.
    the life cycle in one year and then        antepetalous. antepétalo. Located di-
    dies; of one year’s growth dura-               rectly in front of the petals.
    tion from seed to seed production.         anterior. anterior. Located on the front
annual ring. anillo annual. The sec-               side away from the axis; Compare
    ondary xylem produced during a                 posterior.
    single growing season; any of the          antesepalous. antesépalo. Located
    rings of heart wood (xylem) that               in front of or opposite the sepals;
    are seen when a tree trunk is cut              also, in the blossom, the part next
    across; also, referred to as growth            to the bract, i.e. external; while the
    rings.                                         posterior side is that next to the
annular. anular. With ring-like mark-              axis of inflorescence.
    ings or with rings; also, forming          anthcyanin. antocianina. A group of
    a circle; ring-like.                           pigments in the cell sap of plants,
anthela                                      26                               anthracnose
    which produce the deep red, blue              antho-. anto-. A Greek prefix that
    lavender, and purple colors of petals             means, “flower”.
    and fruits.                                   anthocarp. antocarpo. A multiple fruit,
anthela. antela. A form of cymose in-                 as a pineapple (Bromel-iaceae),
    florescence with the lateral branches             formed from the ovaries of several
    growing beyond the axis; an open                  blossoms.
    paniculate cyme.                              anthocyan(in). antocia(ni)na. antoc-
anther. antera. The male reproductive                 íano. Nitrogenous, water-soluble
    organ that encloses and contains                  pigments that are involved in the
    the pollen grain; pollen-bearing por-             red to blue flowers and the autumnal
    tion of a stamen; in flowers, the                 color of leaves in temperate cli-
    terminal part of the male organ (sta-             mates. Anthocyanins are red if the
    men), usually a double-celled sac,                sap is acidic and blue if it is slightly
    located at the end of a thread-like               alkaline.
    stem (filament).                              anthoid. antoide. Flower-like.
antheridial cell. célula anteridial. A            antholeucin(e). antoleucina. The white
    cell that develops into an atheridium             pigment in flowers.
    in bryophytes and pteridophytes.              antholite. antolita. A fossil plant or
antheridial chamber. cámara de                        a fossil that resembles a flower.
    anteridial. The cavity in a thal-             antholysis. antolisis. A retrograde trans-
    lus containing an antheridium.                    formation of a flower in which parts
antherid(i)ophore. anterid(i)óforo. A                 that are normal combined become
    gametophore that bears only an                    separate.
    antheridium.                                  anthophore. antóforo. An elongated
antherid(ium). anterido. anteridio.                   stalk supporting the corolla, sta-
    An organ that produces male sex                   mens, and pistil above the recep-
    cells in algae, fungi, mosses                     tacle and calyx; a stipe between the
    (Musci), and ferns (Filicopsida);                 calyx and corolla.
    the multi-cellular male sex struc-            anthophorous. antóforo. Flower-bear-
    ture of plants other than seed plants.            ing.
antheriferous. anterífero. Anther bear-           anthotaxy. antotaxia. The arrangement
    ing.                                              of the flowers on the axis of the
antheriform. anteriforme. Having the                  inflorescence.
    appearance of an anther.                      anthoxanthin(e). antoxantina. A gly-
antheroid. anteroide. Having the ap-                  coside that gives the yellow colors
    pearance of an anther.                            to cell-sap.
antherozoid. anterozoide. Male sexual             anthraciny. antracinia. The breakdown
    cell from the antheridium; sperma-                of organic material by fungi fol-
    tozoid.                                           lowed by its further digestion in
anthesis. antesis. The period when the                the alimentary tracts of insects and
    flower is fully open; also, the open-             worms, providing dark colors to
    ing of the flower bud; also, the                  soil.
    duration of the flower ’s life from           anthracnose. antracnosa. A general
    the opening of the bud to the set-                term for any of the plant diseases
    ting of the fruit.                                that produce dark spots or sunken
anthropo-                                  27                           aphaptotropism
    formations on leaves, fruit, and                zyme.
    other parts.                                antigen. antigeno. A substance that
anthropo-. antropo-. A Greek prefix                 causes a plant to produce antibodies.
    that means, “man” or “human”.               antimorph. antimorf. Having an ef-
anthropochory. antropocoria. Disper-                fect opposite to that of the normal,
    sal by man.                                     non mutant allelomorph.
anthropogenic climax. climax de                 antiparallel. antiparalela. Directionally
    antropogénico. A climax in the                  opposite, as in the structure of the
    vegetation occurring under the in-              two strands of DNA.
    fluence of human intervention.              antipetalous. antipétalo. Opposite the
anthropophyte. antropófite. A plant                 petals. See antepetalous.
    introduced by human cultivation.            antiphyte. antífite. A sporophyte.
anti-. anti-. A Latin and Greek pre-            antipodal cell. célula antipodal. In most
    fix that means, “against”.                      angiosperms, any of three nuclei
antibiosis. antibiosis. An association              at the end of the embryo sac,
    between organisms that may be                   opposite the egg apparatus.
    harmful to one of them but is im-           antisepalous. anitsépalo. Opposite the
    portant to the structure and com-               sepals. See antesepalous.
    position of many plant communi-             antithetic. antitetico. The alternation
    ties. See allelopathy.                          of morphologically unlike genera-
antibiotic. antibiótico. A substance                tions, i.e. not homologous.
    produced or derived from an or-             antitropic. antitropico. Twisting clock-
    ganism, such as fungus, bacteria,               wise.
    or plant that destroys and/or weak-         antitropous. antitropo. Orthotropous.
    ens other organisms.                        antrorse. antrorso. Bent forward or
anticlinal. anticlinal. Sloping down-               upward; often used to describe hair
    ward; in anatomy, used to describe              or prickles.
    a wall perpendicular to the near-           anurous. anuro. acaudeo. Tailless;
    est important organ or duct surface;            acaudate.
    radial.                                     apandrous. apandro. Lacking or hav-
anticodon. anticodón. Three nucleot-                ing non-functional male organs;
    ides in transfer RNA that bind to               also, forming oospores when no
    a corresponding codon in Messenger              antheridia are present.
    RNA during the synthesis of pro-            apetalous. apétalo. Having flowers
    tein.                                           without petals; having no corolla.
anticous. antico. Placed on the ante-           apetaly. apétalia. The condition of
    rior side of an organ; also, same               having no petals, the result of peri-
    as anterior.                                    anth reduction (aphanisis).
antidromy. antidromia. Left- and right-         apex. ápice. The tip; also, that part
    handed twining in the same spe-                 of a root or shoot containing the
    cies; also, a change in direction of            apical and primary meristems.
    ascending spirals connecting leaf           aphanisis. afanisis. Perianth reduction
    attachments.                                    with flowers lacking petals and
antienzyme. antienzima. Any substance               corollas.
    that inhibits the function of an en-        aphaptotropism. afaptotropismo. Not
apheliotropic                                28                               apoenzyme
    responding to contact stimuli.                apical meristem. meristema apical.
apheliotropic. afeliotropico. Aphot-                  The formative cells at the tip of
    otropic.                                          roots or shoots which differenti-
aphlebia. aflebia. Aborted pinnae found               ate by division, allowing the plant
    in some living and fossil ferns.                  to grow in depth and height.
aphotic. afótico. Capable of growth               apical placentation. placentación api-
    in the absence of light.                          cal. Of ovule(s) when attached at
aphotic zone. zona afótica. In the                    the top of the ovary.
    marine ecosystem, a deep water area           apiculate. apiculado. Ending abruptly
    below the depth of light, analogous               in a slender, soft point, as apiculate
    to the profundal zone in freshwa-                 leaves; tipped with a soft point;
    ter; disphotic zone.                              pointled.
aphotometric. afotometrico. Said of               apiculus. apículo. A small point or tip.
    a leaf that does not respond to light;        apileate. apileado. Having no pileus.
    also, said of a motile organism that          aplanetism. aplaneismo. A condition
    always turns the same end towards                 where no motile stage is formed;
    the light.                                        having non-motile spores instead
aphototactic. afototactico. Of a motile               of gametes.
    organism that does not move in                aplanogamete. aplanógameto. aplan-
    response to light intensities.                    ogámeta. A non-motile gamete.
aphototropic. afototropico. Growing               aplanospore. aplanospora. A non-
    away from the light.                              motile, asexual spore borne by some
aphyllopodic. afilópodo. The lowest                   algae and ferns (Filicopsida).
    leaves become reduced to scales.              apo-. apo-. A Greek prefix that means,
aphyllous. áfilo. sin hojas. afoliado.                “away from”, “down”, or “separate”.
    Having no leaves; leafless, as cacti              Used to indicate that certain parts
    (Cactaceae).                                      exist as individuals, not fused with
apical. apical. Located at the tip or                 anything else.
    apex, as an apical cell.                      apobasidium. apobasidio. A basidium
apical cell. célula apical. The single                with terminal spores which are
    meristematic cell at the tips of the              arranged symmetricaly on the ba-
    branches of the thallus in complex                sidium.
    algae; also, the merist-ematic cell           apocarp. apocarpo. An ovary or fruit
    at the tip of a bryophyte thallus;                with separate or distinct carpels.
    also, the single merist-ematic cell           apocarpous. apocárpico. A flower
    at the tips of root and shoot branches            with separated carpels; also, when
    of the Pteridophyta.                              the several pistils of the same flower
apical dominance. dominancia apical.                  are separate.
    Growth restraint of the lateral buds          apocarpy. apocarpia. Bearing apocarps.
    or shoots by the apical meristem              apocyte. apócito. A multinucleate mass
    due to auxins produced by the apical              of protoplasm with no cell walls.
    bud; growth occurs primarily at the           apoenzyme. apoenzima. The protein
    top of the plant.                                 part of an enzyme, to which the
apical growth. crecimiento apical.                    coenzyme attaches, to form an active
    Growth at the tip or terminal.                    enzyme.
apogamety                                  29                          apostemonous
apogamety. apogametia. The devel-                  curs at the base of some mosses
   opment of an embryo from a dip-                 (Musci), or the part of a cone scale
   loid gametophyte by division of a               which is exposed, when the cone
   cell other than an egg-cell, with               is closed; also, a swollen hypha of
   or without pollination and (partial)            a fungus.
   fertilization; the zygote so formed          apoplast. apoplasto. Areas of the plant
   being maternal in genetic consti-               that lie outside the cell membrane,
   tution.                                         such as cell walls and dead tissues
apogamic. apogámico. Of or pertaining              of the xylem through which wa-
   to apogamy.                                     ter, salts, etc. have to pass before
apogamy. apogamia. The production                  reaching the other tissues of the
   of a new plant (sporophyte), without            plant.
   sexual reproduction, by budding              apoplastic. apoplastico. Of or pertain-
   from a prothallus, as in ferns                  ing to the movement of water in
   (Filicopsida) and some mosses                   the free space of tissue, including
   (Musci).                                        cell walls and intercellular spaces.
apogeotropic. apogeotrópico. Bending            aporogamy. aporogamia. The penetra-
   or turning away from the earth, as              tion of the ovule by the pollen tube
   apogeotropic leaves; negatively geo-            by some other path than the mi-
   tropic.                                         cropyle.
apogeny. apogenia. Sterility.                   aposepalous. aposépalo. Having the
apogeotropism. apogeotrópismo. A                   sepals separate from each other.
   type of tropism where shoots grow            aposporic. apospórico. The develop-
   away from the pull of gravity.                  ment of gametophytes by the di-
apoheliotropic. apoheliotrópico. Nega-             vision of somatic cells without
   tively heliotropic.                             meiosis; a type of agamospermy
apomict. apomict. An organism that                 where a seed is produced without
   reproduces by apomixis.                         fertilization.
apomictic. apomíctico. Of or exhib-             apospory. apospória. A process where
   iting apomixis.                                 some ferns (Filicopsida) and
apomixis. apomixis. A rare asexual re-             mosses (Musci) have the prothall-
   productive process where a new                  ium generated from the sporangium
   plant is produced from a female                 instead of by spores; also, the for-
   cell or cells other than an egg; seed           mation of a diploid gametophyte
   production without fertilization or             by the direct (ameiotic) division
   meiosis; seedling characteristics are           of a cell of nucellus or the integu-
   the same as those of the maternal               ment of an unfertilized ovule or,
   parent; apogamy.                                more commonly from the soral or
apomorph. apomorf. An evolutionary                 sporangial tissue of ferns (Filicops-
   advanced character. The opposite                ida).
   of plesiomorph.                              apostasis. apostase. Internodal growth
apopetalous. apopétalo. Having sepa-               which separates whorls or other
   rate petals; choripetalous.                     parts.
apophysis. apófisis. A natural swelling         apostemonous. apostómono. Having
   or outgrowth of an organ, as oc-                separate stamens.
apothecium                                30                                arbuscule
apothecium. apotecio. The cup-shaped               hypha.
   fruiting body of various lichens and        approximate. aproximado. Close to-
   fungi to which the spore sacs (asci)            gether but not joined; also, of gills
   are attached.                                   of agarics, near but not touching
apostrophe. apóstrofe. The arrange-                the stipe.
   ment of the chloroplasts against the        apricus. apricus. Growing in dry and
   radial walls of the palisade layer              sunny places.
   in bright light.                            apterous. áptero. Having no wing-like
apothecium.apotecio. The fructification            extensions or parts; wingless.
   of some Ascomycetes which is                aquatic. acuático. Living or growing
   flattened or cup-shaped with the                in water or under extremely moist
   asci on the upper surface in a pali-            conditions, as in bogs. Applied to
   sade-like layer, usually mixed with             plants whether growing under water,
   sterile hyphae. It is angiocarpic if            or with all but the base raised out
   it is closed before maturity and                of it.
   gynocarpic if open.                         aqueous tissue. tejido acuoso. A tissue
apotropous. apotropo. Said of an                   of enlarged cells that carry water.
   anatropous ovule with a ventral             aquifer. acuífero. A subterranean body
   raphe.                                          of rock, gravel, or sand with the
appendage. apéndice. A secondary part              capacity of storing significant quan-
   coming from or attached to a main               tities of water, underlain by imper-
   structure.                                      meable material, and through which
appendicled. apéndiclado. With small               water moves.
   appendages.                                 arabinose. arabino. A pentose sugar
appendiculate. apendiculado. Bearing               obtained from plant polysaccharides
   appendages; also, having out-                   occurring in various plant gums.
   growths at the throat of a corolla;         arachnoid. aracnoide. Having cobweb-
   of mosses, having a fringe of small             like, entangled, fine hair.
   pieces; of agarics, retaining veil          araneose. araneo. Arachnoid.
   fragments.                                  arboreal. arbóreo. Tree-like; living in
appendix. apéndice. An appendage.                  trees.
applanate. aplanado. plano. Lying              arborescent. arborescente. Tree-like
   in a plane, as leaves on twigs giv-             in structure or growth, as bamboo,
   ing applanate foliage; flat.                    an arborescent grass (Bambus-
applied. aplicada. Lying against each              aceae).
   other by a flat surface.                    arboretum. arboreto. A place where
apposition. aposición. Growth by the               trees and shrubs are grown for sci-
   addition of layers of tissue to the             entific and educational purposes.
   cell wall; intussusception.                 arbuscle. arbuscle. A dwarf tree, or
appressed. adpreso. Lying flat or close            shrub-looking tree.
   to another organ, as appressed              arbusclar. arbusclar. Resembling a
   leaves on a stem.                               shrub.
appressorium. apresorio. The adhe-             arbuscule. arbuscule. A tuft of branch-
   sive or attachment organ of a para-             ing fungal filament (hypha) formed
   sitic fungi; composed of a flattened            by the fungi of a mycorrhizal as-
archegonia                                  31                                  arginine
    sociation, usually found in the cells            antiaceae.
    near the endodermis.                         archilichens. arquiliquens. Lichens
archegonia. arquegonio. Plural of                    with bright green gonidia.
    archegonium.                                 archimycetes. arquimicetes. Fungi with
archaebacteria. arqueobacteria. A type               a simple thallus and reproducing
    of microorganism that is chemically              by zoospores; includes Plasmodio-
    and genetically different from other             phorales and Myxochytridiales.
    bacteria (Eubacteria) and higher             archiplasm. arquiplasma. In a cell,
    living organisms; lives in a warm,               the protoplasmic substance of an
    oxygen-free environment by con-                  aster and spindle during mitosis;
    suming carbon dioxide and hydro-                 sometimes spelled archoplasm.
    gen, converting them into meth-              archoplasm. arquoplasm. See archip-
    ane; also, the taxon Archaebact-                 lasm.
    eria.                                        arcuate. arqueado. Curved, bent, or
archegoniophore. arquegonióforo. An                  arched, as a bow.
    outgrowth of the prothallium of              ardella. ardela. A small spot-like
    mosses (Musci) and ferns (Filicops-              apothecium.
    ida), which bear archegonia.                 arenaceous. arenaceo. Growing in sand.
archegonium. arquegonio. The flask-              arenicolous. arenícola. Sand-loving.
    shaped female reproductive organ             arenose. arenoso. Growing in sand.
    in mosses (Musci) and ferns                  areolar. areolado. Of or pertaining
    (Filicopsida), corresponding to the              to an areola.
    pistil in flowering plants.                  areolate. areolado. Divided into small
archespore. arquesporo. The cell or                  areas, bounded by cracks, lines, or
    cells from which spores develop.                 veins; characterized by having
archesporial cells. célula arquesporial.             areole.
    The inner cells of the developing            areolation. areolación. A net pattern
    sporangium of a pteridophyte; most               formed by the boundaries of cells.
    ultimately give rise to spore mother-        areole. aréola. The open spaces be-
    cells.                                           tween the veins of a net veined leaf;
archesporium. arquesporio. The cells                 also, in cacti, the bud-like projec-
    of a sporangium which give rise                  tions on pads where the spines are
    to the archesporial cells; also, a               produced; also, a small pit; also,
    single cell or group of cells which              a small space on the surface of a
    differentiates within a developing               lichen, delimited by lines or cracks.
    anther or ovule to spore mother              arescent. arescente. Dying.
    cell(s).                                     ar genteous. argénteo. Silvery;
archicarp. arquicarpo. The cell, hypha,              silver-like.
    or coil of hyphae of Ascomycetes             argillicolous. argilícola. Living on clay
    that develop in to the fruit body;               soil.
    the first fruit stage in some fungi.         argillophilous. argilófilo. Pertaining
arching. arqueado. Curved like a bow.                to plants growing on clay.
archigoniophore. arquigonióforo.                 argillose. argiloso. Growing in clay.
    Stalked vertical branches which bear         arginine. arginina. An amino acid in
    archegonia, especially in March-                 plant protein.
argos                                        32                    artificial classification
argos. argos. Pure white in Greek.                armor. armadura. A covering of odd-
argophyllous. argófilo. White-leaved.                 leaf bases on the stems of cycads
argutus. argutus. Acutely dentate.                    and some ferns; armature.
arhizous. arizoma. Without roots.                 aroma. aroma. The fragrance of plants.
arid. árido. A geographical area with             aromatic. aromático. A sweet smelling
    insufficient rainfall to support trees            or fragrant plant; having an agree-
    or woody plants.                                  able odor.
aridity. aridez. Arid or dry condi-               around. rodear. Encircle.
    tion.                                         arrange. arreglar. disponer. Placed
arididity index. índice de aridez. A                  in a particular order.
    term first used by C.W. Thornwaite            arrect. arecto. Brought into an up-
    to provide a quantitative criteria                right position; stiffly upright.
    of moisture deficit; calculated as            arrhenokaryon. arrenconcarion.
    100× the water deficit / potential                arrenonúcleo. A nucleus having
    evaporation.                                      two separate sets of haploid chro-
aril(lus). arilo. An outgrowth devel-                 mosomes.
    oping at or near the hilum or fu-             arrhizal. arrizo. Having no roots; root-
    niculus of a seed, sometimes spongy               less.
    and sometimes encircling the seed;            arrow-shaped. sagitado. Sagittate.
    an extra covering on certain seed             arthro-. artro-. A Greek and Latin
    coats, often developing after fer-                prefix that means, “in relationship
    tilization.                                       or connection to a joint”.
arillate. arilado. With an aril.                  arthrogenous. artrogeno. Of bacte-
arilliform. ariliforme. Aril-like.                    ria where the individual develops
arillode. arilodio. An aril that does                 into a spore; also, developed from
    not emerge from the stalk; a false                pieces separated from the parent
    aril.                                             plant.
arista (pl. aristae). arista. Awn or a            arthrospore. artróspora. Various fun-
    stiff bristle; the beard-like part of             gal or algal spores that appear as
    grain or grasses (Poaceae), located               a string of beads, formed by the
    at the tip.                                       fragmentation of the hyphae.
aristate. aristado. Having an arista.             arthrosterigma. artrosterigma. An
aristulate. aristulado. Diminutive of                 individual sterigma of the lichens.
    aristate; also, short-awned.                  article. articulo. A joint of a stem
arm. brazo. A main branch or limb                     or fruit which breaks at maturity.
    of a tree.                                    articulate. articulado. Segmented or
armature. armadura. Prickles, spines,                 jointed; at maturity, separating along
    or thorns that serve as a defense;                a well defined line; also, at matu-
    also, the woody scales at the base                rity, breaking into distinct pieces.
    of leaves and stems of many tree              articulate leaf. hoja articulado. A leaf
    ferns (Cyatheaceae).                              that is cut off by an absciss layer.
armed. armado. Having prickles, spines            articulation. articulación. A joint or
    or thorns.                                        point of attachment between the
armillate. armilado. Edged, fringed,                  parts of a plant.
    or frilled.                                   artificial classification. clasificación
artificial gene                               33                            ascorbic acid
    artifícial. A classification of plants         ascocarpous. ascocarpo. Of or per-
    based on prominent points of re-                  taining to an ascocarp; having an
    semblance or difference rather than               ascocarp.
    on genetic or bio-chemical relation-           ascoconidiophore. ascocnidióforo. An
    ships.                                            ascus-like conidophore.
artificial gene. gen artifícial. A chemi-          ascoconidium. ascoconidio. A conid-
    cally synthesized copy of a gene                  ium in an ascoconidiophore.
    made by combining nucleotide se-               asogenic cell. célula asogenico. The
    quences.                                          cells bearing the asci in the
artificial selection. selección artifícial.           Laboulbeniales; homologous with
    The modification of natural selec-                ascogenous hyphae of the other
    tion by human intervention in the                 Euascomycetes.
    process of gene selection.                     ascogenous. ascogenoico. Ascus sup-
arundinaceous. arundináceo. Resem-                    porting or producing.
    bling a reed; reed-like.                       ascogonial. ascogonial. Of or pertain-
arvensis. arvensis. A Latin word that                 ing to an ascogonium.
    means, “of arable land”.                       ascogonium. ascogonio. The female
ascendent. ascend(i)ente. Growing                     sex organ in the gametophyte of
    upward. See ascending.                            ascomycetous fungi (Eumycota);
ascending. ascend(i)ente. Growing ob-                 also, the cell or group of cells of
    liquely upward, usually curving.                  the Ascomycete, fertilized by the
ascending aestivation. aestivacion                    antheridium.
    ascendente. Aestivation in which               ascolichen. ascoliquen. Any of the li-
    each petal overlaps the edge of the               chens that the mycobiont is an as-
    petal posterior to it.                            comycete (sac fungi).
asci. asci. Elongated sacs where spores            ascoma. ascoma. A sporocarp having
    are formed in various fungi; the                  asci.
    plural of ascus. See ascomycetous.             ascomycete. ascomicetos. Any of a
ascidiform. ascidiforme. Bottle-shaped.               large class of Ascomycetes that
ascidium. ascidio. The sac-shaped or                  includes yeasts, molds, rusts, and
    pitcher-shaped part of a plant, as                others; sometime referred to as sac
    a leaf in the pitcher plant (Neph-                fungi.
    enthaceae) or bloodwort (Rumex);               ascomycetous. ascomiceto. Of or per-
    vasculum.                                         taining to any of a large class (As-
ascigerous. ascigero. Bearing asci. The               comycetes) of fungi, including
    stage in the life cycle of an asco-               molds, yeasts, mildews, etc. char-
    mycete when the asci are produced.                acterized by the formation of spores
ascigerous centrum. centro ascigero.                  in elongated sacs (asci).
    The special tissue of pyrenomycete             ascophore. ascóforo. An ascus pro-
    which develops into the asci and                  ducing hypha in an ascocarp;
    paraphyses.                                       apothecium.
asciiform. asciforme. Hatchet-shaped.              ascorbic acid. ácido ascórbico. The
ascocarp. ascocarpo. A spore produced                 vitamin C in fruit and vegetables;
    in an ascus; the mature fruit of as-              needed in aerobic respiration, re-
    comycetous fungi (Ascomycotina).                  placing cytochromes as the elec-
ascospore                                  34                                  associes
   tron carrier in some plants.                     rough leaves.
ascospore. ascospora. A sexually pro-           aspermous. aspermo. Without seeds.
   duced haploid spore that is formed           asperous. áspero. Harsh, rough, un-
   within an ascus by fungi of the                  even to touch.
   subdivision Ascomycotina (Eum-               asperulate. asperulado. Finely asperate.
   ycota); release occurs with the              asporogenous. asporógeno. Does not
   rupture of the cleistothecium wall.              produce spores.
ascostome. ascostoma. The pore at the           asporous. asporógeno. Sporeless; hav-
   top of an ascus.                                 ing no spores.
ascostroma. ascostroma. A fungal fruit          assemblage of plants. agrupación de
   body that asci develop in or within              plantas. A collection of plants,
   a stroma.                                        characteristically associated with
ascus. asco. asca. A very small, bag-               a particular environment, which are
   like structure in which ascospores               used as an environmental indica-
   develop in fungi (Eumycota); single              tor in geobotanical exploration.
   form of asci.                                assimilate. asimilar. To change non-
ascyphous. ascifo. Without a scyphus.               living, absorbed substances into
asepalous. asépalo. Without any leaf                living protoplasm by the process
   divisions (sepals) in the calyx;                 of anabolism.
   having no sepals.                            assimilation. asimilación. The process
aseptate. aseptado. Having no parti-                of taking in food and water for
   tions or septa.                                  conversion into protoplasm. See
asexual. asexual. Reproducing without               anabolism.
   male or female gametes, as in bud-           assimilation ratio. proporción de
   ding; also, lacking sex organs or                asimilación. The amount of photo
   sex spores.                                      synthesis occurring in unit mass
asexual generation. generación asex-                of a leaf in an hour, and consider-
   ual. See agamic generation.                      ing the weight of chlorophyll in
asexual reproduction. reproducción                  the tissue. It is expressed as the
   asexual. The type of reproduction                ratio of weight of carbon dioxide
   without the process of gamete for-               (in mg) absorbed / time (in hours)
   mation, consisting of vegetative                 / weight of chlorophyll (in mg) in
   reproduction, apospory, and apog-                the tissue.
   amy; occurring by budding (gem-              assimilatory quotient. cociente de
   mation) in many liverworts (Hep-                 asimilación. The ratio of carbon
   aticae) and mosses (Musci).                      dioxide intake to oxygen output.
asparagine. asparagina. One of the              assimilative. asimilativo. Concerned
   amino acids in proteins. The amide               with growth before reproduction
   of aspartic acid occurs widely in            association. ascociación. A stable plant
   plants.                                          community named after the domi-
asperate. asperado. Roughened with                  nant plant. Related associations
   projections, points, or bristles.                form alliances. See plant associa-
aspergilliform. aspergilliforme. Tufted,            tion.
   like a brush.                                associes. ascosie. A developing asso-
asperifoliate. asperifoliado. Having                ciation, which is therefore unsta-
assortative breeding                        35                                     atom
    ble.                                             divided into two equal halves, as
assortative breeding. apareamiento                   with some leaves; irregular.
    de semejanza. A type of sexual               asynapsis. asinapsis. The failure or ab-
    reproduction where the pairing of                sence of synapsis in meiosis; the
    male and females is not random,                  failure of chromosomes to pair at
    but involves a tendency for males                pachytene or the absence of chi-
    of a particular kind to breed with               asmata formation.
    the females of a particular kind,            atactostele. atactoestela. The stele of
    or the opposite. Positive assortative            monocots, composed of a three
    mating is when the match is bet-                 dimensional network of collateral
    ter than could be expected by                    vascular bundles.
    chance.                                      atavism. atavismo. In a plant, the re-
assurgent. ascendente. Rising at an ob-              appearance from remote ancestry
    lique angle, as with some stems;                 of characteristics not found in its
    ascending.                                       immediate ancestors.
astelic. astelico. Without a stele.              atelomitic. atelomitico. Said of a
astemonous. anantero. Having no stem.                chromsome having the spindle fiber
aster. áster. A genus of mostly per-                 attached somewhere along its side.
    ennial herbs, common in northern             ater. ater. A Latin word that means,
    temperate areas; also, a group of                “black”.
    cytoplasmic fibrils surrounding the          atmosphere. atmósfera. The mass of
    centrosome immediately before and                gases (air) that surrounds the earth
    during cell division; also, the star-            and held in place by the force of
    shaped arrangement of the chro-                  gravity; composed of approximately
    mosome during metaphase.                         78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% ar-
asteroid. asteroide. Star-shaped.                    gon, with traces of carbon diox-
asterophysis. asterófisis. A stalked,                ide, water vapor, neon, helium,
    stellate structure in the hymenium               methane, and others.
    of some fungi.                               atmospheric. atmosférico. Pertaining
astichous. astico. Not arranged in rows.             to or existing in the atmosphere.
astomatous. aestomatoso. With no                 atmospheric nitrogen. nitrógeno atmo-
    stomata.                                         sférica. Nitrogen in a gaseous form
astro-. astro-. A Greek prefix that                  which composes about 78% of the
    means, “stellate” or “star-like”.                earth’s atmosphere; important in
astroid. astroide. The star-shaped fig-              the building of organic molecules.
    ure formed by looped chromosomes                 Plants obtain nitrogen from the soil
    collected at the equator of the spin-            as a nitrate or an ammonia.
    dle during cell division.                    atmospheric oxygen. oxígeno atmo-
astropholate. astrofólado. Lacking                   sférica. Oxygen in a gaseous form
    a strophiole.                                    which makes up about 21% of the
astrosclereid(e). astroesclereida. A                 earth’s atmosphere, however, in
    star-shaped sclereid that is highly              higher altitudes, as in moutainous
    branched with several arms pro-                  areas, this may be less.
    jecting from the central body.               atom. átomo. The smallest part of a
asymmetric. asimétrico. Can not be                   chemical element that can partici-
atomate                                     36                            autobasidium
    pate in a chemical reaction with-                fining character or characteristic.
    out being permanently altered.               -atus. –atus. A Latin suffiex that means,
atomate. atomado. Having a powdered                  “having” or “provided with”.
    surface.                                     atypical. atípico. anormal. Unusual,
ATP. ATP. The abbreviation for ad-                   or not normal.
    enosine triphosphate.                        aulophyte. aulófito. A plant living non-
ATPase. ATPasa. An enzyme that                       parastically in a cavity of another
    catalyzes the hydrolysis of the                  plant.
    amino acid adenosine triphosphate.           auranticous. aurantico. Orange-
atratous. atrato. Blackening.                        colored.
atricolor. atricolor. Inky.                      aureous. aureo. Golden.
atro-. atro-. A Latin prefix that means,         aureus. aureus. A Latin word that
    “black”.                                         means, “golden”.
atrophy. atrofía. An arrested devel-             auricle. aurícula. An appendage that
    opment of an organ; the reduction                resembles an ear, often occurring
    in size and utility of an organ or               at the base of a leaf.
    tissue; stunted.                             auriculate. auriculado. Having ears
atropous. átropo. An ovule that is                   or ear-like appendages.
    straight, not bent, such that the            australis. australis. Latin for “south-
    micropyle is directed away from                  ern”.
    the funiculus; orthotropous.                 aut-. aut-. A prefix that means, “self”
atropurpureus. atropurpureus. Latin                  or “individual”.
    for “dark purple”.                           autapomorph. autapomorf. A char-
atrovirens. atrovirens. Latin for “dark              acter state that is unique to a par-
    green”.                                          ticular species or lineage. See
attach. sujetar. Fasten                              apomorph.
attached. sujeto. Connected or fused.            autecious. autecio. See autoecious.
attachment. acoplamiento. The point              autecology. autecologia. autoecologia.
    or region of connection.                         The study of an individual species
attachment constriction. constricción                or population and its relationship
    acoplamiento. Spindle attachment;                to its environment.
    centromere.                                  auteform. auteforme. An autoecious
attachment organ. órgano acoplam-                    rust having all spore stages.
    iento. An enlargement of the base            auto-. auto-. A prefix that means,
    of an algal thallus which attaches               “self”, as in autogamy, self- fer-
    it to a solid object; also, a hooked             tilization.
    hair attaching a seed to an animal,          autoallogamy. autoalogamia. Species
    thereby aiding in disperal.                      of flowering plants which have some
attenuate. atenuado. Gradually nar-                  members capable of self-pollina-
    rowing into a tip or base.                       tion, and others capable of cross-
attraction sphere. esfera atractiva. The             pollination.
    mass of protoplasm with the                  autobasidiomycete. autobasidimiceto.
    striations raditating through it from            A basidiomycete with a non-
    the centrosome during cell divison.              septate basidium.
attribute. atributo. In taxonomy, a de-          autobasidium. autobasidio. A basidium
autocarp                                     37                              autosyndesis
   that is septate; also, a basidium with             duced in the cell due to the disor-
   spores at the side and asymmetri-                  dered metabolism of the cell; pro-
   cal.                                               duced by substances not normally
autocarp. autocarpo. A fruit result-                  present in the cell; self-dissolution.
   ing from self-fertilization.                   automixis. automixis. The mingling
autocatalysis. autocatálisis. An accel-               of chromatin derived from two sex
   eration of a catalytic process by                  cells produced by one individual
   products of reaction themselves                    plant.
   acting as catalysts, as the break-             autonomism. autonomismo. Movement
   down of cell structure by products                 due to an internal stimulus, as pro-
   formed with the cell.                              toplasmic flow in a cell.
autochthonous. autóctono. Native to               autoparasite. autoparasito. A parasite
   a particular place, as plant mate-                 living on another parasite.
   rial in a peat bog which grew where            autophagic vacuole. vacuola auto-
   it was found; indigenous.                          fágico. A membranous fluid–filled
autodeliquescent. autodelicuescente.                  space (vacuole), derived from within
   Becoming liquid by the process of                  the cell that contains material to
   self-digestion.                                    be digested.
autoecious. autecio. Going through                autophagy. autófagia. The breaking
   the complete life cycle on a sin-                  down of parts of a cell by the cell’s
   gle host, as some parasitic fungi;                 own lysosomes.
   autecious.                                     autophyte. autófito. A plant with the
autoecology. autoecología. The inter-                 capacity of producing its own food
   relation of an organism with its                   from inorganic substances, as green
   environment                                        plants.
autogamous. autógamo. Of or pertain-              autopolyploid. autopoliploide. A poly-
   ing to autogamy.                                   ploid with chromosomes that have
autogamy. autogamia. Self-fertiliza-                  come from the same species and
   tion; also, the fusion of sister-cells;            are identical; also, a polyploid de-
   also, the fusion of nuclei in pairs                rived from a single ancestral spe-
   within one cell of a female organ                  cies, usually by intraspecific hy-
   without cell fusion having occurred.               bridization. Many garden flowers
autogenic. autogéno. A successional                   are autopolyploid.
   change resulting from a modifica-              autopotamous. autopotamo. Originat-
   tion of the environment by vegeta-                 ing in fresh water.
   tion, as providing shade.                      autosome. autosoma. Any of the chro-
autoicous. autoico. Having male and                   mosomes in the nucleus other than
   female inflorescences on the same                  a sex chromosome.
   plant, as in some mosses (Musci).              autospore. autospora. An aplanospore
autolysin. autolisina. Any substance,                 of algal cells similar in shape and
   especially enzymes, capable of                     size to the parent cell.
   breaking down cells of an organ-               autosyndesis. autosíndesis. The pair-
   ism’s own tissue.                                  ing of chromosomes from the same
autolysis. autoisis. The destruction                  polyploid parents or remote poly-
   of cell contents by enzymes pro-                   ploid ancestors.
autotetraploid                              38                                     axeny
autotetraploid. autotetraploide. A tetra-           lates longitudinal growth in the cells
    ploid with four similar sets of chro-           of higher plants; also responsible
    mosomes.                                        for the bending effect in some
autotroph. autótrofo. Organisms able                grasses (Poaceae).
    to manufacture their own food from           auxocyte. auxocito. A cell in which
    inorganic materials by photosyn-                meiosis has begun.
    thesis or chemosynthesis.                    auxospireme. auxospirema. The spir-
autotrophic. autótrofico. Character-                eme formed after syndesis in meio-
    izing plant or plant-like organisms             sis.
    which are able to manufacture their          auxospore. auxóspora. auxospora.
    own food of inorganic materials as              A rejuvenescent spore produced
    in photosynthesis or chemosynthe-               under adverse environmental con-
    sis; green plants, algae, and some              ditions by some diatoms. When pro-
    bacteria containing chlorophyll are             duced by pennate diatoms, forma-
    autotrophic, in contrast to hetero-             tion is associated with sexual
    trophic.                                        reproduction by the enlargement
autotropism. autotropismo. A ten-                   of a zygote or parthenogenetic gam-
    dency to grow in a straight line.               ete; also, a diatomaceous reproduc-
autumn. otoño. The third season of a                tive cell (zygote).
    year when divided into spring, sum-          auxotroph. auxótrofo. A microorgan-
    mer, autumn (Fall), and winter;                 ism that has lost the capactiy to
    common in the northern temper-                  synthesize substances needed for
    ate zones, beginning with the equi-             its own nutrition.
    nox on September 23 rd and ending            available water. agua asimilable. agua
    with the winter solstice, Decem-                disponible. Water in the soil that
    ber 21 st.                                      can be readily absorbed by plant
autumnal. otoñal. In the autumn (Fall);             roots; usually water held in the soil
    also, used in reference to the six              under a pressure of 0.3 to about
    part division of the year: autum-               15 bars.
    nal, aestival, hibernal, prevernal,          avascular. avascular. no vascular.
    serotinal, and vernal.                          A large grouping of plant or plant-
auxanometer. auxanómetro. An ap-                    like organism without a vascular
    paratus used to measure the elon-               system. See non-vascular.
    gation of shoots; incorporates a             avenius. avenius. Latin for veinless.
    lever which exaggerates the actual           averse. opuesto. Turned back.
    growth.                                      awl-shaped. alesnado. Small, nar-
auxesis. auxesis. Cell growth by                    row, triangular shaped leaves; also,
    expansion rather than by division.              sharp-pointed from a broader base.
auxilliary cell. célula auxiliar. An             awn. arista. A bristle-like organ found
    accessory cell in the thallus of some           on many grasses (Poaceae).
    Floridae from which the gonimo-              awned. aristado. Having an awn or
    blast filaments grow after the                  a long bristle-shaped awn.
    zygote nucleus has migrated into             axenic culture. cultivo axénico. See
    it from the carpogonium.                        pure culture.
auxin. auxina. A hormone which stimu-            axeny. axenia. The resistance of a
axial                                       39                               azygospore
    plant to a pathogen, without the             axile plancentation. plancentación axil.
    presence of morphological barri-                 plancentación axial. Said of an
    ers; sometimes referred to as pas-               ovary having the ovules attached
    sive resistance.                                 to the tissue of the central axis.
axial. axial. A term used to describe            axilla. axila. In or growing from an
    a structure which is morphologi-                 axil. See axil.
    cally a shoot. See axile.                    axillant. axillante. Subtending at an
axial bundle. haz axial. One of the                  angle.
    main bundles of a shoot or root;             axillary. axilar. Positioned in or arising
    cauline bundle.                                  in an axis or in the upper angle
axial cell. célula axial. The central                between a leaf and the plant stem;
    cell in the early stages of the de-              used when referring to axillary buds
    velopment of the archegonium of                  lying between the twig and a sub-
    Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. It                 tending leaf.
    gives rise to the lower central and          axillary bud. yema axilar. Any bud
    cover cells.                                     on the stem other than the termi-
axial gradient. gradiente axial. A physi-            nal bud at the shoot apex; lateral
    ological gradient along the axis of              bud.
    a plant. Activity is higher at one           axis (pl. axes). eje. The main stem on
    end and gradually becoming less                  which organs are formed or
    as it passes along the axis.                     branches are arranged; also, the
axil. axila. The angle formed between                main stem and roots.
    two or more structures, as between           axoneme. axonema. The arrangement
    the upper side of a leaf and the sup-            of microtublules that form the
    porting stem where buds often are                flagella structure.
    formed; the point of attachment of           axospermous. axospermo. Having axile
    a bud or shoot other than at the                 placentation.
    apex of the stem; the angle where            azureus. azureus. A Latin word that
    a small stem joins a larger one.                 means, “sky-blue”.
axile. axial. Positioned or attached to          azgote. acigoto. An individual devel-
    the central axis; also, coinciding               oped without fertilization from a
    with the longitudinal axis.                      haploid individual.
axile chloroplast. cloroplasto axil. A           azygospore. azigospora. A fungal spore
    chloroplast lying along the axis of              resembling a zygospore that devel-
    the cell.                                        ops parthenogenetically.
B                                          40                          bacteriophage


B B. The chemical symbol for bo-                   croorganisms, without a distinct nu-
    ron, a trace element, essential to             clear membrane; often motile but
    plant growth.                                  a few, such as blue-green algae,
B. B. A class of flowers which have                obtain food by photosynthesis, al-
    their nectar fully concealed.                  though they are no longer classi-
B¹. B¹. A class of flowers similar to              fied as plants.
    B but having the flowers in heads.          bacterial. bacterial. bacteriano. Of
bacca. bacca. An indehisent, many                  or relating to bacteria.
    berried fruit, with seeds that scat-        bacterial virus. virus bacterial. See
    ter throughout the fleshy area when            bacteriophage.
    ripe, as gooseberries (Grossular-           bactericidal. bactericida. Any agent
    iaceae).                                       that kills bacteria.
baccacetum. bacario. An aggregate of            bacteriochlorin. bacterioclorina. Seee
    berries.                                       bacteriochlorophyll.
baccate. abayado. Like a berry in               bacteriochlorophyll. bacterioclorofila.
    pulpy texture or shape; bearing ber-           A specialized photosynthetic pig-
    ries.                                          ment, similar to chlorophyll, found
bacci-. bacci- . A prefix that means,              only in anaerobic and photosyn-
    “berry”, as bacciform.                         thetic bacterial systems.
bacciferous. baccífero. Having or pro-          bacteriocin. bacterioncina. A pro-
    ducing berries.                                tein produced by a strain of bac-
bacciform. bacciforme. Having the                  teria that is deadly or inhibitory
    shape or form of a berry; berry-               to other related strains. These pro-
    shaped.                                        teins are coded and transferred in
bacilliform. baciliforme. Rod-shaped.              plasmids.
bacillus (pl. bacilli). bacilo. Any rod-        bacteriod. bacteriode. Irregular, en-
    shaped bacterium; also, a generic              larged forms of rod-shaped bacteria,
    name.                                          especially of the root-nodule form-
backcross. retrocruzamiento. cruz-                 ing species. These are ultimately
    amiento retrógrado. The fertili-               absorbed by the cells of the root-
    zation of gametes from a hybrid                nodule.
    by gametes from one of the par-             bacteriology. bacteriología. A branch
    ents of the hybrids.                           of biology specializing in the study
back mutate. mutar revertida. To                   of bacteria.
    mutate back to the original form.           bacteriophage. bacteriófago. A cat-
bacteria. bacteria. bacterio. Plural               egory of viruses that are parasitic
    of bacterium. A large group of                 on certain bacteria, but not all, in-
    single-celled, non-chlorophyll mi-             fecting and destroying them. Some-
bacteriorhiza                               41                                 barbellate
    times referred to as phages.                     many-seeded, many-loculed fruit
bacteriorhiza. bacterióriza. A sym-                  with a leathery pericarp, as in the
    biosis between a root and bacte-                 pomegranate (Punicaceae).
    ria.                                         bald. sin pelo. pelado. Lacking the
bacteriostatsis. bacteriostasis. The                 usual covering or awn, as bald wheat
    arrest of bacterial growth without               (Poaceae).
    their death.                                 ballistospore. ballistóspora. A type of
bacteriostat. bacteriostát. An agent                 fungal spore attached asymetr-ically
    that arrests the growth or devel-                to the sterigma which is forcefully
    opment of bacteria but does not kill             expelled from its sporophore at
    them.                                            maturity.
bacteriostatic. bacteriostático. Ar-             balsam. bálsamo. An oily or gummy,
    resting the growth or development                arromatic, resinous substance flow-
    of bacteria.                                     ing spontaneously or by cutting
bacterium. bacteria. bacterio. A sin-                from certain trees and shrubs, es-
    gle bacterial cell.                              pecially one of the genus Abies
bacteroid. bacteroide. A bacterium                   (Pinaceae).
    with an irregular or modified form,          balsamiferous. balsamífero. Yield-
    especially one in the root nodules               ing balsam.
    of nitrogen-fixing plants.                   bamboo. bambú. Various species of
baculiform. baculiforme. Rod-shaped                  jointed, reed-like plants in the fam-
    (of fungus spores).                              ily Bambusaceae (bamboos), which
badius. badius. A Latin word that                    is closely related to the grasses
    means, “chestnut-colored”.                       (Poaceae); sometimes considered
baeocyte. baeócita. A type of repro-                 a grass subfamily, Bambusoidea.
    ductive cell, earlier known as an            banded. franja. Traverse stripes of
    endospore, which is formed in a                  one color crossing another.
    cyanobacterial cell.                         banner. estrandarte. The upper and
balance of nature. balanza de                        often the largest petal of a
    naturaleza. A condition of equi-                 papilionaceous corolla or “sweet-
    librium in an ecosystem which keeps              pea-type” flower (Lathyrus); stand-
    the numbers relatively constant.                 ard; vexillum; vane.
balanced lethal. letal equilibrado. A            bar of Sanio. crásula. See crassula.
    dominant or recessive gene when              barb. uncinulo. A hooked or dou-
    substituted for its normal allelo-               ble-hooked bristle or hair-like pro-
    morph converts a viable to an in-                jection; a bristle that ends in a hook.
    viable gamete or zygote; lethal gene.        barbate. barbado. Having long
balanced polymorphism. polimorfismo                  trichomes, often in a tuft; bearded.
    equilibrado. A form of genetic sta-          barbed. uncinulado. Having rigid points
    bility in a population that is main-             that are directed backwards, as in
    tained by natural selection because              a fish hook.
    the heterozygotes for particular             barbel. barbilla. A very small or minute
    alleles have a higher adaptive ca-               barb.
    pacity than either homozygote.               barbellate. ancistroso. Finely barbed
balausta. balausta. A dry, indehiscent,              with short, stiff hairs or barbs, as
barbellulate                                42                             base pairing
   barbellate stems which are longer                Having the placenta at the base of
   than denticulate, but shorter than               the ovary.
   when plumose.                                 basal rosette. roseta basal. Leaves clus-
barbellulate. barbelulado. Diminu-                  tered at the ground level, some-
   tive of barbellate; having barbules.             times alternate or whorled, but with
barbule. barbula. The inner row of                  short internodes.
   peristome teeth in the capsules of            basal stipule. estipula basal. Stipules
   some mosses (Musci).                             attached near the base of the peti-
bark. corteza. The tough, outer layer               ole.
   of stems, branches, roots, main               base. base. The part of the organ near-
   trunks of trees, and other woody                 est the point of attachment, as fruit
   plants, but not the cambium and                  where it unites with the peduncle
   inner wood.                                      or the part of the leaf next to the
barren. estéril. Unable to produce                  stem; also, a chemical substance
   seeds; also, lacking pollen.                     that yields hydroxyl ions when
basal. basal. Located at or near the                dissolved in water, accepts protons,
   lower end of the stem, as leaves                 donates electrons, and reacts with
   growing from the base of a stem.                 acids to form salts. In molecular
basal analog. análogo de base. A DNA                biology, any of the five nitrogenous
   or RNA base that resemble the                    compounds that are present in the
   normal bases but is different so that            nucleic acid of cells that combine
   it is incorporated into the nucleic              to make the genetic code: adenine,
   acid molecule in place of the nor-               cytosine, guanine, thymine, and
   mal base.                                        uracil.
basal body. cuerpo basal. The part               base exchange. cambio de bases.
   of the thallus of the Blasto-                    intercambio de bases. The inter-
   cladiaceae fixed to the substrate                change of the cations of the soil-
   by rhizoids at the lower end; also,              water with those of the soil-
   a deeply staining granule at the base            colloid complex or root surfaces.
   of a flagellum.                               base exchange capacity. capacidad de
basal cell. célula basal. In angiosperm             cambio base. See exchange
   reproduction, one ot the first two               capacity.
   cells produced by the transverse              basement membrane. membrano de
   division of the zygote; commonly                 sótano. A thin layer of protein and
   contributes to the suspensor, not                polysaccharide found at the base
   to the embryo; also, a specialized               of epithelial tissues.
   cell located in the deepest layer of          base pair. par de bases. In DNA, the
   the epithelium.                                  AT and GC pairs.
basal corpuscle. corpúsculo basal.               base pair. pareja de bases. A pair of
   See basal cell.                                  bases joined in the formation of a
basal granule. gránulo basal. A tiny                double-helical molecule of DNA
   structure at the base of the cilia               or RNA.
   and flagella that relate to their for-        base pairing. apareamiento de bases.
   mation; kinetosome.                              emparejamiento. The putting to-
basal placentation. placentación basal.             gether or pairing off of adenine with
basi-                                        43                                 basiscopic
    thymine (or uracil), or of guanine            basidiomycetes. basidiomicetes. See
    with cytosine, in forming a nucleic               club fungi.
    acid double helix.                            basidiomycetous. basidiomiceto. Per-
basi-. basi-. A Greek and Latin pre-                  taining to basidiomycetes.
    fix that means, “the base” or “po-            basidiophore. basidóforo. A fruit-body
    sitioned at or near the base”.                    bearing mycelia.
basic. básico. Having a pH of more                basidiospore. basidiospora. basidió-
    than 7.0; also, having a large number             spora. One of the sexually pro-
    of hydroxyl (OH).                                 duced spores formed on a basidium;
basic dye. colorante básico. A stain                  also, the part of the fungus that bears
    having an organic basic radicle                   basidia.
    which is active and combines with             basidiosporous. basidiósporo. Pertain-
    an acidic radicle which is usually                ing to or having the characteris-
    inorganic. They stain nucleopro-                  tics of basidiospore.
    tein.                                         basidium (pl. basidia). basidio. A re-
basic type. tipo básico. The chromo-                  productive cell created when the
    some complement characteristic of                 swollen terminal cell of a hypha
    a species and varying only in                     develops filaments (sterigmata) that
    heterozygotes.                                    form spores.
basicidal capsule. cápsula basicida.              basifixed. basifíjo. Attached at the base,
    A capsule that opens or dehisces                  or lower end, as an anther is at-
    through basal slits or fissures, as               tached at its base to the apex of
    in some species of birthworts                     the filament. Compare versatile and
    (Aristolochiaceae).                               dorsifixed.
basichromatin. basicromatina. A form              basifugal. basifugal. Tending or lean-
    of chromatin containing a fairly high             ing away from the base; acropetal.
    proportion of nucleic acid that stains        basigamic. basigamico. Said of an em-
    deeply with basic dye.                            bryo sac in which the synerdidae
basidia. basidios. Plural of basidium.                and egg nucleus lie at the base and
basidial. basidial. Having basidium.                  not at the end nearest the micro-
basidiocarp. basidiocarpo. The densely                pyle.
    growing hyphae of the fruiting body           basilar. basilar. Located at the base
    in the basidiomycetes (Eumycota).                 or pertaining to the base.
basidiogenetic. basidiogenético. Origi-           basinerved. basinervio. Of a leaf hav-
    nating from basidia.                              ing the main nerves running from
basidiolichene. basidioliquen. A tropi-               the base.
    cal group of lichen which have a              basipetal. basípeto. Developing from
    Basidiomycete as the fungal com-                  the apex downward, as inflores-
    ponent.                                           cences that bloom in succession
basidiomycete. basidiomiceto(e). Any                  from the top downward.
    of the fungus from the large sub-             basipetal movement. movimiento
    division Basidiomycotina that form                basípetal. Movement of substances
    spores on a basidium; includes                    toward the base of the plant from
    smuts, rusts, mushrooms, and                      the root and shoot apices.
    puffballs.                                    basiscopic. basiscópico. Facing toward
basitonic                                   44                                 biannual
    the base.                                        tles; awn.
basitonic. basitonico. Of orchids                bearded. barbado. ligulado. Having
    (Orchidaceae) where the base of                  long hair; also, refers to certain
    the anther lies against the rostel-              plants that have a small, red, hairy,
    lum.                                             tongue-like appendage inside the
basophilous. basófilo. Cells that can                petals, as Iris germanic (Iridaceae);
    be easily stained.                               barbate.
bast. bast. A fibrous inner bark in some         bearer. portador. Any plant that pro-
    species of trees or shrubs that carry            duces fruit or flowers.
    fluids, especially sugars; phloem.           bearing (flowers). florífero (flor). The
bast bundles. haz bast. In leaves with               process of producing (flowers).
    one vein and no leaf gap, periph-            bent. torcido. curvado. Curved or in-
    eral strands of thick-walled cells               clined; also, the stiff flower stalk
    lying parallel to the midrib, as in              of certain grasses (Poaceae); any
    the Isoetes.                                     of a number of related grasses, usu-
baumgrenze. baumgrenza. A line mark-                 ally low growing and spreading.
    ing the last of the stunted trees;           benthic. béntico. Pertaining to the
    near the upper limits of the timb-               bottom region of an ocean, lake,
    erline where trees are growing uni-              or pond.
    formly erect and with forest-like            benthos. bentos. Organisms living on
    density.                                         the bottom of oceans, rivers, or
beach. playa. A zone of accumulated                  streams.
    sand, stone, or gravel deposited             berry. baya. A fleshy fruit with a skin
    above the water line at a shore.                 or rind which has developed from
bead collar. moniliforme. Having a                   a single pistil and contains several
    series of alternating swellings and              or many seeds, as a tomato (Lyco-
    constrictions, as in some stems and              persicon) or grape (Vitaceae); also,
    roots; moniliform.                               the dry seed or grains produced by
beak. pico. A sharp, projecting struc-               wheat (Triticum), coffee (Coffea),
    ture or prolonged tip in some plants;            and others.
    a narrow, rigid, conical tip as found        betacyan(in). betacina(ni)na. A water-
    in some fruits, such as the Gera-                soluble pigment that is involved
    nium ; also, a projection in an                  with the blue color of some plants.
    Orchidaceae flower that separates            beta oxidation. oxidación beta. The
    the anther from the stigma surface               degradation of long-chain fatty
    below it; rostellum.                             acids. Two-carbon fragments are
beaked. rostrado. Ending in or hav-                  formed as a result of enzymatic
    ing a firm tip, as some fruits;                  attack directed against the second
    rostriform.                                      or beta carbon of the hydrocarbon
bean. frijol. Any one of the various                 chain. Aided by coenzyme A, the
    kidney-shaped, smooth, often ed-                 fragments enter the Krebs cycle and
    ible seeds of leguminous plants or               are processed for ATP synthesis.
    herbs.                                       bi-. bi- . A Latin prefix that means,
bear. dar. To produce, as fruit.                     “two”, “twice”, or “having two”.
beard. barba. A tuft or group of bris-           biannual. bianual. Occurring twice a
biarticulate                                 45                                 bifurcate
    year, as flowering; semiannual.               bicuspid. bicúspide. Having two short
biarticulate. biarticulado. Having two                horn-like points.
    nodes or joints.                              bicyclic. bicíclica. Arranged in two
biaxial. biaxial. Having two axes.                    whorls, as bicyclic stamens.
biatorine. biatoro. Refers to a lichen            bidentate. bidentado. Having two teeth
    apothecium which is soft, waxy, and               or toothed.
    often brightly colored.                       biduous. biduo. Having a two-day du-
bibacca. bibacca. A fused double berry,               ration, as biduous flowers.
    as in the Lonicera.                           biennial. bienal. A plant with a total
bibracteate. bibracteado. Bearing two                 life span of two growing seasons,
    bracts.                                           usually, producing roots and foli-
bibulous. bibulo. Capable of absorbing                age the first year, and flowers and
    water.                                            fruit the second year.
bicalcarate. bicalcarado. Two-spurred.            bifacial. bifacial. Having upper and
bicapsular. bicapsular. Having two                    lower surfaces that are dissimilar
    capsules; also, a capsule with two                in color or texture, as some leaves.
    cells.                                        bifacially. bifacialmente. Having two
bicarpellate. bicarpelar. Having two                  unlike, opposite surfaces.
    carpels.                                      bifarious. bifaro. Pointing two ways
bicellular. bicelular. Having two cells.              or occurring in two opposite, ver-
bicilate. biciliado. Biflagellate.                    tical rows, as leaves growing on
bicollateral bundle. haz bicolateral.                 opposite sides of a branch.
    A vascular bundle with phloem                 biferous. bífero. Appearing or bear-
    inside and outside the xylem.                     ing twice a year, as biferious fruit
bicolor. bicoloro. Having two sharply                 or flowers.
    different colors.                             bifid. bífido. Divided into two parts
bicolorous. bicoloro. With two colors.                or lobes, most often at the tip;
biconcave. bicóncavo. Concave shaped                  forked.
    on both sides.                                bifistular. bifistuloso. Having two chan-
biconic. biconico. Having the appear-                 nels.
    ance of two cones placed base to              biflabellate. biflabelado. Fan-shaped
    base.                                             on two sides.
biconjugate. biconjugar. Growing in               biflagellate. biflagelado. Having two
    double pairs, as leaflets on the axis.            flagella.
biconvex. biconvexo. Convex shaped                biflorous. bifloro. Bearing two flow-
    on both sides.                                    ers; also, bearing flowers twice a
bicornuate. bicornuado. Having two                    year, as autumn and spring.
    horn-like parts; crescent-shaped.             bifoliate. bifolio. Having two leaves;
bicostate. bicostillado. Having two                   also, a compound leaf with two
    longitudinal ribs, as leaves.                     leaflets.
bicrenate. bicrenado. Doubly crenate,             bifoliolate. bifoliolado. Having two
    as when the teeth of crenate leaves               leaves or leaflets emerging from
    are also crenate; twice scalloped.                a common point; saiod of a com-
bicuminate. bicuminado. Having two                    pound leaf with two leaflets.
    diverging points.                             bifurcate. bifurcado. Divided into two
big bang theory                               46                                biocenose
    forks or two branches; forked.                     2-merous.
big bang theory. la teoria del big bang.           bimodal. bimodal. Said of a frequency
    de la gran explosión. A theory                     distribution with two modes.
    proposing that the entire universe             binary fission. fisíon binaria. división
    was created at one time.                           binaria. A division of one cell into
bigeminate. bigeminado. Occurring                      two similar or identical cells; a type
    in double pairs; also, a decompound                of asexual reproduction, common
    leaf with a forked petiole and leaf-               in single-celled organisms; bipart-
    lets at the end of each segment;                   ition.
    bijugate.                                      binate. binado. Consisting of two parts
bigeneric. bigenérico. Having the char-                or growing in pairs, as binate leaves;
    acteristics of two genera.                         geminate.
biguttulate. bigutulado. Contianing                binomial nomenclature. nomenclatura
    two vacuoles or two oil droplets.                  binomial. The Linnaeus developed,
bijugate. biyugado. With two pairs                     two word, Latin based, international
    of leaflets, as certain pinnate leaves.            scientific name or naming of plants
bilabiate. bilabiado. Two-lipped co-                   with the first indicating the genus
    rolla, as with many irregular flowers              and the second the species.
    or having an upper and lower lip,              binomial. binomial. The two name,
    as flowers in the mint family                      genus and species, comprising the
    (Labiatae).                                        scientific name of plants.
bilabiate dehiscence. dehiscencia                  binucleate. binucleado. Having two
    bilabiado. Opening by a traverse                   nuclei.
    split across the top.                          binucleolate. binucléolado. Of an as-
bilaciniate. bilacinado. Doubly fringed.               cospore with two oil droplets.
bilaminar. bilaminar. Having two lay-              bio-. bio-. A prefix that means, “life”
    ers.                                               or “living things”, as in biology.
bilateral symmetry. simetría bilateral.            bioaccumulation. bioacumulación. The
    Having parts arranged in two halves,               accretion of unwholesome chemi-
    so that each half is the mirror im-                cals in plants.
    age of the other, divisible in one             bioacoustics. bioacústica. The study
    plane only; irregular symmetry;                    of sound as it affects living things.
    zygomorphic.                                   bioassay. bioensayo. A quantitative
bilateral. bilateral. Having two sym-                  evaluation of a particular substance
    metrical sides, as leaves along a                  using a portion of or an entire or-
    stem.                                              ganism; the evaluation of the ef-
bilobate. bilobado. Having two lobes,                  fect of a substance on an organ-
    as bilobate leaves.                                ism under controlled conditions,
bilobed. bilobar. Two-lobed.                           e.g.bioassay of fungicides
bilocular. bilocular. Divided into two             bioblast. bioblasto. Chondriosome.
    chambers or locules, as some ova-              biocenose. biocenoso. A community
    ries; two-loculed.                                 of organisims of a particular habitat.
bimaculate. bimaculado. Having two                 biochemical. bioquímico. Petaining
    spots or blotches.                                 to biochemistry or a biochemical
bimerous. bimero. Having two parts;                    substance.
biochemistry                                 47                          biogenetic law
biochemistry. bioquímica. The sci-                bioecology. bioecología. A branch of
    ence that deals with the chemical                 ecology that studies the relation-
    processes of living matter.                       ships of organisms, especially be-
biochore. biocora. A biotic district                  tween plants and animals.
    or minor habitat; also, can describe          bioelectric. bioeléctrico. Pertains to
    a precise biological boundary be-                 the effects of electricity on plant
    tween major climatic regions and                  tissue.
    their subdivisions as determined              bioelectromagnetics. bioelectromag-
    by the type of life forms.                        nético. The study of how organ-
biochrome. biocroma. A compound                       isms interact with electromagnetic
    that produces color in the tissue                 (EM) fields. Electrical phenomena
    of living organisms.                              are found in all living organisms.
biocide. biocida. Any substance that                  Moreover, electrical currents ex-
    is poisonous to plants and other                  ist in organisms that are capable
    living organisms.                                 of producing magnetic fields that
bioclimate. bioclima. The effect of cli-              extend outside the organism, as a
    mate on living organisms.                         consequence, they can be influenced
bioclimatology. bioclimatologia. The                  by external magnetic and EM fields
    study of the effects of climate on                as well.
    organisms.                                    bioenergetics. bioenergética. The study
bioc(o)enosis. bioc(o)enosis. The in-                 of the flow and transformations of
    terrelationship between organisms                 energy in living organisms, espe-
    in a habitat; also, the biome, or liv-            cially the formation of ATP in pho-
    ing community; also, the associa-                 tosynthesis and other mechanisms
    tion of plants and animals, espe-                 in metabolism.
    cially in relation to a specific feed-        bioethics. bioética. The study of social
    ing area of the animals; biotic com-              or moral correctness arising from
    munity.                                           scientific explorations, especially
biocoenosium. biocoenosio. A com-                     in the various areas of biology, in-
    munity of both animals and plants.                cluding medicine.
biocoenotic. bioc(o)enótico. Refers to            bioflavonoid. bioflavonoide. A deriva-
    the interrelationship of organisms                tive of a flavone compound, as
    within a community.                               vitamin P.
biodegradable. biodegradable. Capable             biogen(e). biógeno. Thought to be
    of being decomposed, especially                   the smallest unit of protoplasm.
    by bacteria.                                  biogenesis. biogénesis. Same as bio-
biodiversity. biodiversidad. Refers to                synthesis; also, the origin of liv-
    the variety of living things in the               ing organisms from other living or-
    natural world, especially species,                ganisms.
    ecosystems, and their genetic com-            biogenic. biogénico. Pertaining to
    positions.                                        the formation of fossils, rocks, or
biodynamics. biodinámica. The branch                  other structures as a result of the
    of physiology that deals with the                 activities of living organisms.
    processes of plants and animals:              biogenetic law. ley biogenética fun-
    opposed to biostatics.                            damental. The hypothesis that an
biogenous                                  48                                  biometry
    individual, during its development,             species; can imply the use of
    repeats the evolution of its race,              legally protected biospheres.
    but in a shortened form.                    biological spectrum. espectro bio-
biogenous. biogeno. Living on another               lógico. A table for a defined area,
    living organism. Changes in an                  showing in percentages, the fre-
    organism’s natural fields may pro-              quency of occurrence of the vari-
    duce physical and behavioral                    ous plants and animals.
    changes.                                    biologist. biólogo. One who is engaged
biogeoc(o)enosis. biogeocenosis. A                  in studying life and living things.
    biome and its habitat; ecotope.             biology. biología. The study of life and
biogeochemical cycle. ciclo biogeo-                 living things, including origins,
    químico. A circular or cyclic move-             diversity, structure, functions, and
    ment of chemical elements from or-              distribution.
    ganisms to the physical environ-            bioluminescence. bioluminiscencia.
    ment and back again to the organ-               The property of some plants to bio-
    isms; referred to as a nutrient cy-             logically produce and emit light
    cle if the elements are necessary               using the energy of ATP, as some
    for life; renewal cycle.                        mushrooms.
biogeochemical exploration. explorac-           biolysis. biólisis. The decomposition
    ión biogeoquímico. The use of in-               of organic substances by living
    dicator plant species to locate the             organisms.
    possible presence of metal-rich de-         biomass. biomasa. Solar energy that
    posits; geobotanical exploration.               has been converted into chemical
biogeography. biogeografía orgánica.                energy, stored in the chemical bonds
    The study of the geographic dis-                of organic compounds in trees and
    tribution of plants and animals,                other plants; also, the total amount
    especially as this applies to the               of organic material produced, usu-
    rapidly changing ecological rela-               ally expressed as a dry weight.
    tionships between plants, animals,          biomass pyramid. pirámide de la
    and humans.                                     biomass. See pyramid of biomass.
biological. biológico. Of or pertain-           biome. bioma. An ecosystem composed
    ing to living things.                           of all the plants, animals, and other
biological clock. reloj biológico. In               organisms that make up a defined
    plants, an innate capacity that con-            natural community in any climatic
    trols the cycles or rhythms of vari-            region; may be terrestrial or aquatic.
    ous life functions, such as photo-          biomechanics. biomecánica. The study
    synthesis; possibly phytochromes                of the mechanics of living organ-
    figure in the time mechanism.                   isms, especially the effects of grav-
biological conservation. conservación               ity.
    del biológico. conservación del             biometric. biométrica. bioestadística.
    medio ambiente. An active, long-                Of or pertaining to biometry.
    term management of biological re-           biometry. biometria. The branch of bi-
    sources to ensure the survival of               ology that studies living things using
    species diversity and the continu-              quantitative measurements and sta-
    ation of genetic variations within              tistics; sometimes referred to as
bion                                          49                          biotic potential
    quantitative biology.                              biometry.
bion. bíon. See biont.                             biosynthesis. biosintesis. The assembly
bionomic. bionomico. Relating to the                   of various chemical compounds,
    environoment; ecological.                          lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and
biont. bionte. An individual plant, in-                nucleic acids to make up a plant
    dependent, and capable of a sepa-                  cell; also, the formation of
    rate existence; bion.                              living organisms; biogenesis.
biophagous. biófago. Subsisting on                 biosystematics. biositematica. An ex-
    living organisms, as the white-flow-               perimental taxonomic classification
    ered Venus flytrap ( Dianae                        system of species based on genetic
    muscipula). biogenous.                             and ecological findings.
biophilous. biófilo. Biogenous.                    biota. biota. The plant and animal life
biophore. bióforo. A minute particle                   of a particular region.
    capable of growth and reproduc-                biotechnology. biotechnolgia. The use
    tion.                                              of microorganisms for industrial
bioplasm. bioplasma. Protoplasm.                       or other human purposes, especially
bioremediation. bioremediación. The                    in reference to gene engineering.
    use of microbes and plants to re-              biotic. biótica. Pertaining to the living
    duce or degrade pollutants and in-                 part of the environment, as distinct
    dustrial wastes, and household gar-                from the non-living.
    bage. See phytoremediation.                    biotic adaptation. adaptación biótica.
biorhythm. biorritmo. In plants, in-                   Changes in form or physiology,
    nate cyclic changes that occur in                  presumed to have arisen from com-
    the life functions.                                petition with other plants.
bios factor. factor bios. A substance              biotic association. asociación biótica.
    essential for the growth of plants                 A community of plants and animals.
    and yeasts. It is a mixture of aneurin,        biotic climax. clímax biótico. A stable
    biotin, and other substances.                      plant community arising from a
bioseries. bioserie. In evolution, a his-              succession arrested or deflected by
    torical sequence formed by the                     some type of human activity,
    changes in any one inheritable char-               either directly or indirectly; plagio-
    acter.                                             climax.
biosphere. biosfera. A part of the                 biotic community. comunidad biótica.
    Earth’s environment in which there                 The living components of a bio-
    are living organisms interacting to                sphere or ecosystem, as distinct
    produce a steady-state system, in-                 from the non-living (abiotic); bio-
    cluding the relationship between                   coenosis.
    biotic and abiotic components; lim-            biotic factor. factor biótico. The in-
    ited to the waters of the earth, a                 fluence on the environment of an
    portion of the crust, and the lower                organism due to the presence of
    region of the surrounding air; also,               other organisms, as shade in an area;
    legally protected areas of the world               different from a physical, abiotic,
    that have been designated and set                  environmental factor.
    aside for biological conservation.             biotic potential. potencial biótico. Per-
biostatistics. bioestadistica. See                     taining to the living part of the
biotin                                       50                                 bitunicate
    environment, as distinct from the                 tubes, one at each end.
    non-living.                                   biramous. birramoso. Having two
biotin. biotina. Vitamin H, considered                branches; forked.
    an essential growth substance for             biramous appendage. apéndice bifurc-
    yeasts.                                           ado. One of the two branches of a
biotope. biótopo. See biocoenosium.                   forked branch.
biotroph. biotrof. A parasitic organism           birefringence. birefringencia. Having
    that obtains nutrients from the liv-              two or more refractive incices due
    ing tissues of a host organism.                   to the asymmetry of the molecu-
biotype. biotipo. tipo biológico. A                   lar structure. The study of the
    group of organisms with the same                  birefringent properties of a mate-
    genotype. Usually only one indi-                  rial helps to determine its molecular
    vidual of cross-fertilized plants will            configuration at rest or under stress.
    retain the genotype but progeny               bisaccate. bisacado. Having two of the
    from a self-fertilizing population                sepals each with a small pouch at
    with a pure genetic constitution will             the base; also, having two small
    belong to the same biotype.                       sacs or pouches.
biozone. biozona. The total range of              biscutate. biscutado. Resembling two
    a species defined within time limits              buckers or shields placed side by
    or periods.                                       side, as the Dionaea muscipula leaf.
bipalmate. bipalmado. Having a pal-               bisected. bisecto. Cut or divided into
    mate arrangement on secondary                     two parts.
    petioles which are arranged palm-             biseriate. biseriado. Occurring in two
    ately on the primary petiole.                     rows.
biparous. biparo. Flower clusters with            biserrate. biserrado. Doubly serrate
    two branches or axis; dichasium.                  or leaves that have notched teeth
bipartite. bipartido. Divided in two,                 along the margins.
    almost to the base, as with some              bisetous. bisetáceo. Having two bris-
    leaves.                                           tles.
bipartition. bipartición. See binary              bisexual. bisexual. A flower with both
    fission.                                          male (stamens) and female (pistils)
bipetal. bipétalo. Two petals.                        organs within the same envelope;
bipetalous. bipetalado. Having two                    a perfect flower; hermaphrodite.
    petals; dipetalous; two-petaled.              bisulcate. bisulado. Having two grooves
bipinnate. bipinnado. Doubly pin-                     or channels.
    nate leaves; having pinnate leaf-             bisymmetric. bisimétrico. Symmet-
    lets on stems that grow opposite                  ric in two planes, at right-angles
    each other on a main stem; a pin-                 to each other.
    nate leaf with pinnate leaflets.              biternate. biternado. Doubly ternate,
bipinnatifid. bipinnatifido. Leaves that              as when a petiole has three ternate
    are twice divided pinnately.                      leaflets.
bipolar. bipolar. At the opposite ends            bitunicate. bitunicado. Having two
    of a bacterial cell; also, having two             walls; also, an ascus in which the
    sexual sorts or phases; also, of a                outer and inner layers of the as-
    spore germinating by two germ                     cus separate during ascospore
biunciate                                     51                            blepharoplast
    release.                                           cross-wall but connected by a tube.
biunciate. biunciado. Having two                   blasto-. blasto-. A prefix from the Greek
    hooks.                                             that means, “bud” or “budding”.
biuret reaction (test). reacción del               blastochore. blastocoro. A plant that
    biureto. Protein in the presence                   is dispersed by off-shoots.
    of a strong alkaline solution and              blastogenesis. blastogénesis. Trans-
    copper ions (as copper sulphate)                   mission of inherited characters by
    give a pinkish-mauve color. A test                 the germ-plasm only.
    for protein.                                   blastogenic. blastogeno. Belonging
bivalve. bivalvado. At maturity, the                   to the hereditary characteristics due
    splitting into two symmetrical or                  to the make-up of the germ-plasm.
    asymmetrical portions or valves,               blastomycete. blastomiceto. Yeast-like
    as seeds or fruit; also, a separa-                 fungi that reproduce by multiple
    ble, two part seed case.                           budding cells; sources of skin and
bivalvent. bivalvente. Two homolo-                     tissue eruptions in humans.
    gous chromosomes associated in                 blastoparenchymatous. blastoparen-
    a parallel manner; formed during                   quimática. Said of an algal thal-
    meiosis I.                                         lus which consists of filaments
biverticillate. biverticilado. Having                  joined at the side and not recog-
    branches or whorls at two levels                   nizable as separate filaments
    in the same species.                           blastospore. blastospora. A fungal
bladder. vesicula. A thin-walled, in-                  spore formed by budding, e.g.
    flated structure; an enlarged mem-                 yeasts.
    branous pericarp (ovary); also, a              bleed. exudar savia o resina. To lose
    modified leaf found on the bladd-                  or collect sap from a surface that
    erwort (Lentibulariaceae) which                    has been cut or scratched, as a tree
    is used to catch small aquatic ani-                or vine.
    mals.                                          bleeding. lacrimación. Exuding con-
bladder-like. vesiculado. Having the                   tents of the xylem stream (sap)
    form or appearance of a thin-walled,               through a cut or scratch due to root
    inflated bladder.                                  pressure.
bladder-shaped. vesiculiforme. ves-                blemmatogen. blematogeno. A layer
    iculoso. Thin-walled and inflated.                 of hyphae, usually with thickened
blade. lámina. The broad, often flat                   walls, which covers the button of
    portion of a grass, leaf, or petal;                an agaric and may form the veil.
    also, the flattened part of the thallus        blemish. cicatriz. imperfección. A
    of the larger seaweeds; lamina.                    scar on the surface, as on a stem,
bladeless. sin lámina. Without blades.                 indicating the previous location of
blastema. blastema. The initial point                  a leaf.
    of growth for an organ or part; the            blending inheritance. herencia mez-
    axial part of an embryo gymnosperm                 clada. The inheritance of charac-
    or angiosperm, but not the coty-                   ters so that the progeny and suc-
    ledon.                                             ceeding generations are interme-
blasteniospore. blasteniospora. A li-                  diate between the original parents.
    chen spore which is divided by a               blepharoplast. blefaroplasto. A cylin-
blight                                     52                            boreal forest
    drical structure composed of par-               a rounded end; obtuse.
    allel peripheral rods connected to          boat-shaped. cimbiforme. Resembling
    the axial filaments at the base of              the shape of a boat. See cymbiform.
    the flagellum that divides when the         body cell. célula corporal. A cell in
    nucleus and cell divide.                        the pollen grain of the Gymno-
blight. añublo. arruinar. infestar. A               sperms which releases the male
    non-specific term for diseases that             nuclei; somatic cell.
    cause plant leaves, stems, fruits,          body structure. estructura del cuerpo.
    and tissues to wither and die; many             The complete material structure of
    by infestation of rusts, mildew, and            a plant.
    smuts.                                      bog. pantano. A permanently soft,
blind. ciego. Abortive, as a blind bud.             water-logged ground with a plant
blistered. ampolloso. A swelling on                 community of mosses (Musci),
    the surface.                                    heaths (Erica), and rushes (Juncus).
bloom. flor. The flower.                        bole. fuste. The trunk of a tree.
bloom. abrise. The opening of a flower.         boll. cápsula. A rounded seed pod, es-
bloom. florecer. To flower.                         pecially of cotton (Malvaceae) and
bloom. pruina. vello. pelusa. A white               flax (Linaceae).
    powdery coating that occurs on              bombycine. bombicina. Like silk.
    some fruits, as the plum (Prunus),          bond. enlace. A force that holds chemi-
    or on some leaves or stems.                     cals together; chemical bond.
blooming. floración. The time of flow-          booted. peronado. Having a stipe cov-
    ering.                                          ered by a thick, felted sheath, es-
blossom. flor. capullo. pimpollo. A                 pecially at the base; peronate.
    flower.                                     bordeaux mixture. mezcla bordeaux.
blotched. maculado. Marked with an                  A fungicide made of copper sul-
    irregular spot or discoloration.                phate and quick lime.
blue-green algae. algas verdeazules.            bordered. marginado. bordeado. The
    One of the two main types of al-                margin of the flower or structure
    gae with the blue-green (Cyano-                 which has a different color than
    phyta) composed of prokaryotic                  the main body; also, one color sur-
    cells. The second type has three                rounded by the edging of another.
    main divisions (Phyaeophyta                 bordered pit. punteadura areolada.
    ((brown)), Chlorophyta ((green)),               poro areolado. A thick hollow area
    Rhodophyta ((red)) ) which are                  in the wall of a tracheid where a
    composed of algae with eukaryotic               thickened cellular growth over-
    cells. NOTE: Blue-green algae is                hangs.
    currently referred to as cyano-bac-         boreal. boreal. Of the north or north-
    teria (Cyanobacteria) to avoid                  ern.
    confusion with true algae.                  boreal forest. bosque boreal. bosque
bluish. azuloso. Somewhat blue in                   septentrional. Subarctic woodlands
    color.                                          which are often swampy and sup-
blunt. disafilado. The shape is not                 port extensive stands of evergreen
    pointed; rounded at the apex with               conifers. See also taiga and lake
    an angle greater than 90º; having               forest.
borne                                        53                                  bract-leaf
borne. portado. Past participle of                    zontal, as with maple trees (Acer).
    “bear”, as flowers borne along a              brachy-. braqui-. A Greek prefix that
    stem.                                             means, “short”.
boron. boro. A chemical element with              brachyblast. braquiblasto. A short
    the symbol B, which is involved                   branch of limited growth, bearing
    in metabolism and the membrane                    leaves and ocassionally, flowers and
    functions; essential to plant growth.             fruits; a spur.
bostryx. bóstrix. An inflorescence with           brachycladous. braquicladio. Hav-
    the flowers in a cyme or flattish                 ing very short branches.
    cluster, occurring only on one side           brachyform. braquiforme. Of the life
    of the axis and curving at the end;               cycle of some autoecious rusts
    helicoid cyme.                                    which lack an acedial stage.
botanical. botánico. de botánica. Per-            brachymeiosis. braquimeiosis. A sim-
    taining to botany.                                plified form of meiosis which is
botanist. botánico. fitólogo. A sci-                  completed in one cell division; also,
    entist who studies plants.                        the second reduction division in
botanize. herborizar. To study plants                 the production of ascospores.
    in their natural habitat; also, to            brachysclereid. braquiesclereida. A
    collect plants for study or classi-               sclereid that is relatively isodiam-
    fication.                                         eteric in shape; stone cell.
botany. botánica. The branch of                   brackish. salobre. Slightly saltly water.
    biology that studies plants; the sci-         bract. bráctea. Modified or small leaves
    ence of plants, their structure, func-            that sometimes grow at the base
    tion, growth, classification, and                 of a flower or flower stalk, often
    terms used in their description and               resembling a petal; also, a small
    denomination; phytology.                          leaf-like organ surrounding the sex
botry-. botri-. A Greek prefix that                   organs of liverworts; also, a ster-
    means, “bunch”.                                   ile leaf subtending the sporangi-
botryoid. botrioide. Like a bunch                     ophore of some Equisetinae; also,
    of grapes; racemose.                              a sterile leaf-like growth in the stro-
botuliform. botuliforme. Sausage-                     bilus of the Lycopodinae.
    like; shaped like a sausage with              bracteate. bracteado. With bracts or
    rounded ends.                                     bract-bearing.
bouquet stage. estado de ramillete.               bracteody. bracteodia. The replace-
    When the chromosomes, during                      ment of flower members by bracts.
    zygotene and pachytene, lie in loops          bracteole. bractéola. Very small bracts
    with their ends near one part of the              occurring on the flower stalk above
    nucleus wall.                                     the bract and below the calyx.
bourgeon. bourgeone. To bud or sprout.            bracteomania. bractéomania. The ab-
bowed. arqueado. Having a curved                      normal production of large num-
    shape, as a bow.                                  bers of bracts, often at the expense
brachiate. braquial. Having widely                    of normal flower production.
    spreading branches arranged al-               bracteose. bractéoso. Having conspicu-
    ternately in pairs, each pair at right            ous bracts.
    angle to the next and nearly hori-            bract-leaf. bráctea foliosa. A modi-
bract scale                                54                     broad-leaved forest
   fied leaf growing at the base of a               wise reunion of broken chromatids.
   flower or a flower cluster.                  breaking of meres. ruptura del est-
bract scale. escama tectriz. The small              anque. The sudden development
   outer scale at the base of the large             of large amounts of blue–green al-
   cone scale of conifers (Coniferales).            gae in small bodies of fresh wa-
bractlet. bractéola. See bracteole.                 ter.
brady-. bradi-. A prefix from the Greek         breast-shaped. mamiforme. Having
   that means, “slow”.                              the form or shape of a breast; mam-
bradyspore. bradispora. A plant that                miform.
   releases seeds slowly.                       breed. seleccionar. propagar. prod-
bradytelic. braditélico. Refers to a                ucir. To produce offsprings.
   plant that releases seeds slowly.            breed. variedad. Any of the subspe-
bramble. zarza. A thorny plant.                     cies of artificially derived inter-
bramble bush. zarzamora. A small                    breeding plants with common an-
   thorny plant, as a blackberry (Ro-               cestors and distinguishing charac-
   saceae).                                         teristics.
branch. escar ramas. To produce                 brevi-. brevi-. A Latin prefix that
   branches or to spread into branches.             means, “short”.
branch. rama. A woody extension                 brevicidal dehiscence. dehiscencia
   or subdivision growing out of a tree             brevicidal. Said of a fern sporan-
   or shrub.                                        gium when the annulus is inter-
branched. ramificada. Having bran-                  rupted by the stalk.
   ches.                                        brevicollate. brevicolado. Short-
branching. ramificación. Dividing into              necked.
   branches; producing branches;                bristle. cerda. Short, stiff, hair-like
   ramose.                                          structures; seta; chaeta.
branchlet. ramula. A very small branch          bristly. cerdoso. Having short, stiff,
   or ramulus.                                      hair-like structures.
branch out. ramificar(se). To put forth         brittle. quebradizo. Crisp or easily bro-
   or form branches or shoots.                      ken.
branch roots. raíz de rama. Lateral             broad leaf forest. bosque latifoliadas.
    roots arising from the pericycle of             A type of forest that is generally
    a larger root.                                  evergreen (the exception occurring
branch tendril. zarcillo ramoso.                    in the Chilean Patagonia) and re-
    sarmiento. A tendril formed from                quires an abundant rainfall spread
    a modified branch; sarment.                     throughout the year.
branch trace. traza rama. Branches              broadleaf. latihoja. Having leaves that
    of the vascular tissue running to a             are wide and flat rather than nee-
    branch.                                         dle-shaped, as a broadleaf tree;
breakage and reunion. ruptura y                     latifoliate.
    reunión. ruptura-reunión. In ge-            broad-leaved forest (hardwood). árbol
    netic crossing-over, the pairing of             frondoso. bosque de frondosas.
    homologous chromosomes during                   A forest of angiospermous trees with
    the prophase I state of meiosis by              broad, flat leaves, as ebony
    the physical breakage and cross-                (Ebenaceae) and maples (Acer-
broad-leaved tree                         55                             bud mutation
   aceae), as opposed to the needle-              ter”.
   shaped foliage of the softwoods,            brunneus. brunneus. Latin for “brown”.
   pine (Pinaceae) and fir Pinaceae).          bryony. brionia. Any one of a group
broad-leaved tree. árbol frondoso.                of woody vines belonging to the
   Angiospermous trees; any tree that             gourd family (Cucurbitaceae),
   is not a conifer.                              which have large fleshy roots, five-
broad-leaved. latifolioso. latifolio.             lobed leaves, and clusters of green-
   Refers to angiospermous tree;                  ish-white flowers.
   latifoliate.                                bryophytes. briofítos. briófitas. Any
brochidodromous. broquidódroma.                   of a division (Bryophyta) of non-
   Venation in leaves where loops are             flowering plants composed of
   formed within the blade.                       mosses (Musci) and liverworts
bromeliad. bromelia. A group of plants            (Hepaticae).
   common to the tropics, with gray,           bud. brotar. abotonar. The process
   dry foliage, often growing in trees            of sprouting or budding; to bud.
   and belonging to the Bromeliaceae           bud. yema. An immature branch, leaf
   family.                                        or flower, appearing as a small
bromeliiform. bromeliiforme. Belong-              swelling, often enclosed by pro-
   ing to or having the appearance of             tective scales; also, an unopened
   Bromeliaceae.                                  flower; also, in some yeast (Sac-
brood bud. yema reproductora.                     charomycetaceae), new cells ap-
   A small muticellular organ serv-               pearing as small bubbles from the
   ing for vegetative reproduction in             mother yeast are referred to as buds;
   some of the red algae; also, a bubil           a meristematic shoot located at the
   of the Bryophyta; also, a vegetative           terminal or lateral position of a
   reproductive organ of lichens. See             shoot.
   soridum                                     bud-bearing. geminifloro. geminífloro.
brown algae. feofitos. A type of multi-           Producing buds, especially by
   celled marine algae (Phaeophyta)               gemma(e); gemmiferous.
   that the green of the chlorophyll           budding. injerto de yema. gemación.
   is obscured by brown pigmentation              The insertion of a bud of one tree
   (fucoxanthin).                                 under the bark of another, for
brown (color). pardo (color). Hav-                asexual propagation; a form of graft-
   ing the color of chocolate or cof-             ing; a type of asexual reproduc-
   fee.                                           tion, as in yeast plants; also, asexual
Brownian movement. movimiento de                  reproduction in which some cells
   Brownian. The passive, erratic,                differentiate and grow outward from
   nondirectional motion exhibited by             the parent, then the bud breaks away
   microscopic particles. The jostling            to form a new individual; gemma-
   comes from being randomly bumped               tion.
   by submicroscopic particles, usu-           bud mutation. mutación de yema.
   ally water molecules, in which the             mutación de brotes. The outgrowth
   visible particles are suspended.               of a bud from an ordinary plant,
brownish. pardusco. Somewhat brown.               producing a sport; many new va-
brumalis. brumalis. Latin for “win-               rieties in plants arise from bud mu-
bud-fission                                 56                                       bush
   tation; bud variation; sport.                 bulbillate. bulbilado. Of the stipe of
bud-fission. fisión de yema. A type                  some fungi when it has a small,
   of budding in some fungi where                    ill-defined bulb-like structure at the
   the bud or daughter cell is sepa-                 base.
   rated from the parent cell by a               bulbous. bulbosa. Having bulbs or
   septum.                                           growing from bulbs.
bud scale. pérula. escama gemaria.               bulge. bulto. A protrusion.
   Scales or modified leaves cover-              bullate. bulado. Blister-like projec-
   ing and protecting a bud; tegmen-                 tions or swellings, as between the
   tum; cataphyll.                                   veins of leaves.
bud sport. sport mutación de yema.               bulliform cell. célula buliforme. A
   A branch, flower, or fruit with a                 large epidermal cell found on the
   genetic constitution defferent from               upper surface of many grasses
   that of the parent body.                          (Poaceae); turgor pressure in these
bud variation. variación de yema. See                cells controls the lateral rolling of
   bud mutation.                                     leaves during drought and water
buffer. tampón. A substance, usu-                    stress; motor cell.
   ally a salt, in living cells that com-        bundle. haz. A cluster or group of fibers,
   bines with and releases hydrogen                  as a vascular bundle; also, a group
   ions as a function of pH; the buff-               of cells for conduction and sup-
   ering is highly important as most                 port in stems and leaves.
   cells survive only within narrow              bundle sheath. vaina fascicular. The
   pH limits. Colloids and solutes                   parenchyma and/or sclerenchyma
   present in most soils and to a lesser             cells surrounding a vascular bun-
   extent in roots have the property                 dle.
   of buffering the pH of a soil.                bur. cipsela erizada. A prickly, cling-
bulb. bulbo. A rounded, underground                  ing, hooked, or barbed seedcase or
   storage organ (bud) made of fleshy,               flower of certain plants.
   circular layers of scale leaves and           burdo. burdón. A graft hybrid thought
   attached to a very short, conical                 to have been formed by the fusion
   stem, as an onion (Allium) or Nar-                of vegetative neclei from the stock
   cissus bulb.                                      and scion.
bulbel. bulbillo. A diminutive bulb              burgundy mixture. mezcla borgoña.
   growing from the base of a larger                 A fungicide similar to Bordeaux
   bulb; cormel.                                     mixture, but sodium carbonate re-
bulbiferous. bulbífero. Producing                    places the lime.
   bulbs.                                        burgeon. brotar. A bud or sprout.
bulbiform. bulbiforme. Having the                burr. abrojo. cadillo. erizo. See bur.
   shape of a bulb.                              bursicule. bursicula. Having a sac
bulbil. bulbilo. A small, above ground               or pouch.
   aerial bud, growing most often in             bursiculate. bursiculado. See bursi-
   a leaf axil, or taking the place of               form.
   a flower; can be separated from the           bursiform. bursiforme. Shaped like
   parent plant for vegetative repro-                a bag, sac, or pouch.
   duction.                                      bush. mata. A low, many-branched
   woody plant (shrub), usually start-           buttress root. raíz zanco. raíz fúlcrea.
   ing near the ground, growing less                 Flattened, specialized aerial roots
   than10 meters tall, and with no clear             that arise from the trunk of cer-
   trunk; also, an uncultivated, wild                tain mature tropical trees, as Ficus,
   area of land.                                     Tarrietia, Sloanea spp. providing
bushy. breñoso. Having many close                    support; stilt root; prop root.
    twigs and branches; also, resem-             butyric acid. ácido butirico. An acid
    bling a bush.                                    produced during the anaerobic
butterfly flower. flor de mariposa. A                respiration of carbohydrates that
    flower that is pollinated by but-                smells of rancid butter.
    terflies.                                    butrous. butíro. Like butter.
buttress. contrafuerte. A structure              byssaceous. bisáceo. Having fine, silky
    that provides support, such as flared            threads, or filaments; cotton-like.
    trunks on certain trees.
C                                            58                             calcification


C. C. See carbon.                                     that is used medicially; also, a reed
Ca. Ca. See calcium.                                  or cane.
caduciflorous. caducifloro. The ten-              calathide. calatido. The involucre of
    dency of leaves to shed or fall early.            a capitulum; also, the capitulum
caducifolious. caducifolio. Decidu-                   itself.
    ous leaves.                                   calathidium. calatidio. The flower
caducous. caduco. caedizo. Leaves,                    head of a composite plant.
    spores, or petals falling early.              calathiform. calatiforme. Concave;
caecum. caeco. An extension of the                    cup-shaped.
    embryo sac into the endosperm.                calcar. calcar. A basal spur or spur-
caeoma. caeoma. An aecidium with                      like projection from a petal or se-
    no peridium; sometimes with para-                 pal.
    physes or represented by a sterile            calcarate. calcariforme. Having a cal-
    ring of hyphae.                                   car, spur, or spur-like appendage.
caepitose. caepitoso. Matted or tufted,           calcareous. calcáreo. calizo. Refers
    as hummock-forming grasses                        to substances containing calcium
    (Poaceae).                                        carbonate.
caeruleus. caeruleus. Latin for pale              calcariform. calcariforme. Having a
    blue in color.                                    spur or a spur-like appendage.
caesious. caesio. Having a bluish-                calceiform. calceiforme. Having the
    grey, waxy bloom.                                 shape of a shoe or slipper.
caesius. caesius. Latin for a laven-              calceolate. calceiforme. Having the
    der-blue color.                                   shape of a shoe or slipper, as the
caespitose. cespitoso. Growing in                     labellum of many orchids (Orchid-
    dense clumps or tufts.                            aceae); calceiform
caffeine. cafeina. A purine in coffee             calcicole. calcícola. A plant that grows
    beans, tea leaves, and cacao beans.               on calcareous soil, chalky limestone
    An oxidation product of the me-                   soil, or soil containing free calcium
    thyl derivative of purine.                        carbonate.
caffeic acid. ácido cafeico. A vegetable          calcicolous. calcícolo. Refers to plants
    acid found in coffee tannin.                      that prefer to grow in or can only
calamiferous. calamífero. Reedy or                    grow in a calcium–rich soil.
    having reeds; hollow-stemmed.                 calcification. calcificación. The ac-
calamiform. calamiforme. Reed-like                    cumulation of calcium in soils, es-
    or having the shape of a reed.                    pecially soils of cool temperate
calamus. cálamo. The sweet flag or                    regions where leaching occurs
    sweet rush Acorus calamus                         slowly; also, the accumulation of
    (Araceae), a pungent, aromatic root               calcium cabonate on or in a cell
calciform                                    59                                calyptrate
    wall.                                             of certain orchid flowers, as
calciform. calcíforme. Chalk-like.                    Cyrtosylis, Caladenia, Chiloglottis,
calcifuge. calcífuga. A plant that                    Glossodia, and others.
    avoids chalky limestone or calcar-            calorie. caloria. A unit of heat; one
    eous soil.                                        calorie is the mount of heat required
calcifugous. calcífugo. Avoiding                      to raise the temperature of one gram
    calcereous soils, as said of some                 of water one degree centigrade.
    lichens.                                      calvescent. calvescente. Naked or
calciphilous. calcífilo. Chalk-loving.                bald or becoming so.
calciphobe. planta calcífuga. See                 calyc-. calic-. A Greek prefix that
    calcifuge.                                        means, “a cup”.
calcium carbonate. calcio carbonato.              calycanthemy. calicantemia. A par-
    cácico carbonato. A compound of                   tial or complete change of sepals
    calcium occurring naturally in mar-               into petals.
    ble, limestone, shells, and to some           calycate. calicado. Having a calyx.
    extent, in plants.                            calycifloral. calicifloral. See calyci-
caline. calino. A growth promoting sub-               florate.
    stance. Rhizocalines promote root             calyciflorate. caliciflorado. With the
    growth and caulocalines promote                   calyx bearing the petals and sta-
    stem growth.                                      mens.
calli-. calli-. A Greek prefix that means,        calyciform. caliciforme. Calyx or cup-
    “beautiful”.                                      shaped.
callose. calosa. Hard or thick, some-             calycine. calicino. calicinar. Re-
    times rough; also, an insoluble                   sembling a calyx or calyx-like
    carbohydrate in cupraammonia                      bracts.
    (soluble in 1% solutions of alka-             calycle. calículo. A small cup-shaped
    lies) deposited seasonally or per-                structure like an outer calyx; set
    manently on sieve plates, causing                 of leaflets or bracts looking like a
    them to stop functioning; also found              calyx; an epicalyx; also, with slime
    in calcified walls and in the cells               molds (Myxomycetes), a calyx-like
    of some algae.                                    appendage below the sporangium.
callosity. callosidad. A hardened or              calycoid. calicoide. Like a calyx.
    thickened area.                               calyculate. caliculado. Having bracts
callus. callo. Hardened tissue that de-               around the calyx or around the
    velops over the wound on a stem;                  involucre; cup or calyx-shaped
    also, in some grasses (Poaceae),                  bracts.
    the thick basal extension of the              calyculus. calículo. Same as calycle.
    lemma at the point of its attach-             calyptra. caliptra. A hood or cap-like
    ment to the rachilla; also, a mass                structure on some flowers or fruit;
    of material formed on a cell wall                 may be used to describe the cap
    around the germ tube of a para-                   covering the spore case of some
    sitic fungus.                                     mosses (Musci) and liverworts
callus (orchids). callo (orquídea). A                 (Hepaticae); also, the root cap on
    prominence, varied in number, form                the tip of roots.
    and arrangement, on the labellum              calyptrate. caliptrado. Capped.
calyptrogen                                  60                                cancellate
calyptrogen. caliptrógeno. The meris-             campestris. campestris. A Latin term
    tem of the central region of the root            that means, “growing in fields”.
    cap. Also see calyptra.                       camptodromous. camptódroma. A
calyx (pl. calyces). cáliz. The outer                system of leaf venation in which
    covering (perianth) of a flower,                 the veinlets join after curving near
    made of leaf whorls or sepals and                the leaf margin.
    usually less delicate than the co-            campylodromous. campilódroma.
    rolla; collective term for all the se-           Having a vein-curvature which ends
    pals of a flower; flower cup.                    at the apex of the leaf.
calyx lobe. lobo cáliz. One of the free           campylotropous. campilótropo. Cur-
    portions of a calyx of united se-                ved oveules in which the nucleus
    pals.                                            is folded over on itself.
calyx tube. tubo cáliz. The portion of            canal. canal. A tube or duct that carries
    a calyx where the sepals are united.             liquid or nutrients from one part
cambial meristem. meristemo cambial.                 of the plant to another; also, a duct
    Tissues inside the stem that divide              containing oils or resins.
    and allow the plant to increase in            canal cell. célula canal. The initial
    girth.                                           cell which later divides to fill the
cambiform cell. célula cambiforme.                   central canal of the neck of the
    An elongated, pointed parenchy-                  archegonia of Bryophyta and
    matous cell found in the phloem.                 Pteridophyta. These cells disin-
cambium (pl. cambia). cámbio. zona                   tegrate when the archegonium is
    generatriz. In vascular plants, one              ripe.
    of two types of embryonic tissue              canaliculate. acanalado. Longitudi-
    that produces secondary growth;                  nal channels or grooves.
    vascular cambium, a layer of di-              canaliculation. acanaliculación. Any
    viding cells in the stems and roots              minutely channelled or grooved
    that lies between the phloem and                 structure.
    xylem by which a stem increases               canalization. canalización. encauzam-
    in girth; and cork cambium (phello-              iento. A process involving the
    gen) that gives rise to periderm                 development of cells along particu-
    which displaces epidermis as a pro-              lar pathways, despite disturbing
    tective secondary tissue system.                 environmental or genetic forces,
cambium initial. inicial cámbial. One                until the cells mature and are dif-
    of the permanently meristematic                  ferentiated into adult forms.
    cells of a cambium.                           canalizing selection. selección canaliz-
camelinus. camelinus. A Latin word                   ante. The elimination of genotypes
    that means, “tawny”.                             that render developing individu-
camnium. camnio. A succession of                     als sensitive to environmental fluc-
    plants caused by cultivation.                    tuations, thereby providing standard
campaniform. campaniforme. Hav-                      phenotypes over the range of the
    ing the shape of a bell.                         environment common to that spe-
campanulate. campanulado. Bell-                      cies.
    shaped, especially applied to a co-           cancellate. cancelado. fenestrado.
    rolla.                                           Having a regular, net-like or spongy
candidus                                   61                                   capsule
   structure.                                      absorbed by a root; held in the soil
candidus. candidus. A Latin term that              against the force of gravity.
   means, “pure white”.                         capilliform. capiliforme. Like a hair.
cane. caña. A slender, jointed stem,            capillitium. capilicio. A tangle of hair-
   woody but flexible, as with bam-                like filaments inside the spore cases
   boo (Bambusaceae), sugar cane                   of some slime molds and fungi.
   (Saccharum) , or some palms                  capitalist. capitalista. A plant with
   (Palmae).                                       stored food reserves.
canescent. canescente. Gray or white            capitate. capitado. Flowers growing
   in color because of a covering of               in a dense, head-like cluster.
   fine hair; incanous.                         capitellate. capitelado. Flowers grow-
canker. cancro. A general term for a               ing in small, head-like clusters.
   disease occurring in woody plants            capitellum. capitelo. A small head.
   in which bark fails to form, prob-           capitular. capitular. Having a capitu-
   ably from a fungal or bacterial in-             lum or head.
   fection.                                     capituliform. capituliforme. Having
canopy. dosel. A high covering or                  the shape of a dense cluster of flow-
   shading, such as the top layer of a             ers attached to a single stem.
   forest, where the branches spread            capitulum. capítulo. A dense, head-
   out and the foliage sharply limits              like cluster of flowers attached to
   the amount of light reaching the                a single stem, as in red clover (Tri-
   ground; often subdivided into                   folium); also, a globose apical li-
   emergent, middle, and lower zones.              chen apothecium.
canus. canus. A Latin word that means,          capreolate. capreolado. Having ten-
   “grey-white”.                                   drils.
cap. caperuza. sombrerete. The top              capreolus. capreolo. A tendril.
   portion of a mushroom; also, the             caprification. caprificación. The form-
   leather-like structure where hymen-             ation of an inflorescence of a
   ium-bearing tissues occur in a fun-             number of flowers on a common
   gal fruit body; pileus.                         receptacle which grows upwards
cap cell. célula caperuza. The cell                to enclose the flowers except for
   at the apex of the fern antheridium.            a small pore at the apex.
   It is shed when the antherozoids             capsid. cápsida. A protein coat on
   are liberated.                                  virus.
capiliform. capiliforme. Shaped like            capsomere. capsómero. One of the
   hair.                                           the identical units making up a
capillaceous. capilar. Having long,                capsid.
   hair-like filaments; resembling hair.        capsular. capsular. Capsule-like.
capillary. capilar. Hair-like.                  capsulate. cápsulado. Enclosed in a
capillary water. agua de capilaridad.              capsule or pod, as a capsulate pod.
   agua de capilar. The part of soil            capsule. cápsula. A dry, dehiscent
   moisture retained as film on, and               fruit with two or more seeds; also,
   within the pores of soil particles              the spore-bearing structure of a
   in a continuous inter-particle sys-             moss (Musci) or liverwort
   tem, the source of most water                   (Hepaticae); the gelatinous outer
carbohydrase                              62                              carnivorous
    surface of a cell.                             ganic molecule composed only of
carbohydrase. carbohidraza. Any of                 the carbon molecule.
    a group of enzymes that speeds the         carbonic anhydrase. anhidrasa carbón-
    hydrolysis of carbohydrates.                   ica. The enzyme that catalyses the
carbohydrates. carbohidrato. hidrato               formation of bicarbonate ions from
    de carbono. A generic term for a               carbon dioxide and water.
    large group of compounds made of           carboxydismutase. carboxidismutasa.
    carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen pro-              An enzyme which catalyses the
    duced in green plants by photosyn-             combination of ribulose-diphos-
    thesis.                                        phate and carbon dioxide to form
carbon. carbono. A non-metallic el-                two molecules of phosphoroglyceric
    ement with the chemical symbol                 acid.
    C, which is extracted from gase-           carboxyl group. grupo carboxilo.
    ous carbon dioxide by plants dur-              carboxilico. An acid group attached
    ing photosynthesis.                            to a molecule; COOH.
carbon assimilation. asimilación del           carboxylase. carboxilasa. An enzyme
    carbono. Photosynthesis.                       that speeds up the addition or re-
carbon cycle. ciclo del carbono. The               moval of carbon dioxide into or
    circulation of carbon in nature                from an organic compound.
    where plants take in carbon diox-          carcerule. carcérulo. A fruit that splits
    ide from the atmosphere and con-               at maturity into several one-seeded
    vert it to carbohydrates by photo-             portions.
    synthesis; animals consume the             carcerulus. carcérulo. See carcerule.
    plants and return the carbon to the        cardinal points (temperature). puntos
    atmosphere by respiration and de-              cardinal (temperatura). The mini-
    cay.                                           mum point is when growth begins;
carbon dioxide. dióxido de carbono.                the optimum is when growth is best;
    A heavy, colorless, ordorless gas              and the maximum is when growth
    consumed by plants during pho-                 stops.
    tosynthesis and produced during            carina. carina. quilla. A keel or ridge-
    respiration.                                   shape found in certain flowers or
carbon dioxide acceptor. accepdor de               fruits, as the pair of petals on many
    carbono dióxido. A molecule that               flowers of the pea family
    assimilates from the atmosphere                (Fabaceae).
    carbon dioxide into a plant.               carinate. carinado. Keeled with one
carbon dioxide fixation. fijación de               or more longitudinal ridges, espe-
    carbono dióxido. The first stage               cially used when describing parts
    of light reactions in photosynthe-             of the perianth and hypanthium.
    sis when carbon dioxide from the           carneus. carneus. Latin for “flesh-
    air is combined with a sugar phos-             colored”.
    phate to form an intermediate nec-         carnivore. carnivoro. Plants that eat
    essary in the synthesis of glucose             insects, as the sundew (Droser-
    and other carbon compounds.                    aceae), and pitcher plants (Nep-
carbon skeleton. esqueleto de carbon-              enthaceae).
    ado. The central part of any or-           carnivorous. carnívoro. carnicero.
carnivorous plants                          63                                    carrier
    Insect-eating.                                   (Rhodophyceae) or fungi; gametan-
carnivorous plants. planta carnivora.                gium.
    Plants which are capable of catching         carpology. carpología. The study of
    and digesting insects or other small             the structure of seeds, seed ves-
    animals.                                         sels or fruit.
carnose. carnosa. A whitish, flesh               carpophore. carpóforo. The long, slen-
    color or texture, as carnose leaves.             der part of the floral axis which
carnulose. carnuloso. Somewhat fleshy.               supports two hanging carpels; also
carotene. caroteno. A yellow, orange,                the stalk of the fruiting body or
    or red, water insoluble pigment                  sporocarp of a fungus; also, the
    found in carrots (Daucus) or other               projection between carpels of a
    vegetables. They are the precur-                 gynoecium formed as prolongation
    sors of vitamin A.                               of a receptacle; sometimes as in
carotin. carotina. See carotene.                     Triglochin striata, united to form
carotinoid. carotinoide. See carote-                 sterile carpels. See gynophore.
    noid.                                        carpophyll. hoja carpelar. A carpel
carpel. carpelo. The central, ovule-                 or modified leaf.
    bearing female organ of a flower,            carpophyte. carpófita. A cryptoga-
    with a modified leaf forming one                 mous plant, as red algae, that on
    or more sections of the pistil. It               fertilization bears spores and true
    bears the stigma and frequently an               fruit.
    elongated style and encloses the             carpopodium. carpopodio. A stipe;
    ovules. Carpels may be separate or               podogyne.
    united and there may be more than            carposporangium. carposprangio. A
    one carpel per flower.                           sporangium in which the carpo-
carpellary. carpelar. Belonging to,                  spores are formed. It is character-
    resembling, or containing carpels,               istic of the Rhodophyceae.
    as carpellary leaves.                        carpospore. carpospora. A red al-
carpellary scale. escama carpelar.                   gae spore resulting from the ferti-
    Bract scale.                                     lization of a carpogonium.
carpellate. carpelar. Having carpels,            carposporophyte. carposporófito. A
    as carpellate cones; also a unisexual            term used for the cystocarp of the
    flower with carpels but no stamens.              Rhyodophyceae, when it is con-
carpelloid. carpeloide. Said of some                 sidered to be an asexual spore-pro-
    member of a flower which is in part              ducing generation, parasitic on the
    changed into a carpel.                           sexual generation.
carpid. carpido. A little carpel.                carpotrophic. carpotrófico. The move-
carpo-. carpo-. A Greek prefix that                  ment of a flower stalk after ferti-
    means, “fruit” or “seeds,” as in                 lization into a favorable position
    carpophore.                                      for fruit ripening and seed dispersal.
carpogenous. carpogeno. Living on                carrier. portador. sustancia porta-
    fruit, parasitically or saprophyti-              dora. A catalyst which helps in the
    cally.                                           transfer of an element or group from
carpogonium. carpogonio. A single-                   one compound to another; also, a
    celled female sex in some seaweed                phenotypic, normal individual het-
carrying capacity                            64                                     cation
    erozygous for a normal allele and                 down of complex food molecules
    a mutant allele; also, a plant in-                into simpler one; destructive me-
    fected with a virus and showing                   tabolism; dissimilation.
    no symptoms, but capable of in-               catacorolla. catacorola. A second co-
    fecting another plant, especially                 rolla formed externally to the true
    through an insect vector.                         one; also spelled katacorolla.
carrying capacity. capacidad de carga.            catadromous. catadroma. Fern ve-
    The maximum number of organ-                      nation when the first nerves in each
    isms that can live in balance with                leaf segment are on the basal side
    the natural food supply of a par-                 of the midrib; also spelled katad-
    ticular area.                                     romous.
cartilaginous. cartilaginoso. Tough               catalase. catalasa. An enzyme occur-
    and firm but elastic; cartilage-like.             ring in most living cells that
caruncle. carúncula. A fleshy out-                    catalyzes the separation of hydro-
    growth or appendage, less tendril-                gen peroxide into gaseous oxygen
    like than an aril, often oily or waxy,            and water.
    located near the hilum of a seed,             catalysis. catálisis. The action of a
    as those of Ricinocarpus spp. and                 catalyst in a chemical reaction.
    the Ricinus communis. It is often             catalyst. catalizador. A substance that
    brightly colored and nutritive, aid-              speeds the rate of a chemical re-
    ing in seed dispersal, commonly                   action without undergoing any per-
    by ants.                                          manent change in its own compo-
carunculate. carunculado. Pertain-                    sition, as enzymes (proteins that
    ing to a caruncle.                                act as catalysts).
caryallagic. cariallagico. Of repro-              cataphyll. catafilo. A rudimentary leaf,
    duction involving nuclear change.                 such as a bud scale, preceding the
caryo-. cario-. A Greek prefix that                   true foliage.
    means, “nut-like”.                            catapult mechanism. mecanismo cata-
caryoid. carioide. A small mass of                    pulta. A method of seed disper-
    protein found in some algal cells.                sal depending on the jerking of a
caryopsis. cariopsis. cariópdide. A                   long stalk swaying in the wind.
    one-celled, one-seeded, dry fruit             catathecium. catatecio. A name some-
    with the ovary wall fused to the                  times given to the thyriothecium
    seed coat, as with a grain of wheat               of the Trichothyiaceae.
    (Triticum) or barley (Hordeum).               catechol. catecol. A dihydroxyphenol.
Casparian strip. banda de Caspary.                catenate. catenado. Occurring or linked
    The suberize layer covering the                   in the form of a chain, e.g.of spores.
    radial and transverse walls of                catenation. catenación. The arrange-
    endodermal cells.                                 ment of chromosomes in chains or
cassideous. casideo. Helmet-shaped.                   rings.
castaneous. castaño. A dark, reddish-             catenuliform. catenuliforme. Like a
    brown color.                                      chain.
catabolism. catabolismo. The point                cation. catión. An ion with a posi-
    in cellular metabolism when en-                   tive electrical charge, the form in
    ergy is released through the breaking             which mineral elements are ab-
cation exchange                             65                                    caulis
    sorbed by a plant.                              acaulescent.
cation exchange. cambio de cationes.             caulicle. caulículo. A small or rudi-
    The replacement of hydrogen ions                mentary stem; also, the neck of the
    absorbed on a surface (e.g. a clay)             embryo that distinguishes it from
    by cations. Cations with the property           the seed leaves (cotyledons).
    of hydrogen ion displacement are             caulicolous. caulocole. Having a para-
    exchangeable cations and provide                sitic fungus on the stem; living on
    the condition which mineral ele-                herbaceous stems.
    ments of the soil become available           caulicule. caulicula. A caulicle.
    to plants.                                   cauliculus. cauliculo. See caulicle.
cation exchange capacity. capacidad              cauliferous. caulífero. See caulescent.
    de cambion cation. See exchange              cauliflorous. caulífloro. Flowers are
    capacity.                                       produced on the stem or trunk;used
catkin. amento. An inflorescence, usu-              especially to describe tropical trees
    ally a drooping or pendulous spike              in which flower shoots commonly
    of apetalous, unisexual flowers;                emerge from the main trunk.
    ament.                                       cauliflory. caulifloria. The produc-
catkinate. amentáceo. amentiforme.                  tion of flowers on leafless woody
    Pertaining to or having the form                stems or main trunks, with the flow-
    of a catkin.                                    ers developing from axillary buds
catothecium. catotecio. A an inverted               borne on shoots and either contin-
    perithecium with the asci hanging               ued from year to year or until the
    from its base.                                  shoot has become a thick branch
cauda. cauda. A tail-like appendage.                or even the main trunk, remaning
caudate. caudado. Having a tail or tail-            dormant until the shoot has reached
    like appendage.                                 a considerable diamenter. Common
caudex. cáudice. The woody base of                  in rainforest trees and vines of the
    a herbaceous, otherwise annual                  Sapotaceae, Myrtaceae, Morac-
    plant; also, a woody, trunk-like                eae, Anacardaceae, Menisperm-
    stem, especially of tree ferns                  aceae, Aristolochiaceae, Flacourt-
    (Cyatheaceae, Thyrsopteridaceae)                iaceae; also, used to mean bear-
    and palms (Palmae).                             ing flowers on old stems.
caudicle. caudículo. In orchids                  cauliform. cauliforme. Stem-like.
    (Orchidaceae), a thin, flexible stalk        cauligenous. cauligeno. Carried on
    where much of the pollen accumu-                a stem.
    lates; also, a stalk of mucilaginous         cauline. caulinar. caulino. Grow-
    threads holding the pollen mass of              ing on a stalk or stem, especially
    orchids to the rostellum.                       above ground, as cauline leaves;
caudiculate. caudiculado. Having or                 also, formed from the internal tis-
    pertaining to a woody stem.                     sues of the stem.
caul-. caul-. A Latin prefix than means,         cauline bundle. haz caulinar. A vas-
    “stem”.                                         cular bundle formed entirely from
caulescent. caulescente. Having a stem              the tissue of the stem; axial bun-
    growing above ground; in the proc-              dle.
    ess of becoming stalked. Compare             caulis. caulis. The main stem of her-
caulocarpic                                 66                             cell inclusion
    baceous plants.                                  ing structural unit, is differentiated
caulocarpic. caulocárpico. Stems that                in plants by a wall to a protoplast
    for several years annually produce               with a system of organelles func-
    flowers and fruit.                               tioning interdependently. The pro-
caulocarpous. caulocárpo. Bearing                    toplast is enclosed from the wall
    fruit repeatedly on the same stem.               by a double-layered membrane with
cauloid. cauloide. Stem-like.                        the method of entry of a substance
caulocystidium. caulocistidio. A                     into the cell being an invagination
    cystidium on a stipe.                            process, the membrane surround-
caulome. eje caulinar. caulomo. The                  ing and engulfing either a solution
    stem or axial portion of a plant.                (pinocytosis) or finely-dispersed
cavernicolous. cavernícola. Living                   particle (phagocytosis) which may
    in caves.                                        then be carried within vaculoles to
cavitation. cavitación. The break-                   the interior.
    ing of hydrogen bonds in water that          cell biology. biologia celular. The
    forms a bubble in water. When this               biological study of cells and their
    occurs within the xylem, the up-                 functions; cytobiology.
    per portion of the water colunm is           cell cycle. ciclo célula. Refers to the
    not in contact with the lower por-               sequence of activity that occurs
    tion and cannot pull it upward. This             between the cell formation and its
    causes a loss of conduction in the               division into daughter cells.
    tracheids and vessels and is a fac-          cell differentiation. diferenciación
    tor in the conversion of sapwood                 celular. The process where de-
    to heartwood.                                    scendants of a cell produce struc-
cavity. cavidad. An enclosed space.                  tural and functional specialization
cecidium. cecideo. A plant gall caused               which are continued during the life
    by an insect or a fungus.                        of that individual cell.
cecidization. cecidización. The for-             cell division. división celular. The
    mation of a plant gall.                          dividing of a cell into two or more
cell. lóculo. In plant identification,               cells, each having its own dupli-
    a cell is any hollow space or cav-               cated nucleus and divided cyto-
    ity within a structure, as within                plasma.
    an ovary or the hollow space in a            cell fusion. fusión celular. An ex-
    honeycomb; also, a pollen or spore               perimental process of joining nu-
    sac; locule.                                     clei and cytoplasma from differ-
cell. célula. The fundamental living                 ent somatic cells to form a single
    unit of all matter; made of proto-               hybrid; especially used with dif-
    plasm and when occurring with a                  ferent species.
    nucleus and an enclosing membrane,           cell growth. crecimiento celular. An
    they are known as eukaryotic cells;              unchangeable increase in the size
    others, without a distinct membrane-             of a cell either from a change in
    bound nucleus, are known as                      the osmotic potential within the cell,
    prokaryotic cells (bacteria and blue-            or by a reduction of the pressure
    green algae). The cell, an organ-                exerted by the cell wall.
    ized, self-regulating, self-reproduc-        cell inclusion. inclusión celular. Any
cell line                                  67                                 cellulase
    non-living material in the cyto-                ther through turgidity of the con-
    plasm.                                          tained protoplast or thickening of
cell line. línea celular. See cell lin-             the wall itself, for mechanical sup-
    eage.                                           port of tissue. Primary walls are
cell lineage. linaje celular. A heredi-             largely pectic substances; those of
    tary line of cells that are related             adjacent cells may fuse to form a
    through asexual division.                       middle lamella, secondary devel-
cell membrane. membrana celular.                    opment is intracellular and mainly
    A sheet-like tissue that encloses               cellulose, added by either apposi-
    and delimits the contents of a cell.            tion or intussusception but with
cellobiose. celobiosa. A reducing                   small areas (pits) left unthickened,
    sugar; beta-glucose and beta-glu-               and at maturity of the wall, thick-
    coside.                                         ened according to its function, e.g.
cell plate. placa celular. lámina celu-             lignification, suberization, cutiniz-
    lar. The partition that is formed               ation. Continuity of protoplasm
    between daughter cells during                   from cell to cell is provided for
    cytokinesis; also, the first formed             by minute pores throughout the wall
    wall structure in a dividing cell.              through which pass strands of cy-
cell respiration. respiración celular.              toplasm (plasmodesmata).
    The chemical process that occurs            cellular. celular. Composed of cells:
    in living cells when organic com-               all plant tissue is cellular; also, a
    pounds are broken down to release               plant with no spiral vessels and
    energy needed for life.                         bearing no flowers, as lichens and
cell sap. jugo celular. savia celular.              mosses (Musci).
    Liquid in a large vacuole that is           cellular endosperm. endosperma celu-
    formed from water absorbed through              lar. In angiosperm reproduction,
    the epidermis and moved from the                a type of endosperm in which cell
    roots to the leaves through the xy-             division accompanies nuclear di-
    lem.                                            vision and the endosperm consists
cell theory. teoría celular. The theory             of cells during its entire develop-
    that plant and animals are made of              ment.
    cells with growth and reproduction          cellular metabolism. metabolismo
    as a product of cell division.                  celular. See metabolism.
cell tissue. tejido celular. A group            cellular respiration respiracíon celular.
    of cells formed from the division               The process by which enzymes
    of one or a few cells, and func-                acting on carbohydrates in living
    tioning as a whole.                             cells yield energy.
cell wall. pared celular. A strong,             cellular spore. espora celular. A mul-
    sometimes rigid wall-like structure,            ticellular body, released as a sin-
    mostly cellulose, that lies inside              gle unit like a spore, but each cell
    the capsular layer, but outside the             is capable of germinating separately.
    plasma membrane of cells. The rigid         cellulase. cellulaso. An enzyme that
    outermost covering of the plant cell            breaks down cellulose. Associated
    is metabolically inert, a secretory             with saprophytes and parasites, and
    product of protoplasm serving, ei-              particularly important when pro-
cellulose                                   68                      centrifugal xylem
    duced by the microflora of the her-             loid polar nuclei; also, the cell in
    bivore’s large intestine.                       the center of developing archegon-
cellulose. celulosa. Linked glucose                 ium of the Bryophyta and Pteri-
    molecules serving as the principal              dophyta. It divides to form the
    structural material of plants, such             primary canal-cell and primary
    as the woody parts of trees and                 ventral cell; also, the cell at the
    plants, biologicallly broken-down               base of the archegonium in the
    only by fungi and termites with                 Gymnospermae containing the egg
    necessary cellulose-splitting en-               and ventral canal-cell; polar cell.
    zymes.                                       central cylinder meristem. meristemo
cementation. cementación. The un-                   cilindro central. The part of a root
    ion of fungal hyphae by means of                apical meristem that gives rise to
    a sticky substance.                             the stele.
censer mechanism. censairo mecan-                central placentation. placentación
    ismo. A method of seed dispersal                centro. Ovules and seeds on a cen-
    whereby the seeds are shaken out                tral axis in a single celled pistil
    of pores in the fruit as it sways in            or fruit.
    the wind.                                    centric fusion. fusión céntrica. The
center of diversity. centro de divers-              whole-arm fusion of chromosomes
    idad. A geographical area where                 by the union of two accentric chro-
    a particular taxon or species pro-              mosomes to form one metacentric
    vides greater genetic variations than           chromosome.
    anywhere else, most often occur-             centric oosphere. oosfera céntrica.
    ring in the tropics; genecenter.                An oosphere of a fungus which has
center of origin. centro de origen.                 one or more layers of oil droplets
    A geographical area where a par-                surrounding the central protoplasm.
    ticular taxon or species is thought          centrifugal. centrífugo. Developing
    to have originated; thought by some             from the center or apex outward
    to be the same location as the center           or downward, as a centrifugal plant;
    of diversity.                                   also, when developing, turning from
centonate. centonado. Having dif-                   the center toward the side of the
    ferent colors which produces a                  fruit, as a radicle.
    patchwork appearance.                        centrifugal inflorescence. infloresc-
central. central. In the middle or mid-             encia centrífugo. A flower clus-
    dle plane of a structure.                       ter that develops and opens from
central body. corpúsculo central. The               the center outward.
    colorless inner portion of the pro-          centrifugal thickening. engrosamiento
    toplast of the Myxophyceae. It                  centrífugo. The disposition of
    contains nucleic acid and may func-             material on the outside of the cell
    tion as a nucleus.                              wall. This only occurs if the cell
central bud. yema central. The middle               is free from its neighbors, e.g. the
    or central flower bud.                          markings on pollen grains.
central cell. celular central. A bi-             centrifugal xylem. xilema centrífugo.
    nucleate cell in the center of an               A xylem in which differentiation
    embryo sac containing the two hap-              occurs away from the center of a
centriole                                 69                          chaetoplankton
   stem or root.                                   growth.
centriole. centríolo. Small bodies,            cephalobranchial. cefalobranquial.
   often in pairs, located in the cyto-            Used to describe a chromosome
   plasm near the nucleus, and in-                 which has a small rounded projec-
   volved in the formation of the spin-            tion at one end.
   dle.                                        cephalodium. cefalodeo. An area in
centripetal. centrípeta. Towards the               a lichen thallus where blue-green
   center.                                         algae carry out nitrogen fixation.
centripetal inflorescence. infloresec-         cephaloid. cefaloide. Resembling or
   encia centrípeta. A flower clus-                shaped like a head.
   ter that develops and opens from            ceraceous. cerífero. Waxy; wax-like
   the outer edge toward the center.               in texture or color.
   See raceme.                                 ceranoid. ceranoide. Having horn-
centripetal thickening. engrosamiento              like branches.
   centrípeta. The deposition of wall          cerat-. cerat-. A Greek prefix than
   material on the inner side of a cell            means, “horn”.
   wall.                                       cereals. cereales. Members of the grass
centripetal xylem. xilema centrípeta.              family Poaceae whose grain is used
   A xylem in which differentiation                for human consumption. e.g. wheat,
   occurs from the center of the stem              barley, and oats.
   or root.                                    cereal plants. plantas de cereal. Any
centrodesmus. centrodesma. Attrac-                 of a group of edible grasses
   tion spindle.                                   (Poaceae).
centromere. centrómero. The point              cerebriform. cerebriforme. Having
   of attachment of the spindle fiber              a convoluted appearance; resem-
   to the two halves of a chromosome               bling a brain.
   (chromatids).                               ceriferous. cerífero. Wax-producing.
centrosome. centrosoma. In a few               cernuous. inclinado. Hanging down-
   lower plants, the part of a cyto-               ward; drooping.
   plasm that organizes the assembly           ceruus. ceruus. Latin for “hanging”,
   and disassembly of microtubules                 “drooping”, or “nodding”.
   and which contains the centriole.           cespitose. cespitoso. Growing in dense
cepaceous. cepáceo. Smelling or tast-              clumps or tufts; caespitose.
   ing of onions.                              certation. certación. Competition be-
cephal-. cefal-. A Greek prefix than               tween pollen grains placed at the
   means, “head”.                                  same time on the same stigma. They
cephalin. cefalina. A group of com-                have different genetic constitutions
   pounds derived from phosphorus                  giving unequal chances of bring-
   which are an important component                ing about fertilization.
   of membranes.                               chaeta. queta. Bristle; seta.
cephalium. cefalio. The reproduc-              chaetiferous. quetífera. Having stiff
   tive portion of certain cacti                   hairs.
   (Cactaceae) in which the growth             chaetoplankton. quetoplancton. Small
   that occurs after sexual maturity               aquatic organism whose power to
   is sharply different from juvenile              float is aided by small spiny
chaff                                       70                                   chelate
   outgrowths.                                      and deciduous trees.
chaff. bráctea involucral. Small, dry,           character. carácter. A distinctive or
   scale-like bracts, as found on the               well-defined feature in the struc-
   heads of some Asteraceae.                        ture or function of a plant or plant
chaffy. paleáceo. Having brown to                   species; also, genetically, any fea-
   grey scales; chaff-like.                         ture that is transferred from par-
chaistobasidium. caistobasidio. A                   ent to offspring.
   club-shaped basidium with the                 character-gradient. gradiente de
   nuclear spindles across it at the same           caracteres. See cline.
   level.                                        characteristic. caracteristico. See char-
chalaza (pl. chalazas). cálaza. The                 acter.
   basal part of an ovule or seed which          charophytes. charófita. A group of
   serves as a point of attachment and              plants generally classified as al-
   where the outer coverings join with              gae that resemble bryophytes be-
   each other and the nucleus.                      cause of the structure of the male
chalazogamy. calazogamia. The proc-                 gametes and a sterile envelope en-
   ess in which a pollen grows into                 closing the sex organs.
   the ovule through the chalaza.                chartaceous. cartáceo. Paper or tis-
chalk gland. glándula caliza. A se-                 sue-like texture, usually devoid of
   cretory organ occurring on some                  green.
   leaves around which calcium car-              chasmocleistogamic. casmocleistog-
   bonate is deposited.                             amico. Producing chasmogamous
chalky. gredso. A soil with a high                  and cleistogamous flowers.
   concentration of calcium carbon-              chasmogamic. casmógamico. Said of
   ate or limestone.                                a flower that opens before polli-
chamae-. camé-. A Greek prefix than                 nation.
   means, “ground”.                              chasmogamous. casmógama. Flowers
chamaephyte. caméfito. A plant in                   that open the perianth before fer-
   which the perennating bud or shoot               tilization resulting most often in
   apices are produced very close to                cross-pollination. Compare cleisto-
   the ground; also, one of Raunkiaer’s             gamous.
   life-form classifications.                    chasmogamy. casmogamia. The open-
chamber. cámara. An enclosed space                  ing of the perianth for the purpose
   in an organ; cavity.                             of fertilization. Opposite of cleisto-
chambered. dividido en cámaras. Said                gamy.
   of an ovary divided by incomplete             chasmophyte. casmófito. A plant grow-
   partitions extending inwards from                ing among rocks, having taken root
   the walls.                                       in the debris of the crevises, as a
channelled. acanalado. Having deep,                 fern.
   longitudinal grooves.                         cheilocystidium. ceilocistidio. A
chaparral. chaparral. In the United                 cystidium at the edge of the pileus
   States and the Mediterranean re-                 surface.
   gion, a type of vegetation that con-          chela. quela. Having a claw or pin-
   sists of dense stands of thorny or               cer.
   roughly branched evergreen shrubs             chelate. quelado. An organic compound
chelation                                  71                     chemoorganotroph
   which forms in solution a strong                one or more substances, resulting
   affinity for mineral ions (chelation)           in the formation of one or more
   which prevents precipitation of the             additional substances which may
   ion even under conditions of high               have different properties.
   alkalinity, e.g. chelates E.D.T.A.           chemiluminescence. quimiluminis-
   (ethylene diamine tetra acetic acidi)           cencia. The emission of light during
   and H.E.E.D.D.T.A. (hydroxyethyl-               a chemical reaction without a rise
   ethylene diamine triacetic acid) have           in temperature.
   a strong affinity for iron in solu-          chemiluminescent. quimiluminiscente.
   tion and may be used as a foliar                Producing light or light produced
   spray in correcting the iron defi-              by chemiluminescence.
   ciency in chlorosis.                         chemistry. química. The study of the
chelation. quelación. An ion bound                 properties, composition, structure,
   at two or more points to a ligand,              and intreactions of energy and mat-
   forming an equilibrium reaction                 ter.
   between a metallic ion and an or-            chemoautotroph. quimioautótrofo. An
   ganic molecule.                                 organism that uses carbon dioxide
cheliform. queliforme. A chemical                  as its main or sole source of car-
   ring structure formed from the re-              bon.
   action of a metal ion with two or            chemoautotrophic. quimioautrotró-
   more groups on a ligand; also,                  fico. An organism that does not
   pincer-like.                                    obtain energy from sunlight or or-
chemical. quimico. Pertaining to, made             ganic molecules but from the oxi-
   by, or used in chemistry.                       dation of nitrogen, sulfur, iron, or
chemical bond. enlace quimíco. A                   gaseous hydrogen.
   union between the electron struc-            chemoheterotroph. quimioheterótrofo.
   tures of two or more atoms or ions.             An organism that obtains carbon
chemical control. control químico.                 mainly or solely from organic com-
   A means of regulating the life proc-            pounds.
   esses by transmitting messages               chemolithotroph. quimiolitótrofo. An
   chemically, mainly through hor-                 organism that obtains energy from
   mones.                                          the oxidation of inorganic com-
chemical element. elemento químico.                pounds or elements, as bacteria from
   See element.                                    the gram-negative family Nitro-
chemical oxygen demand (COD).                      bacteraceae.
   demanda química de oxígeno                   chemolithotrophic. quimiolitotrófico.
   (DQO). A chemical rather than a                 Deriving energy from inorganic
   biological method of measuring                  chemicals and carbon from carbon
   water or effluent quality; uses                 dioxide.
   postssium dichromate as the oxi-             chemonasty. quimionastia. The change
   dizing agent with oxidation occur-              in the position or form of a plant
   ring in two hours.                              organ in relation to a diffuse chemi-
chemical reaction. reacción química.               cal stimulus.
   A change involving the rearrange-            chemoorganotroph. quimiorganótrofo.
   ment of atoms and molecules of                  An organism that obtains energy
chemosmosis                                 72                           chlorenchyma
    from metabolism of organic com-              chilling-sensitive plant. planta sensit-
    pounds.                                          iva al frio. A plant that is badly
chemosmosis. quimioósmosis. quimio-                  injured or killed by temperatures
    osmosis. A chemical reaction                     below freezing (32º Fahrenheit).
    occurring through semi-permeable             chimera (pl. chimeras). quimera. A
    membranes.                                       plant with two or more tissues of
chemosynthesis. quimosintesis. The                   different genetic composition, aris-
    formation of carbohydrates from                  ing from mutation or grafting.
    carbon dioxide and water with en-            chimney. chimenea. An upgrowth of
    ergy from a chemical reaction rather             epidermal cells above a stoma, form-
    than from light, as in photosynthe-              ing a long pore.
    sis.                                         chimonophilous. quimonófilo. Grow-
chemotaxis. quimiotaxis. The move-                   ing chiefly during the winter.
    ment of plant or plant parts toward          chin. mentón. An axial protuberence
    or away from a chemical substance.               which grows in a way that makes
chemotaxonomy. quimiotaxonomia.                      the sepals appear to arise from the
    The classification of plants by their            labellum, as in some orchids
    chemical composition.                            (Orchidaceae).
chemotroph. quimiótrofo. An organ-               chiropterophilous. quiropterófilo.
    ism that obtains its energy from                 Pollinated by bats.
    chemical reactions.                          chitin. quitina. A polysaccharide made
chemotropism. quimiotropismo. The                    up of N-acetyl-2-glucose amine
    tendency of plants or plant parts                units (carbohydrate derivative)
    to move or bend in response to                   found in the walls of many fungi.
    chemical stimuli.                            chlamydo-. clamido-. A Greek pre-
chiasma (pl. chiasmata). quiasma. The                fix that means, “wearing a cloak”.
    point where paired homologous                chlamydeous. periantado. clamideo.
    chromosomes remain in contact as                 Having a floral envelope (perianth).
    they begin to separate during the            chlamydocyst. clamidóciste. A two-
    first prophase of meiosis, form-                 walled resting zoosporangium in
    ing a cross shape.                               a hypha of the Blastocladiaceae.
chiasma interference. interferencia              chlamydospore. clamidóspora. A thick
    quiasmática. A non-random fre-                   walled asexual spore which serves
    quency of more than one chiasma                  to survive adverse conditions. It
    occurring in a bivalent segment                  is intercalary or terminal and non-
    during meiosis; if higher than an-               deciduous, consisting of one or
    ticipated, it becomes a negative chi-            more cells; also, a dark fungal rest-
    asma interference, if lower, it is               ing spore formed from a cell in a
    considered a positive chiasma in-                vegetative hypha, such as smuts.
    terference.                                  chledium. cledio. A formation on waste
chiasmata. quiasmata. The points                     ground.
    where the homologous chromo-                 chloranthy. clorantia. The reversion
    somes remain attached during the                 of floral leaves to green leaves.
    later stages of prophase of meio-            chlorenchyma. clorénquima. Plant
    sis; plural of chiasma.                          tissue that contains chlorophyll.
chlorine                                   73                         choriopetalous
chlorine. cloro. An element with the               gether with many enzyme systems,
   chemical symbol of Cl, which is                 in all forming and operating the
   needed for normal plant growth by               process of photosynthesis.
   its contribution to the control of           chlorosis. clorosis. An abnormal or
   turgor and involvement in the light             diseased condition identified by a
   reaction of photosynmthesis.                    pale green or yellow leaf color in-
chloro-. cloro-. A Greek prefix that               dicating a reduction in the produc-
   means, “ natural green”, as in                  tion of chlorophyll; often result-
   chloranthy.                                     ing from an iron or magnesium
chlorophyll. clorofila. A green pig-               deficiency in the soil or from in-
   ment in plants that absorbs the sun’s           adequate light; yellowing.
   energy during the chemical proc-             chlorostatolith. cloróstatolito. A
   ess of photosynthesis; composed                 chloroplast containing starch, and
   of a complex ring system with in                acting as a statolith.
   which is a single atom of magne-             cholesterol. colesterol. A steroid found
   sium. Chemically there are two                  in some plants in low concentra-
   forms: the more abundant chloro-                tions.
   phyll a, and chlorophyll b which             choline. colina. Ethanol trimethyl-
   has the methyl group of chlorophyll             ammonium hydroxide. It is found
   a replaced by an aldehyde group.                in many seeds, and with fatty ac-
   It is localized in granules of disc-            ids, glycedrol, and phosphoric acid
   shaped cell-inclusions, chloroplasts,           yields lecithins from which it is
   in photosynthetic tissue.                       liberated by hydrolysis.
chlorophyllase. clorófilase. An en-             chomophyte. comófito. A plant grow-
   zyme occurring in association with              ing on rocky, detritus-laddened
   chlorophyll and able to hydrolyse               ledges.
   the phytol group in the chloro-              chondriocont. condrioconto. A mitoch-
   phyll and thereby decompose it.                 ondrium which has the form of a
chlorophyllogen. clorofilógeno. A                  rod or thread.
   hypothetical precursor of chloro-            chondriolysis. condriolisis. The dis-
   phyll formed in darkness but                    solution of the mitochondria.
   changed to chlorophyll in light.             chondriomite. condriomita. A chond-
chlorophyllous. clorófilo. Having or               risome having the form of a chain
   pertaining to chlorophyll.                      of granules.
chloroplast. cloroplasto. An enve-              chondriosome. condriosoma. See mi-
   lope (plastids) containing chloro-              tochondrion.
   phyll in the cells of green plants           chondroid. condroide. Said of the me-
   and microorganisms. It is composed              dulla of a lichen when it is hard
   of green pigmented particles, grana,            and tough, consisting of thick-
   dispersed in a colorless stroma and             walled hyphae in very firm asso-
   enclosed by a membrane system.                  ciation.
   In addition to the chlorophylls and          chori-. cori-. A prefix than means,
   their associated yellow carotenoid              “separate”, as in choripetalous.
   pigment, grana contain proteins,             choriopetalous. coriopétalo. Poly-
   lipids, and inorganic elements, to-             petalous.
choripetalous                             74                         chromophorous
choripetalous. coripétalo. Having un-          chromatophore. cromatóforo. A spe-
    connected or separate petals;                  cialized enzyme, pigment-contain-
    apopetalous.                                   ing cell of prokaryotes, important
chorisepalous. corisépalo. Polyse-                 in photosynthesis; chromoplast. See
    palous.                                        xanthophore.
chorisis. corisis. The splitting into          chromatophoric. cromatóforico. Per-
    two or more lobes; often applied               taining to or having chromatophore.
    to abnormalities.                          chromatoplasm. cromatoplasma. The
C horizon. horizonte C. The mate-                  outer region of the cytoplasm of
    rial from which a soil is derived.             the Myxophyceae. It contains the
chroma. croma. One of the three meas-              cell pigment.
    ures of color (hue, chroma, and            chromidium (pl. chromidia). cromidio.
    value) with chroma indicating the              An algal cell in the thallus of a li-
    degree of strength of red, yellow,             chen.
    green, blue, and purple.                   chromiole. cromiolo. One of the deeply
chromasic. cromasico. An increase                  staining granules of which chro-
    in the chromatin.                              matin is composed.
chromatic adaptation. adaptación               chromo-. cromo-. A prefix that means,
    cromático. A variation in the col-             “colored”, as in chromoplast.
    oration in relation to the amount          chromocenter. cromocentro. Any ac-
    of light reaching a plant.                    cumulation of chromatin in the
chromatid. cromatido. cromátida.                  nuclear reticulum, staining more
    cromatidio. One of two daughter               darkly than the rest of the chro-
    strands of a chromosome that has              matin network in the resting cell.
    divided during interphase; two             chromochondria. cromocondria. Mi-
    chromatids joined in the region of             tochondria concerned with pigment
    the centromere make a chromosome.              formation.
chromatidia. cromatidios. Pieces of            chromogen. cromogeno. A pigment
    chromatin not aggregated into a                producing organism.
    nucleus, but lying free in the cy-         chromogenic. cromogenico. Color-
    toplasm.                                      producing.
chromatid interference. interferencia          chromomere. cromómero. A bead-
    cromatídica. A non-random in-                  like structure in a chromosome
    volvement of non-sister chromatids             during prophase of meiosis and mi-
    resulting in a deviation from the              tosis when uncoiled.
    anticipated ratios.                        chromonema (pl. chromonemata).
chromatin. cromatina. A substance                  cromonema. The longitudinal
    of DNA and proteins in the nucleus             strands making up a chromatid
    of a cell that condenses to form               which have an inner core of DNA
    chromosomes during mitosis. It is              with an outer protein sheath.
    made up of two proteins (one of            chromoparous. cromoparo. Said of
    which is histone) DNA and RNA.                 colorless bacteria which secrete a
chromatolysis. cromatólisis. The break-            colorless material.
    up and eradication of chromatin in         chromophorous. cromóforo. Of bac-
    the cell nucleus.                              teria having coloring pigment as
chromoplast                                  75                                     ciliate
    part of their make-up.                             ísmo cromosómico. In an inter-
chromoplast. cromoplasto. A red or                     breeding population, the presence
    yellow substance in the cytoplasm                  of one or more chromosomes in two
    that influences the color of flow-                 or more alternative structural forms.
    ers or fruits and serves as an at-            chromosome set. dotación cromo-
    traction to pollinators and fruit-                 sómico. The complete haploid set
    dispersing animals; a specialized                  of chromosomes characteristic of
    plastid.                                           a species.
chromosomal. cromosómico. cromo-                  chromosome substitution. sustitución
    somal. Of or pertaining to chro-                  cromosómico. A switch of one or
    mosomes.                                          more chromosomes for others from
chromosomal chim(a)era. quimera                       another strain of the same or re-
    cromosomal. A chimera in which                    lated species which will permit
    the nuclei do not all contain the                 hybridization.
    same number of chromososmes.                  chromosome theory of inheritance.
chromosome. cromosoma. Thread-                        toría cromosómica de la herencia.
    like bodies in the nucleus of                     A 1902 clarification put forward
    eukaryotic cells that are derived                 by W.S. Sutton that Mendel’s laws
    from parents and carry the genes                  of inheritance may be understood
    that determine heredity.                          by assuming that genes are located
chromosome arm. brazo cromosómico.                    in specific sites on chromosomes.
    One of the two parts of a chromo-             chronispore. cronispora. A resting
    some to which the spindle fiber is                spore.
    attached along the side.                      chronospecies. cronospecie. See evo-
chromosome complement. comple-                        lutionary species.
    mento cromosómico. The set of                 chrysochrome. crisocromo. The golden
    chromosomes characteristic of a cell               brown pigment of the Chryso-
    of a species.                                      phyceae.
chromosome cycle. ciclo cromosómico.              chrysogonidium. crisogonidio. A yel-
    The complete changes in the chro-                  low algal cell in a lichen.
    mosomes during the life-cycle.                chylocauly. quilocaulia. Having a
chromosome map. mapa cromosómico.                      succulent stem.
    A map of the relative locations (loci)        chylophylly. quilófilia. Having suc-
    of genes along the length of a chro-               culent leaves.
    mosome.                                       cicatrix. cicatriz. A scar on a plant,
chromosome matrix. matriz cromo-                       especially where a leaf or branch
    sómico. A sheath of weakly staining                has fallen; also, the scar where a
    material around the more stainable                 seed was attached to a seed pod
    substance of a chromosome.                         or capsule.
chromosome number. número cromo-                  cilia. cilia. Hair-like growths extending
    sómico. Under normal conditions,                   from certain cells, often produc-
    the number of chromosomes present                  ing a fringe on the underside or
    in the cell nuclei of a species; usu-              margin of some leaves; plural of
    ally constant for each species.                    cilium.
chromosome polymorphism. polimorf-                ciliate. ciliado. Having a hair-like
ciliatulate                                 76                                       clade
    (cilium) growth around the leaf mar-              the base.
    gin.                                         circumcaulous. circuncaulo. Circling
ciliatulate. ciliatulado. Having widely               around the stem.
    separated cilia.                             circumference. circunferencia. The
ciliolate. cilolado. Having a diminu-                 distance around a circle or circu-
    tive hair-like growth around the leaf             lar object, especially used in the
    margin.                                           growth measurements of tree trunks.
cilium. cilio. A hair-like growth along          circumferential. circunferencial. Sur-
    the margin or underside of a leaf                 rounding a rounded structure.
    or flower; singular of cilia.                circumnutate. circumnudado. The ten-
cininnate. cininado. Curled or rolled                 dency of growing plant parts to bend
    around.                                           or move in a circular pattern.
cincinnus. cincino. A type of dense              circumnutation. circumnutación. The
    flower cluster (cyme) with alter-                 upward spiral movement of a shoot
    nate branching that displays short                apex as its grows.
    pedicels on the developed side.              circumscissile. circuncisil. A seed
cinereous. cinéreo. Gray or grayish                   dehiscing or opening along a
    color from a covering of short hairs.             traverse circular line, leaving a top
cinerus. cinerus. Latin for “ash-grey”.               and a bottom.
cingulate. cingulado. Edged all around.          cirrate. cirado. Rolled around or be-
circadian rhythm. ritmo circadiano.                   coming so, as wavy hair.
    diurno circadiano. A physiological           cirrhous. cirriforme. With tendrils
    activity occurring in an organism                 (cirri).
    in a 24 hour pattern which is gov-           cirrus (pl. cirri). cirro. A tendril.
    erned by a “biological clock” within         cisternae. cisternae. Large, flattened,
    the organism.                                     membranaceous sacs in cell organ-
circadian. circadiano. Reoccurring                    elles, as the Golgi body and in the
    in a 24 hour pattern or cycle.                    endoplasmic reticulum.
circinate. circinado. Rolled or coiled           cis-trans test. prueba cis-trans. Test
    downward from the tip to the base,                to find whether two mutant sites
    as with young fern (Filicopsida)                  of a gene are on the same cistron;
    leaves; rolled in a lengthwise man-               complementation test.
    ner, as an arrangement of bud scales         cistron. cistrón. The smallest unit
    or young leaves in a bud; coiled                  of genetic material that produces
    like a watch spring.                              a phenotypic effect, with each con-
circle. circulo. Round in shape.                      trolling the structure of a protein;
circular. circular. Around or having                  also, a section of the DNA mol-
    the shape of a circle.                            ecule involving the formation of
circulation. circulación. The move-                   one polypeptide chain.
    ment of materials within plant cells         citric acid cycle. ciclo del ácido cítrico.
    or throughout the multicellular plant             See tricarboxylic acid cycle; Krebs
    system.                                           cycle.
circum-. circun-. A prefix than means,           citriform. citriforme. Lemon-shaped.
    “all around”.                                Cl. Cl. See chlorine.
circumbasal. circunbasal. Around                 clade. clado. In cladistics, a lineage
cladistic                                   77                                 clearing
    branch that has occurred from split-             division.
    ting in an earlier lineage thereby           clan. clan. estirpe. A small group of
    creating two new taxa, each a clade              individuals covering a small area
    or branch in the phylogenetic dia-               and derived from the same parent
    gram.                                            either by vegetative propagation or
cladistic. cladistico. Pertaining to the             from seed.
    classification of plants based on            clasped. abrazado. Generally refers
    assumed lines of ancestral or evo-               to a leaf that has partially or com-
    lutionary relationships; phylo-                  pletely encircled the stem.
    genetic classification.                      clasping. amplexicaule. A leaf base
cladocarpous. cladocarpo. Having                     that surrounds the stem.
    fruit at the end of a lateral branch.        class. clase. A group of related plants,
cladode. cladodio. A branch or a por-                taxonomically ranked below a phy-
    tion of a flattened, leaf-like stem              lum and above an order.
    that functions as a leaf, as Opunita         classification. clasificación. An ar-
    spp.; cladophyll.                                rangement of plants into groups on
cladodromous. cladódromo. Having                     the basis of evolutionary or struc-
    a branch or part of a stem that func-            tural relationships (in descending
    tions as a leaf.                                 order), as kingdom, phylum, class,
cladogenesis. cladogénesis. The                      order, family, genus, species, sub-
    branching of a taxon; based on a                 species or variety.
    view that each new taxon comes               clathrate. clatrado. Net-like or divided
    from the splitting of a lineage, re-             like latticework, as clathrate foli-
    sulting in two, equal, sister taxa,              age; clathroid.
    taxonomically separated from the             clathriform. clatriforme. Having the
    parent or ancestral taxon. See note              shape of a lattice; reticulated.
    in adaptive radiation.                       clathroid. clatroide. See clathrate.
cladogenous. cladogeno. Producing                clava. clava. The club-like fruit body
    flowers at the end of the branch.                of some fungi.
cladogram. cladograma. A diagram                 clavate. clavado. Thickened toward
    that depicts the branching sequences             the end, like a club; club-shaped.
    in a system of developmental evo-            claviform. claviforme. Club-shaped;
    lution.                                          a leaf shape that widens toward the
cladophyll. cladofilo. A stem or branch              apex.
    that looks like a leaf; phylloclade.         clavulate. clavulado. Slightly club-
cladosiphonic. cladosifónico. A                      like.
    siphonostele having branch gaps              claw. uña. The narrowed basal part
    but no leaf gaps.                                of some petals or sepals with the
clambering. semitrepador. A climbing                 wider part being the blade.
    plant with only a weak tendency              clay. arcilla. A stiff, sticky, fine-
    to climb.                                        grained soil, mostly composed of
clamp-connection. unión fibular. In                  aluminum silicate.
    some fungi, a bulge or loop-like             clayey. arcilloso. A stiff, sticky tex-
    connection along a wall (septum)                 ture. See clay.
    of the mycelium formed during cell           clearing. claro. An open space in a
clearing agent                              78                           climax theory
    forest.                                          in determining the type of vegetation
clearing agent. agente aclarante.                    of an area.
    aclarador. A reagent used in                 climax. climax. The stable vegetation
    microscopy for treating sections to              of an area under the prevailing
    make them capable of examination                 environmental condtions.
    by transmitted light.                        climax community. comunidad climax.
cleft. hendido. Having deeply cut or                 comunidad climácico. comunidad
    divided lobes, as a leaf divided to              final. The final stage of plant suc-
    the midrib or further.                           cession when vegetation attains a
cleistocarp. cleistocarpo. An asco-                  state of equilibrium with the
    carp with the asci completely en-                environment; also, the plant asso-
    closed.                                          ciation that is permanently estab-
cleistogamous. cleistógama. Having                   lished in an area.
    small, closed, bud-like flowers that         climax dominant. climax dominante.
    are self-fertilizing in addition to              Any species that dominates a cli-
    regular flowers, as violets (Viol-               max community.
    aceae). Compare chasmogamous.                climax ecosystem. sistema ecológico
cleistogamy. cleistogamia. The self-                 climax. The last stage in ecological
    fertilization of certain closed flow-            succession when populations of all
    ers, borne often close to or within              organisms are in balance with each
    the soil surface, as some members                other and with existing abiotic fac-
    of the Violaceae and Poaceae.                    tors.
cleistogene. cleistogen. A plant that            climax species. especie climax. Any
    produces cleistogamous flowers.                  plant species that is a characteris-
cleistothecium. cleistotecio. See cleis-             tic member of a climax community.
    tocarp.                                      climax theory. teoría climax. A theory,
climacteric. climacterico. The phase                 first proposed by F.E. Clements in
    of increased respiration when fruit              1904 (monoclimax) and restructured
    ripens, immediately before senes-                by A.G. Tansely in 1916 (poly-
    cence.                                           climax), of the successional devel-
climate. clima. A general description                opment of a vegetation community
    of the average temperature and rain-             reaching optimum sustainable level
    fall conditions of a region over the             when in equilibrium with its en-
    course of twelve months.                         vironment. The monoclimax model
climatic climax. clímax climático. A                 views the development of vegeta-
    plant community that is in equi-                 tion having an end point control-
    librium with a region’s climate.                 led by climate. Polyclimax, the
climatic community. comunidad climá-                 alternative, views reaching equi-
    tico. A plant community that is                  librium as being influenced by
    determined and maintained by the                 climate and other factors, such as
    prevailing climatic conditions.                  fire and soil. However, the major
climatic factor. factor climático. An                difference between the two mod-
    environmental condition such as                  els is the time scale for reaching
    the amount of rainfall, sunshine,                the climax community. The mono-
    etc. that plays a controlling part               climax approach uses a series of
climax vegetation                           79                               club-shaped
    sub-climax stages and terminology.               individual of a clonal line is a ramet.
climax vegetation. vegetación climax.            closed (vascular) bundle. haz cerrado.
    vegetación climácica. A model                    A vascular bundle that does not have
    that holds that vegetation which be-             a cambium and therefore cannot
    gins on bare soil, will in time, pass            increase in diameter by normal sec-
    through a succesion of stages in-                ondary thickening.
    volving simpler plants being re-             closed canopy. dosel cerrado. A forest
    placed by more complex ones, ul-                 condition of overlapping tree
    timately reaching a climax or equi-              crowns forming an almost continu-
    librium with the climate and other               ous layer of foliage.
    factors.                                     closed community. comunidad cerr-
climbing. trepador. voluble. Growing                 ado. A plant community which
    upward by twining or clinging to                 completely covers the ground it
    something.                                       occupies which as a consequence
clinandrium. clinandrio. In some or-                 prevents the introduction of other
    chids (Orchidaceae), a cavity at                 species.
    the top of the column where the              closed population. población cerrado.
    anther is concealed.                             A plant population with little or
clinanthium. clinanto. The flower re-                no gene flow, often because of geo-
    ceptacle of a composite plant.                   graphical barriers.
cline. clina. A gradual, continuous              closing layer. acodo oclusiva. A layer
    change in particular inherited char-             of closely packed cells over a
    acteristics across populations in                lenticel preventing diffusion of
    adjacent geographic areas; charac-               water vapor and gases.
    ter-gradient.                                closing membrane. membrana oclus-
clinostat. clinóstato. A rotating disk               iva. membrana obturante. The
    to which a plant can be attached                 thin wall between adjacent pits in
    so that it can receive an equal                  vessels or tracheids.
    amount of a stimulus on all sides.           closterospore. closterospora. A multi-
    Rotating in a horizontal plane, a                nucleate phragmospore.
    clinostat is used to study photo-            closteroviruses. closteroviruses. A
    tropic responses and vertically to               group of RNA-containing viruses
    study geotropism.                                carried by aphids that infect a wide
clonal. clonal. Of or like a clone, as               range of plants, causing consider-
    clonal propagation.                              able economic loss.
clone. clono. clon. A group of ge-               cloud forest. bosque de neblina. A
    netically identical plants or cells              dense, moist, tropical montane for-
    orginating from a single parent by               est, usually more than a thousand
    vegetative reproduction; also, if a              meters above sea-level and in clouds
    section of DNA is taken into the                 most of the day.
    chromosome of a bacterium, phage,            club fungi. basidiomicetes. Fungi of
    or plasmid vector and duplicated,                the Clavariaceae and Clavul-
    each copy is a DNA clone; the entire             inaceae familes that have club-
    vegetatively produced descendants                shaped fruit bodies.
    from a single original seedling. The         club-shaped. claviforme. See cla-
clump                                       80                             coelomycetes
    vate.                                        coccoid. coccoide. Being unicellu-
clump. grupo. Grouped together in                   lar and motionless when vegeta-
    a cluster.                                      tive, but releasing motile spores.
cluster. ramillete. A general term for           coccus (pl. cocci). coco. A berry-like
    closely gathered together inflores-             seed; a single seed in a compound
    cence of small flowers.                         carpel (schizocarp) which separate
clustered. agregado. agrupado. Grow-                at maturity, characteristic fruit of
    ing together in a bunch or bunches.             the Rutaceae; also, bacteria with
clypeate. clipeado. Shaped like a shield;           oval shapes; a mericarp.
    round.                                       cochlea. cóclea. A tightly coiled leg-
clypeiform. clipeiforme. Having the                 ume.
    shape of a round shield; clypeate.           cochlear. coclear. Spoon-shaped.
co-. co-. A Latin prefix that means,             cochleate. cochleado. Having a spi-
    “together”.                                     ral shape; coiled like a snail’s shell.
coacervate. coacervado. Massed or                COD. DQO. See chemical oxygen de-
    heaped together.                                mand.
coaction. coacción. Reciprocal effects           codominant. codominante. One of two
    of plants and animals, ranging from             or more species of the most com-
    symbiosis with its mutual aid, to               mon or important species in a plant
    death which can occur with the                  community; also, a heterozygote
    absence of one from the other.                  that shows the phenotypic effects
coadaptation. coa(da)ptación. The de-               of both alleles at a gene location.
    velopment of advantageous genetic            codon. codón. During protein synthesis,
    traits, so that mutual relationships            a sequence of three nucleot-ides
    will continue to increase the                   of mRNA that code a specific amino
    effectiveness of the relationship,              acid for placement in a polypep-
    as often found in flower-pollinator             tide chain.
    relationships.                               coefficient of coincidence. coeficiente
coadnate. coadnato. Joined.                         de coincidencia. The value of the
coadunate. coadunato. Connate.                      observed number of cross-overs
coagulation. coagulación. The solidi-               (double recombinants) divided by
    fying or setting of protein by heat             the expected number.
    or poisons. This change is irrevers-         coefficient of inbreeding. coeficiente
    ible.                                           de endogamia. The probability that
coalesce. fusionarse. To grow together,             two allelic genes forming a zygote
    fuse, or merge.                                 are both descended from a gene in
coalescent. coalescente. Growing to-                an ancestor common to both par-
    gether to form a single unit.                   ents; also, the proportion of loci
coarctate. coarctado. Crowded to-                   at which an individual is ho-
    gether.                                         mozygous.
cocaine. cocaína. An alkaloid derived            coelo-. celo-. A Greek prefix than
    from the leaves of Erthroxylum                  means, “hollow”.
    coca.                                        coelomycetes. celomicetos. A group
coccineus. coccineus. Latin for “scar-              of Fungi Imperfecti which form their
    let” in color.                                  spores in a cavity of the substrate.
coelospermous                               81                                     coiled
coelospermous. celospermo. Bear-                     genases.
   ing boat-shaped, hollow seeds.                coenzyme A. coenzima A. A coenzyme
coeno-. ceno-. A prefix that means,                  necessary for the oxidative decar-
   “living together”, e.g. multinucleate.            boxylation of pyruvate.
coenobium. cenobio. A colony of algae            coetaneous. coetáneo. Leaves and
   composed of a definite number of                  flowers developing at the same time,
   cells in a specific arrangement,                  as with some willows (Salix).
   behaving as an individual organ-              coevolution. coevolución. The evo-
   ism.                                              lution of two species at the same
coenocentrum. cenocentro. A small                    time making their survival and re-
   deeply staining body at the center                production mutually beneficial.
   of the multinucleate oosphere of              cofactor. cofactor. A non-protein sub-
   the Peronosporales to which the                   stance needed by enzymes for func-
   egg nucleus goes.                                 tioning; if they are metallic ions
coenocyte. cenocito. A mass of cy-                   or organic molecules, they are re-
   toplasm with numerous nuclei en-                  ferred to as coenzymes.
   closed in a single cell wall, which           cohere. coherirse. To stick together.
   occurs in some green algae and                coherent. coherente. United but only
   many fungi.                                       slightly, so that the joined organs
coenocyst. cenocisto. A multinucle-                  appear free when viewed superfi-
   ate aplanospore.                                  cially.
coenogametangium. cenogametangio.                cohesion. cohesión. The hereditary
   A gametangium in which a                          attraction or sticking together of
   coenogamete is formed.                            two similar parts, as water molecules
coenogamete. cenogameto. A multi-                    cohere to each other or in the de-
   nucleate gamete produced by the                   velopment of flowers with whorls
   Mucorales, and on fusion give rise                uniting laterally.
   to a coenozygote.                             cohesion mechansim. cohesión mecan-
coenosorus. cenosoro. Multiple spore                 ismo. Any mechanism that depends
   cases.                                            on the cohesive properties of
coenospecies. cenospecie. A species                  water, e.g. the dehiscence of a spo-
   that is incapable of genetic recom-               rangium which bursts open when
   bination with other similar species.              the stains set up by the drying out
coenzyme. coenzima. An organic sub-                  of one part over come the water ’s
   stance that attaches to the apoen-                cohesive properties.
   zyme to form an active enzyme                 cohesion-tension theory. teoría de la
   which is important in the metabo-                 tensión-cohesión. A theory that
   lism of organic acids in plants.                  explains the rise of water in plants
coenzyme 1. coenzima 1. Diphos-                      through a combination of cohesion
   phopyridine nucleotide.                           of water molecules in capillaries
coenzyme 2. coenzima 2. Phopyridine                  and tension on the water columns
   nucleotide.These are dinucleotides                brought about by transpiration.
   containing adenine and nicotamide,            cohort. cohorte. A group of related
   acting as hydrogen carriers when                  families, i.e. an Order.
   substances are oxidized by dehydro-           coiled. enrollado. Gathered in a cir-
colchicine                                    82                                     colony
    cular form around something, as                collateral. colateral. Lying side-by-
    a vine coiled around a tree.                       side; also, individuals in a family
colchicine. colquicina. colchicina.                    but not related by direct descent.
    An alkaloid from the corm of the               collateral bud. yema colateral. An
    autumn       crocus       Colchicum                accessory bud lying beside the ax-
    autumnale. It causes abnormal di-                  illary bud.
    vision of nuclei, resulting in an in-          collecting cell. célula colector. A thin-
    crease of the chromsome number                     walled cell in the mesophyll of a
    from a polyploid.                                  leaf below the palisade layer, and
cold treatment. tratamiento (por el)                   in contact with it. The collecting
    frio. Treatment of a plant with low                cell transports elaborated food
    termperatures in the initial stages                materials from the palisade.
    of seedling development, inducing              collective fruit. fruto colectiva. Mul-
    a rapid development towards a                      tiple fruit; also, a single fruit from
    physiologically older condition and                several flowers.
    resulting in a shortening of the in-           collenchyma. colénquima. Living plant
    terval between sowing and flow-                    tissue with long, thick cell walls
    ering; vernalization.                              just below the epidermis, occur-
coleogen. coleógeno. The layer of                      ring most often at the corners of
    meristematic cells from which the                  angular stems.
    endodermis is derived.                         collet. collete. Collar.
coleoptile. coleóptilo. The first seedling         colliculose. coliculoso. Having
    leaf which becomes a short-term                    rounded swellings.
    protective sheath at the tip of grasses        collinus. collinus. Latin for “living
    (Poaceae) and other similar                        on low hills”.
    monocotyledons. It appears above               colloid. coloide. Solid particles sus-
    the ground first as a sheath around                pended in a liquid.
    the plumule and contains little chlo-          colonial. colonial. A multi-celled
    rophyll.                                           organism that produces a colony
coleorhiza. coleóriza. A sheath en-                    of cells, especially when referring
    closing the rudimentary root in the                to colonial algae or plants connected
    embryo of grasses (Poaceae) that                   to each other by underground or-
    is penetrated by the root at germi-                gans.
    nation.                                        colonist. colonista. A weed on culti-
colinearity. colinearidad. Correspond-                 vated land.
    ence between the nucleotides in a              colonization. colonización. The pio-
    portion of DNA and the amino acids                 neer or initial establishment of
    in the polypeptide, specified by the               vegetation on a previously unveget-
    cistron.                                           ated area, as lichens on a rock.
collabent. colabente. Collapsing in-               colonize. colonizar. To establish a com-
    ward.                                              munity of vegetation.
collar. cuello. The point of union of              colony. colonia. A group of plants
    the root and stem; an area on the                  or organisms of the same species
    outside of a grass leaf (Poaceae)                  growing together;also, microorgan-
    where the blade and sheath join.                   isms growing together so that the
colophony                                  83                     community ecology
    population as whole has color and              by commensalism.
    texture.                                    commensals. comensals. Two organ-
colophony. colofonia. Rosin. Same                  isms living in association with each
    as resin.                                      other, not parasites or symbionts,
color. color. The quality of a sub-                but mutually benefiting from the
    stance in relation to the reflected            association.
    light, usually measured by stand-           commensalism. comensalismo. An
    ardized measures of hue, chroma,               interaction between two species in
    and value.                                     which one population is benefited
colorless. incoloro. Transparent; with-            but the other is not affected; also,
    out color.                                     a relationship between two organ-
columella. columela. The central col-              isms in which one lives in or on
    umn in a capsule with the seeds                another, but not as a parasite,
    fixed around it; the central axis of           thereby leaving the host unaffected.
    a fruit; the central axis of sterile        commissure. comisura. The line of
    tissue on which sporangia are borne            junction where one carpel joins
    in some fungi and gymnosperms,                 another, as in the Umbelliferae; a
    as Diselma (Cupressaceae).                     bridge between two parts or two
columelliform. columelliforme. Hav-                organs; the joint between the lid
    ing the shape or form of a small               and the mouth of a moss sporan-
    column.                                        gium; the line where the antical and
column. columna. The united stamens                postical lobes of the leaf of a
    and styles when they form a solid,             liverwort join; a general term for
    central body, as in the Orchidaceae;           any seam or joint.
    the structure formed by the union           common bundle. haz común. A vas-
    of stamens in some of the Malv-                cular bundle running through the
    aceae.                                         stem and leaf.
columnar. columnar. Having a col-               common name. nombre vulgar. A
    umn-like structure.                            regional name for a plant in the
com-. com-. A Latin prefix that means,             language of the area, rather than
    “together”.                                    the Latin scientific name.
coma. coma. A tuft of hairs at the              common receptacle. receptáculo
    end of a seed; a bunch of branches;            común. The part of the stem from
    a terminal cluster of bracts on a              which all the flowers on a head arise.
    flowering stem, as on pineapples            community. colonia. The biotic com-
    (Ananas).                                      ponent of an ecosystem; also, a gen-
comate. comado. Comose.                            eral term for any population of dif-
comate disseminule. disenínulo                     ferent organisms living in a par-
    comado. A seed or fruit with fine              ticular environment (regionally re-
    long hairs which aid in wind dis-              ferred to as biomes); also, a dis-
    persal.                                        tinct unit of vegetation composed
comb. cresta. See crest.                           of two or more species.
comb-like. pectinado. Pinnatifid with           community ecology. ecología comun-
    closely set segments; pectinate.               idad. A type of ecological study
commensal. comensal. Characterized                 focused on the living constituents
comose                                     84            complementary community
   of a community; providing quan-                 the release of carbon dioxide; the
   titative descriptions and analysis              point at which photosynthesis
   of the patterns, particularly those             equals respiration.
   relating to interactions.                    compensation tongue. lengua de
comose. comoso. Having a tuft of hairs             compensación. A strand of vas-
   (coma).                                         cular tissue passing from one vas-
comose disseminule. disemínulo                     cular ring to another, as in the
   comoso. A seed or fruit with long               siphonosteles of some ferns.
   fine hairs which aid in wind-                competition. competencia. The fourth
   dispersal.                                      of six stages in plant succession
compaginate. compaginado. Joined                   in which an interaction occurs be-
   tightly together.                               tween individuals of the same spe-
companion cell. célula acompañante.                cies, or between different species
   célula anexa. In angiosperm                     populations that affects one or more
   phloem, a specialized cell derived              species adversely either through
   from the same parent cell as the                replacement or modification; also,
   closely associated sieve-tube ele-              demand for the same resources by
   ment, directly adjacent to it.                  two or more species. See sere.
compartalization. compartiment-                 competitive exclusion principle. princ-
   a(liza)ción. Division of labor in               ipio de la exclusión competitiva.
   living cells; as enzymes which are              A concept experimentally demon-
   related to a particular function are            strated in 1934 by G.F. Gause that
   usually separated from other cell               two or more species with identi-
   contents by a membrane.                         cal patterns of resource-needs can-
compatible. compatible. Capable of                 not coexist in a stable environment;
   cross-fertilization.                            results in one species becoming bet-
compensation. compensación. The in-                ter adapted and eliminating (out-
   creased size or functioning of one              competing) the other; Gause prin-
   part to make up for the loss or weak-           ciple.
   ness of another part.                        competitive inhibition. inhibición
compensation level. profundidad de                 competitiva. The reversible repres-
   compensación. In aquatic ecosys-                sion of enzyme activity by an in-
   tems, the depth at which light pen-             hibitor molecule.
   etration is reduced to the level of          compital. compital. Intersecting at
   producing only enough oxygen by                 different points, as the sori of ferns
   photosynthesis to equal consump-                (Filicopsida), which occurs at the
   tion by respiration.                            junction of two veins; also, leaf
compensation period. período de                    veins crossing at various angles.
   compensación. The time required              complanate. complanado. comprim-
   for a green plant to be in light to             ido. Even surface; flattened.
   make-up the cabrohydrate lost dur-           complementary cell. célular complem-
   ing respiration in the dark.                    entario. One of the lenticel tis-
compensation point. punto de comp-                 sue cells.
   ensación. In a living plant, when            complementary community. com-
   the uptake of carbon dioxide equals             unidad complementario. A group
complementary chromatic ....                 85                               compound
   of two or more species, occupy-                   at the phenotypic level. This oc-
   ing the same area, but not competing              curs when both a recessive gene
   with each other, as they may veg-                 in the homozygous state and a domi-
   etate at different times or have their            nant gene produces a phenotypic
   roots at different levels.                        effect.
complementary chromatic adaptation.               complex character. cáracter complejo.
   adaptación cromatico compl-                       A difference in phenotype deter-
   ementario. A concept applied to                   mined by more than one gene, and
   the Myxophyceae and Rhodo-                        therefore not transmitted to the off-
   phyceae, that the color of the light-             spring as a unit.
   absorbing pigment is complemen-                complex gradient. gradiente complejo.
   tary to the color of the light in which           A gradient of environmental con-
   the plant is living, e.g. plants grow-            ditions that are linked, as rainfall,
   ing in blue light are red, and those              wind speed, and temperature found
   in red light are green.                           along a line at a particular eleva-
complementary factor. factor compl-                  tion.
   ementario. A factor in inherit-                complex tissue. tejido complejo. A
   ance, which, with other similar fac-              tissue composed of cells of more
   tors, leads to the appearance of some             than one type.
   character in the progeny.                      complicate. conduplicado. Folded
complementary gene. gen complem-                     together; folded lengthwise as com-
   entario. Mutant alleles at differ-                plicate leaves.
   ent locations (loci) which balance             Compositae. compuestas. A taxonomic
   one another to give a wild-type phe-              grouping now referred to as Ast-
   notype.                                           eraceae with the characters of the
complementary society. sociedad                      daisy, aster, and dandelion. The
   complementario. A community of                    flowers are individually small, but
   two or more species, occupying the                are clustered into heads (capitula,
   same area, but not competing with                 See capitulum) resembling flow-
   each other, e.g.they may vegetate                 ers; the florets are seated on re-
   at different times, or have their roots           ceptacles of varied form and the
   at different levels.                              heads are surrounded by an involu-
complementary tissue. tejido complem-                cre or bracts resembling a calyx.
   entario. Loose, thin-walled cells              composite. compuesto. Having the
   in the cavity of a lenticel, which                characters associated with Aster-
   allows the diffusion of gases.                    aceae flowers or plants.
complementation test. prueba de                   composite fruit. fruto compuesto. See
   complementación. See cis-trans                    aggregate fruit.
   test.                                          compost. abono orgánico. abono veg-
complete flower. flora completa. A                   etal. compost. Organic materi-
   complete flower is one having ca-                 als such as litter, vegetable waste,
   lyx, corolla, stamens, and pistils.               or manure, which may be broken
complete penetrance. penetración                     down in soil to form humus.
   completa. A condition when speci-              compound. compuesto. With two or
   fied genotype always manifests itself             more similar parts combined into
compound fruit                              86                                 concrete
   one organ; as a compound flower                  associated portions.
   head from the Order of Asteraceae             compound umbel. umbela compuesto.
   (Compositae); also, in chemistry,                A raceme composed of a large
   a substance formed by a chemical                 number of heads rising very close
   combination of two or more ele-                  together at the end of a main branch.
   ments in definite proportions by                 Each bears a number of flower stalks
   weight.                                          similarly arranged, and each of these
compound fruit. fruto compuesta. See                bear one flower. Commonly, the
   aggregate fruit.                                 whole umbel is flat headed.
compound head. cabezuela compuesta.              compressed. comprimido. Flattened
   A receptacle made up of many sin-                along its length, as a compressed
   gle-flowered heads, each with its                seed; complanate.
   own involucre                                 concatenate. concatenado. In chains.
compound leaf. hoja compuesta. A                 concave. cóncavo. Hollow or curved
   leaf composed of several independ-               inward, like a saucer.
   ent blades, called leaflets, variously        concentric bundle. haz concentrico.
   arranged on a single petiole. These              A vascular bundle in which one
   may be palmate (leaflets spread-                 tissue surrounds another.
   ing fan-wise) or pinnate (leaflets            conceptacle. conceptáculo. A flask-
   arranged feather-fashion). When                  shaped or urceolate cavity where
   pinnate, the leaflets are in oppo-               gametes are formed, as in some
   site pairs along an axis (rhachis)               brown algae (Phaeophyta).
   and may terminate with a single               conchate. conchado. Like a scallop
   leaflet (imparipinnate) or when the              shell.
   terminal leaflet is absent, the leaf          concinnus. concinnus. Latin for “neat”.
   is even, or abruptly pinnate. Pin-            concolor. concolor. Latin meaning,
   nate leaves may again be divided                 “of uniform color”.
   (bipinnate) with the secondary leaf-          concolorous. concoloro. The same
   lets (pinnules) arranged on a mi-                color, as a leaf with both surfaces
   nor axis or rachilla, the primary                of the same color intensity.
   leaflets being pinnae (single pinna).         concordance. concordancia. Simi-
   From the rachilla, a further axis                larity in a twin pair, with both mem-
   may alsp arise, the leaf then be-                bers expressing a specific trait.
   ing tripinnate.                               concrescence. concrescencia. Two or-
compound oosphere. oosfera compu-                   gans that when immature are sepa-
   esta. A multinucleate body in an                 rate, but become fused as they
   oogonium probably composed of                    mature. They may form a single
   a number of female gametes which                 structure but function separately,
   have not become individuals.                     e.g. fused petals and stamens.
compound ovary. ovario compuesta.                concrescent. concrescente. Two or
   An ovary of two or more carpels.                 more individual parts that have
compound pistil. pistilo compuesto.                 grown together.
   With two or more united carpels.              concrete. concrescent. Growing to-
compound pyrenoid. pirenoide compu-                 gether to form a single structure;
   esto. A pyrenoid of two closely                  also, adhering closely to anything.
condensation                              87                                 conifer
condensation. condensación. Crowded            confluent. confluente. Flowing to-
   vertically, due to the absence or              gether so that one part blends into
   suppression of internodes.                     another.
condensed. condensado. Said of an              congeneric. congénere. Similar or same
   inflorescence in which the flow-               in origin; of the same genus.
   ers are crowded together, and are           congenital. congénito. Grown to.
   near or quite sessile.                      congested. congestado. Dense or
condiosporangium. condioesporangio.               crowded very closely together.
   A structure that produces condio-           conglobate. conglobado. Of the bases
   spores.                                        of stipes, when they are massed into
condiospore. condióspora. An asexual              a fleshy ball.
   spore produced singly or in chains.         conglomerate. aglomerado. conglo-
conductive tissue. tejido conductor.              merado. Densely clustered.
   A tissue system composed mostly             conglutinate. conglutinado. Stuck to-
   of phloem and xylem which plants               gether in a sticky mass.
   use for the conduction of water,            congregate. congregado. Collected
   mineral salts, and foods, as well              into a dense group.
   as for strength and support; vas-           congression. congresión. The move-
   cular.                                         ment of chromosomes on to the
conduplicate. conduplicado. Folded                metaphase plate, especially at the
   in half, lengthwise; also, said of a           first meiotic division.
   cotyledon which is folded longi-            conic. cónico. Cone-shaped.
   tudinally about the radicle; vern-          conical. cónico. See conic.
   ation.                                      conidiophore. conidióforo. A special-
cone. estróbilo. cono. The fruit of               ized filament (hyphae) in some fungi
   several evergreen trees, including             that bear one celled, asexual spore
   pine (Pinus), fir (Pseudotsuga),               (conidium).
   cedar (Cedrus), and spruce (Picea),         conidiosporangium. conidiosporangio.
   that are composed of a woody axis              A sporangium which will under
   with leaf-like scales containing               certain conditions germinate di-
   ovules or pollen; strobilus.                   rectly.
cone-like. estrobiliforme. Resembling          conidium (pl. conidia). conideo. Sin-
   the shape of a cone.                           gle-celled, asexual spore formed
confertus. confertus. A Latin term                in the pycnidium of certain fungi.
   meaning, “crowded”.                         conifer. conífera. A gymnosperm,
confervoid. confervoide. Composed                 characterized by the production of
   of threads.                                    non-motile microspores and a typi-
configuration. configuración. Refers              cal structure that is frequently a
   to surface patterns on plant parts             tall, monoecious tree with simple,
   or organs exclusive of venation and            needle-shaped or scale-like leaves,
   epidermal outgrowths.                          bearing small male cones and ovu-
confined aquifer. acuífero limitado.              late cones which become woody;
   An aquifer between two layers of               also, any of a large group of cone-
   relatively impermeable materials,              bearing, gymnosperm trees and
   such as rock, shale, or clay.                  shrubs, generally evergreen, from
conifer forest                              88                         conservationist
   the Order of Coniferales.                        petalous corolla; also, the union
conifer forest. bosque de coníferas.                of bases of opposite sessile leaves
   bosque aciculifolio. A large tree                to form connate leaves, as the
   population composed primary of                   Eucalptus perfoliata.
   needle-leaved, softwood trees                 connate-perfoliate. conato perfoliado.
   (Coniferae).                                     Two leaves joined at the base and
coniferous. conífero. Refers to cone-               around the stem forming a broad
   bearing plant communities.                       base through which the stem passes,
conjugate. conjugado. Growing in                    as with opposite sessile leaves.
   pairs, as leaflets in a compound leaf.        connective. conectivo. The type of
conjugate division. división conjug-                tissue on the stamen that joins the
   ado. Division of a pair of associ-               two halves of an anther sac; also,
   ated nuclei at the same time, as in              disjunctor (fungi).
   the Basidomycetes.                            connivent. conivente. Gradually con-
conjugate nuclei. núclei conjugado.                 verging or coming very close to-
   Two nuclei in one cell, which un-                gether but not actually joining or
   dergo division.                                  fusing, as with some petals or sta-
conjugation. conjugación. In certain                mens.
   algae and fungi, the process be-              consanguinous. consanguinea. A re-
   tween two one-celled organisms                   lationship through a common an-
   uniting for the transfer of nuclear              cestor.
   material; also, the lateral associa-          conservation. conservación. The man-
   tion of chromosomes in the early                 agement and/or protection of natural
   prophase of meiosis.                             resources, such as plant or animal
conjugation protein. proteína conjug-               species.
   ada. heteroproteido. A protein                conservation of nature. conservación
   with a non-protein component that                de la naturalleza. The maintenance
   may be a metal ion or an organic                 and protection of environmental
   substance.                                       quality and resources, including
conjugation tube. tubo conjugación.                 physical, biological, and cultural
   In some algae and fungi, a tube that             considerations. It implies a usage
   bridges between two, one-celled                  of resources within social and eco-
   organisms transferring material in               nomic constraints, producing goods
   the process of conjugation.                      and services for human consump-
conjuctive parenchyma. parénquima                   tion without destruction of the natu-
   conjuctivo. Parenchyma formed                    ral ecosystem diversity. This is
   between specialized tissue, i.e.                 sometimes contrasted with preser-
   between vascular strands.                        vationist views that promote the
connate. conato. Applied to similar                 protection of species and landscapes
   organs that have fused, such as                  without reference to human require-
   leaves, petals, or anthers. Compare              ments.
   adnate.                                       conservationist. defensor de la natur-
connation. conación. The union of                   aleza. protección de la naturaleza.
   similar parts, as the connation of               A person who is engaged in the con-
   petal margins to form a gamo-                    servation of nature.
consimilar                                 89                               continuum
consimilar. conparecido. Having a                  carnivorous plants; also, any het-
   common resemblance.                             erotrophic organism that feeds on
consociation. consociación. A com-                 living or dead organic material. See
   munity with a single, dominant                  microconsumer.
   species; sometimes, used to indi-            contabescent. contabescente. Abortion
   cate that there are several domi-               of pollen and stamens.
   nants in an association.                     contact inibition. inhibición de
consortism. consortismo. The mutaul                contacto. Cell division cessation
   relationship, as between the fun-               when the surface of one cell comes
   gus and alga in a lichen thallus.               into contact with the surface of
conspecific. conspecifíco. congénere.              another cell.
   Belonging to or of the same spe-             contact point. punto de contacto.
   cies.                                           Where chromosomes first come
constant species. especie constante.               together in pairing at zygotene.
   In phytosociology, a species com-            contaminant. contaminante. producto
   mon in a particular association or              sustancia contaminadora. A sub-
   community, but not confined to that             stance which creates an impure
   community, as are the faithful spe-             condition, usually natural, such as
   cies.                                           pollen or volcanic ash. See pol-
constellate. constelado. To cluster.               lutant.
constipate. constipado. Crowded to-             contaminated. contaminarse. Bear-
   gether.                                         ing or mixed with a pathogen, e.g
constitutive enzyme. enzima constit-               fungus spores on seeds; also, bac-
   utiva. An enzyme that is always                 terial or fungus cultures contain-
   produced even if there is not a suit-           ing contaminants.
   able substrate; produced at a con-           conterminous. contermino. The mar-
   stant rate.                                     ginal ray cells when they form an
constricted. constricto. Irregularly               uninterrupting row.
   small in some places, as with a              context. contexto. The type of tissue
   constricted pod which is narrowed               that makes-up a fungal fruit body.
   at regular intervals between seeds;          contiguous. contiguo. Near or touching
   narrowed suddenly at one or more                each other but not fused.
   points along the length.                     contingent. contingente. Touching.
constriction. constricción. A narrow-           continuous. continuo. Having an un-
   ing; also, part of a metaphase chro-            interrupted contour; without a septa;
   mosome which is in a fixed poisition            also, having a smooth surface.
   and not twisted into a spiral.               continuous variation. variación con-
constructive metabolism. metabolismo               tinua. Small changes of parental
   constructive. metabolismo asimil-               character occurring in the same spe-
   ador. The phase of metabolism                   cies.
   which uses energy from food and              continuum. continuo. A concept that
   water to construct complex com-                 holds vegetation to be continuously
   pounds of living tissue; anabolism.             variable, as it shows gradual change
consumer. consumidor. An organism                  in response to environmental fluc-
   that consumes other organisms, as               tuations, therefore it cannot be clas-
contorted                                    90                                coralloid
   sified into discrete entities. Ordi-              each strain in separate lines, and
   nation methods are used to analyze                selecting for the desired features
   this type of change data.                         of each strain in that line of which
contorted. contorsionado. Twisted                    it is not the reccurrent parent.
   or bent into itself; also, twisted             convex. convexo. A surface that curves
   together, as sepals and petals that               outward, as the outside of a cir-
   overlap in the bud.                               cle; rounded.
contorted aestivation. estivación                 convolute. convoluto. Rolled up length-
   contorsionado. The arrangement                    wise so that one half is covered
   of the perianth in the bud, when                  by the other, as a convolute leaf
   all the perianth segments overlap                 or, as the overlapping petals of a
   by either their right-hand or left-               flower.
   hand edges; convolute aestivation.             convolute aestivation. convoluto
contortoduplicate. contorsiondup-                     estivación. See contorted aestiva-
   licado. Twisted and folded.                        tion.
contractile root. raíz contráctil. A              copal. copal. A hard resin from the
   fleshy root which becomes trans-                   Protium copal (Burseraceae) tree
   versely corrugated as it ages, re-                that is used by Maya Indians for
   sulting in the plant being pulled                 incense.
   deeper into the ground.                        copper. cobre. An element with the
controlled pollination. polinización                 chemical symbol of Cu which is
   regulada. In plant hybridization,                 required by plants in small amounts.
   the technique of wrapping pistil-                 Deficiency can be seen in chloro-
   late flowers in bags to protect them              sis or in dark green leaves; in wood
   from unwanted pollen and at the                   plants, bark may show blisters;
   appropriate time, unwrapping and                  shrubs may become excessively
   dusting them with the desired pol-                bushy. Copper in plants is bound
   len.                                              to proteins and is involved in the
convergence. convergencia. A product                 molecular oxygen reactions during
   of natural selection where morpho-                oxidation–reduction.
   logically dissimilar and distantly             coprophilous. coprófilo. Plants that
   related species become similar to                 grow best in dung; dung-loving.
   each other.                                    copse. matorral. A thicket of bushes
convergent evolution. evolución                      or small trees.
   convergente. The appearance of                 copulation. copulación. cópula. The
   similar characteristics in plants not             fusion of gametes.
   closely related to each other, as cacti        copulation tube. tubo de copulación.
   growing in the southwestern United                 Conjugation tube.
   States being similar to certain                coral. coral. A stony substance, mostly
   Euphorbia species growing in Af-                   calcium carbonate, made of the
   rica.                                              skeletons of polyps.
convergent improvement. mejora                    coral-like. coraloide. See coralloid.
   convergente. The simultaneous                  coralline. coralino. Pertaining to or
   improvement of two inbred strains                 like a coral.
   by back crossing their hybrids to              coralloid. coraloide. Many branched,
coral reef                                   91                           corolliferous
    as a coral; also, coral-like, espe-              to cork tissue; phellogen.
    cially brain coral.                           corky. corchoso. suberoso. Cork-
coral reef. arrecife de coral. arrecife              like; suberose.
    de coralino. A rock-like structure            corm. cormo. A thickened, bulb-like,
    in shallow tropical sea water made               fleshy, underground stem covered
    from plants and animals encrusted                with paper-like scales. Compare
    with calcium carbonate.                          bulb.
cordate. acorazonado. Heart-shaped;               cormel. cormillo. A small corm grow-
    often used to describe a leaf.                   ing at the base of a larger corm.
cordifolius. cordifolius. Latin for “hav-         cormophyte. cormófito. A plant with
    ing heart-shaped leaves”.                        a stem, root, and leaf.
cordiform. cordiforme. Having the                 corm(us). cormo. A plant body de-
    shape of a heart, as an ovate leaf               veloping a definite shoot system.
    with a pointed tip and a heart-shaped         corn. maiz (Zea). choclo. Maize or
    base. See cordate.                               corn in the Americas, but in the
core. corazón. The hard, inner part                  United Kingdom wheat (Triticum)
    of a fruit containing seeds, as the              and sometimes barley (Hordeum)
    core of an apple (Malus); also, the              or oats (Avena).
    plant material that forms the in-             corneous. córneo. Horny in texture.
    ner part of a periclinal chimaera;            corniculate. corniculado. Having
    centrum.                                         pointed, horn-like projections.
coremiform. coremiforme. Forming                  corniform. corniforme. Having the
    a tight bundle of elongated elements.            shape of a horn; horn-like.
coremium. coremio. A shelf-like bunch             corolla. corola. The petals or outer
    of conidiophores bearing conidia                 envelope of a flower; collective
    which form a head; also, a rope-                 name for petals; the inner series
    like strand of hyphae.                           of the perianth. When the petals
corepressor. co-represor. correpresor.               are separated from each other to
    A substance that inhibits produc-                the bases, the corolla is termed
    tion of an enzyme.                               choripetalous or polypetalous; when
coriacellate. coriacelado. Slightly leath-           the petal margins connate, gamo-
    ery in texture.                                  petalous or sympetalous, the co-
coriaceous. coriáceo. Having a rough,                rolla forming a tube with each
    leather-like texture.                            ununited part of the petal is termed
corium. corion. A layer of tissue below              lobe or tooth which may expand
    the epidermis; dermis.                           radially to form a limb. Compare
cork. corcho. súber. The outer, sub-                 calyx.
    erous bark of any tree; specifically,         corollaceous. coroláceo. Having a
    the Quercus suber that grows in                  corolla or pertaining to a corolla.
    Spain and Portugal; also, the sec-            corollate. corolado. Having or like
    ondary tissue produced by cork                   a corolla.
    cambium; the outer part of the peri-          corollet. corolete. One of the small
    derm.                                            flowers that compose a compound
cork cambium. cámbium suberígeno.                    flower.
    The secondary cambium giving rise             corolliferous. corolífero. Bearing co-
corolliform                                 92                                    costate
    rolla.                                       cortical. cortical. Pertaining to the
corolliform. coroliforme. Having the                 cortex; also, relating to or living
    shape of a corolla.                              on the bark.
corolline. corolino. Pertaining to a             cortical bundle. haz cortical. A vas-
    corolla.                                         cular bundle in the cortex.
corona. corona. The petal-like or                corticate. corticado. Having a cor-
    crown-like appendage between the                 tex; also, covered with an unbro-
    petals and stamens, as in a daffo-               ken sheath of interwoven hyphae.
    dil (Narcissus) or milkweed (As-             corticolous. corticícola. Growing on
    clepias); also, the appendage at the             or in a tree bark.
    top of some seeds which enables              cortin(a). cortina. In some umbrella-
    them to disperse; also, a five-celled            shaped fungus (agarics), a mesh of
    cap of small cells on the oogonium               web-like fibers extending from the
    of the Charales.                                 edge of the pileus to the stipe in
coronate. coronado. Having an ap-                    the fruit body.
    pendage that resembles a crown.              corymb. corimbo. A flat-topped or
coroniform. coroniforme. Having the                  rounded inflorescence with the outer
    shape of a crown; crown-like.                    flowers on the longer stalks opening
coronule. coronula. The little crown                 first, as with cherry blossoms
    of a seed.                                       (Prunus).
corpuscle. corpúsculo. Any small cell            corymbiform. corimbiforme. Hav-
    inclusion.                                       ing the appearance of corymbs.
correlation. correlación. When a plant           corymbose. corimboso. Growing in
    utilizes nutrients and hormones, a               corymbs.
    mutual relationship or correlation           coscinocystidium. coscinocistidio. A
    occurs between organs, functions,                cystidium which clearly projects.
    and characteristics.                         coscinoid. coscinoide. A pitted con-
corrugated. ondulado. corrugado.                     ducting element in Linderomyces.
    Wrinkled or folded into alternat-            cosmopolitan. cosmopolita. Refers to
    ing, parallel ridges; having a wrin-             the world-wide or pandemic dis-
    kled or rigid surface.                           tribution of plant species of which
corrugation. ondulación. arruga. A                   there are very few that occur on
    wrinkle or ridge.                                all six continents.
cortex. corteza. córtex. The bark                costa. costa. The midrib of a leaf or
    of a tree; root and stem tissue of               frond; also, the midrib of the thallus
    higher plants between the epider-                of a liverwort; also, a rib or valve
    mis and the stele; also, an outer                of a diatom.
    layer of cells in some algae, fungi,         costal. costal. Near or pertaining to
    and lichens; also, the rind in some              the midrib of a leaf.
    fruits; also, a continuous column            costapalmate. costapalmado. The
    of tissue of the stem and root, the              branching main ribs of a palmate
    primarily protective layer, bounded              leaf.
    on the inner periphery by the vas-           costate. nervado. Ribbed longitudi-
    cular system and on the outer, by                nally or having the appearance of
    the epidermis.                                   being ribbed.
costule                                     93                                  crenium
costule. costilla. Pertaining to the                 Pteridophyta.
    leaf ribs or veins.                          crampon. crampón. An aerial root
cottony. gosipino. Cotton-like; fluffy               which provides support, as in ivy
    with soft long hairs.                            (Araliaceae); aerial root.
cotyledon. cotiledón. A seed leaf on             craspedodromous. craspedódromo. A
    a plant embryo; the first or one of              venation system where the leaf veins
    the first leaves growing out of a                run to and meet the leaf margin.
    seed having the function of nour-            crassi-. crasi-. A Latin prefix that
    ishing the young plant by storing                means, “thick” or “short”.
    and absorbing nutrients from the             crassula (pl. crassulae). crásula. A dark
    endosperm. Of a species, the number              pattern between the circular bor-
    of cotyledons developed is normally              dered pits of gymnosperms; a hori-
    fixed, one in most monocots, two                 zontal rod or band of thickening
    in most dicots, and from two to fif-             consisting of petic materials or
    teen in gymnosperms.                             cellulose, occurring between pits
cotyliform. cotiliforme. Shaped like                 in the walls of tracheids and ves-
    a cup; cup or disk-like.                         sels; bar of Sanio.
coupling. acoplamiento. The pres-                crassus. crassus. Latin for “thick”.
    ence of two given genes in the same          crateriform. crateriforme. Shaped like
    chromosomes in a double hetero-                  a bowl; bowl-like.
    zygote.                                      creationism. creacionismo. A belief
coupling phase. fase de acoplamiento.                that the origin of life and its di-
    fase de atracción. The condition                 versity is a result of acts of God
    in linked inheritance by which hy-               with each species created separately.
    brid heterozygous for two pairs of               It implicitly rejects evolution.
    factors receive the two dominant             creeper. planta rastrera. A plant pro-
    factors from one parent and the two              ducing roots at the nodes and grow-
    recessive factors from the other par-            ing along the ground or just
    ent.                                             below the surface.
covalent bond. covalente enlace. In              creeping. reptante. rastrero. Of a
    chemistry, a bond in which a pair                stem growing along the ground or
    or pairs of electrons is shared be-              just below the surface and rooting
    tween two atoms.                                 at the nodes.
cover. cubre. When describing plant              cremocarp. cremocarpo. diachenium.
    communities, cover is a proportional             A dry fruit formed from two one-
    (percentage) visual measure of the               seeded carpels that remain sepa-
    ground occupied by individuals of                rate and form indehiscent mericarps;
    the species being studied; also, a               characteristic of the Umbelliferae
    ground crop such as rye (Secale),                (carrot family); also, a fruit split-
    vetch (Vicia), or red clover (Tri-               ting into two or more one-seeded
    folium), grown to protect soil from              sections.
    erosion.                                     crenate. crenado. A leaf margin with
cover cell. célula tectriz. One of four              rounded or scalloped teeth that point
    cells closing the neck of the arche-             forward.
    gonium of the Bryophyta and                  crenium. crenio. A spring (upsurging
crenulate                                    94                         crossover value
    water) formation.                                ant; also, the act or product of a
crenulate. crenulado. Having very                    cross fertilization, i.e. the fusion
    small, minute notches or scalloped               of gametes contributed by differ-
    teeth along the margin of the leaf.              ent individuals; interbreeding
crepuscular. crepuscular. Becoming                cross breed. cruce. cruza. To breed
    active in the twilight or before sun-            hybrid forms by mixing varieties,
    rise.                                            as a loganberry (Rosaceae) is a cross
crescentric. crescentrico. Same as                   between a raspberry (Rosaceae) and
    crescent-shaped.                                 a blackberry (Rosaceae), but is
crescent-shaped. lunular. media luna.                different from either of their line-
    Shaped like the moon in its first                age.
    and last quarter; a shape with one            cross breed. cruzar. Produced from
    concave and one convex edge.                     cross breeding.
crest. cresta. An elevated ridge on               cross breeding. cruzamiento. The
    the surface of some structures; a                breeding of genetically unrelated
    horn-like projection from the hood               individuals, as the transfer of pollen
    of the corona in some milkweeds                  from one individual to the stigma
    (Asclepias).                                     of another of a different genotype.
crested. crestado. Having a ridge (crest)         cross fertilization. fertilización cruz-
    on the surface.                                  ada. The fertilization of the ovum
cribriform. cribriforme. With a sieve-               of one individual flower by the
    like structure.                                  pollen of another; allogamy.
crinite. crinito. Having tufts of long            cross fertilize. fecundar mediante.
    hairs.                                           fecundación cruzada. To undergo
crinitus. crinitus. Latin for “having                or facilitate cross fertilization.
    soft hairs”.                                  crossing over. sobrecruzamiento.
crispate. crespo. Having a wavy or                   entrecruzamiento. During pro-
    curved shape, as with some leaves                phase I of meiosis, a mutual ex-
    or hairs.                                        change of portions of chromatids
criss-cross inheritance. herencia                    between homologous chromosomes
    cruzada. The transmission of a gene              by breakage-reunion; formation of
    from father to daughter or mother                a chiasma.
    to son.                                       crossover. sobrecruzamiento. Chro-
crista(e). crestas mitocondriales. The               mosomes that have exchange parts
    internal projection or one of the                that have undergone crossing over.
    folds of the inner mitochondrial                 The changed segments are recog-
    membrane; also, a ridge-like mem-                nized by the genes that mark them;
    brane running the length of some                 recombinant. See crossing over.
    bacterial cells.                              crossover unit. unidad de crossing-
cristatus. cristatus. Latin for “crested”.           over. unidad de sobrecruzam-
cristate. crestado. cristato. Having                 iento. A 1% frequency of inter-
    a crest or tuft, as some anthers.                change between a pair of linked
cross. cruzar. cruza. cruce. Cross                   genes.
    breeding of different varieties or            crossover value. proporción de cross-
    species to produce a new descend-                ing-over. tasa de crossing-over.
cross pollinate                             95                             cryptophyte
   porcentaje crossing-over. The                    “blood-colored”.
   percentage of gametes that show               crustaceous. crustáceo. Dry and brit-
   crossing-over of a particular gene.              tle; having a brittle thallus, as some
cross pollinate. polinizar cruada. To               lichens.
   undergo or to facilitate cross pol-           crustose. crustoso. Lichens and al-
   lination.                                        gae growing like a crust by stick-
cross-pollination. polinización cruz-               ing fast to rock, bark, or soil and
   ada. The transfer of pollen from                 detachable only in small pieces.
   the anther of one flower to the               crymium. crimio. A polar, barren for-
   stigma of another, achieved mostly               mation.
   by wind and insect activity.                  cryobiology. criobiología. The study
cross-shaped. cruciforme. Having                    of the effects of low temperatures
   the shape or form of a cross.                    on living things.
crowded. agregado. agrupado. denso.              cryophil. criófilo. See psychrophile.
   Being very close together.                    cryophyte. criófito. An organism that
crown. copa. The upper part of a plant,             grows best in low temperature.
   especially a tree, including the              cryoplankton. crióplancton. Algae
   leaves and branches; also, an in-                which live on the the surface of
   ner appendage to a petal or the throat           snow and ice in polar regions and
   of a corona; also, the part of the               on high mountains.
   seed plant where the root joins the           crypto-. criptó-. A Greek prefix than
   stem.                                            means, “hidden”.
crown. copado. Having a terminal                 cryptobiosis. criptóbiosis. Dormancy,
   outgrowth, as a group of hairs; also,            especially in relationship to micro-
   having an appendage on the up-                   bial spores that may not show no
   per surface of a leaf or flower petal.           life for many years.
crown graft. injertar corona. A graft            cryptogam(ous). criptógamo. A class
   inserted at the crown of the root                of plants that do not produce seeds,
   of the stock.                                    but grow from spores, including
crozier. crosier. The spirally coiled               mosses (Musci), algae, ferns
   “fiddlehead” of a young fern                     (Filicopsida), and lichens. Oppo-
   (Filicopsida); also, a hook-shaped               site of phanerogam.
   hypha tip that comes before the               cryptomere. criptómero. A genetic
   development of an ascus in sac                   factor which is not seen.
   fungi.                                        cryptomerism. criptomerismo. A fail-
cruciate. cruciado. Having petals ar-               ure of characters to show in the
   ranged in the shape of a cross.                  progeny, which nevertheless con-
cruciform. cruciforme. Having the                   tain the corresponding hereditary
   shape of a cross; cross-like.                    factor.
cruciform division. división crucif-             cryptophyte. criptófito. A corm or bulb
   orme. Promitosis.                                producing plant whose dormant
crude fiber. fibra bruta. fibra cruda.              buds are beneath the soil or under
   The residues in the soil formed from             water; also, a small group of al-
   the woody parts of plants.                       gae (Cryptophyceae); also, one of
cruentus. cruentus. A Latin term for                Raunkiaer’s life-form categories in
cryptoplasm                                96                                    curved
    which the perennating bud occurs                natural variety. It is classified in
    below the water or ground.                      a subdivision of a species because
cryptoplasm. criptóplasma. That part                of its distinct morphological char-
    of the cytoplasm that appears to                acter and is given a Latin name
    lack granules.                                  according to the rules to the
cryptostoma. criptóstoma. A flask-                  International Code of Botanical No-
    shaped cavity in the thallus of some            menclature.
    of the larger brown algae. It con-          cultriform. cultriforme. Shaped like
    tains mucilage-secreting hairs.                 a knife.
crystalloid. cristaloide. A crystal of          culture. cultivo. The growth of or-
    protein found extensively in the                ganisms, especially microorganisms
    cells of seeds and other storage                under clearly defined conditions,
    organs.                                         which are usually artificial. Such
cteno-. cteno-. A Greek prefix that                 methods may be used experimen-
    means, “comb”                                   tally, e.g. with fungi or bacteria,
ctenoid. ctenoide. Comb-like.                       or horticulturally, e.g. with toma-
Cu. Cu. The chemical symbol for                     toes, orchids, and roses.
    copper.                                     cumulate. cumulado. Heaped in a mass.
cubical. cúbico. Describes a solid shape        cuneate. cuneado. Shaped like a wedge;
    with the widest axis at midpoint,               wedge-like; triangular and taper-
    parallel margins, and as wide as                ing to a point; sphenoid.
    it is long.                                 cuneiform. cuneado. cuneiforme. Hav-
cucullate. cuculado. Having the shape               ing the shape of a wedge; wedge-
    of a hood, wide at the top and drawn            like; broad and truncate at the top
    to a point below; hooded.                       and tapering down to the base;
cuculliform. cuculado. cuculiforme.                 wedge-shaped.
    Formed like or resembling a hood,           cup. copa floral. cáliz. A hollow
    wide at the top and narrowing at                floral receptacle; also, an apothec-
    the bottom, as a conical roll of pa-            ium.
    per.                                        cupreous. cobre. Copper colored.
cucurbitaceous. cucurbitáceo. Gourd-            cup-shaped. cupuliforme. Having the
    like.                                           shaped of a cup; cyathiform.
culm. caña. The jointed stem of a               cupulate. cupulado. acopado. cupuli-
    grass, solid only at the nodes; the             forme. Cup-shaped.
    solid, usually three-sided stem of          cupule. cúpula. A cup-shaped or in-
    a sedge; also, the stem of any                  dented structure that surrounds a
    monocotyledon; haulm.                           fruit, like an acorn cap (involucre).
culmicole. canaóla. Growing on a grass          cupuliform. cupuliforme. Resembling
    stem.                                           a cup; a cupule bearing plant.
cultigen. cultigeno. A cultivated plant,        curtain. cortina. Cortin.
    such as corn (Zea), where the wild          curvature. curvatura. A change in
    counterpart is not known.                       the direction of growth of part of
cultivar. cultivar. A derived plant                 a plant due to one side growing
    variety, produced from selective                faster than the other.
    breeding, as distinguished from a           curved. curvado. Having a part-
cushion                                      97                                    cycle
    circle shape.                                    pieces of stems or roots are planted
cushion. almohadón. The central por-                 and developed into new plants;
    tion of the prothallus of a fern which           portions of stems, with two or three
    bears rhizoids and sex organs.                   nodes, used for propagation by the
cushion(y) plants. plantas pulvini-                  production of adventitious roots;
    formes. plantas pulvinadas. pl-                  also, any part from a plant used
    antas en almohadilla. A subcate-                 for grafting or propagation, as a
    gory of Raunkiaer ’s life forms;                 leaf cutting.
    describes plants that have small,             cyaneus. cyaneus. Latin for “bright
    hairy, or thick leaves on short stems            blue”.
    and growing close to the ground,              cyano-. ciano-. A Greek prefix that
    as an adaptation to cold, dry, or                means, “dark blue”.
    windy conditions.                             cyanobacteria. cianobacteria. A large
cusp. cúspide. A short, sharp point                  group of bacteria which possess
    at the apex of a leaf or other struc-            chlorophyll and carry out photo-
    ture.                                            synthesis; formerly regarded as
cuspidate. cúspidado. Terminating in                 algae (Cyanophyta), and commonly
    a sharp point or tip, as a cuspidate             referred to as blue-green algae.
    leaf.                                            Their classification still remains
cuticle. cutícula. The thin, waxy coat-              somewhat confused, although cya-
    ing (mainly fatty acids) on the epi-             nobacteria is now grouped into five
    dermis of some leaves and stems,                 sections.
    usually absent in roots and broken            cyanoplast. cianoplasto. A small
    in aerial parts only by the stomata              pigmented granule in the cytoplasm
    and lenticels, which provides pro-               of the cells of the Myxophyceae.
    tection and reduces water loss.               cyath-. ciat-. A Latin and Greek prefix
cuticular. cuticular. Pertaining to a                that means, “cup-like”.
    cuticle, as cuticular transpiration.          cyathiform. ciatiforme. In the shape
cuticular diffusion. difusión cuticular.             of a narrow, conical cup; cup-like.
    The passage of gases through the              cyathium. ciatio. The inflorescence
    cuticle of a plant.                              in the genus Euphorbia that con-
cuticular transpiration. transpiración               sists of unisexual flowers in a cup-
    cuticular. The loss of water vapor               like involucre with a single pistil
    from a plant through the cuticle.                and male flowers with a single sta-
cutin. cutina. A lipid layer found in                men.
    the outer walls of epidermal cells;           cyathus. cestilla de propágulos. copa
    a waxy, waterproof substance, the                propagulífera. See gemma cup.
    major ingredient of the plant cu-             cycad. cicad. Any member of the prim-
    ticle.                                           itive, palm-like family Cycad-aceae
cutinization. cutinización. The modi-                with fern-like leaves growing in
    fication of a cell wall, making it               clusters at the top of the stem.
    waterproof through the presence of            cycle. ciclo. Any period of time or
    cutin; the formation of a cuticle.               complete process of growth or ac-
cutting. esqueje. estaca. A method                   tion that repeats itself in the same
    of vegetative propagation where                  order, as the seasons of spring,
cyclic                                         98                                  cystocarp
    summer, autumn and winter; also,                    either repeats the unilateral branch
    a closed circle or whorl of leaves.                 order, as in a helicoid cyme or (b)
cyclic. cíclico. Pertaining to or coming                repeats the branch order as an
    in cycles; also, having the parts                   alternating series, as in a scorpiod
    arranged in the form of a whorl.                    cyme or cincinnus.
cyclic photophosphorylation. foto-                  cymule. cimula. A small cyme; also,
    fosforilación cíclica. The forma-                   a small section of a compound cyme.
    tion of ATPase by the activation                cynarrhodion. cinorrodon. A fruit
    of Photo System I, but a failure to                 with a deeply concave or urn-shaped
    activate Photo System II with the                   receptacle, enclosed by the calyx
    result that NADP is not reduced.                    and bearing many achene on its
cyclo-. ciclo-. A Greek prefix that                     inner surface, as in the rose (Rosa).
    means, “a circle” or “circular”.                cypress knee. rodilla ciprés. A ver-
cyclosporous. ciclosporo. Having the                    tical, aerating upgrowth from the
    embryo coiled around the endo-                      roots of the swamp cypress.
    sperm.                                          cyphella. cifela. Small circular de-
cyclosis. ciclosis. The streaming or                    pressions, which are aerating or-
    spontaneous movement of the cy-                     gans, in the under surface of some
    toplasm and some organelles within                  foliose lichens.
    the cell, as in living vaculolate cells.        cypsela. cipsela. A seed pod (achene)
cylinder. cilindro. A solid or hol-                     with two spore-bearing carpels and
    low shape, wrap-around parallelo-                   a calyx directly attached to it, as
    gram, somewhat elongated and sau-                   in sunflowers (Asteraceae); also,
    sage-like.                                          a one-seeded fruit formed from a
cylindric. cilíndrico. Having the shape                 syncarpous, inferior ovary.
    of a cylinder; cylinder-like.                   cyst. quiste. ciste. In green algae, a
cylindrical. cilíndrical. Having the                    spore in dormancy that later ger-
    shape of a cylinder.                                minates, producing a new plant; a
cymbiform. cimbiforme. Having the                       tiny oil sac in the rind of some fruits;
    shape of a boat; boat-like.                         also, in seaweeds (Phaeo-phyta,
cyme. cima. A determinate inflores-                     Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta), the
    cence in which the central or top                   surrounding envelope of spores; the
    flower of each group is the old-                    seed cells of some non-flowering
    est; a loosely used term for com-                   plants; a thick-walled resting spore,
    plex flower clusters that are more                  or sporangium.
    or less rounded or flat-topped.                 cysteine. cisteina. A crystalline, sul-
cymose. cimoso. Having the shape                        phur-containing amino acid that
    of a cyme; with flowers in a cyme;                  occurs in many proteins.
    also, a determinate in flowering by             cystidium. cistidio. A sterile cell in
    termination of the floral stem with                 the hymenium of some basido-
    a flower, e.g. flowers forming a                    mycetes.
    dichasium or dichasium modified                 cystine. cistina. An amino acid formed
    to a single lateral, flower-termi-                  by the polymerization of two
    nated branch which gives rise to                    cysteine molecules.
    another single branch and (a)                   cystocarp. cistocarpo. A small sac
    or pericarp that contain the repro-              ship between the appearance of
    ductive spores of red algae;                     chromosomes and the genotype/
    sporocarp.                                       phenotype of the individual.
cystogenous. cistógeno. Producing                cytogenous. citogeno. Cell forming
    a cyst.                                          or producing.
cystolith. cistolito. Tiny crystalline           cytokinesis. citocinesis. citoquinesis.
    outgrowths of calcium carbonate                  The division of a cell into two or
    found in the cells of plants.                    more cells, usually by the forma-
cystosorus. cistosoro. A group of                    tion of walls; cytoplasmic division.
    united cysts found in the Chytrid-           cytokinin. citoquinina. A plant hor-
    iales (microscopic fungi).                       mone, originally found in young
cystospore. cistosporo. An encysted                  corn (Poaceae); zeatin.
    zoospore formed in the Chytrid-              cytological. citológico. Of or per-
    iales.                                           taining to cytology.
cyto-. cito-. A prefix that means “a             cytology. citología. An academic dis-
    cell” or “cells”, as in cytochrome.              ciple that involves the study of the
cytobiology. citobiología. See cell                  structure, function, and life history
    biology.                                         of the cell.
cytochemistry. citoquímica. A branch             cytolymph. citolinfa. Cell-sap.
    of biochemistry exploring the                cytolysin. citolisina. Any substance
    chemical compositon and activity                 causing the breakdown of cells.
    of cells.                                    cytolysis. citólisis. A process by which
cytochrome. citócroma. citócromo.                    the cell ruptures, allowing the pro-
    A group of pigments (cytochrome                  toplasm to be dispersed.
    a, b, and c) that are haemochromo-           cytome. citoma. The whole of the
    gens which act as oxygen carriers                chondrisomes present in a cell.
    and are involved in cellular res-            cytomicrosome. citomicrosoma.
    piration and electron transfers in               Mitochondria.
    the oxidation process; compounds             cytomorphosis. citomorfosis. The
    containing iron, ring groups, and                changes that take place in a cell
    proteins that are involved in elec-              from its formation to death; or the
    tron transfers during photosynthesis             changes that take place in a suc-
    and aerobic respiration.                         cessive generation of cells derived
cytode. citodo. A mass of cytoplasm                  from one individual.
    not containing a nucleus.                    cytopathogenic. citopatógeno. Pertain-
cytodiaeresis. citodiéresis. Mitosis                 ing to the destruction of cells by
cytogamy. citogamia. The union of                    a pathogenic agent, such as a vi-
    cells.                                           rus.
cytogenesis. citogénesis. The forma-             cytopharnyx. citofaringe. The nar-
    tion and differentiation of cells.               row neck in the opening of the gullet
cytogenetics. citogenética. An aca-                  of the Euglenophyta.
    demic disciple which combines the            cytoplasm(a). citoplasma. The jelly-
    fields of cytology and genetics; usu-            like substance of a cell that enve-
    ally involves microscopic studies                lopes the nucleus; also, the matrix
    of chromosomes; also, the relation-              of a cell, bounded by an outer
cytoplasm(at)ic                             100                              cytotropism
   membrane, forming a complex sys-                   other structures are anchored or or-
   tem of diffusion barriers that control             ganized.
   the movement of substance dis-                 cytosome. citosoma. The body of a
   persed within.                                     cell, not including the nucleus; also,
cytoplasm(at)ic. citoplasmático.                      the cytoplasm of a cell; also, the
   citoplásmico. Of or pertaining to                  area on the surface of the cell of
   the cytoplasm.                                     the Euglenophyta through which
(cyto)plasmic inheritance. herencia                   the food particles are ingested. It
   (cito)plásmica. The inheritance of                 is usually in the form of a gullet.
   genetic units through the cytoplasm            cytotaxonomy. citotaxonomia. The
   instead of through nuclear chro-                   classification of cells based on their
   mosomes.                                           structure, especially chromosomes;
cytoplasmic matric. citoplasma fun-                   also, the classification of plants
   damental matriz. citoplasmática.                   based on a study of their cell- struc-
   See hyaloplasm.                                    ture.
cytosine. citosina. A nitrogen base               cytotropism. citotropismo. The move-
   found in DNA and RNA. See base.                    ment or bending of cell masses to-
cytoskeleton. citoesqueleto. In the                   ward or away from each other; the
   cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell, an                 reaction of response to the stimu-
   internal framework of microtubules,                lus of mutual attraction or repul-
   microfilaments, and other fine                     sion betweeen two cells.
   strands on which organelles and
dacryoid                                   101                             day-length


dacryoid. dacrioide. Tear or pear-                which will germinate only if kept
   shaped.                                        in the dark when other conditions
dactyloid. dactiloide. Finger-like.               would normally favor germination.
daedaleous. daedaleo. Having an ir-            darnel. cizaña. Any grass (Poaceae)
   regularly wrinkled or plaited sur-             of the genus Lolium, but most of-
   face.                                          ten Lolium temulenum.
dam(m)ar resin. resina damar. A resin          dasy-. dasi-. A Greek prefix that
   from various pine trees (Pinaceae)             means, “shaggy” or “hairy”.
   used in the manufacture of var-             dasyphyllous. dasífilo. Having leaves
   nishes.                                        with a thick coat of cottony hairs;
damping-off. secadera de las plántulas.           also, having thick or crowded
   pudrición de las plántulas. meurte             leaves.
   súbita. A disease causing abrupt            dauermodification. modificación
   death of apparently healthy seed-              duradera. A lasting inheritable
   lings, in which the stem decays at             change, possibly cytoplasmic, which
   ground level and the seedlings col-            is produced by some treatment.
   lapse; caused by soil-inhabiting            daughter. hija. Belonging to or per-
   fungi (as Rhizoctonia and Pythium              taining to the first generation of
   spp) virulent to plant growth un-              offsprings or resulting from a pri-
   der conditions of high humidity and            mary division or segmentation.
   temperature.                                daughter cell. célula hija. Two iden-
dark. oscuro. Refers to dark color.               tical cells occurring with the com-
dark reaction. reacción “oscura”. Any             pletion of a cell wall in the prophase
   of the chemical reactions in pho-              of mitosis.
   tosynthesis that are not dependent          daughter chromosome. cromosoma
   on light and are controlled by en-             hijo. The product of each chro-
   zymes; occurs in the stroma of                 mosome dividing lengthwise.
   chloroplasts. The dark reaction takes       daughter nucleus. núcleo hijo. In mi-
   place during the photosynthetic                tosis, when a cell divides, two
   process, when oxygen is evolved                daughter nuclei are formed, each
   from a complex peroxide (formed                identical, with each getting one
   from water). Carbon dioxide is fixed           chromatid from each chromosome.
   to form sugars by combining with            day-length. duración del dia. Number
   hydrogen. This is a complex reac-              of hours of daylight in each 24 hour
   tion that involves the reduction and           period. Plants are often classified
   subsequent oxidation of a hydro-               in two groups according to their
   gen-carrier and takes place in the             response to day length: short-day
   stroma of the chloroplast.                     plants, which flower only when ex-
dark seed. semilla oscuro. A seed                 posed to short daily amounts of
day-neutral plants                     102              deciduous seasonal forest
    light, as orchids (Orchidaceae) and         times the haploid number of chro-
    long-day plants which flower only           mosomes.
    with long daily amounts of light,        decarboxylase. descarboxilasa. An
    as red clover (Trifolium); photope-         enzyme that makes possible the
    riod.                                       removal of a molecule of carbon
day-neutral plants. plantas de dia-             dioxide from an organic compound.
    neutro. Those capable of flower-         decarboxylation. descarboxilación.
    ing under either long or short day          The revoval of one or more car-
    lengths, irrespective of the light          boxyl groups.
    period being short or long, as dan-      decay. descomposición. See decom-
    delions (Taraxacum).                        position.
day position. posición de dia. The           decem-. decem-. A Latin prefix than
    pitch or posture adopted by leaves          means, “ten”.
    during the day, if they alter their      deciduous. deciduo. caducifolio. The
    position when there is a decrease           seasonal falling off or shedding of
    in light intensity.                         parts, such as leaves; generally
day sleep. sueño del día. The fold-             refers to trees or shrubs that lose
    ing of leaflets of a compound leaf          their leaves every fall, as distin-
    in bright light, bringing the sto-          guished from evergreens, which re-
    matal surfaces together, effecting          tain them or constantly replenish
    a protection against water-loss.            their foliage throughout the year.
de-. de-. A Latin prefix that means,            Also applies to bark which peri-
    “downward” or “away from”.                  odically shed, contrasting with per-
dealbate. dealbado. Whitened, usu-              sistent barks.
    ally by a covering of hairs.             deciduous leaves. de hoja caduca. de
deamination. desaminación. The re-              hojas caedizas. Leaves on spe-
    moval of an amino group from an             cific types of trees, as maples (Acer)
    organic compound.                           or elms (Ulmus), that are periodi-
deassimilation. deasimilación. The uti-         cally or annually shed by season;
    lization of food by a plant.                the opposite of evergreen.
death. muerte. The permanent end-            deciduous forest. selva baja caduci-
    ing of living functions.                    folia. bosque caducifolio. An area
deca-. deca-. A Greek prefix that               of trees mostly composed of spe-
    means, “ten”, as in decandrous, with        cies that shed their leaves periodi-
    ten stamens.                                cally.
decamerous. decámero. Having parts           deciduous seasonal forest. bosque
    in tens, as with flowers; having ten        caducifolio estacional. Two types
    stamens; having ten parts in each           of broad-leaved forests grow in the
    whorl; sometimes written 10-                middle latitudes; one, the decidu-
    merous.                                     ous summer forest (most common
decandrous. decandro. Refers to flow-           in the northern hemisphere and ab-
    ers in the class Decandria, which           sent in the southern hemisphere)
    have ten stamens; having ten sta-           is composed of broad-leaved trees
    mens.                                       that shed their leaves in the win-
decaploid. decaploide. Having ten               ter season; the second is composed
deciduous summer forest                    103              definite inflorescence
    of broad-leaved and evergreen trees.         ward along the stem; also, of the
deciduous summer forest. bosque                  gills of an agaric when they run
   caducifolio de verano. One of the             some distance down the stipe.
   two types of broad-leaved forests         decurved. decurvado. Bent or curv-
   occurring in the middle latitudes.            ing over backward and down, as
   See deciduous seasonal forest.                decurved bracts; upcurved; recurv-
decipiens. decipiens. Latin for “de-             ate.
   ceiving”.                                 decussate. decusado. Arranged in pairs
declinate. declinado. Curved or bent             along a stem with each pair at a
   downward, as the stamens of flow-             right angle to the pair above or
   ers.                                          below, as decussate leaves and
declined. declinado. Same as declinate.          branches.
declivate. declivado. Sloping.               dedifferentiation. dediferenciación.
decolorate. decolorado. Without color.           The reduction of the cells of a dif-
decompose. descomponerse. To de-                 ferentiated tissue to a common
   cay or rot; also, to degrade into             undifferentiated form.
   simpler compounds.                        dediploidization. dediploidización.
decomposer. descomponedor. degrad-               The production of haploid cells (or
    ador. A varied group of hetero-              hyphae) from a dikaryotic diploid
    trophic bacteria and fungi which             cell (or mycelium).
    obtain organic nutrients by breaking     dedoublement. dedoblemente. Branch-
    down the remains or products of              ing.
    other organisms; aids in the cycling     deep (color). intenso. Vivid, dense,
    of simple compounds back to                  and opaque in color.
    autotrophs.                              deficiency. deficiencia. The loss of
decomposition. descomposición. Deg-              a terminal acentric segment of a
   radation into simpler compounds;              chromosome; also, somtimes used
   rotting or decaying.                          to include deletion.
decompound. decompuesto. Made                deficiency disease. enfermedad por
   up of a number of parts that are              carencia. enfermedad carencial.
   already compounded, as with                   An abnormality caused by the ab-
   decompound leaves.                            sence of an essential chemical
deconjugation. deconjugación. The                element.
   separation of chromosomes before          definite. definida. Always having the
   the end of prophase of meiosis.               same number in a given species;
decorticate. decorticado. Having no              also, of a stem, ending in a flower
    outer covering; stripped, peeled,            which stops growth; of a stem when
    or husked; devoid of bark.                   the bud grows rapidly to its full
decumbent. decumbente. Trailing or               length and then stops; said of an
    lying on the ground with the tip             inflorescence when all its stems end
    of the stem turned upward.                   in flowers, i.e. cymose.
decurrent. decurrente. Extending             definite inflorescence. inflorescencia
    down beyond the stem from the                definida. An inflorescence with
    point of insertion; a decurrent leaf         all its branches ending in flowers,
    having its base extending down-              i.e. a cymose.
definite variation                          104                        dehydrogenation
definite variation. variación definida.              ing or being decomposed.
    A change taking place in a defi-              degrade. desdoblar(se). degradar.
    nite direction in the history of a               demoler. To decompose into sim-
    race.                                            pler, less complex compounds; to
deflexed. deflexo. Bent sharply out-                 degenerate.
    wards and downwards.                          dehisce. dehisce. To burst open, dis-
deflorate. deflorado. In flowers, hav-               charging seeds, usually along a
    ing cast its pollen; also, in plants,            definite line.
    having shed its flowers.                      dehiscence. dehiscencia. At matu-
deflowering. desfloración. The pre-                  rity, the bursting open of seedpods,
    mature fall or loss of flowers.                  anthers, or other organs along defi-
defoliant. defoliante. defoliador. With-             nite lines or sutures to release seeds,
    out leaves.                                      pollen, or other substances.
defoliate. defoliar. To cause leaves              dehiscense papilla. papila dehiscencia.
    to fall from a tree, especially pre-             A small rounded projection on the
    maturely.                                        surface of a zoosporangium of the
defoliation. defoliación. A shedding                 Blastocladiaceae, later becoming
    or loss of leaves, either as a sea-              a dehiscence pore.
    sonal normality or as a consequence           dehiscent. dehiscente. Mature fruit
    of severe insect attack or physi-                that splits open along definite lines
    ological disturbance.                            to release the seed or spore. When
deforestation. desmonte. de(s)forest-                a multicarpelled fruit splits along
    ación. Removing stands of trees                  lines midway to the carpel walls,
    or a forest.                                     it is referred to as loculicidally
deformation. deformación. malform-                   dehiscent; when along lines con-
    ación. An abnormal growth or                     current with the carpel walls, it is
    development.                                     septicidally dehiscent. Other fruits
degenerate. degenerar. To evolve by                  and buds may split in a transverse
    losing an organ, function, or some               circular line to cut off a segment
    other hightly developed character-               (circumscissile dehiscence) or split
    istic; also, coding for the same                 to form pores (poricidal dehis-
    amino acid, as other condons.                    cence).
degenerate code. código degenerado.               dehydrase. dehidrasa. An enzyme that
    A term given to the genetic code                 catalyses the removal of water, i.e.
    because a particular amino acid may              condensation.
    be encoded by more than one                   dehydrogenase. de(s)hidrogenasa.
    condon.                                          de(s)hidrasa. An enzyme that
degeneration. degeneración. The                      speeds the removal and transfer of
    change from a complex to a sim-                  hydrogen from a substrate.
    pler form during evolution; also,             dehydrogenate. de(s)hidrogenar. To
    the loss of morphological or physi-              revove hydrogen from a compound;
    ological features by a fungus or bac-            oxidize.
    terium kept in culture.                       dehydrogenation. de(s)hidrogenación.
degradation. degradación. desdoblam-                 The removal of hydrogen from a
    iento. The process of decompos-                  compound.
delayed development                        105                       dendrometer
delayed development. retraso del             denaturation. desnaturalización.
    desarrollo. A trait that is not             Changes in the activity of proteins
    expressed at birth, but does show           or nucleic acids brought about by
    up later.                                   changes in structure other than the
delayed inheritance. retraso del                breaking of the primary bonds be-
    herencia. When each successive              tween amino acids or nucleotides;
    generation has the genotype of the          usually occurs from changes in pH,
    female parent for a particular char-        temperature, or abuse of the mol-
    acter.                                      ecules.
deletion. deleción. The loss of a seg-       denature. desnaturalizar. To change
    ment of a chromosome set, vary-             the structure and properties of a
    ing from a single nucleotide to             substance, such as a protein, by
    serveral genes; if occurring at the         using heat, pressure, or chemicals.
    end, the deletion is referred to as      dendriform. dendriforme. Like a
    terminal and if occurring elsewhere,        branching tree in form.
    intercalary.                             dendritic. dendrítico. Having a
deletion mutant. mutante deleción.              branching pattern.
    A mutation where the base pair           dendro-. dendro-. A prefix that means,
    undergoes deletion and shifts the           “tree”, as in dendroid, tree-like.
    sequence out of phase by one pair.       dendrochronology. dendrocronología.
delignification. delignificación. The           The study of growth or annual rings
    destruction of lignin in wood by a          of trees to determine dates and
    fungus.                                     environmental conditions of the
deliquescent. delicuescente. To di-             past; tree-ring dating.
    vide into many smaller divisions,        dendroecology. dendroecología. A
    as in branching or venation; or, as         specialized area of dendrochron-
    with some fungi, portions melt away         ology which focuses on the rela-
    in the process of growth.                   tionships between the patterns of
deltate. deltado. A triangular shaped           dated tree-ring series and all the
    plane with three equal sides.               ecological factors that may effect
deltoid. deltoide. A triangular shaped          those patterns, including climate,
    solid with three equal sides.               predation, and competition.
dematoid. dematoide. Black and web-          dendrograph. dendrógrafo. An in-
    like; having a covering of dark in-         strument that provides a continu-
    terwoven hyphae; also, said of sooty        ous record of the circumference of
    molds that are dark and moniloid.           a tree stem, sometimes called
deme. demo. A sub-population of a               girthing.
    species with very limited genetic        dendroid. dendroide. Resembling a
    exchange, if any, with other demes          tree or small shrub; also, tall with
    although adjacent to one another.           an erect main stem or freely branch-
demersus. demersus. Latin for “sub-             ing.
    aquatic”.                                dendrology. dendrología. The scien-
demicyclic. demicíclico. Of Uredinales          tific study of trees.
    which have a life cycle in which         dendrometer. dendrometro. An in-
    no uredospores are produced.                strument used in measuring a tree’s
-dendron                                106                              depauperate
   height and diameter.                       dentation. dentación. Of a leaf mar-
-dendron. -dendro. A Greek suffix                gin with a small, blunt, or pointed
   that means, “tree” or “tree-like”,            outgrowth; also, a collective term
   as a rhododendron.                            for the thickening of the wall pro-
dendrophysis. dendrófisis. A para-               jecting into the lumina of ray
   physis-like structure bearing sim-            tracheids in the wood of pines
   ple or branched spines.                       (Pinus).
denigrate. denigrado. Blackened.              denticidal capsule. cápsula denticida.
denitrification. desnitrificación. The           A type of fruit that opens at the
   process of converting nitrates or             top, apically, leaving a ring of teeth,
   nitrites present in water and soils           as in Plantago.
   into gaseous or atmospheric nitro-         denticulate. denticulado. Having a
   gen or nitrogen oxide by soil bac-            leaf margin with small teeth, as a
   teria; also, a process used in the            denticulate leaf.
   treatment of sewage effluents.             dentiform. dentiforme. Having the
denitrifying bacteria. bacterias de(s)ni-        shape of a tooth or teeth.
   trifícantes. A group of soil bac-          denudate. denudado. Stripped bare,
   teria which break down nitrites and           as denudate trees; also, hairless by
   nitrates anaerobically to produce             loss of scales.
   nitrogen.                                  deoperculate. deoperculado. Lack-
denizen. morador. A species of plant             ing an operculum; also, having an
   which can maintain itself in the wild,        operculum that does not break away
   but was probably introduced by                spontaneously from the spore case.
   man.                                       deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ácido
dens. dens. Latin for “tooth”.                   desoxirribonucleico (ADN). A
density dependent. dependiente de                substance in the chromatin of all
   la densidad. The regulation of size           plants and many viruses, that is the
   by mechanisms controlled by the               genetic material passed from gen-
   size of the population, whose ef-             eration to generation, replicating
   fectiveness increases as the size of          and controlling through messen-
   the population increases.                     ger RNA, the inheritable charac-
density independent. independiente               teristics. Structurally, it is a dou-
   de la densidad. Population den-               ble-stranded nucleic acid, helically
   sity of an organism increases                 coiled with hydrogen bonds between
   exponentially but stops abruptly              the strands, that can be unzipped,
   with seasonal changes.                        which exposes the DNA’s chemi-
density measure. medida de densidad.             cal messages to protein synthesis
   An estimate of the number of a                or DNA replication.
   particular plant species, using the        deoxyribose. desoxirribosa. A five-
   ratio of individuals per unit area.           carbon (pentose) sugar found only
dent. abolladura. Toothed or notched.            in DNA.
dentate. dentado. Having the leaf             depauperate. depauperado. Diminu-
   margin toothed or serrated, as a              tive; also, looking starved and un-
   dentate leaf; having tooth-like pro-          derdeveloped.
   jections.                                  dependent. dependiente. Hanging
dependent                                  107                          desmosome
   down.                                        leaves.
depilation. depilación. The natural          descending aestivation. estivación
   loss of hair as a plant matures.             descendente. Aestivation in which
deplanate. deplanado. Flattened.                each segement overlaps the one an-
deplasmolysis. deplasmólsis. Water              terior to it.
   entering into a plant cell, causing       descent. ascendencia. Ancestry or
   the cell membrane to return to the           lineage.
   cell wall.                                desert. desierto. A dry region, usu-
depressed. deprimado. Flattened ver-            ally sandy or rocky with limited
   tically, as from above; sunken to            tree vegetation; most often located
   become concave.                              about 30° north and south of the
dermal. dermal. Pertaining to the epi-          equator; also, a vegetation form
   dermis or other superficial layer.           characterized by sparse coverage
derivative hybrid. híbrido doble.               of annual herbs, low succulent
   híbrido derivado. A hybrid derived           shrubs, larger xerophytic shrubs,
   by crossing one hybrid with another          and hummock-forming grasses
   or with one of its parents.                  (Poaceae).
dermatocystidium. dermatócistidio.           desert biome. bioma del desierto. A
   A cystidium on the cuticle or pel-           warm, arid region with rainfall of
   licle.                                       less than 250 mm a year; populated
dermatogen. dermatógeno. A layer                by organisms adapted to drought
   of cells that develops into the epi-         and heat, as water storing cacti and
   dermis; the external layer of a stem         a high percentage of annual spe-
   or root apex, one cell thick, that           cies.
   gives rise to the epidermis; pro-         desertification. desertificación. desert-
   toderm.                                      ización. A trend in which fragile,
dermatocalyptrogen. dermatocaliptr-             semi-arid, ecosystems lose produc-
   ogeno. A meristematic layer in the           tiveness because of a loss of plant
   apex of the root of many dicoty-             cover resulting in soil erosion,
   ledon, giving rise to the root-cap           salinization, or water logging;
   and dermatogen.                              often associated with misuse of hu-
dermatosome. dermatosoma. One of                mans, as occurs with overcultivation
   the small pieces into which a cell           or overgrazing.
   wall can be resolved by prolonged         desiccation. desicación. The proc-
   treatment with dilute hydrochlo-             ess of drying; drying up.
   ric acid, followed by heat at 50–         desmolase. desmolasa. Enzymes
   60º C.                                       breaking or forming a C–C link
dermis. dermis. The layer of tissue             without hydrolysis, e.g. carboxy-
   beneath the epidermis; corium.               lase catalyses the change of pyru-
desalinization. desalinización. desalac-        vic acid to acetaldehyde and car-
   ión del agua. The removal of salts           bon dioxide.
   from saline soil or water via dis-        desmosome. desmosoma. An adhe-
   tillation or microfiltration.                sive part of an epithelial cell that
descending. descendente. Directed or            adheres to adjoining cells.
   growing downward, as descending           destarch. dealmidón. The process of
destarch                                108                                dextran(e)
    reducing the starch content of a              which can be easily removed, leav-
    green plant. This is brought about            ing the surface bare.
    by keeping the plant in the dark,         detritus. detrito. detritus. Dead or-
    thereby stopping photosynthesis;              ganic matter, such as fallen leaves,
    any starch present will either be             branches, or other plant and ani-
    used or translocated.                         mal wastes that occur in ecosys-
desthiobiotin. destiobiotina. A sub-              tems.
    stance which may replace biotin           deut(o)ero. deutero. A prefix that means
    (vitamin H) in the growth yeasts,             second or secondary; also spelled
    but in some cases may inhibit the             deuto, deuter and deut.
    effect of biotin.                         deuteroconidium. deuteroconidio. A
destructive metabolism. metabolismo               spore-like cell of dermatophytes
    destructivo. The point in cellu-              produced by the division of a hemi-
    lar metabolism when energy is re-             sphere (protoconidium).
    leased through the breaking down          deutrogamy. deutrogamia. Any proc-
    of complex food molecules; catabo-            ess which replaces normal fertili-
    lism; dissimilation.                          zation.
desynapsis. desinapsis. The abnor-            deuteromycetes. deuteromicetos. Fungi
    mally early breaking of synapsis              Imperfecti.
    in meiosis.                               deuteroplasm. deuteroplasma. Meta-
detachable. desprendible. Capable                plasm.
    of being separated or disjoined.          development. desarrollo. Changes in
determinant. determinante. With a                 the form of a plant resulting from
    well-marked edge; of an inflores-             growth and differentiation of its
    cence that ends in a flower; a gene;          cells into tissues and organs; the
    also, a hereditary factor correspond-         succession of stages in the life of
    ing to the function of a gene.                the plant, as distinct from simple
determinate. determinado. Clearly                 growth.
    marked; also, flowers that bloom          developmental biology. biología del
    from terminal buds, which stops               desarrolo. Changes in the form of
    the growth and further lengthen-              a plant resulting from growth and
    ing of the main stem, allowing most           differentiation of its cells into tis-
    of the fruit to ripen about the same          sues and organs.
    time; also, a flower at the end of        deviation. desviación. The departure
    the primary axis and of each sec-             of a quantity from its normal or
    ondary axis. A plant with a deter-            expected value.
    minate growth has a genetically lim-      dew. rocío. Moisture from an atmos-
    ited size and cannot grow indefi-             pheric condition producing wetness,
    nitely.                                       especially in the early morning.
determination. determinación. A taxo-         dewy. róridulado. A leaf surface cov-
    nomic action of establishing a                ered with waxy platelets, giving the
    plant’s position, rank, character-            appearance of dew; roridulate.
    istic, name, or relationship to a         dextran(e). dextrana. A polysaccha-
    taxon.                                        ride that serves as a storage com-
detersile. detersil. Said of fine hairs           pound in bacteria and yeasts.
dextrinase                                 109                              diandrous
dextrinase. dextrinasa. A plant en-          diakinesis. diacinesis. diaquinesis.
    zyme which hydrolyses dextrin.               The final stage in the prophase of
dextrins. dextrinas. A series of poly-           meiosis when all the chiasmata
    saccharides intermediate in struc-           reach the ends of the tetrads and
    ture between glucose and starch with         the homologues can separate dur-
    5–10 glucose units in straight               ing anaphase; chromosomes are
    chains. Formed during starch hy-             tightly coiled and have formed the
    drolysis.                                    compact tetrad which are spread
dextrorse. dextrorso. Twining or                 out in the nucleus, and the nucleolus
    spiraling upward from left to right,         disappears. The five stages of
    as a climbing plant stem or a chain          prophase in meiosis are: leptotene,
    of spores; opposite of sinistrorse.          zygotene, pachytene, diplotene, and
di-. di-. A Greek prefix that means,             diakinesis.
    “two” or “twice”; also, a Latin pre-     diallelic. dialélico. A polyploid in-
    fix that means, “apart from”.                dividual with more than two sets
dia-. dia-. A Greek and Latin prefix             of chromosomes that have two dif-
    that means, “transverse” or                  ferent alleles at a particular gene
    “through”.                                   locus.
diachene. diaquenio. See diachenium.         dialycarpous. dialicarpo. A flower or
diachenium. diaquenio. Two or more               fruit with separate carpels; apo-
    indehiscent, one-seeded carpels,             carpous.
    adhering around a distinct and sepa-     dialypetalous. dialipétalo. A corolla
    rable axis, as that of parsley and           of many separate petals; poly-
    other Umbelliferae; cremocarp.               petalous.
diad. diada. See dyad.                       dialysepalous. dialisépalo. Having
diadelphous. diadelfo. Stamens fused             separate sepals that make up a ca-
    into two bundles or sets by their            lyx; polysepalous.
    filaments; also, in a group with one     dialysis. diálisis. The separation of
    free stamen.                                 colloids or large molecules from
diadromous. diadromo. Venation                   dissolved substances of ions or
    resembling the ribs of a fan.                small molecules, using a partially
diageotropic. diageotropico. A ten-              permeable membrane that permits
    dency to grow horizontally to the            the passage of the former but not
    ground, as branches or roots.                the latter (e.g. cellophane, collodian,
diageotropism. diageotropismo.                   parchment). This is then placed in
    Exhibiting diageotropic growth.              water, and the smaller particles
diagnosis. diagnóstico. A statement              diffuse out into it.
    of the determining characteristics       dialystelic. dialistelico. Having several
    of a genus, species, and other               separate stele.
    groups, as used in taxonomy; also,       diamines. diaminas. Compounds con-
    the identification of a pest or dis-         taining two amine groups.
    ease.                                    diandrous. diandro. Having two sta-
diagonal. diagonal. Said of any part             mens, as diandrous flowers or
    of a flower situated in a position           diandrous plants.
    other than median or lateral.            diaphanous. hialino. translúcido.
diaphanous                                  110              dichotomous ramification
    Translucent or to show through.               dicaryon. dicario(n). dicarionte.
diaphototropism. diafototropismo. The                 Dikaryon.
    tropic response of a plant organ that         dicentric. dicéntrico. Of a chromo-
    grows at right angles to the light.               some or chromatid with two
diaphragm. diafragma. A transverse                    centromeres.
    plate of cells across a stem, usu-            dicha-. dica-. A Greek prefix that
    ally at the nodes; also, a cross par-             means, “in two.”
    tition in the air chambers of                 dichasium. dicasio. cima bípara. A
    hydrophytes, usually perforated.                  cyme where the main axis produces
diaphysis. diáfisis. An abnormal height               two branches below the terminal
    increase in the center of the flower              flower, and each of those produce
    or flower cluster.                                another pair and so on; simple cyme.
diaschistic. diasquistico. Said of tet-           dichlamydeous. diclamídeo. A flower
    rads which divide once transversely               with both a calyx and a corolla.
    and once longitudinally in meio-              dichogamous. dicógamo. In hermaph-
    sis.                                              rodite flowers, stamens, and pis-
diaspore. díaspora. A spore, seed,                    tils mature at separate times, pre-
    or other structure that provides                  venting self-fertilization.
    dispersal; a propagule; disseminule.          dichogamy. dicogamia. Maturation
diastase. diastasa. Any of a group of                 of male or female flowers at dif-
    enzymes occurring in plants that                  ferent times, ensuring cross pol-
    aid in the process of converting                  lination; common to maples
    starch into sugar; amylase.                       (Aceraceae) and walnuts (Jugland-
diaster. diaster. In cell division, when              aceae).
    the daughter chromosomes are situ-            dichophysis. dicófisis. In the Theleph-
    ated in two groups near the poles                 oraceae, a sterile structure in the
    of the spindle, ready to form the                 hymenium or trama having succes-
    daughter nuclei; daughter star.                   sively dichotomous branching, thick
diastole. diástole. The growth and                    walls, narrow lumen, and subulate
    expansion of a nucleus from the                   apices.
    end of one mitosis to the begin-              dichopodium. dicopodio. A sympodial
    ning of the next.                                 branch system composed of suc-
diatoms. diatomeas. Any of the mi-                    cessive parts of a dichotomizing
    croscopic aquatic algae (Bacillario-              branch system, of which only one
    phyceae) that have hard shells;                   part assists in forming the axis.
    made mostly of silica.                        dichotomous. dicotómo. dicotómico.
diatropism. diatropismo. The ten-                     A system of forked branching by
    dency of some organs to take a                    the repeated subdivision of an apical
    position cross-wise to the direc-                 meristem into two branches of the
    tion of the stimulus.                             same size. This is a primitive form
diazotroph. diazotrof. An organism                    of branching.
    which can utilize atmospheric ni-             dichotomous ramification. ramific-
    trogen (fixation).                                ación dicotómico. Branching or
dicarpellary. dicarpelar. Having two                  forking by repeated division into
    carpels.                                          two part that are nearly equal, as
diclinous                                     111                       differentiation
    with surface patterns of visible leaf       dicyclic. dicíclico. Having two whorls.
    veins.                                      didymous. didimo. Growing in pairs;
diclinous. diclino. Having stamens                  also, of a fruit composed of two
    and pistils in separate flowers in              similar parts, slightly attached along
    the same plant (monoecious) or on               the edge.
    separate plants of the same spe-            didymospore. didímospora. A spore
    cies (dioecious); also, having only             with two cells.
    stamens or only pistils; unisexual.         didynamous. didínamo. Having four
dicot. dicot. Any plant with two seed               stamens arranged in two pairs of
    leaves in the embryo; dicotyledon.              unequal length.
dicotyledon. dicotiledón. Having two            differential affinity. afinidad difer-
    seed leaves (cotyledons) in the                 encial. The failure of two chro-
    embryo.                                         mosome to pair at meiosis in the
Dicotyledoneae. dicotiledóneas. One                 presence of a third, although they
    of the two major divisions in the               pair in its absence.
    Angiospermae (flowering plants)             differential host. huésped diferencial.
    with the embryo characteristically              A particular species or plant vari-
    having two cotyledons. Also see                 ety whose reaction is used to de-
    Monocotyledoneae.                               termine physiological races of para-
dicotyledonous. dicotiledóneo. dicotil-             sites.
    edónico. Pertaining to dicotyle-            differential permeability. permeabil-
    dons.                                           idad diferencial. The capacity of
dictyosome. dictiosoma. Cytoplas-                   a membrane to pass selectively
    mic particles composed of several               certain molecules more freely than
    layers of lamellae surrounded by                others, as small molecules passing
    small vesicles; involved in preparing           while stopping the passaage of
    material for transport out of the cell,         larger ones.
    usually by adding sugars on to pro-         differential reproduction. reproducción
    teins; a subunit of the Golgi                   diferencial. The predilection of
    apparatus; Golgi body.                          bearers of adaptive traits to repro-
dictyosporangium. dictiosporangio.                  duce more successfully than bearers
    A septate sporangium; also, a spo-              of less adaptive traits resulting in
    rangium found in some oomy-cetes                an increasingly greater proportion
    in which the spores encyst in the               of the reproductive base for each
    sporangium, then emit their con-                new generation.
    tents separately, leaving a network         differential segment. segmento difer-
    of empty spore walls.                           encial. A block of genes in re-
dictyospore. dictiospora. A multi-                  spect of which two pairing chro-
    cellular spore divided by transverse            mosomes differ, in a permanent
    and longitudinal walls.                         hybrid, in contrast to a pairing seg-
dictyostele. dictiostela. A hollow tube             ment when they pair and crosso-
    (siphonostele) whose vascular tissue            ver, and are therefore homologous.
    is broken into a number of longi-           differentiation (of cells). diferenc-
    tudinal strands or vascular bundles             iación. The process by which cells,
    as in some ferns (Filicop-sida).                tissues, and organs become altered
difformed                                    112                          digestive gland
    or modified to provide specialized                 concentration through the random
    functions; also, the change from                   energetic movements of individual
    homogeneous tissue to heteroge-                    molecules.
    neous tissues, as from meristem to             diffussion carrier. portador de defus-
    primary tissues.                                   ión. A substance to which a dis-
difformed. diforme. Of unusual or                      solved particle becomes attached
    irregular shape.                                   on one side of a membrane, mov-
diffract. difráctea. Said of a surface                 ing with the dissolved particle
    divided into areolae; also, cracked                through the membrane, and then
    into small areas.                                  depositing it on the other side.
diffuse. difuso. Widely spread or scat-            diffusion coefficient. coefíciente de
    tered, as a prostrate stem that                    defusión. A law of diffusion, some-
    branches freely and loosely over                   times referred to as Fick’s Law.
    a large area; also, said of parenchy-              dm = –D · A · (dc/dx) · dt, where,
    matous cells scattered through the                 dm = the amount of substance dif-
    xylem.                                             fusing in the time dt, dc/cs = the
diffuse growth. crecimiento difuso.                    concentration gradient, A = the area
    The growth of an algal thallus by                  of cross-section through which dif-
    the division of any of its cells.                  fusion occurs, D = diffusion co-
diffuse nucleus. núcelo difuso. The                    efficient.
    chromatidia sometimes present in               diffusion pressure deficit (DPD).
    non-nucleated cells.                               déficit de la presión de difusión
diffuse-porous. poros difusos. poros                   (DPD). The net tendency of wa-
    dispersos. When the vessels are                    ter to diffuse into a cell expressed
    scattered evenly thoughout the xy-                 as the difference between the os-
    lem or when there is little differ-                motic concentration and the turgo
    ence in the size of the vessels formed             pressure of the cell.
    in different seasons, In some trees,           digenic. digenico. Of hereditary dif-
    the conducting vessels or pores are                ference determined by two genes.
    arranged uniformly throughout the              digest. digerir. To change nutrients
    year ’s growth, so as to make the                  chemically into matter that can be
    annual rings almost indistinguish-                 assimilated, stored, or oxidized for
    able; common in maple (Acer),                      plant growth or maintenance.
    birch (Betula) and some other dif-             digestion. digestión. The process by
    fuse-porous trees.                                 which macromolecules of insolu-
diffuse stimulus. estímulo difuso. A                   ble nutrients are broken down into
    stimulus not coming from any fixed                 micromolecules of soluble com-
    position.                                          pounds.
diffuse tissue. tejido difuso. A tis-              digestive cell. célula digestiva. One
    sue of single or small groups of                   of the cells in the cortex of a root
    cells distributed througout a dis-                 in which the hyphae of an endo-
    tinct tissue.                                      trophic fungus are killed and di-
diffusion. difusión. The relocation                    gested.
    of particles from a region of high             digestive gland. glándula digestiva.
    concentration to a region of low                   A glandular hair characteristic of
digestive pouch                              113                        dinucleotide
    carnivorous plants, producing en-             ponents.
    zymes which digest their food.             dimerous. dímero. Having two mem-
digestive pouch. bolsa digestiva. A               bers in each whorl; often written
    layer of cells at the apex of a lat-          2-merous.
    eral root which secretes enzymes           dimidiate. demediado. Split on one
    that break down the cortical cells            side, as some capsules; also, lop-
    of the parent root, as the lateral            sided or appearing to lack one side,
    root grows through it.                        as an anther with a missing lobe,
digitate. digitado. Radiating lobes               a pileus with one side larger than
    or veins, spread like fingers on a            the other, or a lichen perithecium
    hand; palmate.                                when the upper side only is enclosed
digitiform. digitiforme. Having the               in a wall; sometimes, hood-shaped.
    shape of a finger or arranged like         diminute (-ly). diminuto (-amente).
    fingers; finger-like.                         Small.
digynous. digino. Having two carpels.          diminutive. diminuto. A small form
diheterozygote. diheterocigoto. dihete-           of a generally larger structure or
    rozigoto. Heterozygous in respect             part.
    of two genes.                              dimittic. dimitico. Having two different
dihybrid cross. cruce dihíbrido. A                forms of hyphae.
    mating between individuals differ-         dimonoecious. dimonocio. Having
    ing in two pairs of alleles.                  bisexual flowers, as well as male,
dihybridism. dihibridismo. The proc-              female, and neuter ones.
    ess of producing a cross between           dimorphic. dimórfico. Characterized
    organisms differing in two inher-             by dimorphism.
    itable characters.                         dimorphic heterostyly. heterostilia
dikaryon. dicario. dicarionte. A fun-             dimórfico. When the flowers of
    gal hypha or mycelium with each               the same species have styles of two
    cell having a nuclei.                         different lengths, thereby encour-
dikarophase. dicariofase. fase dicar-             aging cross-pollination.
    iótica. A diploid phase having a           dimorphism. dimorfísmo. The occur-
    dikaryon.                                     rence of two different forms of a
dikontan. dikontán. Having two                    flower, leaf, or other part on the
    flagella.                                     same plant or in the same species;
dilacerate. dilacerado. As if torn into           generally sex-linked, but not al-
    strips.                                       ways, as in the water crowfoot
dilatation. dilatación. The expansion             (Ranunculaceae).
    of secondary phloem that prevents          dimorphous. dimorfo. Occurring in
    it from being torn apart by the ac-           two forms, as the occurrence two
    cumulation of secondary xylem in-             different forms of flowers, leaves
    terior to it; referred to as dilation         or other parts on the same plant,
    tissue.                                       or the in the same species, as the
dilated. dilatido. Expanded and flat-             disk and rays in composite flow-
    tened.                                        ers.
diluted. dilutido. Pale and faint colored.     dinucleotide. dinucleótido. A unit
dimer. dimer. A polymer of two com-               derived from deoxyribose, linked
dioecious                               114                    diploid gametophyte
    through a phosphate radical. Some             Dichlaymdeous.
    are important as prosthetic groups        diplochlamydeous chimaera. quimera
    of enzymic globular proteins.                 diploclamideo. A periclinal chi-
dioecious. dioico. Unisexual or im-               maera composed of an outer skin
    perfect; having the pistils and sta-          of one constituent, and two cells
    mens of the same species on dif-              thick, surrounding a core of the
    ferent plants, therefore, plants of           other constituent.
    both sexes must grow near each            diplochromosome. diplocromosoma.
    other to provide pollen before fruits         A chromosome which has divided
    and seed can be produced, as                  twice instead of once since the pre-
    ginkgo, the maidenhair tree                   ceding mitosis, the centromere being
    (Ginkgoaceae); having male and                undivided.
    female organs on separate individual      diplococcus. diplococo. A coccus in
    plants.                                       which the individuals tend to form
dioxin. dioxina. A synthetic chlorinate           pairs.
    hydrocarbon used in some herbi-           diplodesmic. diplodesmico. Having
    cides, but highly toxic to humans;            two parallel vascular systems.
    causing widespread environmen-            diplodization. diplodización. The proc-
    tal pollution.                                ess of fusion of hyphae, followed
dipeptide. dipéptido. A compound of               by the division of nuclei in pair-
    two anion acid residues, joined by            ing fungi, whereby haploid cells
    a peptide link,                               or mycelia become diploid.
dipetalous. dipetalado. Having two            diplohaplont. diplohaplonte. Having
    petals; bipetalous; two-petaled.              a life-cycle in which a many-celled
diphotic. difotico. Having two sur-               haploid generation alternates with
    faces unequally lighted.                      a similar diploid one.
diphyletic. difilético. Descending from       diploid. diploide. With two sets or
    two distinct ancestral groups.                double the number of chromosomes
diphyllous. diofilo. Having two leaves.           in the germ cell. Germ cells have
diplanetism. diplanetismo. Produc-                one set and are haploid; somatic
    ing zoospores of two morphological            cells have two sets and are diploid
    types.                                        (except for polyploid plants).
diplecolobous. diplecolobo. Said of           diploid apogamy. apogamia diploide.
    an embryo with an incumbent radi-             Euapogamy. The development of
    cle and with cotyledons folded twice          a sporophyte containing diploid nu-
    or more.                                      clei from one or more cells of the
diplo-. diplo-. A Greek prefix that               gametophyte, without any prelimi-
    means, “double”.                              nary fusion of gametes.
diplobiont. diplobionte. A plant which        diploid zygote. cigoto diploide. zigoto
    as two different kinds of individuals         diploide. A fertilized gamete.
    in it life-cyle; if dioecious, there      diploid gametophyte. diploide gametó-
    will be three different kinds.                fito. The phase of gametophytic
diplocaulescent. diplocaulescente.                apomixis in which somatic (mitotic)
    Having a central axis with branches.          division within an ovule forms di-
diplochlamydeous. diploclamideo.                  rectly an embryo sac with an un-
diploidy                                     115                        disarticulated
    reduced chromosome condition.                  of prophase are: leptotene, zygo-
diploidy. diploidia. The diploid con-              tene, pachytene, diplotene, and
    dition.                                        diakinesis.
diplokaryotic. diplocariotico. Hav-            dipolar ion. ion dipolar. ión dipo-
    ing twice the normal diploid number            lar. An ion having both positive
    of chromosomes.                                and negative charges, e.g. on an
diplonema. diplonema. The stage in                 amino acid in solution.
    the meiotic division at which the          dipterocarp. dipterocarpo. A two-
    chromosomes are clearly double;                winged fruit with elongated sepals.
    also, a small diploid plantlet in the      dipterous. diptero. bialdo. Seeds
    life cycle of some of the Phaeo-               or fruits that have two wing-like
    phyta.                                         appendages.
diplont. diplonte. An organism at the          direct adaptation. adaptación directa.
    diploid stage of the life cycle; also,         Any adaptation which does not
    having the alternation of a one-               appear to stand in relation to natural
    celled haploid generation with a               selection.
    many celled (or coenocytic) dip-           direct germination. germinación
    loid one.                                      directa. The germination of a spore
diplophase. diplofase. fase diploide.              to produce a hypha or filament
    The diploid stage in the life cycle            rather than a sporangium.
    of plants; also, the stage in the life     directed speciation. especiación direcc-
    cycle of Basioiomycetes when the               ional. A speciation trend where
    cells have two nuclei.                         the species does not conform to the
diplosis. diplosis. The doubling of                continuum associated with adap-
    the chromosome number.                         tive types, but rather to the step-
diplosome. diplosoma. A paired                     type succession of distinct species.
    heterchromosome; also, a double            directional selection. selección direcc-
    centrosome lying in the cytosome.              ional. In a period of gradual en-
diplospory. diplosporia. The formation             vironmental change, the normal
    of a diploid gametophyte from a                process of modification is for in-
    sporogenous cell of an ovule with              dividuals at one extreme of the
    meiotic division either omitted or             population variation be selected for
    modified so that pairing and reduc-            change and the remaining, remain
    tion of the chromosomes does not               unchanged. This results in the norm
    occur.                                         being moved in a specific direc-
diplostemonous. diplostémono. Hav-                 tion toward an end of the range of
    ing two stamens to each petal; also,           variability.
    having stamens in two whorls, the          disaccharide. disacárido. A conden-
    outer located opposite of the se-              sation product of two mono-
    pals and the inner located oppo-               saccharides.
    site the petals.                           disarticulate. desarticular. To sepa-
diplotene. diplóteno. diplótena. The               rate at a joint.
    point in the prophase of meiosis           disarticulated. desarticulado. Sepa-
    when the points of interchange of              rated at a joint.
    chromatids appear. The five stages         disarticulating. desarticulándose. At
disarticulating                             116                                  disjunct
    maturity, separating at a joint, most             rets; also, said of an algal thallus
    often as a means of vegetative re-                which is one cell thick and closely
    production.                                       applied to the substratum.
disassortative breeding. disapare-                discolorous. discoloro. Changing in
    amiento de semejanza. Mating                      color; fading; not the same color
    between individuals of dissimilar                 throughout.
    phenotype. See also assortative               discontinuous distribution. distribuc-
    breeding.                                         ión discontinuo. The occurrence
disc. disco. Same as disk. An out-                    of a species in one area, then in
    growth from the receptacle of a                   another area far from it, but not
    flower, beneath the carpels or sta-               in any areas in between.
    mens; also, the central part of a             discontinuous variation. variación
    capitulum; also the portion of an                 discontinuo. The rare occurrence
    apothecium that bears the asci and                of large differences between mem-
    paraphyses.                                       bers of the same species; sport;
disc flowers. flores del disco. The                   saltation.
    floret in the center of a daisy, as-          discoplankton. discoplancton. Plank-
    ter or other Asteraceae flower is                 ton in which the cells form thin
    a disc flower. Asteraceae flowers                 disks.
    are a combination of two kinds                discrete. discreto. Remaining separate.
    of flowers, the disc flower and the           discrimenant function. función dis-
    ray flower. Sometimes spelled disk.               crimenante. A linear compound of
disc floret. flósculo discoide. A regu-               a series of variates, obtained by
    lar, tubular flower in the center of              maximizing the differences between
    a capitulum when it contains two                  the classes relative to the differ-
    types of flowers.                                 ences between individuals in the
discal. discal. Pertaining to a disc                  classes, for the particular factor
    flower.                                           being measured.
discifloral. discifloral. Flowers with            disc-shaped. orbicular. Round and
    an enlarged disk-like receptacle                  flat; orbicular.
    surrounding the ovary, usually dis-           discus. disco. The hymenium of an
    tinct from the calyx.                             apothecium.
disciform. disciforme. In the shape               disease. enfermedad. Any change from
    of a disk (disc), round and flat.                 the state of metabolism necessary
disclimax. disclímax. In the mono-                    for the normal development and
    climax model of vegetation, the                   functioning of any organism.
    plant community that replaces the             disepalous. disepalo. Having two se-
    climax community following an                     pals.
    environmental disturbance; simi-              disinfection. desinfección. The killing,
    lar to plagioclimax and biotic cli-               rather than removal, of micro-
    max.                                              ogrganism in water or soil where
discocarp. discocarpo. Apothecium.                    they might pose a threat to health,
discoid. discoide. Resembling a disc;                 as water chlorination.
    disciform; sometimes used to de-              disjunct. disyunto. Disjoined; oc-
    scribe a capitulum with no ray flo-               curring in separate geographic areas.
disjunction                                 117                                 distal
disjunction. disyunción. The sepa-            disperse. dispersar. To scatter, es-
    ration of chromosomes at anaphase.            pecially the scattering of seeds by
disjunctor. disyuntor. A small cell               wind, water, and animal consump-
    between two neighboring conidia               tion.
    in a chain. It disintegrates, thereby     disphotic zone. zona disfótica. See
    aiding in dispersion.                         aphotic zone.
disk floret. flósculo discoide. flósculo      dispireme. dispiema. The stage of
    disco. One of the two flowers (flo-           telophase in which the spireme
    rets) in the center portion (disk)            thread of each daughter nucleus has
    of a composite head flower, the               been formed.
    other being a ray flower.                 disruptive selection. selección disrupt-
disk. disco. discoide. The ring of woody          iva. A selection that changes the
    fiber of certain trees, visible in a          frequency of alleles which leads
    longitudinal section; also, the sur-          to the fixation of alternative alleles
    face of a leaf or petal (as opposed           in members of the population. After
    to the leaf margin); also, the yel-           several generations, there are two
    low center of Asteraceae flowers;             divergent phenotypic extremes,
    also, an expanded receptacle, com-            within the population.
    monly a nectary. Same as disc.            dissect. disecar. To cut apart a plant
disk-like. discoide. Having the ap-               or cell tissue to examine.
    pearance of a disk.                       dissected. disecado. Divided into many
disome. disoma. Bivalent.                         lobes or segments, as dissected
disomic. disomico. Relating to two                leaves; divided deeply into narrow
    homologous chromosomes or genes.              lobes.
disomic inheritance. herencia disomico.       disseminate. diseminar. To scatter.
    Arising from the determinate as-          dissemination. diseminación. The dis-
    sociation of chromosomes in                   persion or scattering of seedsor
    bivalents at meiosis.                         spores by wind, water, and animals.
disomy. disomia. The condition of             disseminule. diseminulo. See dia-
    having one extra chromosome that              spore.
    is homologous with a chromosome           dissepiment. disepimento. A parti-
    of the haploid set.                           tion that separates the cells of some
dispermic. dispérmico. Two-seeded.                fruits and seeds, as in a green pep-
dispermous. dispermo. Containing                  per (Piper); a septum.
    two seeds, especially fruits.             dissilient. disiliente. Bursting apart
dispersal. dispersión. The tendency               of a dry seed pod or capsule, as a
    of organisms to move away from                dissilient pericarp.
    their birth or breeding site; also,       dissimilation. desimilación. Respi-
    the establishment of individuals in           ration; also, see destructive metabo-
    a new area. The opposite of philo-            lism.
    patry.                                    dissociation. disociación. A muta-
dispersal barrier. barrera dispersión.            tion or saltation.
    An unfavorable habitat separating         distal. distal. Toward the tip, away
    two areas of favorable habitat, as            from the center of an organ and
    the separation by an ocean or desert.         the point of attachment.
distant                                       118                                   dodeca-
distant. distante. Describes parts that                 order, or higher to the extent that
    are widely scattered or loosely ar-                 distinct new taxa result.
    ranged and often irregular.                     divergens. divergens. A Latin word
distended. hinchado. Swollen.                           that means, “separating”.
distichous. dístico. Arranged alter-                divergent. divergente. Moving in dif-
    nately in two vertical rows on op-                  ferent directions from the same
    posite sides of the axis, as distichous             point; an evolutionary tendency for
    leaves.                                             plants coming from common an-
distichous. dístico. In two ranks.                      cestors to evolve into different forms
distinct. distinto. Separate; not united                when living under different con-
    or fused to like parts—strictly ap-                 ditions; also, said of two or more
    plied to members of one series.                     organs which spread so that they
distinctly. conspicuamente. marcad-                     are further apart at the top than the
    amente. Without the union of like                   base.
    parts.                                          divergent evolution. evolución diverg-
distribution. distribución. The occur-                  ente. The appearance of different
    rence of a species as it relates geo-               characteristics in plants closely re-
    graphical considerations; also, dis-                lated by common ancestry.
    semination.                                     diversity. diversidad. Refers to the
distribution area. área de distribución.                number of types or varieties of taxa
    The geographic spread, range, or                    in the plant kingdom.
    location of particular species.                 diversity index. índice de diversidad.
disturbance. factor perturbador. An                     A mathematical description of the
    interruption in the pattern of veg-                 species diversity of a community;
    etative succession by human or non-                 an important means for compari-
    human activity, such as fire, flood,                son of community structure and
    or cultivation.                                     stability.
disulfide bond. enlace bisulfito. The               diverticulum (pl. diverticuli). divert-
    linking of sulfur atoms of two dif-                 ículo. A pocket.
    ferent amino acids in a protein.                divided. dividido. partido. A leaf
dithecal. ditécica. Having two cavi-                    cut almost to the midrib or base,
    ties in the ovary or an anther with                 forming distinct parts.
    two loculi.                                     division. división. A major classifi-
ditheous. diteo. Having two cavaties.                   cation of the plant kingdom, listed
diurnal. diurno. Recurring or repeated                  in increasing rank: Order, Class and
    every day, as flowers that open                     Division; same as the older term
    during the day and close in the                     Phylum; also, as in plant cell di-
    evening or night, as the morning                    vision, the dividing of the cell into
    glory (Convolvulaceae).                             two or more cells, each having its
divaricate. divaricado. Widely spread-                  own nucleus.
    ing or branching at a wide angle,               DNA. ADN. Desoxyribose nucleic
    as from a stem.                                     acid.
divergence. divergencia. The genetic                dodeca-. dodeca-. A prefix that means,
    segregation and differentiation                     “twelve”.
    within a species, genus, family,                dolabrate. dolabriforme. malpigiáceo.
dolabrate                                  119                       dothidiaceous
   Fleshy leaves that are straight at           riod of not growing or germinat-
   the front, tapered at the base and           ing, usually associated with envi-
   compressed at the upper end of the           ronmental conditions of cold or dry
   back.                                        seasons external dormancy or qui-
dolabriform. dolabriforme. Having               escence, or to factors within the
   the form of an axe or pick-axe and           organ itself, internal dormancy or
   usually attached near the middle.            rest; hypobiosis.
doliform. doliforme. Barrel-shaped.          dormant. durmiente. Plants or plant
domatium. domatio. A cavity formed              parts (seeds, bulbs, etc.) that are
   by a plant in which live insects or          not growing or are in suspended
   mites live in a sybiosis with the            development, especially during the
   plant.                                       winter or dry seasons.
domestication. domesticación. The            dormany. dormania. The temporary
   selective breeding and cultivation           suppression of growth, frequently
   of plants by humans.                         for survival. Of a seed, due to the
dome. cúpula. The growing point of              presence of a growth inhibitor or
   the receptacle of a flower.                  the possession of a coat imperme-
dome cell. célula cúpula. The api-              able to essential external growth
   cal cell of the developing antherid-         material.
   ium of some ferns. It divides to form     dormin. dormina. See abscisic acid.
   the cap and the secondary cell.           dorsal. dorsal. The under surface of
dominance. dominancia. The qual-                a leaf; the surface farthest from the
   ity or condition of being dominant,          axis; of a perianth, the back or lower
   as expressed in Mendel’s Law of              side; abaxial.
   Dominance; also, in genetics, the         dorsal wall. pared dorsal. In a guard
   designation of the allele of any pair        cell, the wall farthest from the sto-
   of contrasting alleles that prevails,        matal pore.
   when both are present in the geno-        dorsiferous. dorsífero. Producing clus-
   type.                                        ters of sporangia on the underside
dominant gene. gen dominante. In                of a frond, as a dorsiferous fern.
   diploid organisms, a gene that pro-       dorsifixed. dorsifijo. Attached at the
   duces the same phenotypic char-              back or dorsal surface, as a
   acter when its alleles are present           dorsifixed anther; adnate.
   in a single dose (heterozygous) per       dorsiventral. dorsiventral. Leaves
   nucleus as it does in a double dose          with the upper (dorsal) and lower
   (homozygous).                                (ventral) sides structurally differ-
dominant. dominante. In genetics,               ent, as the juvenile leaves of the
   designating as dominant one of any           eucalyptis.
   pair of opposite characters (or the       dorsiventral symmetry. simetria
   character it influences) that pre-           dorsiventral. Having both bor-
   vail in the germ plasma and the other        ders with the same shape but the
   as recessive; also, in ecology, des-         top (dorsal) and bottom (ventral)
   ignating the most extensive spe-             different, as most leaves.
   cies in a plant community.                dothidiaceous. doticiaceo. Having
dormancy. latencia. letargo. A pe-              the asci in cavities in the stroma.
dosage compensation                          120                                dry season
dosage compensation. compensación                      have notched teeth along the mar-
    de dosificación. The cellular mech-                gins; biserrate.
    anisms that make up for the activ-             doubling time. tiempo de duplicación.
    ity of genes, which because of their               The amount of time it takes a plant
    location on the X chromosome, exist                population to double in size, as-
    in two doses in females and one                    suming a particular rate of growth.
    in males.                                      down. bozo. Soft, fine hair, as pu-
dotted. punctato. punteado. Covered                    bescence on plants and some fruits;
    with small, round spots.                           the feathery substance on some
double. doble. Having more than one                    seeds that are carried by the wind.
    set of sepals or petals.                       drepaniform. drepaniforme. Having
double fertilization. fertilización doble.             the shape of a sickle; falciform.
    fecundación doble. In seed plants,             drepanium. drepanio. A sickle-shaped
    the union of one sperm nucleus with                cyme.
    the egg nucleus and the other sperm            drift. deriva. An irregular variation
    nucleus with the polar nuclei; or,                 in the genotype of a population due
    a type of angiosperm reproductive                  to random processes.
    strategy in which two sperm are                driodium. driodio. A dry thicket for-
    involved in the fusion with other                  mation.
    nuclei.                                        drooping. inclinado. Hanging down.
double flower. flor doble. A flower                drought. sequía. An environmental
    having more than the usual number                  condition in which precipitation is
    of petals.                                         not adequate to maximize biological
double flowering. floración doble. The                 productivity.
    abnormal production of flowers in              drought cycle. ciclo de sequía. A tem-
    the spring, and again in the autumn.               porary and repetitious period of
double fusion. fusión doble. The si-                   reduced or low precipitation, in an
    multaneous joining of a sperm and                  otherwise favorable environment.
    egg and the union of another sperm             drupaceous. drupado. Pertaining to
    and polar nuclei that occurs in the                or producing drupes, as drupaceous
    embryo sac of flowering plants.                    fruit.
double-helix structure. estructura en              drupe. drupa. A fruit containing a sin-
    doble hélice. Consisting of two                    gle carpel, usually hard and one-
    strands that coil around each other                seeded, surrounded by soft, pulpy
    to form a double spiral or helix.                  flesh (mesocarp), and a thin exo-
double heterozygote. heterocigoto                      carp.
    doble. A heterozygote in respect               drupelet. drupéola. A small drupe;
    of two genes.                                      one of the small drupes that make-
double recessive. recesivo doble. A                    up blackberries (Rubus) and rasp-
    diploid homozygote for a recessive                 berries (Rubus).
    gene.                                          dry season. estación de sequía. A
double reduction. redución doble.                      regular period each year when there
    Non-disjunction.                                   is little or no precipitation; occur-
double-serrated. doble-serrado. biser-                 ring in tropical areas during the win-
    rado. Doubly serrate; leaves that                  ter months, in the summer months
dry spore                                  121                            dystrophy
    in the subtropics, and in the low           axial embryo that varies in size in
    latitudes, twice a year.                    relation to the seed but ranges from
dry spore. espora seco. A spore that            smaller to nearly the same size as
    separates from the cell producing           the seed.
    it, without any slime.                   dwarfism. enanismo. An underdevel-
duct. conducto. A large tubular ca-             oped growth condition that may
    nal; a tube-like canal made from            result from genetic malformation
    a row of cells whose cell walls have        or environmental deficiencies, as
    disappeared; usually refers to the          low light; nanism.
    trachea.                                 dwarf shoots (spurs). enano vástago.
dulcis. dulcis. A Latin term that means,        Shoots that emerge from preformed
    “sweet”.                                    buds that have short internodal
dull (color). opaco. Not bright.                intervals.
dumose. dumoso. Shrubby.                     dyad. diada. Occurring in groups of
duplex. duplexo. In two layers, one             two, as grains of pollen; also, a
    harder than the other; also, the            product of disjunction of the tet-
    condition of a polyploid when a             rads, at the first meiotic division;
    particular dominant allelomorph is          one of the pairs of chromatids
    represented twice.                          formed when a group of four spores
duplex group. grupo duplex. The                 or pollen grains (tetrad) split during
    diploid complement of factors and           meiosis.
    chromosome.                              dygenic. digénico. Referring to any
duplicate genes. gens duplicado.                factor that tends to decrease the
    Genes which have an identical, but          fitness of the race.
    non-accumlative effect.                  dysphotic. disfótica. Growing in the
duplication. duplicación. The union             lower depths of deep water where
    of a fragment of a chromosome with          there is little light, as dysphotic
    a whole chromosome of the same              vegetation.
    sort.                                    dystrophic. distrófico. Containing
duramen. duramen. The heartwood                 large amounts of humus or peat
    of an exogenous tree; also, the             through organic and inorganic sedi-
    woody portion of a vine.                    mentation, as a dystrophic lake.
duration. duracíon. The period of time       dystrophy. distrófia. Insects removing
    a plant continues to exist.                 the nectar from a flower by some
dwarf. enano. A tree or plant that is           abnormal method, and consequently
    much below the ordinary height or           not operating the pollinating mecha-
    size of its kind or related species.        nism.
dwarf embryo. enano embrión. An
e-                                      122                       ecological backlash

e-. e-. A Latin prefix that means, “with-       ecesis. ecesis. The adaptation of a
    out” or “out of”.                               species to a new habitat by ger-
-eae. –eae. In plant taxonomy, the                  minating, growing, and reproduc-
    ending or suffix used to indicate               ing successfully; the third stage in
    a tribe.                                        a series of six steps in plant suc-
ear. espiga. On cereal plants, the struc-           cession. See sere.
    ture that bears flowers from which          echinate. aguijonado. Having prickles
    grains develop, as corn, wheat, and             or spines, as an echinate pericarp;
    barley (Poaceae); spike.                        prickly.
eared. See auriculate.                          echinulate. aguijónulado. Having a
early. precoz. variedad precoz. A                   covering of small prickles or spines.
    variety that germinates and fruits          eciliate. sin cilios. Having no cilia,
    before others of the same kind.                 or hair-like growth which is found
earlywood (spring wood). leña tempr-                on the underside of some leaves.
    ano. leña de primavera. The less            eco-. eco-. A prefix that means, “of
    dense part of the growth ring made              the environment”.
    of cells with thinner walls; hav-           ecocline. ecolina. A gradation from
    ing a greater radial diameter and               one ecosystem to another when there
    shorter length than those formed                is no sharp boundary between the
    later in the year.                              two systems.
ebeneous. ebeneo. Black as ebony.               ecocrine. ecocrino. See ectocrine.
ebenaceous. ebenáceo. Pertaining to             ecodeme. ecodeme. A group of plants
    Ebenaceae, the ebony family found               in a specific, unique habitat. See
    mostly in the tropics.                          deme.
ebracteate. ebracteado. Without                 ecological. ecológico. Pertaining to
    bracts, as an ebracteate flower.                the environment of an organ or
ecalcarate. ecalcarado. Without spurs.              organism; having to do or pertaining
ecarinate. sin quilla. Without a keel.              to ecology.
eccentric. excéntrico. Off-center; not          ecological amplitude. amplitud ecológ-
    located directly on the central axis;           ico. A species tolerance range;
    having a trunk not regularly shaped;            those with a narrow range are of-
    also, having fatty droplets lying to            ten used as an ecological indica-
    one side of a globular structure.               tor species.
ecdysone. ecdisona. A steroid hor-              ecological backlash. reacción violenta
    mone occurring in some ferns                    ecológico. The unexpected and
    (Filicopsida), conifers (Coniferae),            harmful consequences of an envi-
    and flowering plants; the signifi-              ronmental modification (e.g.
    cance and function in plants, is not            hydroelectric dam construction)
    clearly understood.                             which may outweigh the gains ex-
ecological efficiency                     123                           ecospecies
   pected from the change.                     in local populations and distrib-
ecological efficiency. eficiencia              uted over a large geographical area.
   ecológica. A ratio, expressed as         ecological succession. sucesión ecológ-
   a percentage, of energy flow meas-          ica. The sequential replacement
   ured at different points in a food          of one vegetative community by
   chain.                                      another through a series of stages
ecological energetics. energéticos             ending in a climax community.
   ecológico. The study of energy           ecological system. sistema ecológico.
   transformations within an ecosys-           See ecosystem.
   tem.                                     ecologically. ecológicamente. Per-
ecological factor. factor ecológico.           taining to ecology.
   Anything in the environment which        ecologist. ecólogo. A person who stud-
   affects the growth, development,            ies organisms in terms of their re-
   and distribution of plants and              lationships with other organisms
   thereby determines the character-           and with their environment; envi-
   istics of the plant community.              ronmentalist.
ecological genetics. genética ecológ-       ecology. ecología. A subdivision of
   ico. The study of genetics with a           biology that studies the organic
   particular emphasis on geographic           diversity of life forms and their in-
   or global variations.                       teractive relationships with each
ecological indicator. indicador ecológ-        other and with their physical and
   ico. A species or group of species          chemical environment; the study
   that indicate a particular type of          of organisms in relationship to their
   environment, as lichens detecting           environment.
   air pollution or fossils indicating      ecophene. ecofeno. The range of phe-
   conditions of the past.                     notypes produced by one genotype
ecological isolation. aislamiento              (or closely related genotype) within
   ecológico. The separation of groups         a particular habitat; also, a group
   of species as a result of changes           of plants essentially, of the same
   in their environment.                       genetic constituion, with members
ecological niche. nicho ecológico. The         differing in appearance and repro-
   functional position a species oc-           ductive vigor, due to the influences
   cupies in its environment; composed         of their varying environments.
   of the habitat, the periods of time      ecorticate. ecorticado. Lacking a cor-
   during which it is active, and the          tex, expecially seaweeds.
   resources available to it.               ecoscience. ecociencia. See environ-
ecological pyramid. pirámide ecológ-           mental science.
   ico. A graphic depiction developed       ecospecies. ecospecie. A category of
   by Dr. Charles Elton of the trophic         variant individuals capable of ge-
   structure and function of an eco-           netic recombination with other simi-
   system; sometimes referred to as            lar groups, often resulting in a re-
   the Eltonian pyramid.                       duction in fitness or fertility; al-
ecological race. estirpe ecológico. A          though interfertile, they either do
   race or group of many similar vari-         not cross with other ecospecies or
   ants of the same species occurring          produce progeny with reduced vigor.
ecosphere                                124                               ectostroma
    Approximates the taxonomic spe-                ing decomposition that effects other
    cies.                                          organisms; ecocrine.
ecosphere. ecosfera. A whole planet,           ectoenzyme. ectoenzima. An enzyme
    steady-state ecosystem with inter-             that exists on the outside of a cell;
    acting biotic and abiotic compo-               exoenzyme.
    nents; biosphere.                          ectogenesis. ecogenia. Variations due
ecosystem. ecosistema. A complete                  to conditions ouside the plant.
    ecological system of an area,              ectogenic. ectogenico. Describes the
    including plants, animals, and                 effect of pollen on the tissue of the
    environmental factors; also, an                female organs of a flowering plant;
    interacting group of organisms that            also, bacteria living on the outside
    relate to each other and their physi-          of a body.
    cal and chemical environment by            ectomycorrhiza. ectomicorriza. A type
    being self-sustaining, balanced, and           of mycorrhiza where the fungal
    self-perpetuating; also, an equili-            hyphae do not enter the root cells,
    brated biotic system formed by the             but do cover the root and grow
    balance of environoment influences             between the root cells, especially
    with interdependent organic life;              in forest trees.
    first used in 1935 by A.G.Tansley.         ectone. ectono. A well defined tran-
    See biome.                                     sition zone between two or more
ecotone. ecotono. A transition area                different plant communities.
    between two communities, usually           ectoparasite. ectoparásito. When re-
    with characteristics of both as well           ferring to a plant, a parasite which
    as its own.                                    feeds from the inside the host, but
ecotope. ecótopo. A biome and its                  the bulk of the plant body and re-
    habitat; biogeoc(o)enosis.                     productive organs are outside the
ecotype. ecotipo. A genetic variant                host.
    of a species which has adapted to          ectophlocodal. ectoflocodal. Living
    a specific area within its overall             on the outside of bark.
    distribution, yet remains infertile        ectophloic. ectoflóico. Refers to stems
    with all other members of the spe-             with the phloem on the outside of
    cies; variant type.                            the xylem.
ecrustaceous. ecrustaceo. Said of li-          ectophyte. ectofito. A plant parasite
    chen without a well-defined thal-              living on the outside parts of a host
    lus.                                           plant.
ecto-. ecto-. A Greek prefix that              ectoplasm. ectoplasma. The semiclear,
    means,“to,” “out of” or “on the out-           somewhat rigid outer part of the
    side,” as ectoenzyme.                          cell cytoplasm; ectosarc; exoplasm.
ectoascus. ectoasco. An outer ascus.           ectosarc. ectosarc. See ectoplasm.
ectocarp. epicarpo. exocarpo. The              ectospore. ectospora. A spore devel-
    outer layer of the pericarp of a fruit         oped on the outside of a hyphae;
    or ripened ovary of a plant, as the            formerly, a term for basidospore.
    skin on a mango (Mangifera).               ectostroma. ectostroma. The part of
ectocrine. ectocrino. Refers to a chemi-           the stroma formed on the surface
    cal substance that is released dur-            of the bark, beneath, or within the
ectothecal                                  125                           eglandular
    periderm, commonly only fungus                fluence of two bordering commu-
    tissue; epistroma.                            nities on the types and numbers of
ectothecal. ectotecal. Of ascomycetes,            plants and animals in their adjoining
    not having the hymenium covered.              fringes.
ectotrophic. ectótrófo. Obtaining nour-       edged. marginado. bordeado. The
    ishment from outside, as some fungi           margin of a flower or other struc-
    that live on the outside of roots.            ture that may have a different color
ectotrophic infection. infeción ectótr-           than the main body; bordered.
    ofo. Pertaining to root-infecting         edulis. edulis. A Latin term that means,
    fungi growing on the surface of the           “edible”.
    root but sending infection hyphae         efficiency index. indice de eficiencia.
    into the host tissue below; also hy-          The rate at which dry matter ac-
    phae running between the epider-              cumulates in plants.
    mal cells.                                effigurate. efigurado. Having a defi-
ectotrophic mycorrhiza. micorriza                 nite shape.
    ectótrofo. A mycorrhizal associa-         effigurations. efiguracións. Out-
    tion where the bulk of the fungus             growths from the receptacle.
    covers the root, with hyphae grow-        efflorescence. floración. The pro-
    ing into the intercellular spaces.            duction of flowers; also, the pe-
ectrotropic. ectrotrófico. Curving out-           riod of flowering; flowering.
    ward.                                     effuse. efuso. Spreading out loosely
edaphic. edáfico. More influenced                 or in an unrestrained, or indefinite
    by soil composition rather than by            manner, as effuse flowers.
    climate, as an edaphic plant.             egg. huevo. The middle of three hap-
edaphic climax. clímax edáfica. A                 loid cells at the micropylar end of
    climax that is primarily produced             the embryo sac which becomes a
    by soil conditions, such as moist,            zygote when fertilized; a nonmo-
    dry, or acid.                                 tile female gamete; a rudimentary
edaphic factor. factor edáfica. Any               embryo.
    soil factor which affects the organ-      egg apparatus. aparato de ovular. Usu-
    ism that grows in or on it.                   ally three cells in an embryo sac,
edaphology. edafología. The study                 one is the egg and the other two,
    of plants and their relationship to           synergids.
    the soil.                                 egg cell. célula de huevo. ovocélula.
edaphon. edafón. The plants and ani-              óvulo. In angiosperms and gym-
    mals living in a soil that affect the         nosperms, the female reproductive
    nitrogen content.                             cell that becomes a zygote after
edema. edema. A large mass of un-                 fertilization. See egg.
    healthy parenchyma; also, an ab-          egg sac. saco ovígero. A membrane
    normal swelling of large areas of             or covering around an egg.
    tissue due to excess water; oedema.       egg-shaped. obovado. obovoide. ob-
edentate. sin dientes. Without teeth.             voide. A three-dimensional struc-
edge. borde. Margin, as the margin                ture that has the oblong shape of
    or edge of a leaf; border.                    a bird’s egg.
edge effect. efecto de borde. The in-         eglandular. eglandular. Without
eisodal aperature                       126                        electrophysiology
    glands.                                       charged particle that is one of the
eisodal aperature. orificio eisodal. The          three units (electrons, protons, neu-
    enlargement of the stomata pore               trons) that make up an atom.
    nearest to the surface of the leaf.       electron carrier. (trans)portador de
ejaculation. eyaculación. The forci-              electrones. A chemical compound
    ble expulsion of spores from a spo-           that serves as an acceptor and do-
    rangium, or seeds from a fruit.               nor of electrons and/or protons in
ejection. eyección. See ejaculation.              an electron transport system.
ektexine. ectexina. The outer layer           electron transport. transporte de
    of the exine of a pollen grain; usu-          electrones. The carrying of an elec-
    ally has projections on it.                   tron from one substrate to another,
elaioplast. elaioplasto. eleoplasto.              involving the oxidation of one and
    cuerpo oleoso. A plastid that con-            the reduction of the other, e.g.
    tains stored oil.                             HA + B = HB + A. The enzyme
elaiosome. eleosoma. An outgrowth                 bringing about such a transfer is
    containing fats or oils from the              termed an electron carrier; also, a
    surface of a seed which often at-             sequence of chemical activity in-
    tracts ants that may aid in seed-             volving the transfer of electrons
    dispersal.                                    from one energy level to another
elaminate. elaminado. Without a blade.            in which the energy is made avail-
elastic growth. crecimiento elástico.             able to the cell.
    The part of a cell wall extension         electron transport chain. cadena
    that is reversible.                           transportadora de electrones. A
elater. eláter. One of four filaments             system of electron carriers, present
    curled once or twice around spores            in mitochondria, which sequentially
    in Equisetaceae; a spiral filament            transport electrons and or protons
    which is used in the dispersion of            from glycolysis, the citric acid cycle,
    spores, as in liverworts (Hepaticae);         and other metabolic reactions; also
    also, in bryophytes, an elongated,            a system of electron transport in
    spirally thickened cell derived from          metabolic pathways, as photosyn-
    the sporangenous tissue, and some-            thesis; respiratory chain.
    times aiding in spore-dispersal; in       electron transport particle, ETP.
    some Lycoperdales, a spirally thick-          partícula transportadora de
    ened structure in the fruit body.             electrones, PTE. The morphologi-
elaterophore. elateróforo. A tissue               cal site of the enzymes involved
    that bears the elaters; also, a cen-          in electron transport.
    tral column-like mass of sterile tis-     electrophoresis. electroforesis. The
    sue in the spornagium of the                  movement of charge particles in a
    Jungermanniales.                              stationary liquid under the influ-
electrolyte. electrolito. electrólito.            ence of an electric field; the rate
    A substance that ionizes in solu-             varying according to the charge on
    tion, i.e. conducts electricity when          the particle, its size, and shape.
    in solution, by the movement of           electrophysiology. electrofisiología.
    ions.                                         The study of the relationship be-
electron. electrón. A negatively                  tween living organisms and elec-
electropism                                 127                         embryology
    tricity.                                  emasculation. emasculación. A step
electropism. electrotropismo. The                in the hybridization process that
    curving of plant growth due to               involves removing a plant’s
    slight electrical currents.                  anther(s) to avoid self-pollination.
electrotaxis. eclectrotaxis. The move-        Embden-Meyerhop-Parnas sequence.
    ment of cells or organisms in re-            secuencia de Embden Meyerhop-
    sponse to electric currents.                 Parnas. The second phase in gly-
element. elemento. A substance com-              colysis during aerobic respiration.
    posed of atoms that are chemically           A molecule of hexose diphosphate
    alike and which cannot be sepa-              is formed into two molecules of
    rated in to simpler parts by any             triose phosphate. Two energy-rich
    known chemical means.                        phosphates are released. ADP is
eleutheropetalous. eleuteropetalo.               converted to ATP and DPN is re-
    Polypetalous.                                duced, with the formation of pyruvic
eligulate. sin ligula. Without a ligule;         acid.
    without the strap-shaped portion          embracing. abrazador. abrazado.
    of the perianth or a ray or ligulate         Clasping or enwrapping.
    corolla.                                  embryo. embrión. The undeveloped
ellipsoid. elipsoide. A solid body               or rudimentary plant developed
    which is elliptic in the long sec-           from an ovum sexually or asexu-
    tion and circular in the cross sec-          ally and, in seed plants contained
    tion.                                        within the seed.
elliptic. elíptico. With the widest axis      embryo sac. saco embrional. saco
    at midpoint of the structure and with        embrionario. The female repro-
    margins symmetrically curved, as             ductive organ usually consisting of
    in the leaves of the Ficus macro-            the egg cell, three antipodal cells,
    phylla; narrow and tapering at each          two polar nuclei, and two synergids;
    end.                                         the female gametophyte of flow-
elongate. alargado. Long and nar-                ering plants. The embryo sac arises
    row, as certain leaves; extended;            from the megaspore by successive
    drawn out.                                   mitotic divisions.
elongation. elongación. A lengthening         embryogenesis. embriogénesis. The
    of some parts; the growth of a cell          formation and development of an
    by an increase in length.                    embryo.
emarginate. emarginado. Lacking a             embryogeny. embriogenia. The proc-
    distinct margin; also, the rounded           ess leading to the formation of an
    lobe of a leaf or petal with a shal-         embryo.
    low notch at the apex; also refers        embryoid. embrioide. Resembling
    to a fungal gill with a notch near-          an embryo, as embryoids developing
    est the stipe.                               inside pollen grains, eventually
emasculate. emascular. To remove                 emerging as root and stem
    the anthers from a bud or flower             meristems.
    before pollen is shed; a normal           embryology. embriología. The branch
    preliminary step in hybridization            of study that deals with the for-
    preventing self-pollination.                 mation and development of em-
embryonal                              128                                 endemic
   bryos.                                       (Nymphaeaceae).
embryonal. embrional. Related to an          empty glume. gluma estéril. Sterile
   embryo.                                      glume.
embryonic. embrionario. Pertaining           emulsin. emulsina. An enzyme that
   to embryos.                                  breaks down gluosides to give a
embryonic axis. axón embrionario.               sugar and an aromatic group.
   The main root-shoot body of a seed-       emulsion. emulsión. A collodial sus-
   ling; hypocotyl.                             pension of one liquid in another.
embryonic tissue. tejido embrionario.        enation. enación. An abnormal growth
   A tissue made up of actively di-             of an organ or an excrescence on
   viding cells.                                the surface of any part of the plant;
embryoniform. embrioniforme. Shaped             also, tissue flaps growing out from
   like an embryo.                              the stem, possibly the origin of
embryophytes. embriófitas. embrió-              microphylls.
   fitos. Any plants that develop em-        enatiostylous. enacioestilo. Refers
   bryos, as mosses (Musci), ferns              to a flower which has the style(s)
   (Filicopsida) and flowering plants.          projecting from one side.
embryostega. embriostegio. In some           enchylema. enquilema. The more fluid
   seeds, a cap that covers a portion           constituents of the cytoplasm.
   of the embryo before germination          encircle. encerrar. Surround.
   and pushed off by the growth of           enclosed. envuelto. Surrounded.
   the radicle; a disk-like callus on a      encrustation. encrustación. Adcrust-
   seed.                                        ation.
 emergence. emergencia. Various              encystment. encistamiente. enquist-
   outgrowths that come from the tis-           amiento. The formation of a walled,
   sue beneath the epidermis, such as           non-motile body from a swimming
   thorns on a rose bush (Rosa).                spore.
emergence marsh. marisma de                  endangered species. especie amen-
   emergencia. The upper zone of a              azada. A living species that is in
   salt marsh from the general mean             danger of becoming extinct because
   high water level to the mean high            of small population sizes, poor re-
   water level of spring tides; usu-            production, reduced available habi-
   ally with sharply limited periods            tat, or combinations of two or more
   of continuous submergence.                   of these factors.
emergents. emergentes. Individual            endarch. endarchar. The direction
   trees or group of trees that stand           of differentiation of the xylem when
   strikingly higher than the top of a          it is cut off from the cambium to-
   continuous canopy of low land                wards the center of the axis. The
   tropical rain forests.                       protoxylem develops outward to the
emersed. salir. Standing out of sur-            edge nearest the center of the axis,
   rounding water, as part of an aquatic        as an endarch stele.
   plant.                                    endecandrous. endecandro. Having
emersed leaf. hoja emergida. An                 eleven stamens.
   aquatic plant leaf standing out of        endemic. endémico. Species that are
   the water, as some water lilies              native to a particular environment
endemism                                   129                  endogenous spore
   or geographic locality; not intro-           it is later expelled.
   duced or naturalized. Applied             endocytosis. endocitosis. Cellular in-
   strictly when the element has not            gestion where the cell membrane
   yet attained maximum area.                   folds inward to enclose and incor-
endemism. endemismo. A situation                porate foreign substances, as bac-
   where a species or whole taxonomic           teria.
   group is limited to a particular geo-     endodermal pressure. presión endo-
   graphic region due to isolation, soil        dermal. Root pressure.
   composition, or climate; as to the        endodermis. endodermis. The cyl-
   region.                                      inder of cells surrounding the vas-
endergonic. endergónico. A chemi-               cular bundle of a root. The radial
   cal reaction showing a net gain in           walls are thickened by the Casparian
   energy, but does require an energy           strip so that substances entering
   input, as it is never spontaneous.           or leaving the vascular bundle have
endergonic reaction. reacción enderg-           to pass through the protoplasm of
   ónico. A reaction that needs en-             the endodermal cells; also, a layer
   ergy put into the system for it to           of cells delimiting the cortex from
   take place.                                  the stele.
endo-. endo-. A Greek prefix that            endoenzyme. endoenzima. An enzyme
   means, “within,” “inside,” or “in-           that responds or exists within the
   ner.”                                        cell in which it originated; endo-
endoascus. endoasco. An inner as-               cellular enzyme.
   cus.                                      endoform. endoforma. Of the Ured-
endobasidial. endobasidial. Said of             inales where the teliospores are like
   a lichen sporophore having a sec-            the aeciospores in form.
   ondary sporing branch.                    endogamy. endogamia. The pollination
endobasidium. endobasidio. A basid-             of a flower by another flower of
   ium developing inside the fruit body.        the same plant; also, the union of
endobiotic. endobiótico. Growing in-            two related gametes; also, the un-
   side a living organism, as a para-           ion of two sister gametes, both fe-
   site.                                        male.
endocarp. endocarp(i)o. In fruit, the        endogelatin. endogelatina. A gelati-
   inner area of the pericarp, if the           nous layer on the inner wall of the
   texture is different from the outer          macrosporangia of some brown
   layer, as with peaches (Amygdalus)           seaweeds (Fucales). When wet,
   or mangoes (Mangifera).                      it swells, forcing out the macro-
endocarpous. endocarpico. Having                spores.
   the mature hymenium covered over.         endogenic. endógeno. See endo-
endocellular enzyme. enzima endo-               genous.
   celular. An enzyme which func-            endogenous. endógeno. Growing from
   tions within the cell in which it was        within, as endogenous spores.
   formed.                                   endogenous spore. espora endogéno.
endoconidium. endoconidio. An                   A spore formed within a sporan-
   asexual spore of fungi, formed in-           gium.
   side a cell or coenocyte, from which      endogenous thallus. talo endogéno.
endogenous thallus                      130                               endoscopic
   Describes a lichen thallus in which           essarily as a parasite.
   the alga predominates.                     endoplacodial. endoplacodial. Having
endogonidium. endogonidio. A gonid-              the ostiolar disk developed from
   ium developing inside a recepta-              the endostroma.
   cle.                                       endoplasm. endoplasma. The inner
endolithic. endolitico. Growing in a             part of cell cytoplasm.
   stone, as the thalli of some lichens.      endoplasmic reticulum. retículo endo-
endomitosis. endomitosis. Producing              plásmico. A group submicro-
   a polyploid by the doubling of chro-          scopic, double layer membranes,
   mosomes in a non-dividing nucleus;            consisting of canaliculi and cister-
   can be repeated many times in a               nae, that permeate the cytoplasm
   single nucleus.                               of the cell; sometimes there are mi-
endomycorrhiza. endomicorriza. A                 crosomal particles, usually ribo-
   type of mycorrhiza where the fungus           somes, associated with them and
   hyphae enter the cells of roots.              serve as a tubular system of the
endonuclease. endonucleasa. An en-               colorless cytoplasm in the cell. This
   zyme that catalyzes a break at some           association is responsible for the
   point within the DNA molecule.                major biosynthesis to the cell.
endoparasite. endoparásitico. endos-          endopleura. endopleura. The inner
   ito. parásito internal. A para-               seed coat of the Cycadaceae.
   sitic plant or animal living in the        endosmosis. endosmosis. The move-
   tissues or cavities of a plant.               ment of a fluid inward through a
endopeptidase. endopeptidasa. An                 membrane toward a solution of
   enzyme that speeds the hydroly-               greater concentration.
   sis of proteins and peptides; in par-      endorhizal. endorizal. Monocotyle-
   ticular, the interior peptide bonds;          donous.
   proteinase. See exopeptidase.              endorhizoid. endorizoide. A rhiz-
endoperidium. endoperidio. In some               oid formed at the base of the seta
   terrestrial fungi (Gasteromycetes),           of a bryophyte and penetrating the
   the inner, palisade-like layer of a           gamotophyte.
   double layered peridium.                   endosperm. endospermo. endo-
endophelloderm. endofelodermo.                   sperma. The nourishment or nu-
   endofeloderma. endofelodermis.                tritive tissue that surrounds the
   Cells cut off from the inner face             embryo of a seed; formed from the
   of the phelloderm.                            fusion of a haploid sperm nucleus
endophytic mycorrhiza. micorriza                 with the two haploid polar nuclei
   endófitico. Endotrophic mycorrh-              in the ovule of angiosperms.
   iza.                                       endosaprophytism. endosaprofitismo.
endophyllous. endofilo. Pertaining               The destruction of the lichen alga
   to a plant member developing in               by the fungus.
   the shelter of a sheathing leaf; also,     endosclerotium. endosclerotio. A
   said of a parasite living inside a            sclertotium of an endogenous spore.
   leaf.                                      endoscopic. endoscopico. Of a plant
endophyte. endófito. A plant that grows          embryo, which divides transversely
   inside another plant, but not nec-            at the first division, the inner daugh-
endosome                                   131                           enol form
   ter cell being thebembroyonic one         endotrophic. endotrófico. endótrofo.
   and the outer one the suspensor,              Obtaining nourishment from within,
   i.e. the embryo points to the base            as some fungi that live inside plant
   of the archegonium.                           roots; also, having hyphae enter-
endosome. endosoma. Karyosome.                   ing the cells.
endosperm. endosperma. endospermo.           endotrophic mycorrhiza. endotrófico
   The nutritive material developed              micorriza. A mycorrhiza in which
   in the embryo sac of flowering                the fungus is growing almost com-
   plants from the fusion of one fe-             pletely internally within the cor-
   male nucleus with one or more oth-            tex of the root.
   ers, or with a male nucleus, or with      endozoic. endozoico. Living inside an
   both.                                         animal; also, a method of seed dis-
endospermous. albuminoso. Relating               persal where plant seeds are swal-
   to the nourishing material that sur-          lowed by an animal and voided
   rounds the embryo of a seed.                  unharmed in the feces.
endospore. endóspora. The inner coat         energid. enérgida. A volume of pro-
   of some spores; also, a type of rest-         toplasm which is controlled by the
   ing cell that develops inside a veg-          enclosed nucleus.
   etative cell under some conditions        energy. energia. The capacity for doing
   and is quite resistant to adverse             work; may be chemical, electrical,
   environmental conditions; also, a             mechanical, thermal, or nuclear, but
   spore formed within a cell of some            always a measure of the work done.
   Myxophyceae and bacteria. The             energy flow. flujo de energia. flujo
   spore wall is not fused to the wall           energético. The exchange and dis-
   of the parent cell.                           persion of energy along the food
endostome. endóstoma. The opening                chains of the ecosystem.
   at the top of the inner coat of an        energy of activation. activación de
   ovule.                                        energia. The energy required to
endosymbiosis. endosimbiosis. A con-             render molecules capable of reac-
   cept that some cellular organelles            tion.
   arose by the incorporation of a           energy pyramid. pirámide de la
   prokaryote into the cytoplasm of              energia. See pyramid of energy.
   a eukaryote; also, a type of sym-         enfold. envolver. envolviendo. To en-
   biosis where an organism lives in-            wrap; to twine or coil around.
   side another organism.                    enlarge. agrandar. To make bigger,
endothecial. endotecial. Of or per-              as an area or hole.
   taining to the endothecium.               enlarge. dilatar. To make bigger, as
endothecium. endotecio. The inner                a pore or vein.
   lining of the cell or cell layer of       enlarged. agrandado. Expanded or
   an anther.                                    swollen.
endotoxin. endotoxina. A compo-              enlargment. dilatación. Expanded pore
   nent of the walls of Gram-nega-               or vein.
   tive bacteria; toxic to humans and        enol form. forma enol. A cyclic mol-
   animals, but not released until the           ecule with an –OH group on the
   cell disintegrates.                           second carbon atom.
enolase                                132                 environmental science
enolase. enolasa. The enzyme catalyz-            ión entomófila. Pollination through
    ing the formation of phosphoe-               the activities of insects.
    nolpyruvic acid from 2-phos-             entoparasite. entoparásito. A para-
    phoglyceric acid.                            site inside the host.
ennea-. enneo-. A Greek prefix that          entostroma. entostroma. The part of
    means, “nine”.                               the stroma within the host which
enneaphyllus. enneofilo. Having nine             is composed of fungus and host tis-
    leaves.                                      sue.
enrichment. enriquecimiento. The re-         entozoic. entozoico. Living inside an
    placement of trees in a forest af-           animal.
    ter timber extraction.                   entrance cone. cono entrada. See fer-
enrolled. enrollado. Wrapped up or               tilization cone.
    surrounded.                              enucleation. enucleación. The removal
ensiform. ensiforme. Having the shape            of the nucleus of a cell by manipu-
    of a sword, as an ensiform leaf;             lation.
    sword shaped; xiphoid.                   envelope. envoltura. Any surrounding
entangled. enmarañado. A confused                or enclosing structure, as a calyx
    mass of things such as branches              or floral envelope.
    or hair-like growths from certain        environment. medio ambiente. All
    vines; intertwine.                           the surroundings and conditions af-
entelechy. entelequia. A concept which           fecting the growth and survival of
    holds that evolution proceeds by             various life forms.
    the actualization of that which was      environmental. ambiental. medio-
    always potential.                            ambiental. Pertaining to the en-
enterotoxin. enterotoxina. A type of             vironment.
    poison produced by some bacte-           environmental degradation. degradac-
    ria which affects the function of            ión ambiental. The depletion or
    the intestines of animals, causing           destruction of a potentially renew-
    diarrhea.                                    able resource, such as a forest, by
entine. entina. The inner layer of a             using it at faster rate than it is
    pollen grain shell.                          naturally replenished. If such a
entire. entero. Without teeth, notching,         process continues, the resource
    undulations, or division; a smooth,          becomes nonrenewable or extinct.
    undivided leaf margin.                   environmental insults. insulto ambien-
entire leaf. hoja entera. A leaf with            tal. Any environmental factor that
    an unbroken, continuous leaf mar-            hinders the growth or development
    gin.                                         of an organism.
ento-. ento. A Greek prefix than means,      environmental resistance. resistencia
    “within”.                                    ambiental. resistencia del amb-
entomogenous. entomógeno. Living                 iente. The combined biotic and
    on or in insects.                            abiotic factors which prevent a
entomophilous. entomófilo. A group               population from reaching its biotic
    of flowers that depend on insects            potential.
    for fertilization.                       environmental science. ciencias
entomophily. entomofilia. polinizac-             ambientales. The holistic study
environmentalist                           133                              epicalyx
   of the interactive factors associ-            taxonomically.
   ated with various environments;           ephemeral. efímero. A plant that under
   may include the physical, biological,         favorable conditions, germinates,
   social, cultural, and other academic          blooms, and sets seed several times
   disciplines; ecoscience.                      a year, as with certain desert plants;
environmentalist. ecologista. A person           also, temporary, as vegetation that
   working to identify and solve the             completes its life cycle in a short
   physical and societal factors causing         time.
   the degradation of the air, water,        ephemeral movement. movimiento
   soil, plant, animal, and human con-           efimero. The movement of a part
   dition; See ecologist.                        which cannot be repeated, as the
enzymatic. enzimático. Of or pertain-            opening of a bud.
   ing to enzymes.                           epi -. epi-. A Greek prefix that means,
enzyme. enzima. A molecule, largely              “upon” or “on top of”.
   protein, functioning as a catalyst        epiascidium. epiascidio. An abnor-
   and control in cellular metabolism;           mal funnel-shaped leaf with the up-
   causes or accelerates chemical re-            per surface of the leaf lining the
   actions in other substances with-             inside of the funnel; pitcher leaf.
   out being changed itself. Many are        epibasal cell. célula epibasal. One
   linked with non-protein groups                of the upper cells of the Bryophtya
   (prosthetic) essential to function-           or Pteridophyta embryo, which
   ing, the coenzymes often of com-              gives rise to the capsule and part
   plex constitution. Components of              of the seta, or to the stem and coty-
   specific prosthetic groups are e.g.           ledon.
   heavy metals (iron, magnesium,            epibasidium. epibasidio. A structure
   manganese, zinc) and trace food               that develops between the hypo-
   accessories, as thiamine and ribo-            basidium and the sterigmata.
   favin.                                    epibenthos. epibento. Plants and other
enzymology. enzimologia. The study               organisms that live below the low-
   of enzymes and the reactions they             tide mark and above the 100 fathom
   produce.                                      line; also, organisms that live just
epaleate. sin pálea. Without scales.             above the sea floor.
epappose. sin paposo. Without a pap-         epibiont. epibionte. A non-parasitic
   pus, as with certain composite flow-          organism living on the surface of
   ers.                                          another, as occurs with many li-
epetiolate. epeciolado. Without a peti-          chens or mosses (Musci).
   ole, the stalk by which a leaf is         epibioses. epibioses. Living on the
   attached, as with a sessile leaf.             surface of the water.
epetiolulate. epeciolulado. Without          epibiotic. epibiótico. Growing on the
   a petiolule, the stalk of a leaflet,          surface of a living organism.
   as with a sessile leaflet.                epiblast. epiblasto. A small outgrowth
epharmonic convergence. convergente              from a grass embryo.
   de efarmonico. A likeness in ex-          epicalyx. epicáliz. calículo. A whorl
   ternal appearance and structure in            of sepal-like appendages which
   plants that are not closely related           resembles but is not a true calyx.
epicarp                                       134                                epilittoral
epicarp. epicarp(i)o. The outer skin                    (Phaseolus); also, of germinating
    of a fruit or ripened ovary; exocarp.               seeds when the cotyledons are
epicormic. epicormico. Pertaining to                    brought above the surface of the
    a branch developing from a dor-                     ground.
    mant bud on the trunk of a tree                 epigean. epigeo. Occurring on the
    which becomes active as a result                    ground.
    damage or some other environmen-                epigeic. epigeico. Pertains to a plant
    tal abnormality.                                    with stolons on the surface of the
epicormic shoot. vástago epicormico.                    ground.
    A type of shoot that grows from                 epigenesis. epigénesis. The develop-
    dormant lateral buds on trunks                      ment of the embryo from the sub-
    which have long and often vari-                     stance of the egg.
    able internodal lengths or intervals;           epigenetics. epigenética. The study
    water shoots.                                       of the processes by which genes
epicotyl. epicótilo. epicotilo. In the                  produce their phenotypic effects.
    embryo, the part of the stem that               epigenous. epigeno. Said of a leaf
    is above the attachment point of                    fungus which grows on the surface.
    cotyledons and below the first true             epigeous. epideo. See epigeal.
    leaves.                                         epigynous. epígino. Pertaining to the
epictesis. epictesis. The ability of living             stamens, petals, and sepals that
    cells to accumulate salts in a higher               appear to be or are growing from
    concentration than that in which                    the top of the ovary; also, said of
    they occur in the surrounding so-                   a flower when the receptacle en-
    lution.                                             closes the carpel(s), so then the
epidermal excrescence. epidérmico                       other flower parts arise above the
    excrecencia. Refers to various                      carpel(s); also, having the antherid-
    types of surface outgrowths or se-                  ium arising above the oogonium.
    cretions on plant parts or organs.              epigyny. epigínia. An arrangement
epidermal. epidérmico. Pertaining                       of flower parts where the ovary is
    to the epidermis.                                   embedded in the receptacle so that
epidermis. epidermis. A protective                      the other parts appear to come out
    outer layer of cells, especially on                 from the top of the ovary.
    the stems, leaves, flowers, fruits,             epilimnion. epilimnion. The upper,
    and seeds, but absent from the root                 warm, circulating water in a ther-
    cap and on apical meristems. The                    mally stratified lake during the hot
    outer wall may be thickened by                      summer months; commonly a very
    the production of a cuticle and the                 shallow layer as compared to the
    cells may be extended into hairs.                   hypolimnion.
epigeal. epigeo. Growing above ground;              epilithic plant. planta rupestre. Plants
    a type of seed germination in dicots                that grow on or are attached to rocks
    characterized by epigeal cotyledons                 and stones; rupicolous plant.
    which are borne on an axis, above               epilittoral zone. zona epilitoral. A
    ground, and serve as true leaves;                   zone on the coast which is next to
    epigeal germination occurs in the                   the zone occupied by plants which
    sunflower (Asteraceae) and beans                    cannot withstand exposure to salt.
epilose                                     135                           epithecium
epilose. glabro. Having no hair or fuzz.          cospore formation; initially rich in
epimatium. epimatio. The ovuliferous              glycogen, but later lost.
    scale of conifers.                        epipterous. epiptero. Having a wing
epinastic. epinástico. The bending                at the apex.
    downward of a part or organ caused        epirhizal. epirrizo. Growing on a root.
    by a more rapid growth along the          epirhizous. epirrizo. See epirhizal.
    upper surface, as with many leaves.       episepalous. episépalo. Attached to
epinasty. epinastia. Differential growth          the sepals; used to describe sepals
    of the upper part of a plant organ,           fused to stamens or calyx.
    involving auxin and ethylene; com-        episodic evolution. evolución episód-
    monly seen in the rapid growth of             ico. The fossil record reflects in-
    a petiole, causing the leaf to bend           termittent extinction events fol-
    downward.                                     lowed by succeeding phases of rapid
epipelic. epipélico. Growing on mud.              evolutionary change.
epipetalous. epipétalo. Stamens fused         episperm. episperma. The outer por-
    with petals or corolla; attached to           tion of a seed coat.
    the petals, as epipetalous stamens.       epispore. epispora. The thick, outer
epipetric. rupicola. Living on top of             coat of a fungus zygote.
    rocks, as some mosses and lichens.        epistasis. epistasia. epistasis. Mask-
epiphloedal. epifloedal. Growing on               ing, as when one gene has a masking
    the surface of bark.                          effect on the expression of another
epiphoedic. epifoedico. See epiphlo-              nonallelic gene; the former is said
    edal.                                         to be epistatic.
epiphragm. epifragma. The membrane            epistatic. epistatico. Said of a char-
    stretching across the top of a moss           acter which is dominant to another
    capsule and is bordered by the                and is not an allelomorph.
    peristome teeth; also, a membrane         epistroma (pl. epistromata). epistroma.
    over the young fruit body of the              Ectostroma.
    Nidulariaceae.                            epistropha. epistrofa. The position-
epiphyllous. epifílo. Growing on leaves.          ing in diffuse light of the chloro-
epiphysis. epifisis. A growth around              plasts on the periclinal walls of the
    the hilum of a seed.                          palisade cells.
epiphyte. epífito. Mosses (Musci)             epithalline. epitalino. Growing on a
    and various plants, such as orchids           thallus; also, a falsely thalline
    (Orchidaceae), that grow on other             apothecial edge in lichens.
    plants for physical support but draw      epithallus. epitalo. The upper layer
    nourishment from the air and rain             of fungal hyphae in a lichen thal-
    rather than from the host; especially         lus.
    common in tropical forests.               epitheca. epiteca. The older outer
epiphytic. epifítico. Having the char-            layer of the half-wall of diatoms
    acteristics of an epiphyte.                   and dinoflagellates.
epiphytotic. epifítotico. A disease           epithecium. epitecio. A layer of tis-
    epidemic in a plant population.               sue that covers the hymenium in
epiplasm. epiplasma. The residual cy-             an ascocarp; also, the outer dark
    toplasm left in an ascus after as-            colored layer of a peridium; also,
epithelial layer                         136                            ergastoplasm
    a thin, colored layer over the asci        equatorial plane. plano ecuatorial. The
    in an apothecium, particulary in li-           plane midway between the two
    chen, formed from the tips of the              daughter nuclei of a dividing cell.
    paraphyses.                                equatorial plate. placa ecuatorial. The
epithelial layer. estrato epitelial. A             position of chromosomes in the
    layer of elongated cells set end-              equatorial plane during metaphase.
    on to the endosperm in grass fruit,        equilateral. equilátero. With halves
    forming the border of the scutellum.           or sides equal in shape and size;
epithelium. epitelio. A thin layer of              often used when describing a par-
    tissue covering structures that are            ticular leaf.
    protective, secretive, or perform a        equilibrium. equilibrio. In population
    variety of other functions.                    genetics, the condition when the
epithem. epitema. A group of cells                 forces that tend to change gene fre-
    in the mesophyll of a leaf which               quencies are counterbalanced so that
    exude water.                                   there is no net change in gene fre-
epithem hydathode. hidatodo epitema.               quencies from one generation to
    A hydathode which is directly con-             the next.
    nected to the vascular bundle in a         equilibrium species. especie equilibrio.
    leaf.                                          A group of plants in which com-
epithet. epíteto. The second (specific)            petitive ability rather than dispersal
    part of the scientific name that iden-         ability or reproductive rate is the
    tifies species or any other division           principal method for survival.
    of the genus, as “cordifolia” in Vitis     equinoctial. equinoccial. Having flow-
    cordifolia.                                    ers that open and close regularly
epitrophic. epitrófico. Having buds                at particular hours of the day or
    on the upper side; also, growing               night.
    more on the upper than lower side.         equitant. equitante. A two-ranked ar-
epitropous. epitropo. Hanging or pen-              rangement of leaves with overlap-
    dulous ovule; used to describe the             ping bases, usually sharply folded
    position of the ovule in locule.               along the midrib.
epixylous. epixilo. Growing on wood.           erect. erecto. Standing upright, not
epizoic. epizoico. An external para-               spreading; also, set at right angles
    site.                                          to the organ from which it arises;
equal. igual. Evenly proportioned;                 also, of an ovule which is upright
    not lop-sided.                                 with its stalk at the base.
equational division. división ecuac-           eremium. ermio. A desert formation.
    ional. A nuclear division that             eremophilous. eremófilo. deserticola.
    maintains the same polyploidy level            Pertaining to the trees and shrubs
    of the cell.                                   of the genus Eremophila that thrive
equatorial division. división ecua-                in hot dry areas.
    torial. During the metaphase of            ergastic substance. sustancia ergastico.
    mitosis or meiosis, the division of            A non-living inclusion in cells,
    each chromosome into two equal                 e.g.crystals, starch grains, etc.
    halves which are then incorporated         ergastoplasm. ergastoplasma. Endo-
    into separate daughter nuclei.                 plasmic reticulum.
ergot                                         137                          ethnobotany
ergot. cornezuelo. A spore-produc-              escape. huida. To grow wild after slip-
    ing fungus, Claviceps purpurea,                 ping away from a cultivated field;
    found on grain crops, especially                also, a cultivated plant that grows
    rye (Poaceae); also, the sclerotium             wild.
    of this fungus which replaces the           esculent. esculente. Edible.
    seeds of the host and contain al-           essential element. elemento esencial.
    kaloids which cause ergotism in                 A chemical nutrient that is vital
    animals and humans.                             for the growth, development, and
ericaceous. ericáceo. Heather-like.                 maintenance of an organism.
ericetal. ericetal. Growing on moss.            essential oils. aceites esencial. Highly
ericoid. ericoide. Having narrow, nee-              volatile and aromatic oils formed
    dle-like, rolled leaves, like heather.          in special cells by some plants; prob-
erinose. erinoso. An abnormal devel-                ably involved in the pollinator
    opment of hairs, usually resulting              attraction–repulsion of herbivores;
    from mites, other pests, or diseases.           volatile oils.
erio-. erio-. A Greek prefix that means,        essential organs. órganos esencial. Sex
    “woolly”.                                       organs.
eriophorous. erióforo. Having a thick           establishment. establecimiento. The
    covering of cottony hairs.                      successful germination and growth
erose. eroso. Irregular leaf margin with            of a plant, especially in a new area.
    shallow teeth or lobes; appearing           ester. éster. Any of a group of or-
    gnawed.                                         ganic compounds formed from the
erosion. erosión. The process of soil               condensation (water removed) of
    particles being worn away by wind               an acid and an alcohol; fats and
    or water with the effect of degrading           oils of plants are esters.
    the soil to a coarser, sandier, stonier     estipulate. estipulado. Having no stip-
    texture.                                        ules; exstipulate.
erostrate. sin rostro. errostro. Irregular      estival. estival. Refers to the sum-
    leaf margin without sharp points.               mer. See aestival.
erratic. errático. Of lichens not fixed         estivation. estivación. See aestiva-
    to the substratum.                              tion.
erubescens. erubescens. A Latin word            estuary. estuario. A marshy area where
    that means, “bluish-red”.                       the fresh water from a stream or
erumpent. erumpente. Bursting thr-                  river joins with salt water from the
    ough.                                           ocean.
erythose. eritoso. D-erythose is an             ethanol. etanol. One of the end prod-
    aldodextrose sugar.                             ucts of an alcoholic fermentation.
erythro-. eritro-. A Greek prefix that              Same as ethyl alcohol.
    means, “red”.                               ethanolamine. etanolamina. A pre-
erythrophyll. eritrofil. The red–brown-             cursor of choline.
    violet group of water soluble sap           ethene. etene. See ethylene.
    pigments, especially in flowers;            ethnobotany. etnobotánica. The sci-
    anthocyanin.                                    entific study of local people’s in-
erythrulose. eritruloso. A ketose, tet-             teractions with plants, including
    rose sugar.                                     their uses of plants for food, shelter,
ethnoecology                           138                               euglenoid
    medicine, and religion; considered       eubacteria. eubacterios. The true bac-
    by some to be a sub-discipline of           teria. They have rigid cell walls,
    ethnoecology.                               the motile species move by flagella,
ethnoecology. etnoecología. The sci-            and the cells divide by binary trans-
    entific study of local people’s             verse division.
    interactions with their natural          eucamptodromous (venation). eucam-
    environment, including the sub-             ptódroma (nervadura). A system
    disciplines of ethnobotany, ethno-          of venation where the veinlets join
    zoology, ethnoentomology, and oth-          after curving near the margin of
    ers.                                        the leaf.
ethyl alcohol. alcohol etílico . A           eucarpic. eucarpico. Refers to a fungus
    colorless, volatile liquid made by          where only part of the thallus dif-
    the fermentation of grain, sugar,           ferentiates to form a reproductive
    and other plant items; ethanol.             structure; also, having both sexual
ethylene. etileno. A gaseous growth             and asexual reproductive organs
    hormone produced naturally by               separate and functioning at the same
    plants that regulates vegetative            time.
    growth, fruit ripening, and abscis-      eucaryote. eucaryota. See eukaryote.
    sion of plant parts.                     euchromatin. eucromatina. The ac-
etiolate. etiolado. The whitening of            tive chromatin of a chromosome
    plants through inadequate light.            during the interphase; also, a chro-
etiolated. decolorado. Blanched; turned         mosomal region that stains normally
    white because of inadequate sun             and thought to contain the normally
    light.                                      functioning gene; also, the part of
etiolation. etiolación. ahilamiento.            the chromatin having its maximum
    The abnormal whitened condition             nucleic acid attachment on the
    of plants or the elongation of plant        mitotic spindle.
    stems and small leaves that have         euchromocenter. eucromocentro. A
    had insufficient light. Etiolated           part of a chromosome which stains
    stems often lack chlorophyll.               very deeply, and does not loosen
etiological. etológico. Of etiology.            out to form part of the reticulum.
etiology. etiología. The study of            euchromosome. eucromosoma. A typi-
    causes, especially the cause of dis-        cal chromosome in contrast to a
    ease.                                       sex-chromosome.
eu-. eu-. A Greek prefix that means,         eucyclic. euiclico. Having the same
    “true,” “real,” “good,” or “well;”          number of organs in each whorl.
    used especially in ecology to de-        eugenic. eugenético. That which tends
    note abundance, as euphotic, “light-        to increase the fitness of the race.
    rich”.                                   eugeogenous. eugeógeno. Weather-
euapogamy. euapogamia. The devel-               ing readily.
    opment of a sporophyte from the          euglena. euglena. One cell, spindle-
    tissue of a gametophyte and not from        shaped algae (Euglena) that are
    a zygote in sexual fusion.                  usually green and have one
euapospory. euaposporia. The fail-              flagellum.
    ure to form spores.                      euglenoid. euglenoide. Pertaining to
eugonidium                                 139                        eutrophication
   euglena, as a euglenoid movement          euploid. euploide. Having all the chro-
   involving worm-like contractions.             mosomes of the set present in the
eugonidium. eugonidio. A unicellu-               same member; also, a cell with any
   lar member of the Chlorophyceae,              number of complete chromosome
   forming part of the thallus of a              sets; polyploid.
   lichen.                                   eupotamous. eupotamo. Living in riv-
euhymenial. euhimenial. Said of a                ers and streams.
   hymenium in which all the basidia         eurybathic. euribático. Able to live
   are formed nearly at the same time.           in a wide range of water depths.
eukaryote. eucariota. Having a               euryecious. euriecio. Having a wide
   nucleus; a nucleus surrounded by              range of habitats.
   a membrane.                               euryhaline. eurihalino. Able to tol-
eukaryotic. eukaryotico. Multicel-               erate a wide range of salinity.
   lular plants, all of which have a         eurythermic. euritérmico. Able to
   distinct nucleus surrounded by a              survive in a wide range of tempera-
   membrane.                                     tures.
eumitosis. eumitosis. A normal mi-           eurytopic. eurítopo. Capable of sur-
   tosis in which all the basidia are            viving in a wide range of environ-
   formed nearly at the same time.               ments.
eumorphic. eumorfico. Well formed.           eusporangiate. eusporangiado. In the
eumycetae. eumicetos. The true fungi.            sporangium-type ferns, having the
   There is no photosynthetic pigment            spore cases produced by a group
   and the food is stored as glycogen.           of cells rather than by a single parent
   Most have a definite cell wall con-           cell.
   taining cellulose and or chitin, and      eustele. eustela. Denotes a siphon-
   have a branching filamentous                  ostele with phloem only to the out-
   thallaus (mycelium) consisting of             side of the xylem; an arrangement
   individual hyphae; also, the term             where the xylem and phloem are
   is sometimes used to include the              not surrounded by endodermis but
   ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and              occur in discrete strands separated
   the Fungi Imperfecti.                         by parenchymatous tissue.
euphotic. eufótica. Describes an upper       eutrophic. eutrófico. In water, a high
   layer of water that receives ad-              concentration of phosphate, nitrates
   equate light for photosynthesis,              and other nutrients that encourages
   often only a few centimeters deep.            a rapid growth of algae, which de-
euphotic zone. zona eufótica. The                pletes the oxygen and causes the
   top layer of a sea or lake that light         extinction of other plants; also, said
   can penetrate, allowing photosyn-             of a type of lake habitat with gen-
   thesis to take place; usually up to           tly sloping shores a wide belt of
   about 100 meters deep.                        littoral vegetation.
euphotometric. eufotométrico. Said           eutrophication. eutroficación. The
   of a leaf which is permanently                natural process of dead organisms
   placed in a plane perpendicular to            gradually filling a standing body
   the direction of the strongest dif-           of water as eutrophic (nutrient-rich)
   fuse light reaching it.                       cycles cause rapid population in-
eutrophous                               140                   evolutionary lineage
    creases followed by sharp declines            green leaves or needles through-
    due to a nutrient shortage; also, the         out the year; not deciduous; never
    process of becoming eutrophic.                entirely leafless.
eutrophous. éutrofo. Climbing plants           ever-bloomer. florece constante. A
    that turn with the sun.                       plant that produces leaves and flow-
eutropic. eutropico. Turning with the             ers for a long period of the grow-
    sun, as occurs with some climb-               ing season and often bears flow-
    ing plants.                                   ers and friuts at the same time.
evaginate. evaginado. Not having a             ever-sporting. siempre esta mutando.
    sheath.                                       Producing frequent sports; espe-
evagination. evaginación. The proc-               cially a heterozygote which seg-
    ess of turning inside out or pro-             regates homozygous recessives, but
    truding, as occurs in the develop-            not homozygous dominants in every
    ment of some tubular organs; also,            generation.
    the release of the contents of mem-        evergreen. siempreverde. de hoja
    branaceous vesicles to the exterior.          perenne. Bearing and losing leaves
evanescent. evanescente. Passing away             continuously throughout the year.
    quickly; soon disappearing, as eva-        evergreen forest. bosque perennifolio.
    nescent flowers.                              A forest where there is no com-
evaporate. evaporar. To change from               plete seasonal loss or shedding of
    a liquid into a vapor.                        leaves.
evaporation. evaporación. The process          evergreen mixed forest. bosque
    of changing from a liquid into a              mezclado perennifolio. A forest
    vapor with the rate determining the           where the dominant trees are both
    effectiveness on plant growth.                conifers (Coniferae) and broad-
evapotranspiration. evapotranspir-                leaved hardwoods.
    ación. A water loss into the at-           everted. evertado. Turned outward
    mosphere through soil surface                 abruptly.
    evaporation and plant transpiration;       evolute. evoluto. Having the mar-
    the combined water loss from both             gins rolled outward.
    leaf surfaces and from the soil sur-       evolution. evolución. The process
    face.                                         of gradual change from simpler,
even. liso. uniforme. Not irregular;              earlier forms of life by the modi-
    equally balanced; uniform or                  fication of characteristics of suc-
    smooth surface.                               cessive generations to more com-
evenly. uniformemente. Having a                   plicated life forms.
    smooth, uniform surface.                   evolutionary determinism. determin-
even-pinnate. paripinnado. A com-                 ismo evolutivo. The change in gene
    pound leaf arrangement with the               frequencies by directed processes,
    leaflets equally located on both sides        in contrast with random change.
    of a common axis, and a terminal           evolutionary lineage. linaje evolutivo.
    pair of leaflets or a tendril rather          líea evolutiva. The line of descent
    than a single terminal leaflet.               of an organism from its ancestral
evergreen. perennifolio. siempre-                 taxon; includes the species to the
    verde. sempervirente. Having                  genus, genus to the family, family
evolutionary rate                           141                 exclusion principle
    to the order, and continuing.                ber.
evolutionary rate. velocidad de evoluc-       excelsus. excelsus. A Latin term that
    ión. The amount of evolutionary              means “lofty”.
    change that occurs in a given pe-         excentric. excéntrico. Eccentric; also,
    riod of time; various time or number         of a pileus in which the stipe is
    units are used in the process, in-           not central.
    cluding biological, chronological,        exchange capacity. capacidad de
    and geological units.                        cambio. The total ionic charge of
evolutionary species. especie evolut-            the adsorption complex active in
    iva. According to the idea of evo-           the adsorption of ions. Also referred
    lution contained in the theory of            to as anion exchange capacity,
    phyletic gradualism, a new organ-            cation exchange capacity, and base
    ism is descended from its ances-             exchange capacity.
    tor by a process of slow, steady evo-     exchange pairing. intercambio de
    lutionary change; the descended              apareamiento. A pairing of ho-
    organism might not necessary be              mologous chromosomes which al-
    classed as a member of the same              lows genetic cross-over to occur.
    species as its ancestor, in which         exciple. excípulo. A true exiple is
    case it is classified as a new spe-          produced as a rim of apothecial tis-
    cies, an evolutionary species;               sue from a lichen and does not con-
    chronospecies.                               tain algal cells. A false exciple is
evolutionary trend. tendencia evol-              produced by the thallus around the
    utiva. A steady change in a par-             apothecium and does contain algals
    ticular adaptive direction, as the           cells; also, the outer layer of the
    height of an organism.                       wall of an apothecium or perith-
evolvate. evolvado. Lacking a volva.             ecium.
evolve. evolucionar. To undergo evo-          excipulum. excípulo. In lichens, a cup-
    lution.                                      shaped layer of partially enclos-
ex-. ex-. Prefix that means, “without”.          ing sterile tissue that contains the
exaggeration. exageración. The ex-               hymenium; also, the outer layer of
    pression of a hypomorphic gene               the wall of an apothecium or
    placed opposite a deficiency.                perithecium; exciple
exalbuminous. exalbuminoso. Without           excipuliform. excipuliforme. Cup-
    albumen; lacking endosperm.                  shaped.
exannulate. exanillo. Lacking an              excitation. excitación. The action of
    annulus.                                     a stimulus on a plant or plant or-
exarch. exarch. Having protoxylem                gan.
    tissue developing toward the center,      exclusion principle. principio de
    as exarch vascular tissue.                   exclusión. A view that two spe-
exarillate. sin arilo. Without an aril.          cies cannot coexist in the same
exasperate. exasperado. Covered with             locality if they have identical eco-
    short, stiff points; rough surface           logical requirements; also, that no
    with sharp, projecting points.               two electrons or subatomic parti-
exceed. rebasar. sobrepasar. To                  cles in an atom can occupy the same
    project beyond a neigboring mem-             energy level or have the same set
exclusive species                         142                                 exogamy
   of quantum numbers.                              dency to exfoliate.
exclusive species. especie exclusivo.           exindusiated. exindusiado. Without
   A species confined or almost com-                an indusium, as some ferns (Fili-
   pletely confined to a particular com-            copsida).
   munity; in phytosociology the op-            exine. exina. The outer layer of a
   timum fidelity class 5.                          two-layered spore wall; also, the
excrescence. excrecencia. An out-                   decay resistant, exterior coat on a
   growth or disfiguring addition oc-               pollen or spore grain; extine.
   curring on plant parts or organs.            exit tube. tubo de salida. A small
   See upgrowth.                                    outgrowth occurring in some Phy-
excrescent. excrescente. Forming an                 comycetes, which functions to in-
   abnormal addition.                               vade the host cell; also, an out-
excrete. excretar. To element waste                 growth from a zoosporangium
   substances from the cells.                       through which the zoospores es-
excretion. excreción. A substance ex-               cape.
   uded or discharged from a plant;             exo-. exo-. A Latin prefix that means,
   also, the removal of the wastes of               “outer”; also, a Greek prefix that
   metabolism, often insoluble salts                means, “without”.
   in the cells.                                exobasidial. exobasidial. Having the
excurrent. excurrente. The midrib                   basidia uncovered; also, separated
   projecting beyond the tip, as in some            by a wall from the basidium; also,
   leaves; having an undivided main                 of a lichen sporophore having no
   stem, as with fir (Pinaceae) trees;              secondary sporing branch.
   in some leaves, the base extend-             exobiology. exobiología. The sci-
   ing down the stem further than is                entific study of the possibility of
   typical.                                         life on other planets.
excurved. excurvado. Curving out-               exocarp. exocarp(i)o. The external
   ward from the stem.                              layer of the pericarp of a ripened
exendospermous. exendospermo. Per-                  fruit; epicarp.
   tains to a seed that lacks endosperm.        exochite. exoquito. The firm outer wall
exergonic. exergónico. A chemical                   of the macrosporangium of the
    reaction that produces a net loss               Fucales.
    in energy and occurs spontaneously.         exocrine. exocrina. See ectocrine.
exergonic reaction. reacción exert-             exocytosis. exocitósis. A secretion
    ónico. A chemical reaction which                discharge process by which a vacu-
    releases energy.                                ole fuses with the plasma to dis-
exfoliate. exfoliar. To peel off in layers,         charge its contents outside the cell.
    as tree bark that cracks and splits         exodermis. exodermis. The outer layer
    off in large sheets; also, to remove            of the cortex in roots, immediately
    of leaves.                                      under the epidermis; corresponds
exfoliation. exfoliación. The proc-                 to the hypodermis in stems.
   ess of tree bark splitting off from          exoenzyme. exoenzima. An enzyme
   the trunk in large sheets, flakes,               that is discharged outside the cell;
   layers, or scales.                               ectoenzyme
exfoliative. exfoliativo. Having a ten-         exogamy. exogamia. The joining of
exogenous                                 143                        expressivity
   two gametes of different descent;           guity with the gametophyte.
   out-breeding.                             exosmosis. exosmosis. The move-
exogenous. exógeno. Produced from              ment of a fluid through a membrane
   the outside, as a type of stem that         toward a solution of lower concen-
   grows by adding layers of wood              tration.
   on the outside under the bark, as        exospore. exóspora. The outer coat
   exogenous stems of gymnosperms              of a spore in some plants, espe-
   and dicotyledons.                           cially an asexual spore formed by
exogenous spore. espora exógeno. A             abstriction; exine.
   spore formed at the end of a hy-         exosporium. exosporio. The outer
   pha, not inside a sporangium.               layer of a spore wall.
exogenous thallus. talo exógeno. The        exothecium. exotecio. The outer layer
   thallus of a lichen in which the            in the wall of a moss capsule; also,
   fungus is dominant.                         the outer layer of the micro- spo-
exogynous. exogino. Having the style           rangium of the gymnosperms.
   projecting beyond the corolla.           exotic. exótico. aloctono. A plant
exolete. exoleto. Of a fungus fruit            that is not native; also, an intro-
   body when it is long over-mature            duced species that has not been
   but has nothing inside it.                  completely naturalized.
exon. exón. The “sense” segments            exotoxin. exotoxina. Any poison se-
   of mRNA that contain the genetic            creted by a living organism, espe-
   message for producing a particu-            cially by bacteria.
   lar protein.                             expanded. expandirse. Enlarged; also,
exonuclease. exonucleasa. An en-               flattened out and becoming less
   zyme that attacks the free ends of          concave as growth proceeds.
   the nucleotide sequence of DNA           explant. explanta. Living tissue re-
   or RNA, breaking up the sequence.           moved from a body and placed in
exopeptidase. exopeptidasa. An en-             an artificial medium for tissue cul-
   zyme that speeds the hydrolysis of          ture.
   proteins and peptides, particularly      exponential growth. crecimiento
   those adjacent to a free amino or           exponencial. Growth in which
   carboxyl group. See endopeptidase.          some quantity, such as population
exoperdium. exoperidio. In some                size or pollution, increases by a
   Gasteromycetes, the outer layer of          fixed percentage of the whole in
   the peridium.                               a given time period; providing a
exophelloderm. exofelodermo. exo-              plotted curved J shape.
   feloderma. Phelloderm cells cut          exponential growth equation. crecim-
   off on the outside of the phellogen.        iento exponencial ecuación. A
exoplasm. exoplasma. See ectoplasm.            compound interest equation which
exoscopic. exoscopico. Of a plant              assumes that the absolute rate of
   embryo when the first division is           growth of an organism or popula-
   at right angles to the archegonial          tion is dependent on the original
   neck; the apex of the embryo grow-          size, or number, and that the rela-
   ing towards the archegonial neck            tive growth rate is constant.
   and the basal region is in conti-        expressivity (gene). expresión (gen).
exserted                                144                                 eye-spot
    The degree a particular genotype              Occurring outside the chromo-
    is expressed in the phenotype.                somes, as extrachromosomal influ-
exserted. exserto. Projecting beyond              ences.
    another part, as stamens exserted         extrafloral nectary. nectario extraf-
    or extending from a corolla.                  loral. A nectary that is found in
exsiccatus. exsiccatus. A dried plant,            some place other than the flower.
    especially one in a herbarium.            extramatrical. extramatrical. Said
exstipulate. exestipulado. Having no              of a fungus which as the greataer
    stipules.                                     part of the thallus, expecially the
extant. existente. Having living mem-             reproductive bodies, outside the
    bers, as a particular species. Op-            host, or on the surface of the sub-
    posite of extinct.                            strate.
extended. extendido. Protruding or            extranuclear. extranuclear. Located
    projecting outward.                           or occurring outside the cell nu-
extension factor. factor extensión.               cleus, as extranuclear determinants.
    Genes which incrase the express-          extratropical. extratropical. Origi-
    ivity of other genes.                         nating outside the tropics, as an
external plasma membrane. externo                 extratropical species.
    membrana plasmática. Ectoplasm.           extrorse. extroso. Facing or turned
extinct. extinto. desaparecido. De-               outward; away from the axis.
    scribes a species or other taxonomic      exudate. exudado. A liquid substance
    group that is no longer living; dead.         discharged or excreted from a plant
extinction. extinción. desparición.               or certain tree barks; resin.
    The permanent removal of all in-          exudation. exudación. The discharging
    dividuals of a species from earth.            of liquid or sap from special pores
extine. extina. The outer coat of a               on the plant.
    pollen grain; exine.                      exude. exudar. To discharge a sub-
extra-. extra-. A Latin prefix that               stance, as exude resin.
    means, “outside” or “beyond”.             eye (bud). ojo (yema) The bud or
extra-axillary. extra-axilar. Said of             shoot of a tuber or plant.
    a bud which is formed in other than       eye-spot. mancha ocular. A light sen-
    in the axil of a leaf.                        sitive patch of orange or red
extracellular. extracelular. Located              carotenoids in some unicellular and
    or taking place outside a cell, as            green algae; also, a fungal disease
    extracellular fluid.                          of cereal plants; sometimes called
extrachromosomal. extracromosoma.                 stigma.
F                                              145                              fairy ring


F. F. A class of flowers pollinated                facultative anaerobes. anaerobio
    by butterflies and moths.                          facultativo. Microorganisms ca-
F1. F1. First filial generation; the                   pable of switching pathways of res-
    progeny of a cross between two                     piration, depending on the pres-
    parent plants.                                     ence or absence of oxygen.
F2. F2. Second filial generation; the              facultative gamete. gameto facultativo.
    progeny of F plant family; a clas-                 A zoospore that can function as a
    sification category between an order               gamete.
    and a genus.                                   facultative parasite. parásito facult-
faboid. faboide. Bean-like.                            ativo. A saprophyte which may
face. superior. arriba. The upper                      become a parasite under certain con-
    surface of an organ that has two                   ditions.
    distinct sides.                                facultative saprophyte. saprófito
facet. faceta. On some seeds, there                    facultativo. A parasite which can
    are surfaces, like a gem that has                  live as a saprophyte.
    been cut with many facets or sur-              FAD. FAD. See flavin adenine di-
    faces.                                             nucleotide.
facies. facies. The appearance or com-             faded. descolarido. Discolored, as
    position of a population, species,                 faded flower blooms.
    or other grouping.                             faded. mustio. marchito. Withered
facilitated diffusion. difusión facil-                 or shriveled.
    itado. The movement of solutes                 fading. decoloración. The discoloring
    across a plasma membrane in the                    of flowers or leaves.
    direction that diffusion would take            fading. marchitado. Wilting, drying
    them, but with the passive assist-                 or shriveling, as fading leaves or
    ance of carrier proteins.                          flowers.
factor. factor. That which is respon-              Fahrenheit. Fahrenheit. Of or based
    sible for the independent inherit-                 on a temperature measuring scale
    ance of a Mendelian difference.                    in which 32º marks the freezing
    See gene.                                          point of water and 212º marks the
facultative. facultativo. A plant with                 boiling point of water at standard
    the capacity to survive under a va-                atmospheric pressure.
    riety of conditions, such as a sapro-          faint. tenue. A subdued or pale color.
    phyte which can also act as a para-            fairy ring. anillo de hada. A circle
    site; referred to as a facultative para-           of dark green grass in which mush-
    site; a plant that can respire un-                 rooms are found. The circle is
    der aerobic and anaerobic condi-                   formed by a radial expansion of a
    tions.                                             fungus through the soil;often the
faithful species                         146                              farinaceous
    Marasmius oreade (Tricholom-                   and not a wall between one carpel
    ataceae).                                      and the next.
faithful species. especie fiel. I n            false fruit. fruto falso. A fruit formed
    phytosociology, a species confined,            from other parts of the flower as
    or almost confined to an associa-              well as the gynecium; pseudo-
    tion with certain other community              carp.
    types.                                     false germination. germinación falso.
falcate. falcado. Having the curved                An appearnace of germination by
    shape of a sickle or scimitar, or the          a dead seed, due to the swelling
    beak of a falcon; seculate.                    of the embryo, as it takes up wa-
falcato-secund. falcado-secundo.                   ter.
    Curved to one side.                        false hybrid. híbrido falso. A plant
falciform. falciforme. Having the                  developing after cross-fertilization
    curved form or shape of a sickle.              but having the characteristic of only
fall. otoño. Autumn; the season be-                one parent.
    tween summer and winter.                   false indusium. indusio falsa. A folded
fall. tépalo. The outer perigone leaf.             leaf margin protecting the sorus
falls. brácteas espatiformes. The se-              rather than a tissue flap.
    pals of an Iris (Iridaceae).               false septate. septado falsa. A false
fallow. en barbecho. Crop land left                septum, division or partition.
    idle for one or more seasons.              false septum. septo falso. A false
false. falso. Inaccurate, usually be-              septum, wall or partition.
    cause of its resemblance to another        false tissue. tejido falso. Pseudoparen-
    part or species.                               chyma.
false annual ring. anillo anual falso.         false vein. nervadura espuria. Small
    A second ring of xylem formed in               vein-like areas of thick walled cells
    one season following an abnormal               in the leaves of some lower vas-
    defoliation, commonly caused by                cular plants.
    insects.                                   false whorl. verticilo falsa. See
false axis. eje falso. A monochasium               verticillaster.
    which looks like one axis, but is          family. familia. A subdivision in plant
    really a number of successive lat-             taxonomy composed of one or more
    eral branches in a line;sympodium.             related genera, ranking above a
false berry. baya falso. A fleshy fruit            genus and below an order. The
    which looks like a berry, but has              names of botanical families usu-
    some of the flesh derived from the             ally end in –aceae.
    receptacle.                                fan-shape. forma de abanico. Hav-
false dichotomy. dicotomia falso.                  ing the shape of an open, hand-held
    Branching in which two lateral                 folding fan; triangular with the
    branches arise on opposite sides               upper side concave; flabelliform.
    of the main axis and overtop it.           farctate. farctado. Having the center
false dissepiment. disepimento falso.              softer than the outer layer; stuffed.
    A wall which divides the loculus           farinaceous. farinoso. Mealy or starchy
    of an ovary into two compartments,             in texture or odor; also, of an
    but is an ingrowth of the carpel wall,         endosperm that is starchy.
farinose                                     147                feedback regulation
farinose. farinoso. Covered with a                 hydrogen, and oxygen, but no
    mealy powder; powdery in appear-               nitrogen; chiefly glycerides, and
    ance or texture.                               compound esters of several acids.
farinous. farinoso. Covered with a                 Plants such as corn (Poaceae),
    white, mealy substance, as on the              olives (Oleaceae), cotton Malvac-
    leaves of certain popular trees.               eae, and walnuts (Juglandaceae)
fasciated. fasciado. fasciada. Un-                 change carbohydrates into fats and
    naturally compressed into a bun-               store them in seeds.
    dle, with the coalesced stems mal-         fatiscent. fatiscente. Cracking and
    formed and flattened like a ribbon,            falling apart.
    often proliferating in number and          fatty acids. ácido graso. Any of a
    size, as the inflorescence of Celosia.         long unbranched hydrocarbon with
fasciation. fasciación. Coming together            little or no oxygen, terminating in
    to form a bundle; the condition of             an acid (—COOH) group, such as
    being fasciated; often the result of           palmitic acid; the basic unit in the
    a bacterial infection.                         formation of fats and lipids.
fascicle. fascículo. A tight bundle,           faveolate. faveolado. panal. Hon-
    tuft, or cluster of fibers, flowers            eycomb in appearance; alveolate.
    or leaves, but especially needles          Fe. Fe. The chemical symbol for iron.
    borne on a small, short shoot in           feathery. como pluma. plumoso. Cov-
    the axil of a primary leaf, as in the          ered with long, branched hair.
    Pinus; also, a set of fibers bound         fecund. fecundo. Able to produce
    closely together, as a vascular bun-           off-springs or vegetable growth; fer-
    dle.                                           tile.
fascicular cambium. cámbium fascic-            fecundate. fecundar. To impregnate,
    ular. The section of the cambium               as pollen fucundates the stigma;
    that occurs within the vascular bun-           fertilize.
    dle.                                       fecundation. fecundacíon. The process
fasciculate. fasciculado. fasciculada.             of pollination.
    A tuft or cluster with the members         fecundity. fecundidad. See fertility.
    coming from a common point, as             feedback inhibition. inhibición por
    fasciculate leaves.                            retroacción. retroinhibición. A
fasciculate basidium. basidio fascic-              cellular control device where an
    ulado. One of a group of basidia.              increase in a substance or activity
fastigiate. fastigiado. fastigiada. Hav-           obstructs the very process leading
    ing branches that are erect and par-           to the increase.
    allel, as on certain popular (Pop-         feedback loop. bucle de regulación.
    ulus) trees; also, tapering to a nar-          circuito de regulación. A circuit
    row point, as a pyramid.                       of sensing, evaluating, and respond-
fastigate cortex. córtex fastigiado.               ing to changes in environmental
    Of lichen composed of parallel                 conditions resulting from informa-
    hyphae at right angles to the axis             tion fed back into the system.
    of the thallus.                            feedback regulation. regulación por
fat. grasa. Any of a class of organic              retroacción. regulación retro-
    compounds containing carbon,                   activo. The self-control placed on
feeder root                                  148                                   fertility
    the activity or amount of one or                   Having window-like holes, or see-
    more enzymes by the product of a                   through tissue, as in leaves or other
    metabolic pathway; usually inhibi-                 parts; also, of spores, muriform.
    tory.                                          ferment. fermentar. To make a gradual
feeder root. raíz nutrífera. A thin-                   chemical change in which yeast,
    walled, hair-like tube that absorbs                aided by enzymes, change sugar into
    from the soil, water and minerals;                 alcohol and produce carbon diox-
    root hair.                                         ide; also, a chemical change caused
Fehling’s Solution. solución de                        by a ferment.
    Fehling. Fehling’s A contains 34-              fermentation. fermentación. A form
    66 grams of copper sulphate crys-                  of respiration carried on by yeast
    tals, dissolved in 500 ml. of wa-                  cells with a partial breakdown of
    ter, and Fehling’s B, 173 grams of                 glucose, in the absence of oxygen,
    potassium sodium tartrate, and 50                  yielding ethyl alcohol, carbon di-
    grams of sodium hydroxide dis-                     oxide, and a release of energy;
    solved in 500 ml. of water. They                   anaerobic respiration.
    are used in equal parts, and give a            fern. helecho. Seedless plants with
    red-orange precipitate when boiled                 alternate, compound leaves, a
    with a reducing sugar. This is due                 branching system of veins and spor-
    to the reduction of the cupric ions                angia borne on the bottom of leaves
    to cuprous.                                        in clusters (sori); also, any plant
Fehling’s Test. Prueba Fehling. A                      belonging to the class of plants
    test for the presence of reducing                  Filices.
    sugars and aldehydes in solution,              fern-like. filiciforme. Having the ap-
    using freshly boiled Fehling’s                     pearance of a fern (Filicopsida).
    Solution.                                          See filicicoid.
fell. páramo. An area of low-lying                 -ferous. -fero. A suffix that means,
    vegetation on a mountainside.                      “producing”, “containing”, or “con-
felted. afelpado. Pannose; closely                     veying”.
    matted with intertwined hairs or a             ferrodoxin. ferrodoxina. A protein
    felt-like texture or appearance.                   that functions as an electron car-
female flower. flora hembra. A flower                  rier in both photosynthesis and ni-
    that has pistils but no pollen-bearing             trogen fixation.
    stamens.                                       ferruginous. ferrugineo. Reddish-
female. hembra. pistilada. Desig-                      brown color; having the color of
    nating the sex opposite to male;                   iron rust.
    having a pistil but no stamens; the            fertile. fértil. Able to produce fruit,
    reproductive part containing large                 seeds, spores, or pollen; also, a
    gametes; any part that can produce                 perfect pistil, as a perfect flower
    fruit after being fertilized.                      (does not refer to the presence or
fen. turbera. A marshy area or bog                     absence in grasses).
    of wet peat, typically alkaline but            fertile hypha. hifa fértil. Conidi-
    occasionally neutral or slightly                   ophore.
    acidic; swamp.                                 fertility. fertilidad. The condition
fenestrate. fenestrado. fenestrada.                    of being fertile; productiveness;
fertilization                                 149                                    -fid
    also, the soil condition relative to            which many organic and some in-
    the elements necessary for plant                organic materials are composed.
    growth.                                     fiber tracheid(e). traqueida fibriforme.
fertilization. fertilización. The process           An elongated cell in wood which
    of fertilizing by the union of two              has thicker walls and fewer pits than
    haploid gametes, male (sperm) and               a tracheid, but thinner and fewer
    female (egg), to form a new dip-                than a fiber.
    loid zygote capable of developing           fibril. fibrilla. One of the hairs on a
    into a new plant; also, an applica-             root; a root hair; also, a small fiber
    tion to soil of plant nutrients, such           or fiber-like structure.
    as nitrogen, phosphoric acid, pot-          fibrillar. fibrilar. Pertaining to or like
    ash, and others.                                a fibril.
fertilization cone. cono de fertilizac-         fibrillose. fibriloso. Having fine,
    ión. A conical protrusion formed                thread-like root hairs.
    by the protoplasm of an egg cell            fibrous. fibroso. Made of fibers or
    at the point of entrance of the sperm           organic, thread-like material, com-
    in fertilization; entrance cone.                monly used to describe a branch-
fertilization membrane. membrana de                 ing root system.
    fecundación. The membrane that              fibrous cortex. cótex fibrosa. Of li-
    surrounds the female gamete and                 chens, having a cortex composed
    prevents the entry of additional male           of hyphae lying parallel with the
    gametes after fertilization has oc-             longitudinal axis of the thallus.
    curred.                                     fibrous layer. estrato fibrosa. A layer
fertilization tube. tubo de copulación.             of cells found in the wall of an
    Conjugation tube.                               anther. The cell walls are thickened
fertilize. fecundar. To pollinate or                irregularly by bands of material,
    to produce the fusion of male and               which set-up uneven strains, causing
    female gametes; also, to add soil               it to rupture.
    nutrients.                                  fibrous protein. proteína fibrosa. A
fertilizer. fertilizante. abono. Any                type of protein molecule that com-
    organic or inorganic material of                poses the structural cells found in
    natural or synthetic origin added               the cortex, phloem, and xylem.
    to a soil to supply nutrients essential     fibrous root. raíz fibrosa. A sys-
    to the growth of plants.                        tem of mat-like roots with many
fetid. fétido. hediondo. Having a                   slender, thread-sized fibers, but with
    disagreeable odor.                              no tap root, as in grasses (Poaceae).
feulgen stain. tintura feulgen. A stain             See filamentous.
    which stains DNA purple, e.g. chro-         fibrovascular bundle. haz fibro- vas-
    mosomes.                                        cular. hacecillo fibrovascular.
fiber. fibra. Woody, thread-like cells              A vascular bundle surrounded by
    in the bast or sclerenchyma; the                long fibers, as a leaf vein.
    part of an edible plant that resists        fibrovascular. fibrovascular. Com-
    human digestive enzymes; also, a                posed of woody fibers and ducts.
    thin, thread-like root; any of the          -fid. –fido. A suffix meaning “sepa-
    long, fine, thread-like pieces of               rated into” or “split”, as palmatifid.
field capacity                            150                                fire climax
field capacity. capacidad de campo.                  having equal growth on either side
     The soil water storage capacity;                of the line of innoculation
     also, the saturated soil profile af-       filipendulous. filipéndulo. Tuberous
     ter gravitational percolation stops             swellings developed in the middle
     flowing.                                        of small, thread-like radicels
field layer. estrato herbáceo. The                   (rootlets).
     herb and small shrub layer com-            filoplasmodium. filoplasmodio. A net-
     posing the plant community; her-                like pseudoplasmodium.
     baceous layer.                             fimbria(e). fimbrias. A fringe or
field. campo. A space used for the                   fringed border.
     cultivation of plants.                     fimbriate. fimbriado. A fringed border,
fil-. fil-. A Latin prefix that means,               usually fringed with hair, or hair-
     “thread-like”.                                  like growths, as fimbriate leaf mar-
filament. filamento. The stalk-like                  gins, stigma or styles.
     structure of a stamen that supports        fimbricolous. fimbricolo. Growing on
     the anther; also, any very slender,             or in dung.
     thread-like part; also, one of the         fimbriolate. fimbriolado. Minutely
     strands of protein, grouped accord-             fimbriate.
     ing to diameter, found in many cells;      fimetarious. fimetario. Growing in or
     also, a chain of cells set end-to-              on dung.
     end; also, in the Cyanophyta, a            fimicolous. fimícolo. Fimbricolous.
     trichome(s) and its enclosing sheath.      finite resources. recursos finito. Re-
filamentoid. filamentoide. Resem-                    sources that are limited; not bound-
     bling a filament.                               less; a resource that has a small
filamentose. filamentoso. Leaves with                concentration or is formed at a rate
     coarse marginal fibers or threads.              much slower than the rate of con-
filamentous. filamentoso. Having                     sumption, becoming for practical
     long, tubular or thread-like struc-             purposes, a non-renewable resource.
     tures, as filamentous alga.                fir. abeto. The general name of a number
filar. filar. Of or pertaining to a thread-          of trees included in the genus Abies,
     like structure.                                 which are similar to pine (Pinus),
filial generation. generación filial. An             but differ in that their leaves grow
     off-spring generation of a hybrid.              singly on the stem and their cone
filicicoid. filicicoide. Propagating, as             scales are round, smooth, and thin.
     a fern (Filicopsida).                      fire blight. encendido bacteriano.
filiciform. filiciforme.Having the shape             fuego bacteriano. tizón de fuego.
     of a fern (Filicopsida); fern-shaped.           A disease which affects many spe-
filiferous. filifero. Having coarse mar-             cies of the Rosaceae family, es-
     ginal fibers or filament-like growths,          pecially apple, pear, and hawthorn,
     as filiferous leaves.                           giving them the appearance of hav-
filiform. filiforme. Thread-like; having             ing been scorched by fire. The
     the shape of a filament, slender and            causal carrier is the bacterium
     of equal thickness from the top to              Erwinia amylovora.
     the bottom, as a filiform pedun-           fire climax. fuego clímax. A climax
     cle; also, of bacterial stab-culture,           community for which fire is the
fire ecology                                   151                               flagellum
    controlling factor, as in pine for-              ter or attribute of a plant or plant
    ests and grasslands.                             part.
fire ecology. ecología de fuego. The             fixed light position. posición fijo de
    study of the environmental effects               luce. The position of a fully de-
    of fire.                                         veloped leaf in respect of the
fissile. fisible. Split or tending to split.         direcion of the strongest diffuse
fission. fisión. A type of asexual re-               light that reaches it.
    production that occurs in some               flabellate. flabelado. Shaped like a
    unicellular organisms in which the               fan; fan-shaped.
    parent cell divides to form two or           flabelliform. flabeliforme. Having
    more similar daughter cells; repro-              the shape of a fan; fan-shaped;
    duction by the splitting of the nu-              rhipidate.
    cleus and cytoplasm into equal parts.        flabellinerved. flabelinervio. Having
fissiparous. fisíparo. Spliting.                     nerves branching from a base in a
fissure. fisura. A deep groove.                      fan-like or flabellate manner, as in
fissured bark. corteza fisurada. Bark                a leaf or petal.
    that is cracked or split.                    flaccid. fláccido. Limp, without ri-
fistular. fistuloso. Hollow, like a pipe,            gidity, as a cell or tissue with less
    and herbaceous.                                  than full turgor pressure; wilted.
fistulose. fistulo. See fistulous.               flaccidity. flacidez. Limpness.
fistulous. fistuloso. Having a part which        flagella. flagela. Elongated append-
    is tubular or like a hollow cylin-               ages of certain cells used in mov-
    der, as a culm without a pith.                   ing through the environment; longer
fitness. eficacia reproductora. fit-                 and fewer than cilia. Plural of
    ness. The balance of genetic ad-                 flagellum.
    vantages and disadvantages that de-          flagellar movement. movimiento
    termine a genotypes capacity to                  flagelar. A locomotion or feeding
    survive in an environment; adap-                 process requiring energy from res-
    tive value.                                      piration, similar to muscle contrac-
fixation. fijación. The process in soil              tion.
    by which chemical elements, which            flagellar. flagelar. Pertaining to flagella.
    are essential for plant growth, con-         flagellate. flagelado. Having long slen-
    vert from a soluble form to a much               der runners; also, algae having one
    less soluble form; also, the treat-              or more whip-like parts used for
    ment of a specimen with a reagent                movement or obtaining food.
    which will fix its structure and             flagelliform. flageliforme. Having the
    appearance in a life-like condition.             shape or form of a whip, long, thin,
fixation of nitrogen. nitrógeno de                   and flexible.
    fijación. The formation of nitrog-           flagellum. flagelo. A long, thin, whip-
    enous compounds from gaseous                     like runner growing from a plant;
    nitrogen by soil bacteria.                       in algae, serving as a means of lo-
fixative. fixativo. A reagent which                  comotion in finding food; also, a
    will bring about fixation.                       runner of a plant; in some liverworts
fixed. fijo. In taxonomy, refers to                  (Hepaticae), a runner-like stem with
    the seemingly invariable charac-                 small leaves.
flange                                   152                           flexuous hypha
flange. reborde. Projecting outward,               chiefly as coloring agents in flowers
    as a rim or edge.                              and fruits, which attract pollinators
flanged. realzado. Having a flange or              and are useful in chemical identi-
    projecting rim.                                fication processes; possibly con-
flask-shaped. lageniforme. Having the              tained in petals that reflect ultra-
    shape of a Florentine vase or a                violet patterns.
    narrow-necked bottle.                      flavoprotein. flavoproteina. fermento
flat. aplandado. Having an even sur-               amarillo. Compounds involved in
    face, without risings or indenta-              electron transfer and associated with
    tions, usually horizontal.                     the cytochromes; also, conjugated
flavescent. flavescente. Becoming                  proteins in which the prosthetic
    yellow or yellowish; also, having              group is riboflavin-phosphoric acid,
    yellow or yellow-green spots mixed             or a compound of this with another
    with the normal surface green.                 nucleotide. They function as hy-
flavi-. flavi-. A Latin prefix that means,         drogen carriers in oxidation; yel-
    “yellowish”.                                   low enzyme.
flavidulous. flavescente. amarillo             flavus. flavus. Latin for “yellow”.
    pálido. Having a diseased condi-           flesh. pulpa. The soft, juicy, edible
    tion that causes the green parts of            part of fruits.
    plants to turn yellow.                     fleshy. carnoso. pulpejo. The soft,
flavins. flavinas. Mono- or dinucleo-              sometimes juicy, pulpy part of
    tides which occur as components                leaves, stems, or fruits.
    of reductases; also, a generic name        fleshy disseminule. diseminula carn-
    for a group of light-sensitive pig-            oso. A seed or fruit consisting of
    ments that influence the action of             a large amount of fleshy material
    phytochrome and phototropism.              fleshy fruit. fruto carnoso. Any fruit
flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).                 formed from an ovary that has pulpy
    flavin-adenin-dinueleótido (FAD).              (not dried) walls at maturity; also,
    A coenzyme of the vitamin ribo-                fruits that include fleshy parts of
    flavin, which is involved in de-               the perianth, floral tube, or the re-
    hydrogenation reaction interposed              ceptacle.
    by flavoproteins; an important in-         fleshy root. raíz suculenta. Succu-
    termediate in oxidative phospho-               lent roots.
    rylation.                                  flexicaulis. flexicaule. A pliant, easily
flavin mononucleotide (FMN). fla-                  shaped stem.
    vin-mononucleótido (FMN). In               flexuous. flexuoso. Alternately bent
    aerobic respiration, an electron ac-           in opposite directions; waving,
    ceptor in the electron transport               bending, or winding from joint to
    scheme.                                        joint or flower to flower, as a
flavone. flavona. A colorless, crys-               flexuous stem.
    talline compound found in many             flexuous hypha. hifa flexuoso. Of
    plants and produced synthetically;             the Uredinales. A branched or
    used in dye production.                        unbranched hypha growing from
flavonoid. flavonoide. A group of                  a pycnidium which may be
    organic plant compounds, found                 diplodized by a pycnidium of the
floating                                     153                       floral province
    opposite sex.                                  perianth of a flower; a collective
floating. flotante. Located on the sur-            term for the sepals and petals; the
    face of the water; also, used to de-           calyx and corolla, or perianth.
    scribed the placement of organs of         floral formula. fórmula floral. A sum-
    certain plants; also, of structural            mary of the characteristics of a
    or gene changes for which a mat-               flower. K= calyx, C= corolla, A =
    ing group is not uniform; also, of             andrecium, G = gynecium (carpels).
    a tissue in water-dispersed fruits             The number following represents
    and seeds that contains air and is             the number parts. ( ) means that
    not easily waterlogged.                        the parts are fused, e.g. C (5) means
floccose. flocoso. Patches or tufts                5 fused petals. M indicates 1 whorl
    of soft, tangled trichomes; also,              fused to another, e.g. C(5)MA5
    having a cottony surface; having               would mean a corolla of 5 fused
    a dense covering of tangled, wool-             parts to which are joined 5 free sta-
    like hair that is easily detached from         mens. A line below the figure for
    the plant.                                     the gynecium means that it is su-
flocculent. flocculente. Having tufts              perior, e.g, G(5), beside it, that it
    or patches of very fine, woolly hairs;         is perigynous, e.g.G(5)-, and above
    also, of bacterial liquid cultures             it inferior. One problem in using
    when they have small masses of                 floral formulas is that the symbols
    bacteria throughout or as a deposit.           and systems have not been stand-
floodplain. tierras que quedan                     ardized.
    inundadas durante la crecida de            floral incompatibility. incompatib-
    un rio. Any low lying area that has            ilidad floral. A genetic condition
    the potential for flooding, includ-            in which some normal male gam-
    ing coastal areas; also, a flat val-           etes are incapable of functioning
    ley floor next to a river channel.             in some pistils.
flora. flora. A collective term for all        floral kingdom. reino floral. See floral
    the plants of a particular country,            province.
    region, or time period, as the flora       floral leaf. hoja floral. A bract or
    of the Yucatan Peninsula; also, a              bracteole; also, a petal or sepal.
    descriptive list of the plants of an       floral leaf bud. yema floral de hoja.
    area, including a key for identifi-            A bud that contains leaf and stem
    cation.                                        primordia that will produce a branch
floral axis. eje floral. Receptacle.               with leaves.
floral bud. yema floral. capullo floral.       floral primordium. primordio floral.
    A bud that contains flower primor-             Meristematic tissue that becomes
    dia that will produce one or more              a flower.
    flowers.                                   floral province. provincia florística.
floral diagram. diagrama floral. A                 A major geographical grouping of
    composite diagram of a transverse              plants, particularly flowering plants,
    section through a flower to show               identified on the basis of floristic
    the position of the various parts              distinctiveness with special atten-
    and their relation with other parts.           tion to the degree of endemism at
floral envelope. envoltura floral. The             family and generic levels. Some
floral terminal bud                      154                                flowering
    authorities distinguish between flo-       flos. flos. Latin meaning “flower”.
    ral kingdom and floral realm, clas-        floscular. floscular. Made-up of flo-
    sifying them as having the high-               rets; discoid.
    est status. In this system, groups         floscule. flósculos. floret. A single
    of provinces make up the kingdom               flower of a compound or compos-
    or realm.                                      ite flower; a floret.
floral terminal bud. yema floral ter-          flower. flor. A blossom. The collec-
    minal. A bud occurring at the apex             tive reproductive stem of angio-
    or end of a stem.                              sperms. Typically it is composed
floral. floral. Pertaining to flowers.             of a calyx of sepals, a corolla of
floret. florecilla. florecita. A small             petals (these being the perianth),
    flower in a densely flowered                   an andrecium of stamens, and a
    involucrate head of members of the             gynecium of carpels. Any of these
    Sun Flower Family (Asteraceae);                parts may be absent in a particu-
    also, in the spikelet of grasses               lar flower. The floral axis is the
    (Poaceae).                                     receptacle.
floribundus. floribundus. Latin mean-          flower. florecer. To bloom or blos-
    ing “producing many flowers”.                  som.
floriferous. florífero. Flower-bear-           flower bud. botón floral. yema flo-
    ing.                                           ral. yema florífera. capullo flo-
floridean starch. almidón floridean.               ral. A bud containing a rudimen-
    An insoluble carbohydrate storage              tary shoot that will bear only flow-
    product found in red algae. It stains          ers.
    red rather than blue-black with io-        flower cluster. glomérulo floral. A
    dine solution.                                 cyme condensed into a head-like
floridus. floridus. Latin meaning                  cluster, as the flowering dogwood
    “showy”.                                       (Cornaceae); glomerule.
florigen. hormona florígena. floríg-           flower cup. cáliz floral. The cup-
    eno. The hypothetical flowering                shape of some flowers; also, the
    hormone (compound or compounds)                calyx.
    which has not been identified chemi-       flower head. cabezuela floral. capítulo
    cally, which may be synthesized in             floral. A dense cluster of florets
    the leaves during a photoperiod.               growing on the top of a stem, as a
floristics. florístico. The study of               dandelion or sunflower (Aster-
    species diversity in relation to habi-         aceae); capitulum.
    tat diversity within a geographic          flower secund. secundiflora. Flow-
    area. See phytogeography.                      ers arranged on the stem on one
floristic composition. composición                 side only.
    florística. A complete list of the         flower sheath. vaina floral. In or-
    plants forming a plant community.              chids (Orchidaceae), the enclosure
-florous. -floro. A suffix that means,             where flower stalks develop.
    “having many flowers”, as multi-           flower stalk. pedúnculo floral. The
    florous.                                       stem of a plant that bears a flower
-florus. –florus. A Latin suffix that              or flowers; a peduncle.
    means, “flowered”.                         flowering. floración. The act of bear-
flowering glume                             155                               follicle
    ing flowers.                              foliage leaf. hoja foliácea. hoja
flowering glume. glumela florífera.               vegetativa. A green leaf.
    A glume which subtends a flower           foliar. foliar. Pertaining to or like a
    in a grass spikelet.                          leaf.
flowering stem. tallo florífero. The          foliate. folioso. foliado. foliífero.
    stalk that supports a flower or flow-         Covered with leaves.
    ers.                                      foliation. foliación. The process of
fluitans. fluitans. Latin meaning                 putting out leaves; being in leaf;
    “floating”.                                   also, foliage.
fluorescence. fluorescencia. In at-           folicole. folícolo. A plant living on
    oms or molecules, a type of lu-               leaves, either as a saprophyte or
    minescence which emits radiation              parasite.
    as electrons pass from a higher to        folicolous. folicole. Growing on leaves;
    a lower energy state. The subse-              epiphyllous.
    quent release of energy is in longer      foliferous. folioso. See foliiferous.
    wavelengths than the absorption           foliiferous. foliífero. foliado. Pro-
    wavelengths, but is still in the vis-         ducing leaves or leaf-like append-
    ible spectrum.                                ages.
fluorescent. fluorescente. Giving out         foliiform. foliíforme. Leaf-like.
    light when placed in ultra-violet         folioform. folioform. See foliiform.
    (or other radiation).                     foliolate. folioado. With small leaves,
fluted. acostillado. costato. costillado.         as in bifoliolate leaves.
    Channeled; having grooves or fur-         foliole. folíolo. One leaflet in a com-
    rows, as a fluted stem.                       pound leaf; leaflet.
fly trap. atrapamoscas. Refers to a           foliolose. folioloso. Consisting of
    hinged leaf structure that is in-             minute flattened lobes.
    sectivorous, capturing insects that       foliose. folioso. Having many leaves;
    light on it, as in Dionaea.                   also, composed of thin, flat, ex-
FMN. FMN. See flavin mononucle-                   panded, leaf-like lobes, as in the
    otide.                                        thalli of some lichen and algae;
fog. niebla. A low cloud or thick mist,           foliaceous; leafy; foliaceous.
    as surrounds cloud forests.               -folium. –folium. A Latin suffix that
folded embryo. embrión doblado.                   means, “leaved”.
    embrión plegado. A type of foloiate       follice. folice. A small bladder on
    embryo with thin, folded, and ex-             the the leaves of some mosses
    tensively expanded leaves.                    (Musci); also, a many-seeded dry
folded vernation. vernación doblado.              fruit, derived from a single carpel
    vernación plegado. The condition              and splitting longitudinally down
    in which the leaf is folded about             one side at dehiscence.
    the midrib with the two faces             follicetum. plurifolículo. A group
    brought together.                             or aggregate of follicles, as in
foliaceous. foliáceo. Having leaves               Caltha.
    or the shape of leaves; also, flat        follicle. folículo. A dry fruit that de-
    and leaf-like; foliose.                       velops from one carpel and dehisces
foliage. follaje. The leaves of a plant.          along one suture when mature, as
food body                                  156                                   forested
   milkweed pods (Asclepias) and                     food from the gametophyte; also,
   magnolia (Magnoliaceae).                          a small, thick-walled segment of
food body. corporal alimenticia. A                   the hyphae from which a conidi-
   mass of cells on the outside of a                 ophore of Aspergillus arises; also,
   seed coat, attracting ants which aid              the lower of two cells derived from
   in dispersal. The attraction is due               a binucleate basal cell in the early
   to stored food, usually oils.                     stages of the development of a
food chain. cadena alimentaria.                      uredospore.
   cadena alimenticia. cadena                    foramen. foramen. An opening in
   trófica. A cycle of organisms where               the covering of the ovule; micro-
   plants are the primary food source                pyle
   for herbivores, that are in turn the          forb. forb. Any herbacenous plant,
   food source for carnivores, and                   excluding the grasses.
   continues until the top carnivore             forcing. forzado. A cultivation de-
   level is reached.                                 vice used to hasten flowering or
food cycle. ciclo alimentario. ciclo                 growing plants outside their natural
   alimenticio. See food web.                        season.
food pollen. polen alimenticio. In-              forcipate. forcipado. Deeply forked;
   fertile pollen, sometimes produced                furcate.
   in special anthers. It attracts in-           foreshore. parte de la playa entre
   sects which bring about the dis-                  la pleamar y la bajamar. The lower
   persal of the fertile pollen.                     shore zone that lies between the
food pyramid. pirámide alimenticia.                  normal high and low water mark;
   pirámide trófica. A gradually nar-                gradually sloping with a smooth
   rowing structure which represents                 bottom or a bottom with ridges and
   the amount of nutrients moving                    runnels, depending on the wave ac-
   along a food chain, as at each up-                tion.
   ward step, the amount of energy               forest (tropical). selva. A tropical plant
   passed along, becomes smaller. In                 community, including a large
   a forest, grassland, lake, or desert,             number of trees whose crowns touch
   photosynthetic plants provide the                 and form a continuous canopy.
   basic nutrients and is the base of            forest (woodland). bosque. A plant
   a food pyramid.                                   community, including a large
food web. sistema trófico. A net-                    number of trees growing close to-
   work of many food chains portray-                 gether, as an oak (Quercus) for-
   ing which species feed on each other              est; also, a collective term refer-
   and their special interrelationships;             ring to the trees and other plants
   encompassing primary producers,                   that make-up a tree-covered area.
   consumers, decomposers, and                   forest climax. clímax de bosque. A
   detritivores.                                     climax community composed of
foot. pie. The absorbing basal struc-                trees.
   ture of embryonic sporophyte in               forestation. forestación. The proc-
   liverworts (Hepaticae), mosses                    ess of planting or taking care of
   (Musci), and seedless vascular                    forests.
   plants; it is attached to and absorbs         forested. arbolado. An area heavily
forester                                     157                             fossilized
    populated with trees.                          The zone just behind the dividing
forester. silvicultor. A person working            zone of the stem or root growing
    in or managing a forest.                       point, where the tissues begin to
forestry. silvicultura. ingenieria                 differentiate.
    forestal. The science of system-           formic acid. ácido fórmico. A colorless
    atic planting and managing forests             liquid, irritating to the skin, which
    for the benefit of humans.                     is produced by nettles (Urticaceae);
forficulate. forficulado. Shaped like              H.COOH.
    a scissors.                                formic dehydrogenase. de(s)hidrogen-
fork. bifurcación. A fork.                         asa fórmico. An enzyme that breaks
fork. bifurcarse. To fork.                         down formic acid to carbon diox-
forked. bifurcado. bifurcada. Having               ide and water in the presence of
    two or more parts, as a forked                 co-enzyme 1.
    branch or thorn.                           formic hydrogenlyase. hidrogenliasa
form. forma. In taxonomy, one of                   fórmico. An enzyme in a few
    the three measures of character:               groups of bacteria which cataly-
    form, function, and structure; shape.          ses the combination of carbon
-form. –forme. A suffix that means,                dioxide and hydrogen, or bicarbo-
    “having the shape of ____”.                    nate ions and hydrogen to form for-
form genus. género forma. A group                  mates.
    of plants without a definite genetic       fornicate. forniculado. Forming an
    relationship but classed together              arch or arching over, as a forni-
    as a genus because they show simi-             cate leaf or petal; hood-like arch-
    larities of form, structure, behavior          ing.
    or other characteristics; especially       fornicle. fornículo. An arch or arching.
    common with fungi groupings.               fornix. fornix. A small arch or crest
formaldehyde. formaldehído. aldeh-                 in the throat of a corolla.
    ído fórmico. The aldehyde deriva-          fossae. surcos. A long, shallow de-
    tive of methyl alcohol (methanol);             pression.
    HCHO.                                      fossil. fósil. Any impression, natu-
formation. formación. The process                  ral or impregnated remains of once-
    of originating or developing, as the           living plants; usually prior to the
    formation of new cells; a classifi-            last glacial period or more than
    cation unit describing a specific              10,000 years old.
    physiological shape rather than            fossil fuels. fósiles combustibles. Oil,
    species; also, an association or sta-          gas, and coal which are derived from
    ble plant community named after                partially decayed plant and animal
    the dominant plant, but sometimes              matter produced during the Car-
    referred to by the habitat rather than         boniferous period.
    the dominant plant(s).                     fossilization. fosilización. The process
formative. formativo. Pertaining to                of becoming hardened, as a plant
    the formation or development of                fossil.
    new organs or parts, as formative          fossilized. fosilizado. Having become
    tissue.                                        hardened in some previous geologi-
formative region. regíon formativo.                cal period, and become preserved
fovea                                      158                           frondescence
    in a rock formation.                             the base, in the center of a single-
fovea. fóvea. A small, round depres-                 chambered ovary.
    sion or pit; in reproductive struc-          free nuclear division. división de
    tures, a depression with the spor-               nuclear libre. Nuclear division
    angium in the leaf base, as Isoetes.             not accompanied by the formation
foveate. fovéado. Marked with small                  of cell walls.
    depressions or pits.                         free-living. de vida libre. Living in-
foveola. fovéola. Small or diminu-                   dependent of a host; non-parasitic.
    tive fovea.                                  free veins. nervado libre. Leaf veins
foveolate. foveolado. Pitted or hav-                 that are not united into a network.
    ing depressions.                             frequency. frecuencia. The number
fovilla. fovila. The material inside a               of cases of the data being consid-
    pollen grain.                                    ered falls within a particular class
fragment. fragmento. A new acen-                     interval.
    tric product of chromosome break-            frequency distribution. distribución
    age; also, a small supernumerary                 de frecuencia. The distribution
    chromosome.                                      of the frequencies of observations
fragmentation. fragmentación. An                     with respect to the classes into
    asexual form of reproduction among               which the observations are divided.
    some algae in which an organism              frequency factor. factor frecuencia.
    splits into two or more individu-                The percentage occurrence of a
    als, especially common in blue-                  species in a plant community.
    green algae.                                 freshwater. agua dulce. Of or living
fragmentation spores. esporas de                     in water that has a relatively low
    fragmentación. Conidia produced                  salt concentration or is not salty,
    by hyphae breaking into separate                 as distinguished from sea or salt
    cells.                                           water.
fragrance. fragancia. A pleasant, sweet          friable. friable. A term applied to
    smelling odor.                                   soil that crumbles easily.
fragrant. fragante. oloroso. Hav-                fringe forest. selva hilera. A luxu-
    ing a delicate or sweet odor.                    riant, ribbon-like plant community,
free. libra. Not attached to other parts             usually found along a river bank,
    or organs; also, said of the gills               that connects a rain forest to an
    of agarics that reach the stipe, but             adjacent savannah.
    are not joined to it.                        fringe. flequillo. fleco. Describes
free basal placentation. basal libre                 hair or other structures on petals,
    placentación. Having ovules ar-                  sepals, tepals, or lips.
    ranged on a basal placenta in a              frond. fronda. fronde. A photosyn-
    unilocular ovary.                                thetic leaf blade of a fern, palm
free cell formation. formación celular               or cycad; also, a leaf-like part, as
    libre. The formation of daughter                 the thallus of a lichen; also, the
    cells that do not remain united.                 blade-like thallus of a seaweed.
free-central. de central libre. Re-              frondescence. frondescencia. The
    fers to the location of ovules on a              process or period of putting forth
    free standing column, attached at                leaves; also, the foliage put forth;
frondescent                                  159                             fugacious
    phyllody.                                      hard pericarp.
frondescent. frondescente. Leaf-like;          fruiting body. cuerpo fructífero. A
    also, having a lot of leaves.                  well-defined group of fungal spores
frondose. frondoso. Frondescent.                   and the hyphae which bear and
frontal cavity. cavidad frontal. The               surround them; also, the reproduc-
    opening of a stomata nearest the               tive structure of some fungi; also,
    exterior.                                      any part of a plant that produces
frost. escarcha. hielo. Feather-like               spores.
    ice crystals that are formed when          fruit sugar. azúcar de fruto. See fruc-
    water vapor condenses at a tem-                tose.
    perature below freezing (0º Cel-           fruiting. fructificación. The proc-
    sius or 32º Fahrenheit).                       ess of bearing fruit.
fructiferous. fructífero. Fruit-bear-          frustule. frústulo. The silica, bivalve
    ing.                                           wall and its contents of a diatom.
fructification. fructificación. The proc-      frutescent. frutescente. Shrubby or
    ess of forming fruit; also, the fruit          shrub-like.
    itself; also, a general term for the       frutex. frútice. See shrub.
    body which develops after fertili-         fruticole. fruticola. Of parasitic fungi
    zation and contains spores or seeds;           living off fruit.
    also, any spore bearing structure,         fruticose. fruticoso. Shrub-like or
    whether developed after fertiliza-             branching like a shrub, as in the
    tion or vegetatively.                          thalli of some lichens or in fruticose
fructofuranose. fructofuranoso. The                stems.
    furanose form of fructose in which         fucoid. fucoide. Seaweed or resem-
    it exists in disaccharides, poly-              bling seaweed, especially Fucaceae.
    saccharides, and in its phosphates.        fucopyranose. fucopiranoso. The
fructopyranose. fructopiranoso. The                pyranose form of fucose.
    pyranose form of fructose in which         fucosan. fucosán. A polysaccharide
    it exists in solution.                         in brown algae. It is built up of
fructose. fructosa. A natural sugar                fucopyranose units, joined in the
    sometimes occurring with glucose               l : 4 position.
    in the form of disaccharide sucrose;       fucose. fucoso. A methyl sugar found
    also, a deto-hexose sugar which                in brown algae.
    rotates a beam of polarized light          fucoxanthin. fucoxantina. ficoxant-
    the left; fruit sugar; levulose.               ina. A brown pigmentation in the
fruit. fruto. An angiosperm’s, rip-                chlorophyll of brown algae and
    ened ovary (pistil), including other           some protists.
    structures that enclose it; the seed-      fucus. fuco. Pertaining to a seaweed
    bearing organ; or, the mature ovary            that has flat, leathery fronds; also,
    of a seed plant, composed of seeds,            in the family Fucaceae.
    related tissues, and their coverings.      fugacious. fugaz. Refers to falling,
    Taxonomists place fruits into four             fading, or wilting parts, especially
    main types (except aggregate and               early in the growing season; parts
    multiple fruits): 1) berries 2) drupes         that shed or are not permanent;
    3) pomes 4) single-seeded with a               short-lived, as fugacious corollas.
fugitive species                         160                                  fungus
fugitive species. especie fugitivo. Spe-          tal. The parenchyma tissue in
    cies with a strong dispersal capacity,        monocots comparable to the cor-
    often found in deserts and other              tex and pith in dicots.
    extreme environments; opportunist          fungal gill. laminilla. The thin, leaf-
    species.                                      like plates on the underside of a
fulcrate. fulcrado. Downward turn-                mushroom.
    ing, as a fulcrate branch or stem.         fungal. fúngico. Resembling or caused
fulcrum. fulcro. An accessory organ,              by a fungus.
    as bract or tendril; also, an out-         fungal cellulose. cellulosa fúngico.
    growth from the wall of the zy-               A carbohydrate like cellulose in
    gospore of some fungi; also, a spo-           fungal cell walls. Sometimes called
    rophore.                                      “chitin”.
fulignous. fuligno. Having the color           Fungi. Fungi. One of the taxonomic
    of soot; dusky colored.                       kingdoms consisting of eukaryotic,
fulvic acid. ácido fúlvico. An acid               non-photosynthetic (non-green) or-
    in humus. It is soluble in cold al-           ganisms, including, mushrooms,
    kali from which it is precipitated            mildews, molds, smuts, and oth-
    by dilute acid and is then soluble            ers, which obtain nutrients by the
    in water. It also forms the yellow            absorption of organic compounds
    pigment of Penicillium fulvus.                from their surroundings. The body
fulvous (color). pardo-amarillento                is made of simple filaments (in the
    (color). A dull yellow or a deep              true fungi), hyphae, and asexual
    reddish–yellow, including a little            (and usually sexual) reproduction
    gray and brown.                               is by spores. There is no fission.
fumaginous. fumagino. Smoky-                      They accumulate glycogen rather
    colored.                                      than starch.
fumarase. fumarasa. The enzyme                 fungi. hongos. micófitos. micófitas.
    catalyzing the reciprocal change              Plural of fungus.
    from malic acid to fumaric acid and        fungicide. fungicida. A chemical or
    water.                                        biological agent that destroys or
fumaric acid. ácido fumárico. A                   inhibits fungal growth.
    dicarboxylic acid, an intermediate         fungiform. fungiforme. Terminating
    in the Citric Acid Cycle which is             in a shape similar to the cap of a
    produced from succinic acid.                  mushroom; having the shape or form
function. función. In plant taxonomy,             of a fungus.
    one of the three measures of char-         fungistatic. fungistático. A compound
    acter: form, structure, and function;         occurring in the bulbs of some
    also, describers the action of an             orchids (Orchidaceae) that stops
    organ or part.                                the development of a fungus without
functional group. grupo funcional.                killing it.
    Atoms or groups of atoms bonded            fungoid. fungoide. Spongy, like a
    to an organic molecule and con-               fungus; also, sometimes used to
    tributing to its characteristic struc-        describe an unhealthy growth on
    ture and properties.                          plants.
fundamental tissue. tejido fundamen-           fungus. hongo. A large group (Fungi)
funicle                                     161
    of acotyledonous or cryptogamous          funnel-shaped. infundibuliforme. See
    organisms without chlorophyll,                funnelform.
    comprising mushrooms, rusts,              fur. pelo. Any coating, like fur on
    yeasts, toadstools, smuts, molds and          plants.
    mildews, traditionally considered         furanose form. forma furanoso. Said
    as plants, but today treated as a             of a compound built upon on a five-
    separate kingdom by many profes-              sided ring.
    sional botanists and mycologists.         furanose sugar. azúcar furanoso. An
funicle. funiculo. The stalk of an ovule          hexose sugar in its furan form.
    (and later the seed) by which it is       furcate. ahorquillado. To branch or
    attached to the placenta; funicu-             to fork, as furcate venation which
    lus.                                          occurs in some ferns (Filicopsida);
funicular. funicular. An elongated                forcipate.
    stem, funiculus, attached to a seed       furcipulate. furipulado. Pincer-like.
    coat, as in the Magnolia; also, cord-     furfuraceous. furfuráceo. Covered
    like.                                         with bran-like scales; scurfy.
funiculate. funiculado. Having a fu-          furrowed. acanalado. Channeled.
    niculus.                                  fuscous (color). pardo oscuro (color).
funiculus. funiculo. The stem that                A dusky, brownish or gray-brown
    attaches the ovule to the placenta;           color.
    also, of the Nidulariaceae, the cord      fuse. fusionar(se). To unite or to be-
    of hyphae by which the peridioles             come one.
    are first fixed to the inner wall of      fused. fusionarse. The combining of
    the peridium.                                 a similar or dissimilar structure or
funiculose. funiculoso. Forming ropes             structures.
    of intertwined hyphae.                    fusiform. fusiforme. Having the shape
funiform. funiforme. Rope-like.                   of a spindle, thick in the middle
funnelform. infundibuliforme. Having              and tapering at each end, as a fusi-
    the form of a funnel that gradu-              form root.
    ally widens from the base to the          fusion nucleus. núcleo de fusión. The
    apex, as some monopetalous co-                product of fusion of nuclei in the
    rollas.                                       embryo sac.
funnel cell. celular embudo. A cell           fusoid. fusoide. Rounded in the center
    in the palisade layer of a leaf which         and tapering at each end but not
    is widest just below the epidermis            markedly elongate; fusiform.
    and narrows below.
                                          162                         gamete formation


galacto-. galacto-. A Greek prefix              gallery forest. bosque de galería. A
    that means, “milky”.                            ribbon-like forest that runs along
galactan. galactán. A polysaccha-                   riverbanks that connects a rainforest
    ride that occurs during the ger-                to a savannah; fringing forest.
    minative period in plants and pro-          Galton’s laws. leyes de Galton. Of
    duces galactose on hydrolysis.                  ancestral inheritance: “any offspring
galactoaraban. galactoarabán. A                     of bisexual parentage derives ½
    polysaccharide which is a polymer               of its inherited characters from
    containing galactose and arabinose.             its parents, (½ from each), ¼ from
galactolipid. galactolípido. galactol-              its grandparents, one eighth from
    ipina. A lipid that contains ga-                great grandparents etc. These frac-
    lactose, an important constituent               tions whose numerators are 1,
    of plant membranes.                             and denominators are the succes-
galactopyranose. galactopiranoso.                   sive powers of 2, add up to 1, e.g.
    The pyranose form of galactose                  ½+¼ + — = 1 9 .
    which polymerizes to form the hemi-         galvanotaxis. galvanotaxis. Changing
    cellulose galactan.                             the direction of movement in a
galactose. galactosa. A 6-carbon sugar.             motile organism or cell in response
galacturonic acid. ácido galacturónico.             to an electrical stimulus.
    An organic compound formed by               galvanotropism. galvanotropismo. A
    hydrolysis of pectins, and related              tropism in responsee to an elec-
    to galactose.                                   trical stimulus; electrotropism.
galbulus. gálbulo. A scaly cone, as             gametangium (pl. gametangia). game-
    in the fruit of the juniper (Junip-             tangio. A structure where gametes
    erus).                                          are produced in some fungi, mosses
galea. gálea. Helmet-like; also, the                (Musci), and ferns (Filicopsida).
    upper lip of an open corolla.                   See carpogonium.
galeate. galeado. Having flowers that           gamete. gameto. gameta. célula sex-
    resemble a helmet, as the monks-                ual. A sex cell; a mature repro-
    hood, Aconitum napellus.                        ductive cell (haploid) capable of
galeiform. galeiforme. Helmet-shaped.               uniting directly without fusion with
galerculate. galerculado. Covered                   another of the opposite sex, to form
    by a a cup-like lid.                            a fertilized cell that can develop
galeriform. galeriforme. Cup-shaped.                into a new plant; germ cell.
gall. agalla. An abnormal growth on             gamete formation. formación gameto.
    stems, leaves, and roots caused by              A specialized haploid or sex cell
    fungi, insects, or parasitic bacte-             whose nucleus and sometimes its
    ria; cecidium.                                  cytoplasm combines with another
gametic                                     163                          gas vacuole
   gamete of the opposite sex in the          gamo-. gamo-. A Greek prefix that
   process of fertilization, forming a            means, “joined”, “united”, or
   diploid zygote.                                “fused”.
gametic. gamético. Of or pertaining           gamochlamydeous. gamoclamideo.
   to gametes.                                    Having a fused floral envelope.
gametic equilibrium. equilibrio gamét-        gamogastrous. gamogastro. Said of
   ico. A condition in which the fre-             a syncarpous gynecium in whlch
   quency of gametes formed by the                the ovaries are fused but the styles
   association of alleles at different            and stigmas are free.
   locations is equal to the product          gamogenesis. gamogénesis. Sexual
   of the frequencies of the alleles that         reproduction.
   compose them.                              gamogenic. gamogénico. Resulting
gametic number. número gamético.                  from sexual fusion.
   The number of chromosomes in a             gamopetalous. gamopétalo. Having
   gamete nucleus, usually the hap-               the petals united, as a gamopetalous
   loid number.                                   corolla; sympetalous; flowers with
gametocyte. gametocito. A cell that               fused or partially fused petals.
   produces gametes by meiosis.               gamophase. gamófase. The haploid
gametogenesis. gametogénesis. The                 phase of the life cycle.
   process of forming gametes from            gamophyllous. gamófilo. Having the
   gametocytes by meiosis.                        leaves united, usually by the mar-
gametogenic. gametogénico. Of or                  gins, as a gamophyllous perianth.
   pertaining to gametogenesis.               gamosepalous. gamosépalo. Having
gametogenous. gametogénico. Having                the sepals united, as a gamosepalous
   to do with gametogenesis.                      calyx; synsepalous.
gametophore. gametóforo. A special-           gamostely. gamostelia. The fusion
   ized branch or filament bearing                of steles.
   gametangia or gametes, as in some          gamotropic. gamotrópico. Movement
   liverworts (Hepaticae).                        before fertilization.
gametophyte. gametófito. The hap-             gamma rays. rayos gamma. That part
   loid phase in the life cycle of an             of the sun’s total range of radia-
   individual vascular plant or gen-              tion in which rays are shorter than
   eration of a plant that produces               X-rays.
   gametes during mitosis. It arises          -gamy. -gamia. A suffix meaning
   from a haploid spore produced by               “joined together”.
   meiosis from a diploid sporophyte;         gangliform. gangliforme. Having
   also, in mosses (Musci), the                   knots; knotted.
   gametophyte is the dominant gen-           gas exchange. intercambio de gas.
   eration; also, commonly used for               A reciprocal change of respiratory
   the prothallus of ferns (Filicop-              and other gases between a plant and
   sida); also, that stage in the life            the environment; also, the diffu-
   cycle of thallophytic plant in which           sion of gases in and out through a
   the sexual organs are produced.                cell wall.
gametrophic. gametrófico. The move-           gas vacuole. vacuola de gas. vacúolo
   ment of organs before fertilization.           de gas. A small, gas-filled vesi-
Gause principle                             164                             gene dosage
    cle that provides buoyancy for some              plantlets (gemma) capable of start-
    aquatic bacteria and cyanobacteria.              ing new gametophytes; cyathus.
Gause principle. principio de Gause.              gemmaceous. gemáceo. Resembling
    See competitive exclusion princi-                or pertaining to leaf buds.
    ple.                                          gemmate. gemado. Having or repro-
geitonogamous. geitonógamo. Fer-                     ducing by buds.
    tilization occurring between flowers          gemmation. gemación. The act of bud-
    on the same plant.                               ding; the structure of a bud; bud-
geitonogamy. geitonogamia. A fer-                    ding; reproducing by budding. See
    tilization where a flower is polli-              asexual reproduction
    nated by another flower on the same           gemmiferous. gemífero. Bud produc-
    plant.                                           ing.
gel. gel. The apparently solid, often             gemmification. gemificación. The for-
    jelly-like, material formed from a               mation of a bud.
    colloidal solution. It offers little          gemmiflorate. gemiflorado. Having
    resitance to liquid diffusion and                bud-shaped flowers.
    may have as little as 0.5% solid              gemmiform. gemiforme. Bud-like.
    matter.                                       gemmoid. gemoide. Like a bud or
gelatinous. gelatinoso. A texture that               gemma.
    is jello-like; soft and quivery.              gemmule. gémula. A small bud; com-
geminate. geminado. Occurring in                     monly the rudimentary terminal bud
    two’s, as having two leaves or fruits            of the seed embryo.
    coming from the same point; also,             gene. gen(e). In heredity, the basic
    two branches from the same node                  physical unit that transmits the
    on the same side of the stem. See                characteristics of the plant; also,
    bifoliolate and jugate.                          segments of various DNA molecules
geminated. geminado. Growing in                      that control inherited characteris-
    pairs; binate.                                   tics in plants.
geminiflorous. geminifloro. geminí-               genecenter. genocentro. centro
    floro. Producing flowers in pairs.               genético. centro génico. A geo-
gemma. gema. yema. A leaf bud;                       graphical area, especially in the
    also, a vegetative reproductive bud              tropics, where a particular taxon
    on a stem; a bud-like reproductive               provides greater genetic diversity
    group of cells on liverworts                     than it does in other locations; pos-
    (Hepaticae) and mosses (Musci)                   sible the center or origin; center
    that become detached and grow into               of diversity.
    new plants; a specialized reproduc-           gene conversion. conversión de gene.
    tive structure on the parent plant,              A process where a member of a gene
    as the lateral bulbils occurring on              family acts as a blueprint for the
    the Agave americana (Agavaceae);                 correction of others by suppress-
    a type of asexual reproduction.                  ing new mutations or lateral spreads
gemma cup. copa propagulífera.                       in the genome.
    cestilla de propágulos. A struc-              gene dosage. dosis génica. The number
    ture on the gametophyte of some                  of times a gene is present in a nu-
    liverworts that produce asexual                  cleus.
gene duplication                            165                       generic name
gene duplication. duplicación de gene.           eral. An adaptation that fits an
   A process in evolution in which a             organism for living in a broad range
   gene is copied twice, with both lying         of environmental conditions, as op-
   side by side along the same chro-             posed to a specialized adaptation
   mosome.                                       which fits an organism for life in
gene family. familia gene. A group               a narrow set of circumstances.
   of similar or identical genes that         generation. generación. A group of
   often lie along the same chromo-              plants with the same parent or
   some, having originated from a gene           parents, making up a single step
   duplication process.                          in the line of descent; also, a form
gene flow. flujo de gene. flujo génico.          or stage of a plant that refers to
   The transfer of genes from one                the method of reproduction, as the
   population to another.                        asexual generation of a fern
gene frequency. frecuencia de genes.             (Filicopsida).
   frecuencia génica. The frequency           generation time. período de generac-
   a particular gene occurs in a par-            ión. tiempo de generación. The
   ticular species or other group.               time needed for a cell to complete
gene locus. locus de gene. The                   one full growth cycle.
   location of a specific gene on a chro-     generative. generativo. generador.
   mosome.                                       Pertaining to the production of
gene mapping. mapaje genético. The               progeny; reproductive.
   strategies that locate the position        generative apogamy. apogamia gener-
   of gene loci on chromosomes.                  ativo. Reduced apogamy.
gene mutation. mutación génica. The           generative cell. célular generativo.
   occurrence of a heritable alteration          célular generador. The cell of the
   in the genotype which was not                 male gametophyte of angiosperms
   handed down from its ancestors;               that divides, producing two sperms;
   point mutation.                               also, the cell of the male gameto-
gene pair. par de genes. In diploid              phyte of gymnosperms that divides,
   cells, the two alleles at a given gene        producing a sterile cell and a sper-
   locus on homologous chromosomes.              matogenous cell.
gene pool. fondo genético. acervo             generative nucleus. núcleo generativo.
   génico. All genetic information in            Produced by the haploid microspore
   a reproducing population of a par-            nucleus of a pollen grain, the gen-
   ticular species; more accurately,             erative nucleus divides during mi-
   allele pool.                                  tosis to form two sperm nuclei.
gene redundancy. redundancia de gene.         generic. genérico. The characteris-
   The presence in a cell of many cop-           tics of a species or class; also, the
   ies of a single gene.                         term may be used to refer to a kind,
gene regulation. regulación gene. The            class, or group, as opposed to a
   method by which genes are turned              specific.
   on and off to regulate growth and          generic characters. caráters genérico.
   development.                                  In taxonomy, diagnostic characters
genera. genus. Plural of genus.                  used in delimiting a genus.
general adaptation. adaptación gen-           generic name. nombre genérico. In
genesis                               166                  genetic polymorphism
   taxonomy, the Latinized scientific          dom changes in allele frequencies
   name of an organism which makes             over time, due to chance alone.
   use of a binary system with the ge-      genetic engineering. manipulación
   nus (generic name) first and the            genética. ingenieria genética. The
   specific epithet (species) second,          process of modifying DNA infor-
   as Quercus alba.                            mation by splicing in selected ge-
genesis. génesis. The orgin, forma-            netic information from another
   tion, or development of a group,            organism by using recombinant
   species, individual, organ, tissue,         DNA technology.
   or cell.                                 genetic equilibrium. equilibrio genét-
genetic. genético. Of, or having to            ico. The stability of allelic and
   do with, or pertaining to genes.            genotypic ratios in a population over
genetic adaptation. adaptación genét-          successive generations. The refer-
   ica. A change in the genetic com-           ence point signifying zero evolu-
   position of an organism that al-            tion is used for measuring rates of
   lows the species to reproduce and           evolutionary change.
   gain a competitive advantage un-         genetic hom(o)eostasis. hom(e)ostasis
   der changing envnironmental con-            genética. See genetic equilibrium.
   ditions.                                 genetic load. carga genética. lastre
genetic alphabet. alfabeto genética.           genético. The average number of
   A set of symbols that identify the          lethal mutations per individual in
   four nucleic acid bases that com-           a population; divided into three
   bine in various combinations to             principal types: An input load oc-
   form the genetic code.                      curs when inferior alleles are in-
genetic code. código genético. clave           troduced into the gene pool of a
   genética. The various combinations          population, a balanced load is cre-
   of nucleotides in chromosomes that          ated with a selection favoring ge-
   determine the make-up of genes and          netic combinations that form in-
   gene products; also, the basic lan-         ferior genotypes every generation,
   guage of protein synthesis in which         and a substitutional load is gen-
   nucleotide triplets in DNA (and then        erated by a selection favoring the
   RNA) call for particular amino acids        replacement of an existing allele
   used in protein synthesis; or, the          by a new allele.
   sequence of nitrogen bases in a          genetic map. mapa genético. mapa
   DNA molecule that codes for an              génico. The linear arrangement of
   amino acid or protein.                      mutable sites on a chromosome; de-
genetic complex. serie genético. The           duced from genetic recombination
   sum total of the hereditary factors         studies.
   contained in the chromosomes and         genetic marker. marcador genético.
   cytoplasm.                                  A trait or gene variation in the DNA
genetic diversity. diversidad genética.        that can be tracked from genera-
   Variability in the genetic compo-           tion to generation.
   sition among individuals within a        genetic polymorphism. polimorfismo
   single species.                             genética. The existence of three
genetic drift. dervia genética. Ran-           or more distinctly different genetic
genetic rearrangement                      167                                 genus
   forms of a plant species. Genetic            combination, or gene interaction.
   polymorphism is said to be bal-           genic. génico. Of or like a gene.
   anced, or in equilibrium with one         genicular. genicular. Growing at or
   another at a particular locus. In            on a node; also, growing in the
   the transient form, mutations spread         tissue of a node.
   through the population in a con-          geniculate. geniculado. Bent at the
   stant direction.                             joint, as a geniculate stalk.
genetic rearrangement. restructuración       geniculum. feiculio. nódulo. The node
   genética. Any process that pro-              or joint of a stem.
   duces a new combination of heredi-        genocenter. genocentro. Reproducto-
   tary determinants, as a crossing             center.
   over.                                     genom(e). genoma. The complete ge-
genetic recombination. recombinación            netic composition for a particular
   genética. The presence of a new              organism; also, a haploid set of
   combination of alleles in a DNA              chromosomes with their genes.
   molecule from a cross over at meio-       genotype. genotipo. The genetic make-
   sis, a chromosomal aberration, or            up of a haploid nucleus or indi-
   a gene mutation.                             vidual plant, as opposed to its physi-
genetic resources. recursos genética.           cal appearance (phenotype).
   The diverse gene pool of natural          genotypic control. control genotípica.
   and cultivated organisms available           The control of chromosome behav-
   for human use.                               ior by the genotype, in contrast to
genetics. genética. A branch of botany          structural control, especially at
   that studies heredity and gene vari-         meiosis through the effects of dis-
   ations in similar or related species;        similarity of the pairing choromo-
   the science of heredity, including           somes in hybrids.
   the study of its chemical founda-         genotypic environment. medio amb-
   tion, its developmental expression,          iente genotípica. The aggregate of
   and its bearings on variation, se-           all the genes considered as acting
   lection, adaptation, evolution,              on one or more of them.
   breeding, and the activities of man.      genotypic variation. variación genotíp-
genetic spiral. espiral genética. A             ica. Variation due to differences
   hypothetical line drawn on a stem,           in the gametes. See genetic vari-
   passing by the shortest path through         ation.
   the points of insertion of succes-        genra. género. A particular kind or
   sive leaves.                                 type.
genetic system. sistema de genética.         gentianose. gentianoso. A trisaccha-
   The organization of genes in a spe-          ride composed of gentiobiose and
   cies and the method of transmis-             fructose, or surcrose and glucose.
   sion from the parental generation            It is found in gentian roots
   to the filial generation.                    (Gentianaceae).
genetic variation. variación genética.       genus. género. In taxonomy, the clas-
   Refers to the differences in geno-           sification of plants by distinguish-
   types within a population or spe-            ing characteristics with genus as
   cies produced from mutation, re-             the main subdivision of the fam-
genus name                                 168                              germ tube
   ily; usually composed of one or                  to gravitation forces.
   more species; as a group or groups            geotropic bending.         curvatura
   of structurally or phylogenetically              geotrópica. The tendency of plants
   related species.                                 to curve or bend in response to
genus name. nombre genérico. The                    gravity. Upward movement is nega-
   first name in a scientific binomial.             tive geotropism and downward
geo-. geo-. A Greek prefix that means,              movement (growing roots) is posi-
   “pertaining to earth”.                           tive geotropism; gravitropism.
geobotanical exploration. exploración            geotropism. geotropismo. The growth
   geobotánica. The use of indica-                  of part of a plant due to the influ-
   tor plant species to identify the                ence of gravity.
   possible presence of metal-rich de-           geranial. geranial. An open chain
   posits; biogeochemical exploration.              olefinic aldehyde.
geobotany. geobotánica. The study                geraniol. geraniol. An open chain
   of plants and their relationship to              olefinic alcohol.
   their geological and geographical             germ. germen. Seed, spore, or bud;
   environments; phytogeography.                    the rudimentary form of a new, in-
geocarpel. geocarpelo. A plant that                 dividual plant; an embryo plant in
   fruits underground, as a peanut                  the seed.
   (Arachis).                                    germ cell. célula germinal. célula
geocarpy. geocarpia. The ripening                   germinativa. A fertile cell from
   of fruits underground. The young                 which a new plant emerges; a fer-
   fruits are pushed into the soil by               tile seed, bud, or spore cell; gam-
   a post-fertilization curvature of the            ete.
   stalk.                                        germen. germen. The ovary.
geoflorous. geofloro. A plant that               germ layer. hoja embrionaria. hoja
   bears flowers underground.                       germinal. Embryonic tissue that
geographic isolation. aislamiento                   becomes the tissues and organs of
   geográfico. A physical separation                the adult.
   by location, which prevents gene              germ plasm. germoplasma. The in-
   exchange between individuals or                  herited material transmitted to
   populations.                                     offsprings through the germ cells.
geonasty. geonastia. Curvature to-               germ pore. poro germinal. A thin
   wards the ground.                                walled area on a spore wall, or pol-
geophilous. geófilo. Growing in the                 len grain, through which a germ
   ground, especially plants with deep,             tube is produced.
   underground buds.                             germ seed. semilla germinal. See germ
geophyte. geófita. geófito. A plant                 cell.
   that has deep, underground buds.              germ sporangium. esporangio germi-
geoplagiotropic. geoplagiotrópico.                  nal. A sporangium formed at the
   Growing in a direction at an an-                 end of a germ tube produced by a
   gle to the ground surface                        zygospore.
geotaxis. geotaxis. geotactismo.                 germ tube. tubo germinal. The fila-
   Change in the directional move-                  ment that comes out at spore ger-
   ment of an organism in response                  mination; also, a tubular outgrowth
germinal                                   169                              girdling
   of a germinationg spore from which            to the growth of the embryo and
   the thallus develops by branching,            development of a seedling.
   or a germ sporangium is produced;         gibberellic acid. ácido giberélico. A
   also, a tube growing down through             crystalline compound first found
   the style from a germinating pol-             in a fungus, that increases the size
   len grain which carries the male              and growth rate in plants.
   nuclei.                                   gibberellin. giberelina. A group of
germinal. germinal. Capable of ger-              natural growth hormones that are
   mination in the right conditions;             synthesized in the protoplasm, in-
   characteristic of or like germ cells;         creasing a plant’s rate and amount
   also, occurring in the earliest de-           of growth, especially the elonga-
   velopmental stage.                            tion of its stem. They increase gen-
germinal disk. disco germinal. A disk-           eral physiological activity, e.g. in-
   like spot on the fertilized ovum,             crease cell elongation, promote ger-
   indicating a developing embryo;               mination, and flowering.
   also, a flattened plate of cells de-      gibbose. giboso. See gibbous.
   veloping at the end of the filament-      gibbous. giboso. A swelling or bulging,
   ous young thallus of some Hepat-              especially on one side; also,
   icae, and ultimately producing the            pouched; also, convex above and
   adult thallus.                                flattened below.
germinal protoplasm. protoplasma ger-        gigantic. gigante. gigantesco. Be-
   minal. The protoplasm from which              ing especially large in size.
   gametes are formed.                       gigantism. gigantismo. Abnormally
germinal selection. selección germinal.          large vegetative growth, often as-
   The selection during gametogen-               sociated with polyploidy.
   esis against induced mutations that       gill. laminilla. A leaf-like structure
   retard the spread of mutant cells.            or slits in the underside of a mush-
germinal tube. tubo germinal. The                room cap where basidiospores are
   tube produced by the elongation               produced; also, simply the fruit-
   of the spore-contents during the ger-         bearing under-surface of some
   mination of a spore of the Hepat-             fungi.
   icae.                                     gill cavity. cavidad branquial. The
germinal vesicle. vesícula germinal.             ring-shaped hollow in the young
   An enlarged nucleus of an ovum                fruit body of an agaric; in it the
   before meiosis or segmentation                early stages of organization of the
   begins.                                       gill is completed.
germinate. germinar. To sprout or            gill cleft. hendidura branquial. Gill
   start growing, as from a bud, seed,           slit.
   or spore.                                 gilvous. gilvo. Brownish.
germination. germinación. The be-            girdling. decorticación anular. Cut-
   ginning of growth or development,             ting completely around a tree trunk
   as the sprouting or budding of a              to a depth that penetrates through
   seed, bud, or spore; also, a sequence         the bark and into the wood so that
   of events in a viable seed starting           the downward transport of sub-
   with imbibition of water that leads           stances cannot occur, resulting in
girth                                    170                        globular protein
    the tree’s death; also, the condi-         glasswort. cristalwort. Any of a group
    tion when a leaf trace arises on the           of marine herbs (Salicornia) having
    opposite side of the stele from the            fleshy, leafless stems that grow in
    leaf which it serves, and in reaching          salt water marshes.
    the leaf curves widely through the         glassy. vidrioso. Resembling glass,
    cortex.                                        smooth, transparent, and brittle.
girth. circunferencia. The measure             glaucescent. glaucescente. Having
    around anything; commonly used                 a glaucous luster or appearance.
    in the description of a stem or trunk.     glaucous. glauco. Covered with a white
glabrate. glabro. Smooth, lacking hair.            or blue-green powdery or waxy
glabrescent. glabrescente. Very thinly             coating, as on plums (Prunus) or
    covered with hair; also, becoming              the leaves of cabbage (Brassica)
    nearly hairless as it matures; be-             plants.
    coming glabrous.                           gleba. gleba. Spore-bearing tissue
glabrous. glabro. Hairless; smooth,                in the fruit bodies in some fungi
    without any trichomes, as glabrous             (Gasteromycetes).
    fruit                                      glebula. glebula. A rounded proc-
gladiate. ensiforme. Sword-shaped,                 ess from a lichen thallus.
    as a gladiate leaf.                        glebulose. glebuloso. Bearing rounded
gland. glándula. Any of a group of                 lumps on the surface of the thal-
    structures, generally near the sur-            lus.
    face, that secrete a variety of sub-       gliadin. gliadina. A protein, espe-
    stances, as digestive glands on the            cially found in wheat grains.
    leaves of a Venus flytrap (Droser-         gliding growth. crecimiento desliz-
    aceae) or a pungent oil in the rind            ante. The slipping, during growth,
    of oranges (Citrus).                           of a cell wall over that of its
glandiform. glandiforme. Having the                neighbors, over the surface of con-
    shape of a gland; acorn-like.                  tact, so that new areas of contact
glandular. glandular. Having minute,               are made with a contiguous cell,
    blackish to translucent, secretory,            and with neighboring ones with
    or excretory glands, or trichomes.             which no previous contact had been
glandular serrate. serrado glandular.              established.
    Having a toothed margin, with              gliotoxin. gliotoxina. An antibiotic
    glands at the tips of the teeth.               produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.
glandular-pubescent. peloso-glandu-            globoid. globoide. A rounded inclusion
    lar. Having hairs with an enlarge-             in an aleurone grain, consisting of
    ment at the apex.                              a double phosphate of calcium and
glandular-punctate. punteado-glan-                 magnesium, combined with globu-
    dular. Covered with minute se-                 lins.
    cretory depressions.                       globose. globoso. Round or sphere-
glandulose. glanduloso. Same as glan-              shaped, as a globose flower head.
    dular.                                     globular protein. proteina globular.
glans. glande. A single-celled, com-               esferoproteina. A protein with a
    pound inferior fruit with a dry outer          globular configuration that func-
    wall, as an acorn (Quercus).                   tions in a variety of ways, includ-
globular                                    171                          glumiferous
   ing enzymes, facilitating transport,       glucan. glucan. Any of the polysacch-
   and providing storage.                         arides that produce sugar on hy-
globular. globular. Round or spherical.           drolysis; glucosan.
globulin. globulina. One of a group           gluconeogensis. neoglucogénesis. The
   of globular proteins, that are soluble         synthesis of non-carbohydrate
   in dilute salt solutions but not in            substances, such as proteins, amino
   freshwater, occurring in the seeds             acids, fatty acids and others, into
   of some plants.                                glucose.
glochid. gloquidio. A barbed, hairy           glucoprotein. glucoproteína. A large
   structure occurring on the micro-              molecule composed of a carbohy-
   spore of some aquatic ferns                    drate-protein complex other than
   (Azollaceae) and as fine hair on               a nucleic acid.
   some cacti (Opuntia).                      glucopyranose. glucopiranoso. The
glochidiate. gloquidiado. Having a                pyranose form of glucose.
   barbed tip, usually occurring in           glucosamine. glucosamina. An amino-
   tufts; having barbed bristles.                 sugar which represents the link
glochidium. glochidio. Hair-like proc-            between the carbohydrates and pro-
   esses on the masses microspon-                 teins.
   rangia produced by Azolla. They            glucosans. glucosáns. Carbohydrates,
   provide attachment to the macro-               which give only glucose on hydroly-
   sporangium.                                    sis, and are made up of ß-
gloecystidium. gloecistidio. A horny              D-glucose only, e.g.starch, dextrin,
   or gelatinous cystidium.                       cellulose.
glomerate. glomerado. Growing in              glucose. glucosa. The most common
   a dense, rounded cluster.                      type of plant sugar from which
glomerulate. glomerulado. Bearing                 starch and cellulose are synthesized;
   small clusters of spores.                      a 6-carbon sugar with 12 atoms of
glomereular. glomereular. Of or like              hydrogen and 6 atoms of oxygen.
   a glomerule.                                   A hexose sugar. Only D-glucose
glomerule. glomérulo floral. An in-               exists in plants.
   determinate dense cymose cluster           glucoside. glucósido. A glycoside,
   of flowers, as in the head of the              especially if it contains glucose.
   flowering dogwood (Corn-aceae);            glumaceous. glumáceo. Thin, brown,
   also, adherent spores in some                  papery in texture; also, having the
   lichens.                                       appearance of or bearing glumes,
glomerulus. glomerulus. A cymose                  as a glumaceous calyx.
   inflorescence in the form of a             glume. gluma. One of a pair of scale
   crowded head of small flowers.                 or chaff-like bracts at the base of
glosso-. gloso-. A Greek prefix for               the spikelet of some grasses
   “tongue-like”.                                 (Poaceae) and sedges (Carex,
glossopodium. glosopodio. The                     Cladium); and with wheat (Trit-
   sheathing base of a leaf, as in the            cum), oats (Avena), and barley
   quillworts (Isoetaceae).                       (Hordeum), they are enclosing.
glossy. brillante. Smooth and shiny           glumiferous. glumífero. Having the
   surface.                                       flowers enclosed in glumes.
glutamic acid                                 172                                    goni-
glutamic acid. ácido glutámico. ácido                   and the only one that does not ex-
    aminoglutérico. A crystalline                       hibit optical activity.
    amino acid occurring in plants and              glycogen. glicógeno. A highly branch-
    animals, especially in seeds.                       ed saccharide not found in higher
glutamic acid dehydrogenase. dehidro-                   plants but in some bacteria, cyano-
    genasa ácido glutámico. The                         bacteria, and fungi; a glucosan.
    enzyme that catalyzes the revers-               glycol. glicol. A colorless, sweet
    ible reaction a-ketoglutaric acid to                alcohol derived from a variety of
    glutamic acid.                                      ethylene compounds.
glutamine. glutamina. One of the                    glycolysis. glicólisis. The breakdown
    amino acids; an amide.                              of glucose into two acid molecules;
glutamine synthetase. sintetasa glutam-                 the series of reactions preceding
    ina. The enzyme which catalyzes                     anaerobic or aerobic respiration
    the synthesis of glutamine from                     when glucose is oxidized to pyru-
    glutamic acid and ammonia.                          vic acid, e.g. in an alcoholic fer-
glutathione. glutation. glutationa.                     mentation.
    A polypeptide occurring in plants               glycoprotein. glicoproteína. glicopro-
    and animals tissues, involved in the                teido. See glucoprotein.
    physiological oxidation processes.              glycoside. glicósido. The product
gluten. gluten. In wheat (Triticum)                     formed from alcohol or phenol re-
    and other grain seed, a sticky, elastic             acting with sugar.
    protein substance.                              glyoxylic cycle. ciclo glioxílico. ciclo
glutinous. glutinoso. Having a moist,                   del glioxalato. A modification of
    gummy, surface exudation, as glu-                   the Citric Acid Cycle. It seems to
    tinous leaves.                                      be limited to tissues where fats
glyceric acid. ácido glicérico. A                       are being rapidly consumed, e.g.
    colorless, syrupy compound pro-                     the endosperm of germinating fatty
    duced from a partial oxidation of                   seeds.
    glycerol during alcoholic fermen-               gold color. color oro. Yellowish.
    tation.                                         Golgi apparatus. aparato de Golgi.
glyceraldehyde. gliceraldehido. A                       A cellular organelle with stacks of
    triose aldose sugar.                                flattened secretor sacs that pack-
glyceride. glicerida. An ester of glyc-                 age and synthesize membranes and
    erol and fatty acids.                               cell walls; a type of cytoplasmic
glyceric dehydrogenase. dehidro-                        particle common in both plants and
    genasa glicerico. An enzyme that                    animals; a cytoplasmic organelle
    calyzes the reversible reaction,                    found in all cells except bacteria.
    changing glyceric acid to hydropyr-                 It is composed of a cluster of flat-
    uvic acid and hydrogen.                             tened, parallel, smooth-surfaced
glycerol. glicerol. An intermediate                     sacs, and many smaller vesicles;
    in the metabolism of carbohydrates                  dictyosome.
    and fats; a trihydric alcohol which             Golgi body. cuerpo de Golgi. A unit
    combines with fatty acids to form                   of the Golgi apparatus; seen by
    fats.                                               staining; dictyosome.
glycine. glicina. A simple amino acid,              goni-. goni-. A Greek prefix that
gones                                       173                              grafting
    means, “angled” or “angular”.                 some ferns, as in the Hymenophyll-
gones. gonios. The group of four nu-              aceae, where ripening occurs in a
    clei, or cells which are the imme-            sequence from the apex to the base.
    diate result of meiosis.                      It contrasts with the simple sorus,
gonidial layer. estrato gonidial. The             as in the Osmndaceae, where there
    algal layer in a lichen thallus.              is a simultaneous ripening of all
gonidiophore. gonidióforo. Conidi-                the sporangia, or with the mixed
    ophore.                                       sorus, as in the Polypodiaceae,
gonidium. gonidio. An asexually pro-              where there is an irregular ripen-
    duced reproductive cell, such as a            ing.
    zoospore; also, a cell filled with        gradient analysis. análisis gradiente.
    chlorophyll which is formed in the            An ordination method used to de-
    thallus of lichens.                           scribe and compare vegetation, in
gonimum. gonumo. A cell of one of                 which the characteristics of a site
    the Myxophyceae when it occurs                rather than the composition of the
    as part of a lichen thallus.                  species is the base. One or more
gonimoblast filament. filamento gon-              environmental factors are identi-
    imoblasto. In the Florideae, a fila-          fied and stands arranged accord-
    ment developing from the zygote,              ing to the characteristics of their
    and ultimately producing carpo-               sites.
    sporangia.                                gradient. gradiente. A system of pro-
gonioautoecious. gonioautoecio. Bear-             gressively increasing or decreas-
    ing the antheridia as a bud-like              ing differences in the rate of growth,
    outgrowth from the branch bear-               functions or other plant properties.
    ing the archegonium.                      gradualism. gradualismo. See phyletic
gonophore. gonóforo. Having an elon-              gradualism.
    gated receptacle that raises the sta-     gradually. gradualmente. In degrees,
    mens and pistil above the perianth.           or step by step, when describing
gonoplasm. gonoplasma. In some                    increasing or decreasing lengths or
    oomycetes, the protoplams that                layers, as with bracts or petals.
    passes through the fertilization tube     graft. injertar. A shoot, bud, or branch
    and unites with that of the oosphere.         from one kind of tree or plant placed
gonosphere. gonosfera. A zoospore                 into a slit in another related plant,
    of the Chytridiales.                          so that the added part will continue
gossypine. gosipino. Cottony.                     to grow; also, to place a detached
gourd. calabaza. jicaro. The fruit                branch (scion) in close cambial
   of a tendril-climbing herb with                contact with a rooted stem (root-
   sappy stems and palmate leaves                 stock) in a way that the scion and
   Cucurbita pepo (Cucurbitaceae).                rootstock unite to form a new plant.
   When dry, commonly used for a              graft hybrid. híbrido de injerto. A
   drinking or food container.                    chimaera produced by grafting dis-
gracilis. gracilis. Latin meaning “slen-          similar plants.
   der”.                                      grafting. injerto. An asexual propa-
gradate sorus. soro gradato. A type               gation method that places a shoot
    of sorus or group of sporangia in             (scion) onto the rootstock (stock)
grain                                  174                     gravitational water
   of another plant.                             mostly annual or perennial herbs,
grain. cariopsis. A dry, one-celled              as the cereal grasses wheat (Triti-
   indehiscent fruit with the pericarp           cum), barley Hordeum), corn (Zea)
   fused to the seed coat; also, the             and rice Oryza), but a few are
   arrangement or direction of fibers            woody, as the bamboo (Bambus-
   in wood; in pollen, a grain or                aceae). Most have hollow stems,
   microspore contains one mature or             nodes capable of intercalary growth,
   immature male gametophyte.                    and spikelets with one to numer-
gramineous. gramineo. Grass-like or              ous replaced by florets.
   pertaining to grasses.                    grassland. pastizal. pradera. A
graminiform. graminiforme. Grass-                region of vegetation mainly com-
   like.                                         posed of grasses (Poaceae) or grass-
gram-negative bacteria. bacteria                 like plants; also, pasture land or
   gramnegativo. Bacteria that do                grass-covered, as may occur after
   not stain with crystal violet and io-         the removal of primary or secondary
   dine.                                         trees; one of the main divisions of
gram-positive bacteria. bacteria                 vegetation, others are forest, desert,
   grampositivo. Bacteria that retain            tundra, and taiga.
   the violet stain when treated with        grass-like. graminiforme. Having the
   Gram’s iodine, as staphylococci.              appearance of grass; commonly
grana. grana. Plural of granum.                  used to describes sedges (Carex,
grandi-. grandi-. A Latin prefix that            Cladium) and rushes (Juncus).
   means, “large”.                           grassy. graminoso. Covered with grass
granular. granular. A fine, mealy sur-           or grass-like plants.
   face; covered with granules or small      gravelly. de grava. A loose mixture
   projecting points.                            of small rocks or rock fragments
granule. gránulo. A small, rounded,              containing clay or other soil that
   grain-like particle.                          is coarser than sand mixtures.
granuliferous. granulífero. Covered          graveolent. graveolente. Having a
   with very small granules.                     strong, rank smell.
granulose. granuloso. Finely raised          graviperception. gravipercepción. The
   bumps or a rough surface.                     perception of gravity by plants.
granum. grano. A disk-shaped stack           gravitation. gravitación. The attraction
   of platelets within the chloroplasts          of one body or particle for another,
   of plant cells where sunlight en-             or the effective force of one body
   ergy is trapped and ATP is formed.            or particle moving toward another.
grandiflorus. grandiflorus. Latin            gravitational. gravitacional. Of or
   meaning “large flowered”.                     pertaining to gravitation.
grandifoliate. grandifoliado. The            gravitational induction. inducción de
   leaves are more conspicuous than              gravitación. The development of
   usual, commonly on short stems.               a structure from the underside of
grandis. grandis. Latin meaning                  a plant member.
   “large”.                                  gravitational water. agua de gravitac-
grass. grama. The grass or Poaceae               ión. agua gravitacional. Water
   (Gramineae) family, which are                 that drains from the pores of a soil
gravitropism                               175                       ground water
   after a rain.                                of green, as the leaves are green-
gravitropism. gravitropismo. Direc-             ish-yellow.
   tional growth of a coleoptile, root,      gregarious. gregario. Growing close
   or shoot in response to the earth’s          together, but not matted.
   gravity; geotropism.                      grenadin. grenadin. A noticeable or-
gravity. gravedad. The natural force            ange or brick-red color associated
   that causes objects to move or tend          with the petals of the Sphaeralcea.
   to move toward the center of the          grenadine. granadina. Very red in
   earth.                                       color, as the juice from the fruit
greasy. graso. grasoso. untuoso.                of the pomegranate (Punica
   Slick, oily, as a greasy epidermal           granium).
   secretion; unctuous.                      groove. surco. A long, narrow hol-
great. gran. A distinction of large             lowed, line, as if cut by a tool.
   size from other plants of the same        grooved. sulcado. Having a long, nar-
   genus.                                       row furrow, as on the surface of
green. verde. The color of growing              an organ.
   plants.                                   ground. suelo. The soil or earth, as
green algae. alga verde. A division             plants growing in the ground.
   (Chlorophyta) of mostly green-            ground layer. estrato de suelo. The
   green algae, composed of organ-              lowest level of a plant community,
   isms with definite nuclei and                generally composed of mosses
   chloroplasts, living mainly in fresh         (Musci), lichens, and fungi, and
   water.                                       herb species with trailing stems or
green cell. celular verde. A cell of            rosette forms.
   the alga Chlorella living inside cer-     ground meristem. meristemo del suelo.
   tain simple animals.                         In the embryonic vascular plant,
greenhouse effect. efecto de invern-            a group of cells that develop into
   adero. A natural effect that traps           the cortex, pericycle, and pith; lo-
   heat in the atmosphere (troposphere)         cated just below and derived from
   near the earth’s surface. Some flows         the apical meristem are the primary
   back toward space and is absorbed            meristematic tissues, protoderm,
   by water vapor, carbon dioxide,              ground meristem, and the procamb-
   ozone, and several other gases. As           ium.
   the atmospheric concentrations of         ground parenchyma. parénquima de
   these greenhouse gases rises, the            suelo. The basic ground tissue
   temperature of the lower atmosphere          composed of living parenchymal
   also gradually increases.                    cells.
greenhouse gases. gas invernadero.           ground tissue. tejido fundamental. The
   Gases in the earth’s lower atmos-            general mass of parenchyma out-
   phere (troposphere) that produces            side and between the vasucular
   the greenhouse effect; carbon di-            strands of a young stem or root.
   oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone,        ground water. agua subterránea. agua
   methane, water vapor, and nitrous            del subsuelo. agua freática. Wa-
   oxide.                                       ter that seeps or flows down into
greenish. verdoso. Having a tinge               the soil or rocks, supplying springs.
ground water table                         176                            growth ring
ground water table. nivel freático.                 growth of a plant or plant popula-
   nivel de agua freática. The level                tion in relation to time.
   of soil below which is saturated              growth factor. factor de crecimiento.
   with water. See ground water.                    Any determinant that affects the
group. conjunto. An indefinite term,                growth of a plant.
   denoting a number of species or               growth form. forma de crecimiento.
   genera belonging or classed together             The morphological structure of a
   but without reference to specific                plant, especially as it reflects a
   taxonomic designations or relation-              physiological adaptation to its as
   ships.                                           expressed by a growth curve.
group translocation. tra(n)slocación             growth inhibiting substance. sustancia
   de grupo. A natural method used                  inhibidor del crecimiento. A sub-
   for the movement of sugars across                stance formed inside the cells which
   bacterial membranes and possibly                 slows down or stops growth, of-
   across some of the higher cells.                 ten in some other part of the plant.
grow. crecer. To develop toward ma-                 Many of these substances have been
   turity through the division, enlarge-            identified and synthesized.
   ment, and differentiation of cells,           growth promoting substance. sustancia
   which in higher plants occurs in                 promotor del crecimiento. A sub-
   specific regions called meristems.               stance which promotes, or accel-
growing point. punto vegetativo. The                erates growth. It may be formed
   apical meristem of an axis where                 inside the plant, or may be obtained
   cell division occurs, and differen-              from an external source.
   tiation begins.                               growth rate. indice de crecimiento.
growing season. período de crecim-                  velocidad de crecimiento. Increase
   iento. In areas of the world with                in the size of a population per unit
   distinct seasonal climates, the pe-              of time, such as in a year.
   riod of rapid plant growth.                   growth regulator. regulador de crecim-
growing zone. zona de crecimiento.                  iento. A synthetic or natural com-
   The portion of an organ in which                 pound that controls growth in
   elongation proceeds.                             plants.
growth. crecimiento. An irreversible             growth retardant. retardante del crec-
   increase in cell size, weight, or                imiento. A chemical that selec-
   number with or without differen-                 tively interferes with hormonal
   tiation of a plant or plant part.                promotion of growth with limited
growth apical meristem. meristemo de                toxic effect.
   crecimiento apical. The tip where             growth ring. anillo de crecimiento.
   growth is occurring.                             In trees, the annual layer(s) of
growth curvature. curvatura de                      wood, just under the bark; each year
   crecimiento. The curving of an                   a new annual ring is formed; also,
   elongating part of a plant organ due             a cylinder of secondary wood laid
   to one side growing faster than the              down in a single season in a stem
   other.                                           or root; it is seen as a circle in a
growth curve. curva de crecimiento.                 transverse section and is not nec-
   A graphic representation of the                  essarily the same as an annual ring.
growth substance                           177                         gymnospore
growth substance. sustancia de               guttifer. gutífera. Any species that
   crecimiento. A natural compound,             produces gum or resin.
   other than a nutrient, that modi-         gymno-. ginmo-. A Greek prefix that
   fies, promotes, or inhibits plant            means, “naked” or “bear”.
   growth.                                   gymnocarpous. gimnocarpo. Bear-
guanidine. guanidina. Imino urea.               ing fruit where the spore-bearing
guanine. guanina. One of the pu-                tissue is naked (hairless) during its
   rine based substances of DNA and             entire development or the floral
   RNA found in the nucleic acid of             envelope does not cling to the outer
   cells. See base.                             skin, as a gymnocarpous species
guard cell. célula de guarda. célula            of lichen.
   de cierre. célula oclusiva. In the        gymnocidium. gimnocidio. A swelling
   epidermis, one of a pair of special-         at the base of the spore case in urn
   ized, chlorophyll-bearing cells that         mosses (Musci).
   surround a stoma; a pair of reni-         gymnocyte. gimnocito. A cell with-
   form cells bounding a stoma with             out a cell wall.
   walls differentially thickened, and       gymnogen. gimnogeno. A gymno-
   the cells containing chloroplasts.           sperm.
gum. goma. Any of the soft, sticky           gymnogenous. gimnogeno. Having
   substances (polysaccharides) that            naked seeds; gymnospermous.
   are exuded by various trees and           gymnogynous. gimnogino. Having
   other plants that harden in the air          a naked ovary, where the seeds are
   and dissolve in water; differing from        without a pericarp, as gymnogynous
   resins in chemical make-up and               grain.
   solubility. These collodial plant         gymnogrammoid ferns. helechos
   products either dissolve or swell            gimnogramoide. The ferns which
   in water. On hydrolysis they give            lack a sorus and have the sporangia
   complex organic acids, pentoses,             distributed over the lower surface
   and hexoses.                                 of the leaf.
gummiferous. gomífero. Producing             gymnoplasm. gimnoplasma. An amor-
   gum.                                         phous mass of naked protoplasm.
gummosis. gomosis. The exuding of            gymnosperm. gimnospermas. Seed
   various gummy substances as a                plants not enclosed by a megasporo-
   result of cell degeneration, espe-           phyll or pistil, borne outside an
   cially in some stone fruits.                 ovary or seed pod, and on the sur-
gutta. guta. An oil drop in a spore             face of cone scales, as pine (Pinus)
   or fungal hypha; also, a general term        and others (Coniferae, Cycadaceae,
   for a small vacuole.                         Genetaceae).
guttate. gutado. Containing small            gymnospermal. gimnospermal. Per-
   drops of material.                           taining to gymnosperms.
guttation. gutación. The oozing of           gymnospermous. gimnospermo. Of
   drops of water or salts from leaves,         or resembling gymnosperms; having
   as the result of root pressure, par-         seeds not surrounded by a capsule
   ticularly at night when transpira-           or ovary.
   tion rates are low.                       gymnospore. gimnospora. A naked
gymnosporous                                 178
   spore.                                          gynehermaphrodicephalous. gineher-
gymnosporous. gimnosporo. Having                      mafrodicéfalo. See gynehermaph-
   naked spores.                                      roditic.
gymnostromous. gimnostromo. Lack-                  gynehermaphroditic. ginehermaf-
   ing a peristome.                                   rodita. An inflorescence with pis-
gyn-. gin-. A Greek prefix that means,                tillate flowers inside or above and
   “female”.                                          hermaphroditic flowers outside or
gyn(o)ecium. gineceo. The female                      below; gynehermaphrodicephal-
   organ or organs of a flower; also,                 ous.
   a collective term for all the pis-              gynobase. ginobase. An enlargement
   tils; also, the group of carpels in                of the base or receptacle of the
   the center or at the top of the flower;            flower.
   also, the group of archegonia in                gynobasic. ginobásico. A type of style
   mosses (Musci).                                    that is attached to the base of an
gynagamocephalous. ginagamocéfalo.                    invaginated ovary.
   See gynagamous.                                 gynodioecious. ginodioico. Within
gynagamous. ginagamo. An inflo-                       the species, some plants that bear
   rescence with pistillate flowers                   pistils and others that bear perfect
   inside or above and neuter flow-                   flowers.
   ers outside or below; gynagamo-                 gynomonoecious. ginomonoico. Within
   cephalous.                                         the species, a plant with pistillates
gynandrial. ginandrial. See gynostem-                 and perfect flowers.
   ial.                                            gynodioecy. ginodioecia. The con-
gynandrium. ginandro. A column with                   dition in a plant population or spe-
   fused stamens and pistils, common                  cies in which female and hermaph-
   in orchids (Orchidaceae).                          rodite indivduals are formed
gynandrophore. ginandróforo. A                     gynophore. ginóforo. The stipe or
   gynophore with stamens and pis-                    stalk of a pistil; also, the elonga-
   tils.                                              tion of the receptacle of a flower
gynandrous. ginandro. Having the                      with the gynoecium at the apex;
   stamen and pistil united in one                    also, of the Pyronemaceae, the de-
   column.                                            veloping multinucleate female struc-
gynandry. ginania. Hermaphroditism.                   ture.
gynantherous. ginantero. Having the                gynostegium. ginostegio. A cover-
   stamens converted into pistils.                    ing of the gynoecium.
gynaphore. gináforo. A special struc-              gynostemial. ginandro. A column
   ture on the fruit of the peanut                    formed by the fusion of stamens
   (Aracnis hypogaea) for absorbing                   and carpels (stigma and style), as
   ions.                                              in the orchid (Orchidaceae) fam-
gynecandrous. ginecandro. An in-                      ily; same as gynandrial.
   florescence with pistillate flowers             gynostemium. ginostemo. A column
   inside or above and staminate flow-                that is formed from the fusion of
   ers outside or below, as in the spikes             the androecium and gynoecium, as
   of some Carex.                                     in trigger plants (Stylidiodeae).
gyn(o)ecium. gineceo. Gynaecium.                   gyrate. girar. Circinate; coiled in a
   circle; having convolutions as, a        deposit in eutrophic bodies of water,
   gyrate cyme or gyrate foliation.         produced by algae, macrophytes and
gyrose. girosa. Having a folded sur-        other organisms.
   face marked with sinuous lines or     ß-galactosidase. ß-galactosidasa. The
   ridges.                                  enzyme that splits lactose into glu-
gyttja. gyttja. An organic, muddy           cose and galactose.
H                                           180                                half-race


H. H. A flower class containing flowers               an important part in cellular oxi-
   which are usually zygomorphic with                 dations. They exist in combina-
   a corolla tube 6–15 mm long, and                   tion with nitrogenous organic sub-
   suited to pollination by bees.                     stances which are called haemochro-
habit. hábito. The form, shape, oc-                   mogens. See haem.
   currence, or mode of growth of a               haemochromogens. hemocromógenos.
   plant, as climbing, erect, prostrate,              See haematin.
   or others.                                     haerangiomycetes. herangiomicetos.
habitat. hábitat. The natural living                  A group of the Ascomycetales,
   area or type of living area of a plant             including some of the members in
   or plant community, characterized                  which the ascus does not have a
   by its biotic and abiotic compo-                   definte cell wall.
   nents.                                         haerangium. herangio. A funnel-like
habitat form. forma hábitat. A plant                  extension formed by filaments from
   showing features which are abnor-                  the edge of an ostiole.
   mal but can be related to the place            hair. tricoma. A thread-like growth
   where it is growing e.g. dwarfing                  on a plant.
   under poor growing conditions.                 hair-like. piliforme. Having the ap-
habitat group. grupo hábitat. A set                   pearance of hair.
   of unrelated plants which occupy               hairy. peloso. A hair-like covering.
   the same kind of situation.                    half-inferior. medio-inferior. De-
hadrocentric vascular bundle. haz vas-                scribes an ovary when the lower
   cular hadrocentrico. A concentric                  part is embedded in the pedicel and
   vascular bundle in which the                       the upper part is exposed, as in
   xylem is surrounded by phloem.                     Tetragonia.
hadromase. hadromasa. An enzyme                   half-life. período de vida media.
   present in some fungi, which ena-                  semiperíodo. The time needed for
   bles them to decompose wood.                       half the radiation of a radioisotope
haem. hema. One of a group of iron-                   to be emitted; also, the length of
   porphyrins which are conjugated                    time needed for half of a given sub-
   with proteins to form peroxidase,                  stance deposited in a living organ-
   catalase, and all the cytochromes.                 ism to be metabolized or eliminated;
haematochrome. hematocromo. An                        also the length of time it takes for
   orange-red pigment, probably a                     half the species in a group to be-
   carotinoid, found in some Chloro-                  come extinct; also the time required
   phyceae.                                           for a chemical reaction to affect
haematin. hemátina. Its derivatives                   half of the reactants.
   are present in living cells and play           half-race. media raza. A race of plants
haliplankton                                  181                     haplomonoecios
    in which only a few of the seed-               at the tip or a bent trichome.
    lings show the characteristic of the        hamulate. armado de púas. Having
    race, the other have the ordinary              a small hook or the appearance of
    characteristic of the species, and             a small hook.
    in which selection does not lead            handle-shaped. manubrio. In some
    to the fixing of a pure race.                  algae, a cylinder-like cell protruding
haliplankton. haliplancton. The plank-             out from the shield in the wall of
    ton of the seas.                               the antheridium; manubrium.
hallucinogen. alucinógeno. A com-               hapaxanthic. hapaxántico. hapaxanto.
    pound that produces mind-altering              monocárpico. During a life span,
    effects when ingested by humans.               fruiting or flowering only one time
halo-. halo-. A prefix that means, “per-        haplo-. haplo-. A Greek prefix that
    taining to salt”.                              means, “single”.
halobiotic. halobiótico. Living in a            haplobiont. haplobionte. A plant
    strongly salty environment, as                 which has only one type of indi-
    around a seashore.                             vidual in its life cycle; also, hav-
halobiontic. halobiontico. Strictly                ing one type of thallus which is
    confined to salt water.                        typically haploid.
halonate. halonado. Of a leafspot               haplocaulescent. haplocaulescente.
    fungus whose symptoms are con-                 Having a sinlge axis.
    centric rings; also, of a spore having      haplochlamydeous chimaera. quimera
    a ring around it.                              haploclamideo. A periclinal chi-
halophile. halófilo. A freshwater spe-             maera in which one component is
    cies capable of living in saltwa-              present as a single-celled layer,
    ter.                                           forming an epidermis.
halophilic. halófilo. Growing or living         haplodioecious. haplodioecia. Hetero-
    in an area rich in salt.                       thallism.
halophilous. halófilo. Thriving in or           haplodiplont. haplodiplonte. A spo-
    having a preference for salty soil,            rophyte in which the cells contain
    as in salt marshes and mudflats;               the haploid number of chromo-
    also, pertains to microorganism that           somes.
    tolerate high concentrations of salt.       haplogonidium. haplogonidio. A
halophobe. halófobo. A plant that                  gonidium produced singly, not in
    will not grow in a soil containing             a group.
    an appreciable amount of saltwa-            haploid. haploide. Describes a nu-
    ter.                                           cleus cell with a single set of un-
halophyte. halófita. Plants that grow              paired chromosomes; brought about
    naturally in salty soil or salt laden          by meiosis, which is necessary for
    air, as some glassworts (Salicornia).          gamete formation; sometimes
halosere. haloser(i)e. A sequence of               referred to as the sex cell.
    communities associated with the             haploid phase. fase haploide. See
    developmental stages in plant suc-             haplophase.
    cession on a salt marsh or salt desert.     haploidy. haploidia. The condition
hamate. hamoso. Hook-shaped or hav-                of being haploid.
    ing a hook, as a narrow leaf hooked         haplomonoecios. haplomonoecia.
haplomorphic                            182                               haustorial
   Homothallic.                                  perature, or nutrient supply; espe-
haplomorphic. haplomorfo. Flower                 cially used prior to transplanting.
   parts spirally arranged in a semi-         hardening. aclimatación. Adapting
   spherical or hemispherical form.              plants to outdoor conditions. See
haplont. haplonte. An organism that              harden off.
   is haploid during its entire lifetime,     hardwood. leñosa. An angiospermous
   except as a zygote.                           wood or tree species that has a high
haplophase. haplofase. The haploid               density (mass per unit of volume),
   phase of an organism.                         broad, flat leaves, as distinguished
haplopolyploid. haplopoliploide. A               from the softwood, coniferous or
   plant derived from a polyploid by             needle-leaved trees.
   haploid parthenogenesis and there-         hardy. resistente a las heladas. Not
   fore having half the number of chro-          harmed by climate extremes; usu-
   mosomes of the orignial polyploid.            ally applied to plants growing in
haplosis. haplosis. The decrease in              the temperate zone that can sur-
   the number of chromosomes to half             vive frost.
   during meiosis.                            Hardy-Weinberg law. ley de Hardy-
haplostele. haplostela. A protostele             Weinberg. A law stating the ex-
   with a smooth circular outline in             pected allele frequencies from one
   a transverse section.                         generation to the next under a set
haplostemonous. haplostémono. Hav-               of specific conditions that precludes
   ing the stamens in one whorl.                 allele frequency changes; that ran-
haplostromatic. haplostromatico.                 dom mating of individuals is
   Having only an ectostroma or                  equivalent to the random union of
   endostroma.                                   gametes.
haplosynoecious. haplosinoecia.               harlequin chromosome. cromosoma
   Homothallic.                                  arlequín. Sister chromatids that
haploxylic. haploxílico. Said of a               stain differently so that one appears
   leaf having one vascular strand.              dark and the other light. See sis-
haptera. hapterios. Attachment ap-               ter chromatid exchange.
   pendages or root-like forms of             harsh. áspero. Having a rough sur-
   holdfast growing from the stems               face, as on some leaves.
   of aquatic plants and marine algae.        hastate. hastado. Triangular or ar-
haptonasty. haptonastia. A move-                 row-shaped with two flaring ba-
   ment induced by touch but not                 sal lobes, as a hastate leaf;
   influenced by the direction of the            halbert-shaped.
   stimulus.                                  hastiform. hastiforme. Resembling
haptotropism. haptotropismo. The                 or having the shape of an arrow;
   tropic response (closing) of a plant          having hastate or triangular-shaped
   being touched. See thigmotropism.             leaves.
hard bast. liber duro. Sclerenchyma           haulm. caña. A stem of grass (Poac-
   produced in the phloem.                       eae), especially of cultivated ce-
harden off. aclimatar. To adapt a plant          reals or bamboos (Bambusaceae);
   to new, outside conditions by with-           culm.
   holding water, lowering the tem-           haustorial. haustórico. Of or per-
haustorium                                   183                      helmet-shaped
    taining to a haustorium.                       of a helix.
haustorium (pl. haustoria). haustorio.         helicoid. helicoide. Coiling in a spiral,
    In some parasitic fungi, an out-               like a snail shell.
    growth from a thread-like filament         helicoid cyme. cima helicoide. A de-
    that enters a host to absorb nutri-            terminate inflorescence in which
    ents; also, in some parasitic flow-            the branches coil and develop only
    ering plants, one of the small roots           on one side, as in the Boragin-
    that attaches itself to and penetrates         aceae; bostryx.
    the host to absorb nourishment.            helicoid dichotomy. dichotomia helic-
hazard. peligro. Anything that can                 oide. A branch system of repeated
    cause injury, disease, economic                dichotomies, giving a weak and
    loss, or environmental damage.                 strong branch, the latter always
head. cabezuela. A crowded group                   being on the same side.
    of sessile or subsessile flowers on        heliophilous. heliófilo. Attracted by
    a compound receptacle or torus,                the sun, as heliophilous flowers.
    as the inflorescence of the Aster-         heliophyte. heliófita. Plants that can
    aceae (Compositae); a type of in-              adapt to bright, sunny habitats, as
    florescence with the individual                opposed to the shade-preferring
    flowers grouped closely together               sciophytes.
    on a receptacle; capitulum; also,          heliosciphyte. helioscífita. A plant
    a group of conidia and sterigmata              which will tolerate shade but grows
    crowded into a dense mass, which               better in the sun.
    is rounded in outline.                     heliospore. heliospora. A coiled, cork-
heart-shaped. cordiforme. acorazon-                screw-shaped spore which is com-
    ado. Having the form of a heart,               monly septate.
    as some leaves; cordate; cordiform.        heliotaxis. heliotaxis. Movement in
heartwood. corazón de la madera.                   response to sunlight.
    The dead, central wood of an               heliotropic. heliotrópico. A plant or
    exogenous tree, frequently impreg-             part of a plant that grows in the
    nated with tannins, resins, and other          direction of light; phototropic.
    excretory products, with the heart-        heliotropism. heliotropismo. The ten-
    wood harder, somewhat darker and               dency of some plants to bend or
    more solid than the surrounding                turn under the influence of light,
    sapwood; duramen.                              especially sunlight; positive heli-
heath. brezo. brezal. A flat, uncul-               otropism causes a movement to-
    tivated region without trees; usu-             ward the light and negative heli-
    ally covered with low, shrubby                 otropism causes a movement away
    plants.                                        from the light; phototropism.
hebetate. hebetado. Having a blunt             helix. hélice. A spiral form often used
    or soft point.                                 in reference to the double spiral
height. altura. The distance from the              of the DNA molecule.
    bottom to the top.                         helmet. casco. The upper lip of an
hekistotherm. hekistotermia. Cold-                 open corolla or any similar hood-
    tolerate plants of the Polar Regions.          like part; galea.
helical. helicoidal. Having the form           helmet-shaped. galeiforme. Flowers
helminthoid                            184                              hemizygote
   with the shape of a helmet, as the           five-carbon sugars, which form part
   monkshood and various other aco-             of the matrix where cellulose fibers
   nites (Aconitum); galeiform.                 are embedded; similar to cellulose,
helminthoid. helmintoide. Worm-                 but more easily degraded.
   shaped.                                   hemicryptophyte. hemicriptófito. A
helodrium. helodrio. A thicket for-             Raunkiaer category of plants whose
   mation.                                      perennating buds are at ground level
helophyte. helófito. Plants typically           and the aerial shoots die down at
   found growing in marshes and                 the beginning of unfavorable con-
   along the edge of lakes, in which            ditions.
   the perennating bud lies in the soil      hemicyclic. hemicíclico. Designat-
   or mud below the water level, but            ing flowers which have the sepa-
   the aerial shoots stick out above            rate portions of the inflorescence
   the water, as the reed Phragmites            arranged in spirals.
   communis; a bog plant.                    hemiform. hemiforme. A form of life
helotism. helotismo. A form of sym-             cycle in the Uredinales, which
   biosis in which one partner ben-             includes only uredospores and
   efits more than the other, e.g. the          teleutospores.
   fungus in a lichen thallus benefits       hemigamous. hemigamo. Having one
   more than the alga.                          of the two florets in the same
hemi-. hemi-. A Greek prefix that               spikelet neuter, and the other uni-
   means, “half” or “partial”.                  sexual; said of grasses (Poaceae).
hemianatropous. hemianátropo.                hemikaryon. heminúcleo. A cell with
   hemítropo. Describes an ovule                the haploid number of chromo-
   which is half-inverted so that the           somes.
   funiculus is attached near the middle     hemiparasite. hemiparásito. A par-
   with the micropyle terminal at a             tially parasitic plant that has chlo-
   right angle. Same as hemitropous.            rophyll and photosynthesizes but
hemiangiocarpic. hemiangiocarpo.                adds to its nutrient supply by also
   Said of the fruit body of a fungus           feeding on a host; characteristically
   when the hymenium begins its de-             form haustorial connections (root
   velopment enclosed, but is exposed           grafts) with plants around them;
   at maturity; also, said of sporocarp         sometimes referred to as a semi-
   which opens just before it is ma-            parasite; facultative parasite.
   ture.                                     hemisaprophyte. hemisaprófito. Fac-
hemiascus. hemiasco. hemiasca. An               ultative parasite.
   atypical, multispore ascus.               hemispore. hemispora. Used espe-
hemiautophyte. hemiautófito. A para-            cially for the fungi attacking skin:
   site that contains chlorophyll so            a cell at the end of a filament which
   that it can manufacture some car-            later becomes a deuteroconidium
   bohydrate.                                   by division.
hemicarp. hemicarpo. Mericarp.               hemitropous. hemitropo. hemianát-
hemicellulose. hemicelulosa. A het-             ropo. See hemianatropous.
   erogeneous group of gummy com-            hemizygote. hemicigoto. hemizigoto.
   pounds in plant cell walls, rich in          A plant or animal whose chromo-
hemizygous                                  185             hereditary determinant
   somes have only one pair of genes.             perennials that die back to the
hemizygous. hemizigótico. The con-                ground level each year.
   dition of having only one set of           herbaceous layer. estrato herbáceo.
   alleles instead of two, as in the case         See field layer.
   of loci on the X chromosome in             herbal. de hierbas. Of or pertaining
   males; also, of or pertaining to a             to herbs or uses for herbs, as herbal
   hemizygote.                                    or medicinal tea.
hendeca-. hedeca-. A prefix that              herbalist. herbolario. herborista.
   means, “eleven of _______”.                    yerbatero. yerbatera. A person
hendecagynous. hendecagio. Hav-                   who collects or deals in herbs; for-
   ing eleven pistils.                            merly, a descriptive botanist; a
hendecandrous. hendecandro. Hav-                  traditional physician that uses herbs.
   ing eleven stamens.                        herbarium. herbario. An institutional
hepatica. hepática. Liverworts; plants            repository for dried and pressed
   from the class Hepaticae, which                plant collections that may addition-
   are similar to mosses (Musci), and             ally conduct research, provide train-
   together are termed bryophytes                 ing, facilitate referrals, engage in
   (Bryophyta).                                   documentation, and serve as a spe-
hepta-. hepta-. A Greek prefix that               cialized library and data storehouse.
   means, “seven”.                            herbicidal. herbicidal. That which
heptamerous. heptamero. Having                    inhibits or kills plant growth, a her-
   seven members, as in each whorl;               bicidal compound.
   often written 7-merous.                    herbicide. herbicida. A chemical that
heptandrous. heptandro. Having seven              kills a plant or inhibits its growth;
   stamens.                                       may work against a narrow or wide
heptapetalous. heptapétalo. Having                range of plant species.
   seven petals.                              herbivore. herbívoro. Animals that
heptasepalous. heptasépalo. Having                feed only on plants.
   seven sepals.                              hercogamy. hercogamia. The con-
heptaspermous. heptaspermo. Hav-                  dition of a flower when the sta-
   ing seven seeds.                               mens and stigmas are arranged so
heptose. heptoso. A monosaccharide                that self-pollination is impossible.
   with seven carbon atoms.                   hereditary. hereditario. Being trans-
herb. hierba. Seed plants whose non-              mitted or capable of being trans-
   woody stems die back to the ground             mitted by genes from parents to off-
   at the end of the growing season,              spring; passed down by inheritance.
   distinguishing them from trees and         hereditary character. carácter hered-
   shrubs; also, a plant whose flow-              itario. See hereditary character-
   ers, leaves, roots, or stems can be            istic.
   used for medicine, seasoning, or           hereditary characteristic. característica
   perfume.                                       hereditario. Any detectable at-
herbaceous. herbáceo. Having the                  tribute, character, or property of
   characteristics of an herb; plants             the plant that is transmitted from
   that do not develop woody tissues;             parent to off-spring, as color; trait.
   typically annual and biennial plants;      hereditary determinant. determinante
hereditary factor                       186                           heterochrony
    hereditario. A gene; also, a he-              allelic mutation which occurs at
    reditary factor corresponding to the          different sites within one gene, as
    function of a gene.                           opposed to homoallele mutants of
hereditary factor. factor hereditario.            a gene that have different muta-
    A gene.                                       tions at the same site.
heredity. herencia. The transmission          heteroauxin. heteroauxina. Indolyl-
    or capability of transmission of              acetic acid; indole-3-acetic acid.
    morphological and physiological           heterobasidium. heterobasidio. A sep-
    characters from parent to child               tate basidium.
    through chromosomes and their             heterobrachial. heterobraquial. A
    thread-like genes.                            chromosome bent into two parts of
heritability. heredabilidad. A measure            unequal length.
    of the extent to which a phenotype        heterocarpous. heterocarpo. Bear-
    is genetically influenced and can             ing fruit of two kinds or shapes,
    be modified by selection; a herit-            as in Amphicarpaea.
    able condition.                           heterocarpy. heterocarpia. See hetero-
heritable. heredable. Capable of being            carpous.
    inherited, as a physical trait.           heterocaryon. heterocarionte. See het-
hermaphrodite. hermafrodita. A                    erokaryon.
    flower having both stamens (male)         heterochlanydeous. heteroclamideo.
    and pistils (female) reproductive             The flower whorl is different in
    parts in a single floral envelope or          form, size and color; also having
    on the same receptacle; bisexual;             a distinct calyx and corolla.
    perfect; monoclinous.                     heterochromatic. heterocromático.
hermaphroditic. hermafrodita. See                 Having more than one color, as
    hermaphrodite.                                heterochromatic flowers.
hermaphroditism. hermafroditismo.             heterochromatin. heterocromatina.
    The condition of a hermaphrodite;             A portion of chromatin with tightly
    gynandry.                                     coiled DNA, inactive in the tran-
hesperidin. hesperidina. A flavonoid              scription of the genetic code, and
    occurring in citrus fruit peel and            staining intensely during the inter-
    in most citrus fruit when immature.           phase of mitosis; an effective gene
hesperidium. hesperidio. A fleshy                 repressor which neutralizes protein-
    berry-type fruit, covered by a tough,         forming activities genes.
    leathery skin, divided internally by      heterochromosomes. heterocromo-
    separable pulpy cells, and grow-              soma. Chromosomes composed
    ing on Citrus trees, such as grape-           mostly of heterochromatin.
    fruit, orange, or lemon.                  heterochromous. heterocromo. Having
heterandrous. heterandro. Having                  different colored florets in the
    stamens that are not all the same             center than those on the margin,
    size.                                         as asters or daisies (Asteraceae).
hetero-. heter-. hetero-. A Greek             heterochrony. heterocronia. Disso-
    prefix meaning “different”, “other”           ciation during the development of
    or “not normal”.                              shape, size, and maturity, so that
heteroallele. heteroalelo. A type of              these features mature at earlier or
heterocylic                                 187                         heterokaryon
    later growth stages.                      heterogamy. heterogamia. Reproduc-
heterocylic. heterocíclica. The ring              tion by the union of two different
    system of a compound molecule                 types of gametes; anisogamy.
    made up of atoms of different el-         heterogeneity. heterogeneidad. A phe-
    ements.                                       notype that can be produced by
heterocyst. heterocisto. heterociste.             different genetic mechanisms.
    A large, specialized cell located         heterogeneous. heterogéneo. heteró-
    along filaments in blue-green                 geno. Made of dissimilar parts;
    algae.                                        varied; not homogeneous.
heterodromous. heterodromo. Hav-              heterogenesis. heterogénesis. See
    ing leaves on stems that spiral in            alternation of generations.
    one direction and leaves on branch-       hetergenic. hetergénico. Of a popu-
    es, spiraling in the opposite direc-          lation or gamete containing more
    tion.                                         than one allelomorph of a particiular
heterodynamic. heterodinamíco. Of                 gene or genes.
    unequal potentiality.                     heterogonic coefficient. coeficiente
heterodynamic hybrid. hibrido hetero-             de heterogonico. An allometric
    dinamíco. A hybrid that resem-                coefficient which is used in express-
    bles one parent more than the other.          ing the ratio of relative growth rates.
heteroecious. heteroico. In some para-            Expressed as log Y/d log X, where
    sitic fungi, having various stages            X is the measure of the organ, or
    of growth take place on different             part of the organ, and Y is the meas-
    hosts; heteroxenous.                          urement of the whole organism, or
heteroecy. heterocia. Dioecious; also,            part of it.
    heteroecious.                             heterogonous. heterogono. Refers to
heterofertilization. heterofertilización.         monoclinous flowers that occur in
    The fertilization of the endosperm            two or more forms but cross-
    nucleus and egg-nucleus by gam-               fertilization is still possible because
    etes of different genetic composi-            of the differing lengths of stamens
    tion.                                         and pistils.
heterogametangic. heterogametangico.          heterogony. heterogonia. An alter-
    Having gametangia of more than                nation of generations in which a
    one type.                                     parthenogenetic generation alter-
heterogamete. heterogameto. Two dif-              nates with a sexual generation; also,
    fering gametes, either in structure           the condition of being heterogo-
    or behavior, which can unite with             nous.
    the other to form a zygote.               heteroicous. heteroico. Said of the
heterogametic. hetergamético. With                Bryophyta which have more than
    respect to sex chromosomes, pro-              one kind of arrangement of the
    ducing two types of gametes.                  antheridia and archegonia on the
heterogamous. heterógamo. Having                  same plant.
    flowers or florets that are sexually      heterokaryon. heterocarión. A cell
    different borne on the same plant;            with several genetically different
    maturation of flower parts occur-             nuclei, especially a fungal mycelium
    ring at different times.                      or hypha.
heterokaryosis                                188                               heterostyly
heterokaryosis. heterocariosis. Of a                heteroploid. heteroploide. Having
    cell having more than one geneti-                   a chromosome number that is not
    cally different nucleus.                            the same multiple of the haploid
heterokinesis. heterocinesis. Differ-                   number of chromosome of the spe-
    ential divison of chromosomes.                      cies; aneuloid.
heteromerous. heterómero. Composed                  heteropucnosis. heteropucnosis.
    of units, such as cells, of differ-                 Excessive charging of heterochro-
    ent types; also, having the flower                  matin with nucleic acid at meio-
    parts of one or more whorls dif-                    sis and premeitotic divisions.
    fering in number from the others;               heterosepalous. heterosépalo. Hav-
    also, layered, as with a lichen thallus             ing different types of sepals on the
    where the algae cells lie between                   same plant.
    two layers of fungus hyphae;                    heterosis. heterosis. The increased
    anisomerous.                                        vigor, growth, size, yield, or func-
heteromorphic. heteromórfico. Oc-                       tion of a hybrid progeny over the
    curring in different forms, as in the               parents by crossing genetically
    relative length of the stamens and                  unlike organisms; hybrid vigor.
    pistils; also, chromosome pairs with            heterosporangy. heterosporangia. The
    some homology but differing in size                 formation of more than one kind
    and shape, especially at meiosis.                   of sporangium containing more than
heteromorphic incompatiability. incom-                  one kind of spore.
    patibilidad heteromórfico. Incom-               heterosporic. heterospórico. Produc-
    patibility associated with or depend-               ing both microspores and mega-
    ent on morphological variations.                    spores.
heteromorphous. heteromorfo. Ex-                    heterosporous. heterospóro. hetero-
    isting in more than one form; also,                 spóreo. Having two different kinds
    having more than one kind of flower                 of spores, often different in size.
    on the same plants. See hetero-                 heterospory. heterosporia. The pro-
    morphic.                                            duction of more than one kind of
heteronomous. heterónomo. Having                        asexual spore on the same plant.
    different growth modes, as heter-               heterostylism. heteroestilismo. Poly-
    onomous appendages.                                 morphism found in angiosperm
heteropetalous. heteropétalo. Hav-                      flowers; heterostyly.
    ing two different types of petals               heterostylous. heterostilo. Styles of
    on the same plant.                                  different lengths on different plants
heterophyllous. heterófilo. Having                      of the same species which tends
    two different types of leaves on the                to encourage cross-pollination.
    same plant; heterophyllous shoots               heterostyly. heterostilia. Anthers and
    come from winter buds and are dif-                  styles of different heights that fa-
    ferent than the other leaves that                   cilitate cross fertilization through
    develop later.                                      pollination by insects; also, the
heterophylly. heterofíia. polimorfísmo                  division of a species into two or
    foliar. A condition of having dif-                  three kinds of individuals by the
    ferent shaped leaves on the same                    relative positions of the stigma(ta)
    plant.                                              and anthers; heterostylism.
heterosynapsis                               189                      hexuronic acids
heterosynapsis. heterosinapsis. The                zigosis. See heterozygosity.
    pairing of two dissimilar chromo-          heterozygote. heterozigoto. hetero-
    somes.                                         cigoto. A plant whose chromosomes
heterotaxis. heterotaxis. An abnor-                have both genes of a contrasting
    mal or an irregular arrangement,               pair, as tallness and shortness, and
    as parts of a plant.                           therefore do not always breed true
heterothalism. heterotalismo. Refers               to type; and, having non-identical
    to algae and fungi having separate,            alleles at a specific gene locus; also,
    physiologically different male and             a zygote derived from the union
    female thalli; or in the fungi, both           of gametes dissimilar in quality,
    types of sex organs may be present             quantity, or arrangement of their
    on the same thallus, but self-                 genes, so that it is heterozygous
    fertilization is impossible. Sexual            for one or more allelomorphs.
    reproduction only occurs when two          heterozygous. heterozigótico. hetero-
    appropriate strains come together.             cigótico. Having different genes
heterothallic. heterotálico. Having                of a Mendelian pair present in the
    two types of haploids, one serv-               same cell, as a tall pea (Pisum) with
    ing as male and the other female,              genes for both tallness (T) and
    as fungi that are designated plus              dwarfness (t).
    and minus are said to be hetero-           hexa-. hexa-. A Greek prefix that
    thallic.                                       means, “six”.
heterotroph. heterótrof. An organ-             hexamerous. hexamero. Having parts
    ism that cannot make its own food,             arranged in sixes or multiples of
    but is dependent on organic sub-               six; 6-merous.
    stances for nutrition, as fungi and        hexandrous. hexandro. Having six
    most bacteria.                                 stamens.
heterotrophic. heterotrófico. Obtain-          hexaploid. hexaploide. In each cell,
    ing nutrients from organic mate-               having six full sets of chromosomes.
    rial; unable to use inorganic mat-         hexaploidy. hexaploidia. The con-
    ter.                                           dition of having six times the hap-
heterotropous. heterótropo. Having                 loid set of chromosomes in the so-
    the embryo or ovule oblique or                 matic cells.
    traverse to the axis of the seed; the      hexasomic. hexasomico. A diploid
    ovule position not fixed in the ovary.         with one chromosome represented
heterotypic. heterotipica (inflores-               six times.
    cencia). Identifies the first mei-         hexokinase. hexoquinasa. The en-
    otic division of a germ cell.                  zyme which combines the phosphate
heteroxenous. heteroico. See hetero-               in ATP with glucose to give glu-
    ecious.                                        cose 6-phosphate.
heteroxeny. heteroxenia. See hetero-           hexosans. hexosáns. Hemicelluloses
    ecious.                                        formed from hexose sugars.
heterozygo(si)ty. heterozigotismo.             hexose. hexosa. A monosaccharide
    Developing from a heterozygote;                sugar having six carbon atoms.
    being heterozygous.                        hexuronic acids. ácido hexuronico.
heterozygosis. heterocigosis. hetero-              Acids derived from six carbon sug-
hians                                     190                           histochemistry
    ars found mostly in the pectic sub-             seed that shows where it was
    stances and the hemicellulose of                attached to the funicle; also, the
    the cell wall.                                  nucleus in grasses (Poaceae); also,
hians. hians. Latin meaning “gap-                   the point on a fungal spore where
    ing”.                                           it was attached to its sporophore;
hiascent. hiascente. Becoming wide                  also, the lateral depression in which
    open.                                           the flagella are inserted in reniform
hibernaculum. hibernáculo. The part                 zoospores.
    of a plant that is specialized to pro-      himantoid. himantoide. Said of a myc-
    tect the embryo during winter, as               elium which spreads out in fan-like
    a bud or bulb.                                  cords.
hibernal. hibernal. Flowering or ap-            hinge. ginglimo. A thin strip in the
    pearing in the winter time; also,               wall of a guard cell about which
    used in reference to the six part               movement can occur.
    division of the year: hibernal,             hip. cinarrodon. A small, fleshy
    aestival, autumnal, prevernal,                  hypanthium that surrounds numer-
    serotinal, and vernal.                          ous achenes, as on mature rose
hibernate. hibernar. invernar. To                   bushes (Rosa).
    live through the winter in an               hippocrepiform. hipocrepiforme. Hav-
    inactive state.                                 ing the shape of a horseshoe.
hibernation. hibernación. Remain-               hircinus. hircinus. Latin meaning
    ing quiescent during the winter.                “with a goaty smell”.
hibernating. hibernante. invernante.            hirti-. hirti-. A Latin prefix that means,
    Overwintering.                                  “with long hairs”.
hiematis. hiematis. Latin meaning               hirsute. hirsuto. Covered with long,
    “winter”.                                       stiff trichomes.
high. alto. alta. Greater than usual            hirsutidin. hirsutidina. An anthocy-
    development; more complex, es-                  anin.
    pecially in structure, as higher fungi.     hirsutulous. hirsútulo. Covered with
higher fungi. hongos superiores.                    very small hirsute.
    Fungi belonging to the subdivisions         hirtellous. hírtulo. Having bristles;
    Ascomycotina, Basidomycotine,                   hirsutulous.
    and Deuteromycotina; true fungi             hirtose. hirtoso. Having hairs.
Hill reaction. reacción de Hill. The            hirtus. hirtus. Latin meaning “hir-
    splitting of a molecule of water                sute”.
    during the light reactions of pho-          hispid. hispido. Covered with very
    tosynthesis; occurs when chloro-                long, bristles, spines, or stiff
    plasts exposed to light yield oxy-              trichomes.
    gen even in the absence of carbon           hispidulous. hispídulo. Similar to
    dioxide, provided the hydrogen ac-              hispid but the trichomes are smaller
    ceptors are present to cause the dis-           or more delicate.
    sociation of water and the result-          histidine. histidina. A basic, polar
    ing release of oxygen; the photolysis           amino acid. See polar molecule.
    of water.                                   histochemistry. histoquímico. The
hilum. hilo. A scar on the testa of a               study of tissues and cells, using
histocompatibility                           191                          holophytic
    procedures from chemistry and bi-             ecosystem rather than its compo-
    ology.                                        nent parts.
histocompatibility. histocompati-              hollow. hueco. An empty space.
    bilidad. The condition in which            hollowed. fistuloso (en órganos
    grafted or transplanted tissue is ac-         cilíndricos). Tubular or reed-like.
    cepted (without rejection) by sur-         holo-. holo-. A Greek prefix that means,
    rounding tissue.                              “entire” or “complete”.
histogen. histógeno. Any area of a             holobasidium. holobasidio. A ba-
    plant in which tissue differentia-            sidium which is not septate.
    tion occurs.                               holobenthic. holobéntico. Living at
histogenesis. histogénesis. The de-               the bottom of the sea during all
    velopment of tissues from embry-              stages of development.
    onic germ layers.                          holoblastic. holoblástico. An ovum
histogenous. histógeno. Produced                  composed mostly or completely of
    from tissues; also, of spores pro-            germinal matter.
    duced from hyphae or cells with-           holocarpic. holocarpico. Used to de-
    out conidiophores.                            scribe a fungus in which the whole
histogeny. histogenia. Histogenesis.              thallus differentiates to form one
histoid. histoide. Covered with soft              or more reproductive structures;
    fibers or hairs, appearing like a             also, said of a fungus which is com-
    cobwed.                                       pletely enclosed in the host.
histology. histología. The study of            holocentric. holocentrico. Chromo-
    tissue structures of plants or ani-           somes in which the properties of
    mals, especially the microscopic              the centromere are diffused over
    structures.                                   the entire chromosome.
histolysis. histólisis. The disintegration     holoenzyme. holoenzima. A fully ac-
    of tissues due to the disappearance           tive complex enzyme composed of
    or solution of the walls or tissues.          a protein component and a coenz-
histone. histona. Proteins, rich in amino         yme.
    acids, found in the nucleus and            hologamete. hologameto. A gamete
    associated with the eukaryotic chro-          formed from the entire cell body,
    mosomes and nucleolus.                        in Protista.
hoarfrost. escarcha. See white frost.          hologamy. hologamia. The fusion of
hoary. canescente. Covered by dense,              two mature cells each of which has
    grayish-white hair.                           be completely changed into a
holandric. holándrico. Of or pertaining           gametangium.
    to the inheritance of genes located        holophyte. holófita. A plant that pro-
    on the Y chromosomes.                         duces its own food by photosyn-
holdfast. órgano fijador. órgan de                thesis.
    sujeción. A structure at the base          holophytic. holofitico. Capable of syn-
    of macroalgae that attaches the               thesizing complex molecules from
    stalk to a rocky surface.                     simple ones, thus storing chemi-
holistic. holistico. Pertaining to the            cal energy, and builidng new tis-
    whole. In ecology, the term is used           sues from them; refers particularly
    to indicate the study of an entire            to photosynthesis.
holosaprophyte                             192                             homolog(ue)
holosaprophyte. holosaprófito. A true               nal processes change in response
   saprophyte.                                      to changes in external conditions
holotype. holótipo. ejemplar tipo.                  to maintain constant internal con-
   A single specimen on which the                   ditions; a state of balance.
   description of a species or variety           homogametic. homogamético. Pro-
   is based; type specimen.                         ducing one type of gamete or sex
homo-. homo-. A Greek prefix that                   chromosome.
   means, “same” or “similar”.                   homogamous. homógamo. Having
homoallele. homoalelo. A type of                    flowers of the same sex; also, sta-
   allele mutant of a gene that has dif-            mens and pistils maturing at the
   ferent mutations at the same site,               same time.
   as opposed to heteroallelic mutants           homogamy. homogamia. Having a
   which occur at different sites within            homogamous condition; especially
   one gene.                                        having stamens and pistils of a
homobasidium. homobasidio. A non-                   monoclinous flower mature at the
   spetate basidium.                                same time.
homobium. homobio. A self-suporting              homogeneous. homogéneo. Having
   association of a fungus and an alga,             all the same character or kind of
   as in lichens.                                   parts; uniform.
homocarpous. homocarpo. Having                   homogenesis. homogénesis. The or-
   similar carpels or fruits, as in the             dinary path of generation in which
   head of a composite flower.                      the offspring is like the parent, both
homocaryon. homocarión. homocario.                  in structure and development.
   See homokaryon.                               homogenic. homogénico. Of a popu-
homochlamydeous. homoclamideo.                      lation or gamete containing only
   Having the same flower whorls;                   one allelomorph of a particular gene
   with the perianth having similar                 or genes.
   parts and each part a tepal.                  homogenous. homogéno. Having the
homodromous. homodroma. Leaves                      same structure because of a com-
   on the stem and branches spiraling               mon origin.
   in the same direction; also, hav-             homograft. homoinjerto. See allo-
   ing all the leaves turned the same               graft.
   way.                                          homoimerous. homoímero. Said of
homodynamic hybrid. hibrido homodi-                 a lichen thallus in which the algal
   namico. A hybrid having an equal                 and fungal components are mixed,
   grouping of characters derived from              not in layers.
   each parent, and differing in ap-             homokaryon. homocarión. homo-
   pearance from both.                              cario. A fungal mycelium where
homoeosis. homoeosis. A type of vari-               all the nuclei are genetically iden-
   ation in which a plant member takes              tical.
   on the characters of an unlike mem-           homolog(ue). homologue. Something
   ber, e.g. when a petal changes into              that shows correspondence in struc-
   a stamen.                                        ture or origin. The corresponding
homoeostasis. homeostasis. A dy-                    portion of a homologous chromo-
   namic steady state in which inter-               some.
homologous                                 193                      homothallism
homologous. homólogo. Being iden-               strains of a fungus which look iden-
   tical in morphology and in arrange-          tical.
   ment of genetic loci; also, corre-        homomorphism. homomorfismo. The
   sponding in type of structure and            condition of being homomorphic.
   in origin; in contrast with analo-        homonym. homónimo. In botanical
   gous.                                        nomenclature, one of two or more
homologous chromosome. cromosoma                separately published names for the
   homólogo. A chromosome which                 same taxon or identical names for
   contains an identical linear sequence        different taxa.
   of genes, and pair during meiosis.        homopetalous. homopétalo. All the
   Each is a duplicate of one of the            same type of petals.
   chromosomes provided by one of            homophyllous. homófilo. Having the
   the parents and each is identical            same kind of leaves.
   in shape and size; also, the pairs        homophytic. homofítico. Having the
   of chromosomes present in a dip-             diploid (sporophytic) thallus bi-
   loid nucleus.                                sexual.
homologous recombination. recomb-            homoplasmic. homoplásmico. Homo-
   inación homólogo. Crossing over              karyotic.
   and the exchange of segments be-          homosporangic. homosporangico.
   tween homologous chromosomes                 Having only one kind of sporan-
   during meiosis I. The exchange can           gium.
   occur anywhere along the chromo-          homosporic. homospórico. Having
   some, and is reciprocal, fairly long,        asexual spores of one kind only,
   and with staggered joint forms be-           as opposed to heterosporic.
   tween the interacting DNA strands.        homosporous. homósporo. Having
homologous variation. variación ho-             only one kind of asexually produced
   mólogo. The occurrence of simi-              spores, as opposed to heterospo-
   lar variations in related species.           rous; also, producing spores that
homology. homología. Having a simi-             are all the same size; isosporous
   lar structure occurring in differ-        homospory. homosporia. The pro-
   ent organisms; as seen in the fer-           duction of only one kind of asexual
   tilization of lower plants, which            spores.
   is often achieved by motile male          homostylous. homostílo. Describes
   gametes. This is homologous to the           species that have styles of the same
   male gamete of Spermatophytes                length and character, as opposed
   which is non-motile and transferred          to heterostylous.
   in the pollen grain.                      homostyly. homostilia. Having styles
homomorphic. homomorfo. All of a                all the same length.
   similar shape, size, and form, but        homosynapsis. homosinapsis. The
   not the same structure or origin.            pairing of two similar chromosomes.
homomorphic incompatibility. incom-          homothallic. homotálico. Having one
   patibilidad homomorfo. Incom-                haploid type, that produces self-
   patibilty not dependent for its ac-          fertile cells which mate with each
   tion on morphological variation,             other: a homothallic fungus.
   e.g. the incompatibility between two      homothallism. homotalismo. homo-
homozygosis                                 194                                 horotely
   talia. Said of the Thallophyta                    uncinado. A fruit, seed, or spore
   which bear male and female sex                    with a hook that aids in disperal
   organs on the same thallus and are                by becoming attached to animals.
   capable of self-fertilization. If both          hordein. hordeina. A gluten pro-
   male and female organs are present                tein.
   but there is no self-fertilization,             horizon. horizonte. A stratum of
   the organism is physiologically                   the soil. They start with the A ho-
   heterothallic.                                    rizon at the surface and usually end
homozygosis. homozigosis. homozig-                   with the C horizon, which is the
   osis. Homozygosity.                               parent material.
homozygosity. homozigotismo. The                   horizontal. horizontal. Lying flat
   condition of being homozygous;                    or parallel to the ground, as a hori-
   coming from a homozygote.                         zontal stem.
homozygote. homozigoto. homoc-                    hormesis. hormesis. The stimulus
   igoto. A plant whose chromosomes                  given to an organism by a non-toxic
   have an identical pair of alleles at              concentration of a normally toxic
   a given gene locus; for example                   substance.
   tallness (T), which therefore will             hormocyst. hormociste. A short
   always breed true to type.                        hormogonium enclosed in a thick,
homozygous. homocigoto. homoz-                       stratified sheath.
   igótico. Having similar genes of               hormogone. hormogonio. Short sec-
   a Mendelian pair in the same cell                 tions of the trichome which are
   as a dwarf pea (Pisum) with genes                 organs of vegetative reproduction
   for dwarfness (tt) only; having iden-             in some of the Myxophyceae.
   tical genes at the same locus on               hormogonium. hormogóneo. In some
   each member of a pair of chromo-                  algae, a segment of the filament
   somes which are homologous.                       that becomes detached and devel-
hood. capuchón. cubierta. The cover-                 ops into a new filament.
   shaped part of a perianth with a               hormone. hormona. Growth producing
   turned down margin; the upper petal               substances in the protoplasm of
   or sepal, as in the monkshood,                    plants.
   Acontium napelius; flower parts                hormospore. hormospora. A thick
   shaped like a hood, especially the                walled, multicellular body, which
   arched upper areas of the corolla                 is spore-like and produced by some
   or calyx in some species.                         Myxophyceae.
honey guide. señal del néctar. Lines,             horological. horológico. Said of a
   dots, etc. on perianth lobes show-                flower which opens and shuts at
   ing insects the way to nectar; nectar             a definite time of the day.
   guide.                                         horn. cornículo. A curved, pointed,
 hook. ganchuelo. ganchillo. A small                 and hollow extension from the
   hook, bent down or curved.                        perianth.
hooked. uncinado. ganchudo. hamoso.               horny. córneo. Describes a tapering
   Curved like a hook; bent like a hook;             projection similar to a cow’s horn.
   uncinate.                                      horotelic. horotélico. See horotely.
  hooked disseminule. disemínulo                  horotely. horotémente. The average
hortensis                                  195                            hyaline cell
   rate of evolution per million years          in which organic matter (dead
   for a taxonomic group or genera.             leaves etc.) in the upper soil is re-
hortensis. hortensis. Latin meaning             duced to finely divided pieces of
   “of gardens”.                                humus or partially decomposed
horticultural. horticola. de horticult-         organic material; essentially an oxi-
   ura. Of or pertaining to horticul-           dation process that reduces organic
   ture.                                        molecules into organic acids that
horticulture. horitcultura. The study           are mineralized into simple, inor-
   and growing of various plants,               ganic forms, suitable for uptake by
   especially decorative as flowers,            plants. With the aid of saprotroph
   fruits, shrubs, and trees.                   organisms, which use these dead
hortus siccus. hortus siccus. Latin             materials for their own food, humi-
   for a herbarium or collection of             fication is a vital stage in the cy-
   dried plants.                                cling of nutrients. In short, the trans-
host. huésped. hospedero. A plant               formation of organic material into
   that provides nourishment protec-            humus.
   tion for a parasite; also, the domi-      humifusus. humifusus. Latin mean-
   nant partner in a symbiotic or               ing “spreading on the surface”.
   commensal relationship.                   humilis. humilis. Latin meaning
host-specific. hospedero-específico.            “dwarf”.
   Living in or on a particular spe-         humin. humina. The fraction of the
   cies as a host.                              soil organic matter which is insolu-
hue (color). tono (color). One of the           ble in cold alkali.
   three measurements of color (hue,         humus. humus. mantillo. A slightly
   chroma, and value) indicating the            soluble, dark brown or black, par-
   degree of lightness of reds, yellows,        tially decomposed organic mate-
   greens, blues and purples.                   rial in top soil, formed from
hull. casco. The outside covering of            decayed leaves and other vegeta-
   a seed or fruit; also, the calyx of          ble matter, which helps retain water
   some fruit, as the green leaves              and water-soluble nutrients and is
   around the stem of a strawberry              stable enough to release its nutri-
   (Ericaceae).                                 ents to plants.
humic acid. ácido húmico. A frac-            humus nucleus. núcleo humus. A com-
   tion of the soil organic matter which        bination of lignin and protein which
   is soluble in cold alkali, then pre-         forms the basis of humus.
   cipitated in dilute acid, and then        husk. cáscara. The dry, outer cov-
   insoluble in ethanol.                        ering of a variety of nuts, fruits
humicolous. humico. Growing on soil             and vegetables, such as the coco-
   or humus.                                    nut husk, enclosing both the hard
humid. húmedo. Very moist, with                 shell and the inner parts.
   the air containing much water vapor.      hyaline. hialina. Translucent or
humidity. humedad. The amount of                transparent; used to describe the
   moisture or water vapor in the air.          consistency of an organ as thin and
   See relative humidity.                       hyaline.
humification. humificación. A process        hyaline cell. célula hialina. A colorless
hyalo-                                 196                       hydrogen acceptor
   cell lying between those contain-         hybridize. hibridar. To produce by
   ing chlorophyll in a ‘leaf ’ of              hybrids.
   Sphagnum.                                 hybritity. hibridez. See hybridism.
hyalo-. hialo-. A prefix referring to        hydathode. hidatodo. An opening on
   spores which are hyaline or brightly         the tip or margin of some leaves
   colored.                                     that secretes water during guttation;
hyalogen. hialogéno. A particle formed          also, a water-secreting gland found
   by the secretory processes of a cell.        on the edges and tips of leaves.
hyalogenesis. hialogénesis. The se-          hydosphere. hidrosfere. The earth’s
   cretory processes of a cell.                 water deposits, including: liquid
hyaloplasm. hialoplasma. The ground             water (oceans, lakes, and other sur-
   substance of cell cytoplasm where            face and underground waters); fro-
   organelles and membranaceous                 zen water (polar ice caps, float-
   constituents are implanted; cyto-            ing ice caps, and ice in the soil ((per-
   plasmic matrix.                              mafrost)); and, water vapor in the
hyalosporous. hialosporo. Having hya-           atmosphere.
   line, one-celled spores.                  hydric. hidro. Characterized by the
hybrid. híbrido. The offspring of two           need for much moisture, as hydric
   parent plants that are from differ-          plants.
   ent varieties, species, sub-species,      hydrase. hidrasa. An enzyme which
   or genera.                                   can add or remove water without
hybrid cell. célular hibrido. A cell            hydrolysis.
   derived from the fusion of cells from     hydration. hidración. The addition
   different cultured cell lines.               of water, either physically, or in
hybrid swarm. enjambre de hibridos.             chemical combination.
   A continuous series of morphologi-        hydrocarbon. hidrocarburo. Any of
   cally distinct hybrids attributable          a large group of organic compounds
   to the hybridization of two species          containing only hydrogen and car-
   followed by a crossing and back-             bon.
   crossing of later generations.            hydrocarpic. hidrocarpico. Said of
hybrid vigor. vigor híbrido. See het-           aquatic plants which ripen their
   erosis.                                      fruits under water after pollination
hybrid zone. zona híbrida. A geo-               has taken place in the air above.
   graphical area where the hybrids          hydrochoric. hidrocoro. Dispersed
   of two geographical races may be             by water.
   found.                                    hydrochory. hiddrocoria. Water dis-
hybridism. hibridismo. The produc-              persal.
   tion of hybrids; crossbreeding;           hydrogen. hidrógeno. A colorless,
   hybritity.                                   odorless, gaseous element with the
hybridization. hibridación. The cross-          chemical symbol H.
   ing of individuals of unlike genetic      hydrogen acceptor. aceptor de hidróg-
   composition; also, a method of               eno. In the equation AH + B =
   breeding new cultivars that uses             BH + A, AH is the hydrogen do-
   crossing to obtain genetic recomb-           nor, and B is the hydrogen accep-
   inations.                                    tor.
hydrogen bond                              197                      hydroxyl group
hydrogen bond. puente de hidrógeno.             in water or moist, wet conditions;
   enlace de hidrógeno. A type of               also, pollinated by water.
   chemical bond in which an elec-           hydrophobic. hidrofóbico. The quality
   tronegative atom interacts with a            of a substance, molecule, or sur-
   hydrogen atom that is participat-            face to cause water to be repelled.
   ing in a polar covalent bond.             hydrophyte. hidrófita. Plants that are
hydrogen donor. donador de hidróg-              adapted morphologically and/or
   eno. See hydrogen acceptor.                  physiologically to grow only in
hydrogen ion. hidrogenión. ion hid-             water or very wet soil, as most al-
   rógeno. See ion.                             gae.
hydrogen ion concentration. concentr-        hydrophytium. hidrofítio. A water-
   ación de hidrogeniones. The pH.              plant formation.
hydrogenase. hidrogensa. An enzyme           hydroponics. cultivo hidropónico.
   that activates processes involving           hidropóni(c)a. Growing plants in
   the addition of hydrogen to a sub-           aerated water containing all the
   strate.                                      essential nutrients.
hydroid. hidroide. Plants that grow          hydropote. hidropota. A cell or group
   well in water or in very wet sur-            of cells easily permeable to water
   roundings; also, empty, thin-walled          and dissolved salts; found in sub-
   cells in the central cylinder of cer-        merged leaves.
   tain mosses (Musci).                      hydrosere. hidroser(i)e. A continu-
hydrolase. hidrolasa. An enzyme that            ity of communities that reflects
   activates processes involving the            developmental stages in plant suc-
   hydrolysis of a substrate.                   cession which began in soil sub-
hydrologic cycle. cíclica hídrico. The          merged by fresh water.
   movement of water from the atmos-         hydrostatic equilibrium. equilibrio
   phere to the earth and its return            hidroestático. Water that is in a
   to the atmosphere.                           state of perfect balance between the
hydrolysis. hidrólisis. A decompo-              forces of gravity and pressure.
   sition process by which one com-          hydrotaxis. hidrotaxis. hidrotactismo.
   pound is broken down into other              The movement of an organism to-
   compounds by taking up elements              ward or away from water in response
   in water; water serving as a reac-           to the stimulus of water.
   tant and not as a solvent; also, the      hydrotropic. hidrotrópico. Plant roots
   addition of water to a large mol-            that have a strong tendency to move
   ecule to produce smaller ones.               toward water, as willows (Salix)
hydrolytic. hidrolítico. Of or per-             and cottonwoods (Populus).
   taining to hydrolysis.                    hydrotropism. hidrotropismo. The
hydrolyze. hidrolizar. To decompose             directional growth of a plant or plant
   by hydrolysis.                               organ, towards moisture in response
hydrophilic. hidrofílico. The qual-             to the stimulus of water.
   ity of a substance, molecule, or          hydrous. hidratado. Watery.
   surface to attract water.                 hydroxyl group. grupo hidroxilo. A
hydrophilous. hidrófilo. Water lov-             univalent group –OH; one unit of
   ing plants; plants that grow best            oxygen and one unit of hydrogen,
hygrochastic                           198                              hypertonic
   found in all hydroxides.                     on a wall of a capitulum, as in the
hygrochastic. higroquistic. Of a fruit          Ficus.
   which opens by the absorption of          hyper-. hiper-. A Greek prefix that
   water.                                       means, “beyond” or “above”.
hygrometric. higrométrico. Said of           hyperbasal cell. célula hiperbasal.
   a movement due to changes in the             One of the two lowermost cells of
   atmospheric humidity.                        the developing sporophyte of bryo-
hygrophanous. higrófano. Having a               phytes and pteridophytes. It usu-
   translucent or watery appearance.            ally develops into part of the seta
hygrophilous. higrófilo. higrófita.             and foot.
   Growing well in damp places, as           hyperchimaera. hiperquimera. A chi-
   water lilies (Nymphaeaceeae).                maera in which the components are
hygrophobe. higrófobo. Living in dry            intimately mixed.
   conditions.                               hyperdiploidy. hiperdiploidía. The
hygroscopic. higroscópico. Absorbing            condition where the full diploid
   water from the air; also, used to            complement of chromosomes is
   describe absorbed moisture held in           present, as well as a portion of one
   soil and unavailable in amounts              chromosome which has become
   necessary for plants to survive.             translocated.
hylium. hilio. A forest formation.           hypermorph. hipermorf. A mutant
hylodium. hilodio. An open, dry wood-           gene having a similar but greater
   land.                                        effect than the non-mutant allelo-
hylophyte. hilófito. A plant growing            morph.
   in damp woods.                            hyperparasite. hiperparasíto. A para-
hymatomelanic acid. ácido himato-               site, as parasitic on another para-
   melanico. A constituent of soil              site; superparasite.
   organic matter. It is soluble in cold     hyperplasia. hiperplasia. An abnor-
   alkali from which it is precipitated         mal increase in the size of tissue
   by dilute acid and is then soluble           by cell division.
   in ethanol.                               hyperploid. hiperploide. Having the
hymenium. himenio. The spore-bear-              number of chromosomes greater
   ing, gill covering surface of mush-          than, but not a multiple of, the dip-
   rooms; also, the palisade-like layer         loid number for the species.
   of basidia.                               hypersensitivity. hipersisibilidad. A
hymenophore. himenópteros. Any                  method of resistance to invasion
   sturcture bearing a hymenium.                by an obligate parasite. The first
hymenopodium. himenópodio. The                  few host cells that are invaded first
   tissue under the hymenium.                   die rapidly, thus removing the food
hypanthium. hipanto. A cup or tube-             supply for the parasite, which con-
   like enlargement of the flower re-           sequently dies.
   ceptacle below the calyx; the fused       hyperstromatic. hiperstromatico. Hav-
   basal portion of sepals, petals, and         ing the stroma on the upper sur-
   stamens around the ovary.                    face of a leaf.
hypanthodium. hipantodio. An in-             hypertonic. hipertónico. Of a solu-
   florescence of sessile flowers borne         tion, having a greater osmotic pres-
hypertrophy                                199                         hypogynous
   sure than the one with which it is           located below the cotyledons and
   being compared.                              above the radicle; embryonic axis.
hypertrophy. hipertrófia. The abnormal       hypocotylespermous. macrópodo. A
   increase in the size of a tissue by          seed type that has nourishment
   an enlargement of the original cells.        stored in the hypocotyl; macro-
hypertrophyte. hipertrófito. A parasite         podial.
   causing hypertrophy.                      hypocrateriform. hipocrateriforme.
hypha. hifa. A long, thread-like fila-          Salver-shaped; having a short tube
   ment with a transparent wall,                with the limb spreading into a flat
   often reinforced with chitin, that           surface, as in the primrose (Primul-
   is the structural unit of the mesh-          aceae); used to describe a gamo-
   like mycelium of many fungi and              petalous corolla.
   actinomycetes.                            hypocraterimorphous. hipocrater-
hyphomycetous. hifomiceto. Mold                 imorfo. Same as hypocrateriform.
   or cobweb-like.                           hypodermis. hipodermis. hipodermo.
hyphopodium. hifopodio. A more or               The outer layer of cortex in stems,
   less lobed ougrowth from a hypha,            immediately under the epidermis;
   often serving to attach an epiphytic         corresponds to the exodermis in
   fungus to a leaf.                            roots.
hypnocyst. hipnociste. A thick-walled        hypodermal. hipodermal. Beneath
   resting spore of some algae.                 the epidermis.
hypnospore. hipnóspora. A thick-             hypogeal germination. germinación
   walled aplanospore.                          hipogeo. In dicots, a type of seed
hypnozygous. hipnócigo. Said of a               germination where the cotyledons
   zygote which remains inert for some          remain below the soil surface, as
   time after formation.                        peas (Pisum).
hypoascidium. hipoascidio. An ab-            hypogean. hipogeo. Growing under-
   normal cup-shaped outgrowth from             ground.
   a leaf; also, a transformation of a       hypogenous. hipógeno. Produced
   leaf, the inner surface corresponding        lower down.
   to the lower surface of the leaf.         hypogeous. hipógeo. Living or grow-
 hypo-. hipo-. A prefix that means,             ing under ground; attached and
   “under”.                                     growing under a leaf; subterranean.
 hypobasidium. hipobasidio. An en-           hypogynium. hipoginio. A perianth-
   larged cell of a hyphae, in which            like structure of bony scales located
   a nuclear fusion takes place before          at an angle to the ovary and oc-
   the formation of the basidium.               curring in Scleria and other mem-
 hypobiosis. hipobiosis. Dormancy.              bers of Cyperaceae; also, a con-
 hypocarpogenous. hipocarpógeno.                dition in some flowers in which all
   Flowering and fruiting underground.          the floral parts, calyx, corolla, and
 hypochnoid. hipoquinoide. Having               stamens are attached below and free
   effused, resupinate, dry, rather             from the ovary.
   loosely intertwined hyphae.               hypogynous. hipógino. Located on
hypocotyl. hipocótilo. The embry-               the receptacle below the ovary, as
   onic stem (in the seed) which is             sepals, petals, and stamens; also,
hypogyny                               200                               hysteresis
   of an antheridium developing on           hypostatic. hipostático. Recessive,
   a branch of the oogonial stalk; also,        when relating to one of two char-
   said of a flower in which the other          acters which are not allelomorphic.
   parts arise below the gynecium.           hypostomatic. hipostomática. Hav-
hypogyny. hipoginia. A condition                ing stomata on the lower surface
   in flowers where the calyx, corolla,         of a leaf.
   and stamens are inserted on the re-       hypostroma. hipostroma. A stroma
   ceptacle or axis below and unat-             found beneath the epidermis of the
   tached to the ovary.                         host.
hypolimnion. hipolimnion. The lower,         hypothallus. hipotalo. In some lichens,
   cooler, non-circulating water in a           a layer of fungal tissue under the
   thermally stratified lake during the         thallus and extending beyond the
   hot summer months. Commonly,                 edges; also, in myxomycetes, a layer
   this layer is below the compensa-            of material where sporangium are
   tion level and the dissolved oxy-            positioned or the stalk.
   gen supply depletes gradually with        hypotheca. hipoteca. The inner of
   replenishment by photosynthesis              the two half-walls of the cell wall
   prevented until stratification breaks        of diatoms, and dinoflagellates.
   down in the autumn.                       hypothecium. hipotecio. The lower
hypomorph. hipomorf. Of a mutant                layer of an ascocarp of the Hyster-
   gene having an effect similar to,            iales. It contains the ascogenous
   but less than that of the non-               hyphae.
   mutant allelomorph.                       hypothesis. hipótesis. A postulated
hyponasty. hiponastia. A nastic growth          explanation for one or more ob-
   on the lower part of a plant organ,          servations that must be tested ex-
   such as a nastic growth on the un-           perimentally before it can be ac-
   derside of a leaf which causes the           cepted as valid or discarded if in-
   blade to curve upward.                       correct; an idea or belief than can
hypophloeodal. hipofloeodal. Growing            be tested by experimentation.
   or living underneath or inside tree       hypotonic. hipotónico. Said of a so-
   bark.                                        lution having a smaller osmotic
hypophyllous. hipofilo. Attached to             pressure than that of the solution
   or growing on the under surface              with which it is being compared.
   of a leaf.                                hypotrophy. hipotrófia. Eccentric
hypoplasia. hipoplasia. A state of              thickening of the underside of an
   having growth less than others; a            approximately horizontal shoot or
   developmental deficiency.                    root.
hyploid. hiploide. A diploid lack-           hypoxyloid. hipoxiloide. Forming a
   ing a piece or pieces of chromo-             cushion-shaped, or crust-like
   some from its complement.                    stroma.
hypopolyploid. hipopoliploide. A             hysophyllary leaf. hoja hisofilaria.
   polyploid in which one or more of            A bract.
   the chromosomes are lost from the         hysteranthous. histeranto. Developing
   complete set.                                leaves after flowering.
hypostasis. hipostasis. See epistasis.       hysteresis. histeresis. A lag in move-
hysteriaceous                           201                   hysterothecium
   ment at one level, in response to         which springs from and lives upon
   a stress at another level.                organic matter; also, of the order
hysteriaceous. histeriaceo. Long and         Hysterophyta; also, a fungus or
   cleft.                                    any similar colorless organism.
hysteriform. histeriforme. Having         hysterothecium. histerotecio. An
   the shape of a long, narrow ridge,        elongated perithecium, remaining
   with a longitudinal opening along         closed as it develops and opening
   the top.                                  when ripe, by a slit-like cleft at
hysterophyte. histerófito. A plant           the top.
i.e.                                         202                  immature community


i.e. i.e. es decir. esto es. An abbre-             imbibition. imbibición. The absorption
    viation for the Latin phrase, Id est,             of water into the small spaces or
    which means, “that is.”                           pores of cellulose, pectin, and the
IAA. AIA. An abbreviation for in-                     cytoplasmic proteins in seed; it
    doleacetic acid.                                  occurs when a solvent enters a col-
IBA. AIB. An abbreviation for                         loid between the free capillary
    indolebutyric acid.                               spaces and the intermicellar spaces.
ICF. LIC. An abbreviation for inter-                  It causes the colloid to swell and
    cellular fluid.                                   utimately to be disperesed. The
ICSH. ICHS. An abbreviation for                       swelling causes considerable pres-
    interstitial cell stimulating hormone.            sure – the imbibitional pressure.
identification. identificación. The                imbricate. imbricado. Overlapping;
    taxonomic determination of the                    laying over each other in a regu-
    specimen, its naming, placement,                  lar order, as leaf buds.
    and refinement in the classifica-              imbrication. imbricación. The con-
    tion system.                                      dition of being imbricate.
idioblast. idioblasto. An isolated plant           imine. imina. A compound composed
    cell that is quite different from the             of the imino group NH.
    surrounding cell system; also, a sup-          imino acid. ácido imino. An acid de-
    porting thick-walled, elongated cell,             rived from an imine in which the
    lacking chlorophyll, among chloro-                components are combined to the
    phyllaceous tissue.                               same carbon atom. Proline is an
idiochromatin. idiocromatina. A sub-                  imino acid.
    stance within the nucleus of a cell            imitation. imitación. Mimicry.
    which controls the reproduction of             imitative. imitativa. Closely resem-
    the cell.                                         bling, as an imitative coloration in
idioplasm. idioplasma. Germ-plasm.                    flowers.
idoses. idoses. Monosaccharides be-                immaculate. inmaculado. Without
    longing to the aldohexoses.                       colored spots; spotless.
illegitimate pollination. polinización             immarginate. inmarginado. Lacking
    ilegitimo. Self-pollination which                 a distinct edge.
    takes place inspite of the flower              immature. inmaduro. inmaturo. Un-
    appearing to be adapted for cross                 derdeveloped, as with fruits or
    pollination.                                      leaves; juvenile; not completely
imberbate. glabro. imberbe. Hav-                      grown; unripe.
    ing no hair; smooth.                           immature community. comunidad
imbibe. embeber. empapar. To ab-                      inmaduro. A community in eco-
    sorb moisture.                                    logical succession, characterized
immature                                    203                            inactivity
   by only a few species and ecological           which a protein is synthesized by
   niches; unable to efficiently cap-             an organism to counteract some
   ture and use energy or cycle critical          pathogenic agent.
   nutrients.                                 imparipinate. imparipinnado. Odd-
immature. inmaduro. inmaturo. Un-                 pinnate; leaflets arranged on both
   derdeveloped, as with fruits or                sides of an axis but ending with a
   leaves; juvenile; not completely               single terminal leaflet.
   grown; unripe.                             imperfect (flower). imperfecto (flor).
immaturity. inmadurez. The state or               With stamens or carpels absent in
   quality of being immature.                     the flower; unisexual.
immediate germination. germinación            imperfect fungus. hongo imperfecto.
   inmediato. Germination without                 Any fungi of the Order Fungi
   under going a period of inactiv-               Imperfecti that only form asexual
   ity.                                           spores.
immersed. sumergido. Growing com-             imperfect hybridization. hibridización
   pletely under water; also, embed-              imperfecto. An abortive attempt
   ded in the tissues of the plant; also,         to form zygospores between the
   arising beneath the surface of the             hyphae of two distinct species of
   substratum.                                    Zygomycetes.
immigration. inmigración. The flow            imperforate. imperforado. Having
   of different genes into a popula-              no holes or openings.
   tion, caused by new individuals that       impermeability. impermeabilidad. The
   inbreed with the resident species.             quality or state of being imperme-
immobilis. immobilis. Latin mean-                 able.
   ing “immovable”.                           impermeable. impermeable. Charac-
immobilization. inmovilización. The               terized by the capacity to restrict
   conversion of an inorganic com-                the passage of substances.
   pound to an organic form by bio-           impervious. impermeable. no poroso.
   logical activity that removes it from          Resistant to penetration by roots
   the reservoir of compounds avail-              or fluids.
   able to plant roots.                       implicate. implicado. Entangled; in-
immune. inmune. Free from attack                  terwoven; twisted together, as
   by a specific pathogen; also, not              implicate hair.
   subject to the disease.                    impressed. impreso. Having the sur-
immunity. inmunidad. Acquired: a                  face marked by slight depressions
   natural or an acquired resistance              below the surface, as with some
   to a pathogenic agent or substance.            leaf venation.
   Structural: e.g. a thick cuticle may       in vitro. in vitro. Living in a test
   prevent the penetration of the fun-            tube or outside the organism, as
   gal hyphae.                                    in an artificial environment; Latin
   Physiological: e.g. the protoplasm             for “in glass”.
   is an unfavorable environment for          in vivo. in vivo. Residing in the liv-
   the development of the parasite.               ing organism; Latin for “in living”.
immunological. inmunológico. Per-             inactivity. inactividad. Not vegetating;
   taining to an immune response in               dormancy, as plants in a state of
inaequale                                  204                       incomplete flower
    inactivity.                                      indentations, sometimes jagged or
inaequale. inaequale. Latin mean-                    notched, as on the outer edge or
    ing “unequal”.                                   margin of certain types of incised
inarticulate. inarticulada. Not joined.              leaves.
inbred line. linea consanguinea.                 incision. incisión. A deep notch or
    filiación consanguinea. A pure                   indentation, as on a leaf margin.
    line, generally originating by self-         inclinate. inclinado. Rising in an up-
    pollination and selection.                       ward direction and at a moderate
inbred. endogámico. Reproduced from                  angle.
    closely related parents; developed           included. incluido. Not extending
    from inbreeding.                                 beyond the surrounding parts, as
inbreeding. entrecruzamiento. cruz-                  stamens which don’t protrude
    amiento. endogamia. Reproducing                  beyond the edge of the corolla, or
    by the continuous mating of indi-                as veinlets ending inside areoles;
    viduals of the same or closely re-               also, embedded in the xylem.
    lated stock.                                 inclusion. inclusión. A body occur-
inbreeding coefficient. coeficiente de               ring in the cytoplasm of a cell.
    consanguinidad. coeficiente de               inclusion body. cuerpo de inclusión.
    inbreeding. The probability that                 corpúsculo de inclusión. A non-
    an individual has a pair of alleles              living material present in the cy-
    that are identical by descent from               toplasm of a cell, such as a starch
    a common ancestor; the proportion                grain.
    of loci that carry alleles that are          incompatibility (floral). incompat-
    identical by descent from a com-                 ibilidad (flor). A failure to achieve
    mon ancestor.                                    fertilization and seed formation after
inbreeding depression. degeneración                  pollination, generally because of
    consanguínea. depresión consan-                  slow pollen tube growth in the
    guínea. A decline in successful                  stylar tissue; also, differences in
    breeding as a result of continuous               the physiology of a host and para-
    inbreeding.                                      site which inhibits or stops the
incanus. incanus. Latin meaning                      growth of the latter.
    “hoary-white”.                               incompatibility (graft). incompat-
incanous. incano. Covered with a                     ibilidad (injerto). The failure of
    dense, grayish-white hair that grows             two graft components (stock and
    on certain stems or leaves; canes-               scion) to unite and develop into a
    cent.                                            successfully growing plant.
incertae sedis. incertae sedis. Of un-           incomplete. incompleto. Lacking one
    certain taxonomic position.                      or more parts, as a leaf without
incipient plasmolysis. plasmólisis                   blade, petiole or stipules; or lack-
    incipiente. The condtion when                    ing one of the four flower parts,
    about half the cells of a tissue are             sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils,
    plasmolysed. It is in this condition             as some willows (Salix).
    that the osmotic pressure of cell            incomplete dominance. dominación
    sap is usually measured.                         incompleto. A partial controlling
incised. inciso. Having sharp or deep                influence in which a heterozygote
incomplete flower                            205                    indicator species
    shares a phenotype that is inter-              that at maturity do not split open
    mediate between those of the cor-              along definite lines to release their
    responding homozygotes.                        seeds.
incomplete flower. flor incompleta.            indentation (margin). mella (margen).
    Without one or more of the four                Notching on the outer border of
    floral parts: sepals, petals, stamens,         leaves.
    pistils.                                   independence. independencia. The
incrassate. engrosado. Thickened or                relation between two variates, the
    thickening, as an incrassate node.             variation of one being uninfluenced
incrustation. incrustación. A coat-                by the variation in the other.
    ing of iron carbonate or iron com-         independent assortment (of genes).
    pounds on the surface of some al-              distribución independiente (de los
    gae.                                           genes). A Mendelian principle that
incubation period. período de incubac-             the alleles of two or more gene pairs
    ión. The time between the inocu-               on non-homologous chromosomes
    lation with a pathogen and the de-             tend to be assorted independently
    velopment of symptoms.                         of one another into gametes; also,
incubous. incubo. In leaf arrange-                 a random alignment of homologous
    ments, the lower edge of each leaf             chromosomes in meiosis.
    is hidden by the upper edge of the         indeterminate inflorescence. infloresc-
    next leaf down; commonly used to               encia indeterminado. A type of
    describe a type of leafy liverwort             inflorescence in which the lower
    (Jungermanniales). See succu-                  or lateral flowers develop first and
    bous.                                          the primary axis continues to grow
incumbent. incumbente. Leaning or                  and elongate.
    resting against another part, as           indeterminate. indeterminado. Of or
    incumbent stamens or anthers lean-             pertaining to a stem that produces
    ing against the inner side of a fila-          unrestricted growth and does not
    ment.                                          terminate with flowering; also,
incurved. incurvado. Bent or curved                without a distinctive edge.
    inward or upward toward the apex           index fossil. fósil característico. The
    or base; also, said of a radical which         fossil remains of an organism that
    is bent back to lie on one of the              lived in a particular geologic age.
    cotyledons; campylotropous.                index species. especie indexa. See
indeciduous. no deciduo. de hoja                   indicator species.
    persistente. perennifolio. Trees           indicator species. especie indicadora.
    not losing their leaves seasonally;            In a community classification sys-
    also, not deciduous, as a leaf.                tem, an indicator species denotes
indefinite. indeterminado. Having                  the more characteristic member(s);
    a large, but indefinite number.                also, in geobotany, they may high-
indefinite inflorescence. inflorescencia           light particular environmental fac-
    indefinida. Not ending in a flower,            tors, such as species which are
    and so theoretically, capable of               heavy-metal tolerant indicating the
    further elongation; also racemose.             presence of metallic ore; ecologi-
indehiscent. indehiscente. Dry fruits              cally, indicative of a specific habi-
indifferent species                     206                           inferior ovary
    tat; also, an organism at the top         indumentum. indumento. A hairy or
    of a food chain that indicates the            scaly covering that is often easily
    lower levels by its food residues;            rubbed off, especially pubescence.
    index species.                            induplicate. induplicado. Having leaf
indifferent species. especies indifer-            or flower margins bent inward and
    ente. A species without an affin-             touching the margin of each ad-
    ity for any particular community,             joining structure.
    but not rare, as an accidental spe-       indurated. endurecido. Hardened.
    cies would be.                            indusium. indusio. In ferns, a thin,
indigenous. indígena. nativo. A spe-              epidermal outgrowth that covers the
    cies that is living naturally in an           sorus; often breaking at the time
    area; not introduced; native.                 of spore maturation.
individual. individuo. A single or-           inequilateral. inequilátereo. With
    ganism or plant that can not exist            halves or sides unequal in shape
    independently.                                and size; not symmetrical.
indoleacetic acid (IAA). ácido indol(il)-     inermis. inermis. Latin meaning “un-
    acético (AIA). A natural or syn-              armed” or “thornless”.
    thetic plant growth regulator; an         inermous. inerme. Having no prick-
    auxin.                                        les or spines; unarmed.
indolebutyric acid (IBA). ácido indol-        inert. inerte. Having very limited or
    butírico (AIB). A synthetic com-              no physiological properties.
    pound used to regulate plant growth       inertia. inercia. The ability of an eco-
    and development.                              system to resist being disturbed or
inducer. inductor. agente inductivo.              altered.
    A compound that stimulates the            infection. infección. The invasion
    induction of a particular enzyme.             of plant tissue by a pathogenic
inducible enzyme. enzima inducible.               microorganism.
    An enzyme that is present only when       infection tube. tubo infección. The
    stimulated by some particular sub-            germ tube which pentetrates the
    strate; adaptive enzyme.                      host from the germinating spore of
induction. inducción. The process                 a parasitic fungus.
    of initiating or increasing the pro-      inferior. inferior. infero (relativo
    duction of an enzyme or other pro-            al ovario). Growing below some
    teins.                                        other part, as having the floral or-
induction of flowering. inducción de              gans attached above the ovary with
    la floración. The process of ini-             the hypanthium fused to the lower
    tiating or regulating the time of             half. The flower is then epigynous.
    flowering.                                    Also, inferior is used to describe
induction of mutation. inducción de               the annulus of an agaric when it
    mutaciones. The process of mu-                is placed low on the stipe.
    tation determined by external con-        inferior ovary. ovario infero. An ovary
    ditions.                                      where parts of the calyx, corolla,
inductor. inductor. An embryonic tis-             and stamens are more or less joined
    sue that influences the differentia-          so that they appear to be attached
    tion of other embryonic tissue.               at the top of it.
inferior palea                              207                             initial cell
inferior palea. palea inferior. In the            illary bud surrounded by the base
    florets of grasses, the 2-nerved              of the petiole; subpetiolar.
    membrane (palea) in the inner bract       infrared. infrarroja. The portion of
    which is located between the flower           the sun’s total radiation which has
    and the rachilla (a shortened axis).          wave lengths immediately longer
    Together, the lemmas (bearing in              than the longest of the visible spec-
    their axis a single flower), the              trum (red).
    flower, and the palea, constitute         infraspecific. infraspecífico. Occur-
    the floret.                                   ring within a species.
infertile. infértil. infecundo. Not           infructescence. infrutescencia. A fruit-
    able to reproduce; barren; unpro-             ing structure that has more than a
    ductive.                                      single fruit; also, the inflorescence
infiltration of water. infiltración de            after the flowers are fallen, and the
    agua. The downward movement of                fruits are formed.
    water through soil.                       infundibular. infundibuliforme. Hav-
inflated. inflado. Swollen, thickened,            ing the shape of a funnel, as a fun-
    or distended, as a perianth or                nel-shaped corolla.
    pericarp.                                 infundibuliform. infundibuliforme.
inflexed. inflexo. Bent or curved                 Having the shape of a funnel, as
    downward or inward, as with a petal           an infundibuliform flower; funnel-
    or sepal.                                     shaped.
inflorescence. inflorescencia. An axis        infundibulum. infundíbulo. A fun-
    bearing flowers or a flower clus-             nel-shaped organ or structure.
    ter; also, the arrangement of flowers     inheritance. herencia. The acquisi-
    on a stem in relation to each other:          tion of the species characteristics
    classified as determinate or inde-            or qualities by germ cells, from
    terminate; a flower structure that            parent to offspring, generation to
    supports more than a single flower.           generation.
influx. entrada. The gross uptake             inherited. heridado. Acquired char-
    of ions by a plant root.                      acteristics transmitted by germ cells
inflorescent. inflorescente. Flower-              from parent to offspring.
    ing.                                      inherit from. heredar de. To acquire
informosome. informosoma. Mes-                    characteristics from one’s parents
    senger RNA synthesized during                 by germ cells.
    oogenesis and deposited in the egg        inhibit. inhibir. To slow down or hold
    cytoplasm, with ribosome, as an               back the growth of a plant or cell;
    inactive complex; maternal mes-               also to hinder or block the action
    sage.                                         of an enzyme.
infra-. infra-. infr-. A Latin prefix         inhibitor. inhibidor. Anything that
    that means, “below” or “beneath”.             inhibits or regulates the action of
infracted. infracto. Abruptly bent,               an enzyme or other chemical re-
    as at a node; geniculate.                     action.
inframedial. inframedio. Below the            initial cell. célula inicial. A cell which
    middle.                                       remains meristematic, divides re-
infrapetiolar. infrapeciolar. An ax-              peatedly, and gives rise to many
initial spindle                         208                                  inserted
    daughter cells, from which, after             or seeds of leguminous plants with
    further division, the permanent tis-          bacteria to induce nitrogen-fixa-
    sues of the plant are differentiated.         tion in the roots.
initial spindle. huso inicial. Netrum.        inoculum. inóculo. A substance con-
initiator. inicío. The transfer ribo-             taining bacteria or other agents for
    nucleic aid (tRNA); also, a sub-              innoculation.
    stance or molecule that starts a re-      inoculum potential. potencial de
    action but different than a catalyst,         inóculo. The energy of growth of
    in that it is usually chemically              a fungus or other microorganism,
    changed in the reaction.                      available for the colonization of a
inland wetland. pantano interior. Land            substrate.
    away from the coast, such as a            inodorous. inodoro. Odorless; without
    swamp or marsh that is covered with           an odor.
    fresh water, all or part of the year.     inoperculate. inoperculado. Said of
innate. innato. Attached to the end               a sporangium which lacks a lid.
    of the filament, as an anther; oc-        inordinate. inordinado. Not arranged
    curring within the substance of a             in any special order.
    plant; also, originated in or sunken      inorganic. inorgánico. Composed of
    into the thallus.                             matter that is not animal or veg-
inner endodermis. endodermis interno.             etable, as water and minerals; also,
    The endodermis internal to the                a chemical compound without car-
    vascular tissues in a solenostele.            bon as its skeleton atom.
inner fissure. grieta interno. The inner      inorganic compound. compuesto
    layer of the raphe (wall) of the              inorgánico. A chemical compound
    Bacillariophyceae.                            that usually is not derived from life
inner glume. gluma interno. The inner             processes; also, compounds that do
    glume is the second or inside bract           not contain carbon.
    in a pair of chaff-like bracts at the     inositol. inositol. A sugar alcohol
    base of the spikelet of some grasses          common to both plants and animals.
    (Poaceae).                                inrolled. enrolledado hacia adentro.
innoculation. inoculación. The process            Rolled inward, as inrolled or in-
    of inoculating; also, the convey-             volute petals.
    ance of an infection to a host plant      insculptate. ensculptada. Having holes
    by any means of transmisssion;                or depressions in the surface.
    also, the entry of the germ tube of       insectivore. insectívoro. A plant ca-
    a parasitic fungus into a host; also,         pable of capturing and deriving
    the placing of spores, or pieces of           nutrition by digesting insects.
    myclium of growing fungi, or bac-         insectivorous. insectívoro. Plants that
    teria into a culture medium.                  capture and feed on insects.
innovation. brote. A new shoot or a           inseminate. inseminar. To sow or plant
    new annual growth on an existing              seeds.
    stem.                                     inserted. inserto. insertado. Attached
inoculate. inocular. To induce a disease          or growing out of another part; also
    in a living organism by introduc-             an introduced section of DNA or
    ing a pathogen; also, to treat soil           other genetic material into another
insertion                                   209                   interchromocenter
    sequence or region; in grafting, a            tional presence of its complementary
    scion is inserted into root stock.            color.
insertion. inserción. The placement           inter-. inter-. A Latin prefix that
    of one section of DNA or other                means, “among” or “between”.
    genetic material into another; also,      interact. interactura. To act upon each
    the section inserted.                         other.
insertion mutant. mutante de inserc-          interaction. interacción. An action
    ión. A mutation caused by the ad-             upon or an influence by and on each
    dition or deletion of one or two              other.
    nucleotides in the DNA chain, so          interbreed. interprogenie. interselecc-
    that some nucleotide sequences are            ionar. To mate different varieties
    read in incorrect group of three              or species of plants.
    during translation; sometimes re-         intercalar. intercalar. Intercalary.
    ferred to as a frameshift.                intercalary. intercalario. Growing
insignis. insignis. Latin meaning “no-            in locations other than at the apex,
    table”.                                       commonly between the apex and
insipid. insipido. Without taste; taste-          the base.
    less.                                     intercalary cell. célula intercalar. A
insolation. insolación. Exposure to               small cell between two aecidio-
    the sun.                                      spores which disintegrates as the
insolubility. insolubilidad. The quality          spores ripen and breaks down as
    or characteristic of not being dis-           they are set free.
    solvable, especially into a fluid         intercalary growth. crecimiento
    form.                                         intercalar. A pattern of stem elon-
insoluble. insoluble. A substance or              gation occurring in grasses (Poac-
    matter that can not be dissolved.             eae); lengthening starts at through
inspersed. insparcido. Having granules            the differentiation of meristematic
    penetrating the substance of the              tissue at the base of each internode.
    thallus.                                  intercalary meristem. meristema in-
insular. insular. Occurring in iso-               tercalar. The area of growth near
    lated patches or locations.                   the internode base or at the base
integrifolius. integrifolius. Latin mean-         of a blade.
    ing “simple-leaved”.                      intercalary plates. placa intercalar.
integument. integumento. The outer                A layer of plates between the api-
    protective covering of an ovule               cal and precingualar plates of the
    perforated by the micropyle; com-             cell wall of the Peridiniales.
    monly, angiosperms have two in-           intercellular space. espacio inter-
    tegument and gymnosperms one;                 celular. Positioned between or
    also, the membrane enclosing the              among cells.
    female gametophyte in the Lepido-         interchange. complementación inter-
    carpales.                                     cistrónica. An exchange of non-
intemperate phage. intemperado fago.              homologous terminal segments of
    See virulent phage.                           chromosomes; reciprocal translo-
intensity. intensidad. The degree of              cation.
    color as influenced by the propor-        interchromocenter. intercromocentre.
intercostal                                  210     International Code of Botanical..
    The areas of a chromatid composed                  mosome replication.
    of euchromatin.                                intermediate filament. filamento int-
intercostal. intercostal. Lying between                ermedio. A fiber or filament that
    the rib or the vein.                               contributes to the cytoskeleton
intercross. intercruzada. Interbreed;                  structure of eukaryotic cells
    to cross with each other.                      intermediate inheritance. herencia int-
interfascicular cambium. cámbium                       ermediaria. herencia inter-
    interfasicular. A layer of cambium                 media. A type of inheritance where
    that develops between vascular                     heterozygous offspring are different
    bundles and connects with the                      in phenotype than their homozygous
    fascicular cambium to form the vas-                parents.
    cular cambium of woody tissues.                intermediate-day plant. planta de dia
interference. interferencia. The prob-                 intermedio. A plant with two criti-
    ability of another crossing-over                   cal photoperiods so that it will not
    occurring along or in the vicinity                 flower if the days are either too
    of the chromosome where one has                    short or too long.
    already occurred.                              intermittent. interrumpido. Describes
interfertile. interfértil. Able to in-                 a renewal-stopping period of
    terbreed, as interfertile plant spe-               growth that produces clusters of
    cies.                                              stems or leaves along the stem.
interfoliar. interfoliar. Being between            intermolecular. intermolecular. Be-
    opposite leaves but placed alter-                  tween molecules.
    nately with them, as interfoliar flow-         internal environment. medio interno.
    ers.                                               The fluid that surrounds tissue and
intergeneric. intergenérico. Occur-                    organ cells.
    ring between genera, as an inter-              internal factor. factor interno. Any
    generic hybrid.                                    factor which depends on the ge-
intergrade. intergrado. An interme-                    netic constituiton of the plant and
    diate form of a plant; also, to be-                which influences its growth and de-
    come alike through a repeated flow                 velopment.
    of intermediate forms, as one popu-            internal phloem. floema interno. A
    lation of plants with another.                     phloem lying between the xylem
intergradation. intergradación. The                    and the center of the stem.
    process of intergrating. See inter-            International Code of Botanical No-
    grade.                                             menclature. Código Internac-
intergrana lamella. laminilla inter-                   ionales de Nomenclatura Botánico.
    granular. The fine plate-like struc-               A set of rules for the scientific nam-
    ture of a chloroplast made of a layer              ing of plants, accepted by botanists,
    of chlorophyll and lipid, bounded                  in which the underlying objective
    on either side by a layer of pro-                  (not always the practice) is the as-
    tein.                                              signment of a single, unambigu-
interkinesis. intercinesis. The activi-                ous name to each taxon. To guide
    ties occurring between meiosis I                   those who are selecting a new name,
    and meiosis II which are similar                   the Code is composed of a group
    to interphase but are without chro-                of 6 Principles, 75 Articles, and a
internodal                                  211                         intranuclear
    series of Recommendations. It is          interstitial. intersticial. Growth oc-
    mandatory to observe the Articles,            curs in the entire organ rather than
    but not the Recommendations.                  localized, as in some fruits; also,
internodal. internodal. Pertaining to             occupying the narrow spaces or
    nodes or the intervening area be-             interstices of tissue.
    tween nodes or joints.                    intertidal zone. zona intermareal.
internode. entrenudo. internodio.                 zona de (entre)marea. The area
    The space on the stem between two             between low and high tide. See lit-
    successive nodes or joints; also,             toral zone.
    the part of the thallus of the            intertwine. entrelazarse. Entangled
    Charales, where the branch-like               or snarled, as trichomes.
    filaments arise.                          intervarietal. intervarietal. Said of
internuclear. internuclear. Located               a cross between two individuals of
    or occurring in the area between              the same variety and of the same
    the nuclei of atoms or cells.                 species.
interpetiolar. interpeciolar. Between         intervein. internervadura. Refers to
    the petioles; also, connate stipules          the areas between the veins, as with
    from two opposite leaves.                     leaves.
interphase. interfase. The period of          interxylary phloem. floema inter-
    time between the close of one cell            xilaria. A strand of secondary
    division and the beginning of the             phloem surrounded by secondary
    next.                                         xylem.
interrupted. interrumpido. Not con-           intine. intina. The inner membrane
    tinuous; having the main leaflets             of a spore; also, the endospore in
    or flower spikes divided by a se-             the spores of bryophytes.
    ries of smaller ones.                     intorsion. intorsión. The twisting or
interrupted pinnately compound.                   winding of a plant stem.
    pinnado compuesta interrumpido.           intort. intort. To twist, curl, or twine,
    A leaf type with the smaller and              as an intort stem.
    larger leaflets alternating along the     intra-. intra-. A Latin prefix that
    main axis.                                    means, “within” or “on the inside”.
intersex. intersexo. intersexuado.            intracellular. intracelular. Occurring
    A member of a bisexual species that           within a cell or cells.
    has sexual characteristics interme-       intrafoliar. intrafoliar. Growing on
    diate between male and female.                the inside or in front of a leaf, as
interspecies hybrid. híbrido inter-               intrafoliar stipules.
    especie. Occurring between two            intramarginal. intramarginal. Within
    species.                                      in the margin.
interspecific competition. competencia        intramolecular. intramolecular. Oc-
    interespecífica. Two or more spe-             curring within a molecule or mol-
    cies trying to use the same limited           ecules.
    resources in an ecosystem.                intramolecular respiration. respiración
interspecific hybrid. híbrido inter-              intramolecular. Anaerobic respi-
    específico. See interspecies hy-              ration.
    brid.                                     intranuclear. intranuclear. Within
intrapetiolar                          212                                  inversion
    the nucleus of an atom or cell.              calized pathological swelling, con-
intrapetiolar. intrapeciolar. Grow-              sisting mainly of parenchyma.
    ing inside the petiole; also, a pair     intussusception. intususcepción. The
    of stipules at the base of a peti-           process of taking in nutrients by
    ole, united by the margins that are          a living organism and converting
    next to the petioles, giving the ap-         it into living tissue.
    pearance of being a single stipule       inulase. inulasa. The enzyme that
    between the stem and the petiole.            hydrolyses inulin to fructose.
intraspecies. intraespecie. Involv-          inulin. inulina. A white, starchy sub-
    ing members of the same species.             stance obtained from the roots of
intraspecific. intraespecífico. See              a variety of composite plants, es-
    intraspecies.                                pecially elecampane (Inula helen-
intraspecific competition. competencia           ium) and dahlia (Asteraceae); used
    intraespecífica. Two or more in-             as a substitute for starch in foods
    dividual organisms of the same               for diabetics.
    species try to use the same limited      invader. invasor. A plant occurring
    resources in an ecosystem.                   in a community to which it does
intrastaminal. intraestaminal. Within            not belong.
    the androecium.                          invagination. invaginación. Placing
intravaginal. intravaginal. Located              or placed in a sheath.
    inside the sheath, as within a           invariance. invarianza. The recip-
    sheathing petiole in grasses.                rocal of variance.
intraxylary phloem.             floema       invasion. invasión. The growth in
    intraxilaria. Internal phloem.               an area of a large population of a
intricate. intrincado. Tangled hair,             species not previously present.
    as intricate hair.                       inverse. inverso. Reverse in order or
intro-. intro-. A Latin prefix that              relationship; said of the condition
    means, “inside”.                             of an embryo in which the radicle
introduced. introducido. exótico. A              is turned towards a point in the seed
    species that has been intentionally          at the opposite end to the hilum.
    brought from another area; not           inverse analysis. análisis inverso. The
    native.                                      arrangement of individual charac-
introgressant. introgresante. A gene             teristics in groups based on an analy-
    acquired by introgression.                   sis of the individuals that posses
introgression. introgresión. The                 or lack those characteristics. In plant
    merger of genes of one species into          ecology, the method is used to group
    the gene pool of another through             species according to their presence,
    hybridization and chance backcross-          absence, or relative abundance at
    ing.                                         sample sites.
introgressive hybridization. hibrid-         inversion. inversión. The reversal
    ación introgresiva. Introgression.           of one segment of a chromosome
introrse. introrso. Turned inward,               by turning it around 180º and then
    or toward the axis, as introrse an-          reinserting it at the same position
    thers.                                       in the chromosome; also, the hy-
intumescence. intumescencia. A lo-               drolysis of some carbohydrates,
invert                                        213                          irradiation
    such as sucrose into glucose and                charge; also, in chemistry, an atom
    fructose by reversing the optical               or compound with a negative or
    rotation of the solution; also, the             positive electric charge as a result
    turning inside-out of the colony of             of having lost or gained one or more
    some of Volvocales.                             electrons.
invert. invertir. To decompose by               ionic antagonism. antagonismo iónico.
    inversion.                                      antagonismo de iones. The effect
invertase. invertasa. An enzyme re-                 of adding one element as its ions
    sponsible for the catalytic hydrolysis          to the soil, causing deficiency of
    of sucrose to fructose and glucose;             another in a crop, e.g. adding po-
    sucrase.                                        tassium may cause symptoms of
inverted. invertido. Opposite in or-                magnesium deficiency.
    der, direction, or relationship;            ionic bond. enlace iónico. An asso-
    turned upside down.                             ciation of two oppositely charged
inviability. inviabilidad. The con-                 ions.
    dition of being inviable.                   ionic linkage. linkage iónico. The
inviable. inviable. Unable to survive,              linkage between an acid and a base.
    especially because of some genetic          ionize. ionizar. To split a molecule
    defect.                                         into two or more parts with each
involucel (lum). involucelo. involu-                part becoming electrically charged.
    cela. A small or secondary clus-            ionizing radiation. radiacione ioniz-
    ter of bracts.                                  ante. High energy gamma rays or
involucral. involucral. Pertaining to               fast-moving alpha or beta particles
    involucre, as involucral bracts.                emitted by radioisotopes which can
involucral bract. bráctea involucral.               dislodge one or more electrons from
    See involucre.                                  atoms they hit, forming charged ions
involucrate. involucrado. Having an                 in tissue which can damage living
    involucre.                                      tissue.
involucre. involucro. A cluster or circle       iridescent. iridiscente. Having or dis-
    of small leaves or bracts below or              playing many colors, as a rainbow;
    subtending an inflorescence; also,              versicolor.
    a shield-like structure growing over        iridoid. iridoide. A class of com-
    the calyptra and enclosed embryo                pounds, mostly lactones, used by
    of some Hepaticae and Anthoc-                   taxonomists in their study of
    erotae.                                         interfamilial relationships of the
involute. involuto. Margins rolled                  Asteraceae.
    inward toward the upper surface.            iron. hierro. A magnetic element with
involution. involución. An infolding                the chemical symbol of Fe; required
    of membranes which produces an                  by plants in which rapid oxidation
    increased surface area.                         reductions occur during electron
ion. ion. ión. An atom, groups of                   transfers, as in photophosphoryla-
    atoms, a compound, or molecule                  tion and oxidative phosphorylation.
    that has gained (anions) or lost (cati-     irradiation. irradiación. Exposing seed,
    ons) an electron, resulting in a                pollen, or other plant parts to X-
    positive or negative electrical                 rays or other short wave lengths
irregular                                     214                          isoelectric point
     (gamma rays) to increase mutation                  In desert ecology, the area directly
     rates.                                             below a tree or shrub where leaves
irregular (flower). irregular (flor).                   fall and decay, producing a nutri-
     Having floral parts in a whorl that                ent circle around the plant.
     are dissimilar in shape or size; flow-         island. isla. A body of land, smaller
     ers that are bilaterally symmetri-                 than a continent, surrounded by
     cal with parts usually reduced in                  water.
     number, as a snap dragon (Antir-               iso-. iso-. A Greek prefix that means,
     rhinum); zygomorphic.                              “equal” or “alike”.
irregular symmetry. simetria irregular.             isocarpic. isocárpico. A flower with
     Bilateral symmetry; having only one                the same number of carpels as other
     plane through which a flower can                   floral parts.
     be cut to result in mirror image               isobilateral. isobilateral. Refers to
     halves; zygomorphy.                                leaves having the same structure
irrigation. irrigación. Artificially ap-                on both surfaces, e.g. monocotyl-
     plying water to the soil.                          edons; also, divisible into symmetri-
irritability. irritabilidad. The capacity               cal halves by two distinct planes.
     of living plant tissue to respond              isobrachial. isobraquial. Said of a
     to a stimulus; sensitiveness to                    chromosome which is bent into two
     stimuli.                                           equal arms.
irritable. irritable. Responding to                 isochromosome. isocromosoma. A
     stimuli.                                           metacentric chromosome produced
irritate. irritar. To stimulate.                        during cell division when the cen-
irrorate. irorado. Covered with dew.                    tromere splits transversely instead
irruption. irrupción. A sudden change                   of longitudinally; the arms of the
     in the population density of an                    chromosome are equal in length and
     organism.                                          genetically identical.
isadelphous. isadelfo. A diadelphous                isochrous. isocro. Being of equal color
     flower in which the separate bun-                  throughout.
     dles of stamens are equal in number.           isocitric acid. ácido isocítrico. An
isidium. isidio. A branched or unbran-                  acid in the Citric Acid Cycle formed
     ched projection from the thallus                   from aconitic acid; oxidizes to
     in some lichens; thought to func-                  oxalo-succinic acid.
     tion as propagules.                            isocitric enzyme. enzima isocítrico.
island biogeography. biogeografía isla.                 The enzyme that catalyses the for-
     The study of plants and animals,                   mation of isoctiric acid from
     on islands or in isolated areas that               a-ketoglutaric acid.
     resemble islands, to establish re-             isocotylous. isocótilo. isocotiledóneo.
     lationships between land area and                  Having two embryonic leaves.
     species numbers, as an equilibrium             isodiametric. isodiamétrico. Of the
     between immigration and extinc-                    same length, vertically and hori-
     tion.                                              zontally.
island biotas. biotas isla. The plants              isodynamous. isodínamo. Having an
     and animals of oceanic islands.                    equal size.
island of fertility. fertilidad de isla.            isoelectric point. punto isoeléctrico.
isogametangic                               215                             isoprene
    See amphoteric electrolyte.               isolating mechanism. mecanismo
isogametangic. isogametangico. Hav-               aislante. mecanismo de aislam-
    ing gametangia of the same size               iento. Some characteristic of the
    and form.                                     structure or functioning that pre-
isogamete. isogameto. Two gametes                 vents interbreeding between popul-
    of the same character or behavior             ations that are undergoing or have
    that can unite with one another to            undergone speciation.
    form a zygote, as isogamete algae.        isoleucine. isoleucina. An amino acid
isogamous. isogamo. Having isogam-                found in protein.
    etes; also, reproducing by the unit-      isomer. isómero. Any of the two or
    ing of two similar gametes, as some           more compounds that have the same
    algae and fungi.                              molecular composition but different
isogamy. isogamia. The fusion of two              molecular structure; differing only
    similar gametes or gametangium,               in their physical and chemical prop-
    as in some algae and fungi.                   erties.
isogenic. isogénico. Pertains to a graft      isomerase. isomerasa. enzima isom-
    using a scion and stock that are              erizante. An enzyme that catal-
    genetically identical.                        yses the interconversion of one iso-
isogenomatic. isogenomatico. Said                 mer into another; glucose 6-phos-
    of chromosome complements which               phate to fructose 6-phosphate.
    are composed of similar genomes.          isomerous. isomero. Having an equal
isogenous. isogéno. Having parts origi-           number of members in each whorl
    nating from the same or correspond-           or having an equal number of parts
    ing tissue of the embryo.                     or markings.
isogeny. isogenia. Originating in or          isomorph. isomorf. An isomorphic
    derived from the same or corre-               organism or substance.
    sponding tissue.                          isomorphic. isomorfo. Having a simi-
isokont. isoconto. Having flagella                lar appearance or structure but
    of equal length.                              belonging to a different species or
isolateral. isolateral. Having an equal           genotype; also, refers to an altera-
    number on the side of the struc-              tion of generations when the spo-
    ture.                                         rophyte and gametophyte genera-
isolation. aislamiento. The preven-               tions are morphologically similar.
    tion of crossing among plant popul-       isomorphism. ismorfismo. The prop-
    ations because of distance or geo-            erty of being isomorphic; the ap-
    graphic barriers; also, the condi-            parent likeness between individuals
    tion in which chromosomes of com-             belonging to different species or
    mon ancestry are prevented from               races.
    undergoing effective recombination.       isopetalous. isopétalo. homopétalo.
isolation transect. transecto aislam-             Having all the petals alike.
    iento. A belt of land to whlich graz-     isophase. isofase. The condition when
    ing animals are admitted under ob-            one hereditary factor influences the
    servation so that the effect of graz-         development of several character-
    ing on the vegetation may be stud-            istics.
    ied.                                      isoprene. isopreno. Five-carbon com-
isoprenoid                               216                                   isthmus
    pounds that are the basic unit of              sure as the one with which it is being
    terpenes.                                      compared.
isoprenoid. isoprenoide. A compound            isotope. isótopo. Two or more forms
    composed of two or more isoprenes              of a chemical element that have the
    or their spin-offs.                            same number of protons but dif-
isoreagent. isoreactivo. A variety of              ferent mass numbers which denotes
    microspecies.                                  the different numbers of neutrons
isosporous. isóporo. Having asexu-                 in their nuclei.
    ally produced spores of only one           isozyme. isoenzima. Different chemi-
    kind. See homosporous.                         cal forms of the same enzyme, occ-
isostemonous. isostémono. With sta-                urring possibly as a response to
    mens equal in number to the se-                various environmental extremes.
    pals or petals.                            isthmus. istmo. The narrow connecting
isotonic. isotónico. Said of a solu-               zone between the semi-cells of
    tion having the same osmotic pres-             Desmidiancea.
jaculator                                   217                              juvenility


jaculator. jaculator. A plant or fungi          junceous. junceous. Latin meaning
    that bursts and hurls spores, as a              “rush-like”.
    puffball (Gasteromycetes); reti-            juncoid. juncoide. Rush-like.
    naculum.                                    juncous. junco. Full of rushes or per-
joined. unido. United but not neces-                taining to the Order of Juncaceae.
    sarily fused.                               jungle. selva. jungla. A subclimax
joint. nudo. A part of the stem where               tropical rain forest, composed
    a leaf or branch grows, especially              mainly of liana, bamboo (Bambus-
    when thickened, as in grasses                   aceae), palm (Palmae), and a wide
    (Poaceae); node.                                variety of other densely growing
jointed. articulado. Said of an elongted            tropical plant species.
    plant member which is constricted           juvenile form. forma juvenil. A young
    at intervals, and ultimately sepa-              plant that has leaves and other fea-
    rates into a number of portions by              tures different from those of a ma-
    breaking across the constrictions;              ture plant of the same species.
    also, having a stem that easily can         juvenile leaf. hoja juvenil. Imma-
    be pulled apart at the nodes, as in             ture or undeveloped, as juvenile
    certain Equisetaceae.                           leaves that can differ in form, at-
jugate. yugado. Having two leaflets                 tachment, or arrangement from
    from a common point; bifoliolate;               mature leaves; primary leaf.
    geminate.                                   juvenile stage. estad(i)o juvenil. A
jugum. jugum. Occurring in pairs, as                special stage in the life of some
    a pair of opposite leaflets in a pin-           algae in which the orginary plant
    nate leaf.                                      develops as an outgrowth.
julaceous. julaceo. Cylindrical and             juvenility. juventud. Having the char-
    smooth; also, resembling a catkin.              acteristics of being young.
K                                     218                                          keel


K. K. The chemical symbol for the                 nucleus into darkily staining gran-
   element potassium.                             ules, during the necrosis of the cell
karyaster. cariáster. A group of chro-        karyosome. cariosoma. A body of
   mosomes arranged like the spokes               chromatin in the nucleus which is
   of a wheel.                                    similar to but distinguished from
karyo-. cario-. A Greek prefix that               a nucleolus; also, a type of nucleolus
   means, “nuclues”.                              of the lower plants which stain with
karyogamy. cariogamia. The divid-                 basic dyes and furnish material for
    ing of a nucleus into two, passing            the chromosomes during mitosis;
    to the opposite sides of the cell;            nucleosome; a nucleus; a chromo-
    also, the union of two nuclei, es-            some.
    pecially gametic nuclei.                  karyotheca. carioteca. Nuclear mem-
karyokinesis. cariocinesis. The di-               brane.
   vision of the cell nucleus, espe-          karyotin. cariotina. Chromatin.
   cially in mitosis.                         karyotype. cariotipo. The character
karyology. cariología. Nuclear cy-                of a set of chromosomes grouped
   tology.                                        by their arrangement, size, shape,
karyolymph. cariolinfa. The fluid por-            or other defined characteristics.
   tion within the nucleus of the cell;       kata-. cata-. A Greek prefix that means,
   or, the matrix lying in the reticu-            “down”.
   lum of the nucleoplasm; nuclear            katadromous. catadroma. Said of the
   sap.                                           venation in ferns when the first
karomere. cariómero. A swollen con-               nerves in each leaf segment come
   dition sometimes seen in chromo-               off on the basal side of the midrib.
   somes towards the end of a nuclear         katakinetic. catacinético. Tending
   division.                                      to discharge energy.
karyomicrosome. cariomicrosoma. A             katakinetomere. catacinetómero. An
    nuclear granule.                              energy-poor, stable protoplasm
karyomite. cariómito. Chromosome                  molecule.
karyoplasm. carioplasm. The proto-            kataphase. catafasa. The stages of
    plasm in the nucleus of a cell; nu-           mitosis from the formation of the
    cleoplasm.                                    chromosomes up to the division of
karyoplasmatic ratio. nucleoplasmático            the cell.
    ratio. The ratio of the volume of         keel. quilla. A conspicuous linear
    the nucleus and that of the cyto-             seam, or longitudinal ridge, like
    plasm of the same cell.                       the keel of a boat; also, the two
karyorhexis. cariorrexis. The dis-                lower united petals of a papilon-
    integration of the chromatin of the           aceous flower, as in the Fabaceae;
keeled                                      219                                  knot
    carina.                                       fiber; centromere.
keeled. carenado. aquillado. Hav-             kinetomere. cinetómero. Molecules
    ing a pronounced seam or ridge,               of protoplasm which may be
    as on a leaf; carinate.                       energy-rich and reactive, or energy-
keimplasm. ceimplasma. Germplasm.                 poor and stable.
kelp. kelp. Large brown algae or sea-         kinetosome. cinetosoma. See basal
    weed that grows below the low tide            granule.
    sea level in temperate waters; for        kingdom. reino. The common taxo-
    example Laminaria in which the                nomic classification from most gen-
    thallus is composed of a holdfast,            eral to most specific, as kingdom,
    a stipe, and a flattened blade.               phylum, class, order, family, ge-
kernel. pepita. The soft, inner part              nus, species, subspecies, or vari-
    of hard shell nut or inside the stone         ety; the highest classification, e.g.
    of a fruit; also, the body of a seed,         Kingdoms: Plant, Protista, Fungi,
    inside its coat.                              Monera, Animal.
ketoglutaric acid. ácido cetoglutárico.       kinin. quinina. A group of plant hor-
    An acid in the Citric Acid Cycle,             mones influencing the rate of mi-
    produced from oxalosuccinic acid,             tosis; found in young developing
    with the evolution of carbon di-              tissue and embryos; citoquinina.
    oxide, and oxidized to succinic acid.     kinked. enroscado. A short twist or
ketone. quetona. cetona. The oxi-                 coil on some vines.
    dation products of secondary              kino. kino. cino. A resin-like sub-
    alcohols.                                     stance, soluble in water, astringent
ketose. quetosa. cetosa. A hexose                 and used medicinally and in tan-
    sugar having a = O group on the               ning.
    second carbon atom and no HO              kinoplasm. cinoplasma. Protoplasm
    group on the first one, e.g. fruc-            which is composed of fibrils and
    tose.                                         which in cell division composes the
keto-uracil. ceto-uracilo. One of the             spindle fibers, attraction sphere,
    precursors of nucleosides.                    and astral rays.
keystone species. especie piedra an-          klinostat. clinóstato. Clinostat.
    gular. Species that affect many           klinotrophic. clinotrófico. Placed at
    other organisms in an ecosystem.              a slant to the direction of a given
kinase. kinasa. The enzyme which                  stimulus.
    catalyses the transfer of phosphate       knee. rodilla. A knob on the root of
    to ADP, forming ATP.                          a tree that grows in the swamp or
kinetic body. cuerpo cinética. A small            wet area, as a cypress (Cupress-
    granular body lying where a chro-             aceae).
    mosome is attached to the spindle.        knob-like. obpiriforme. A hard swell-
kinetic energy. energia cinética. The             ing or rising; obpiriform.
    energy that results from the ran-         knot. nudo. A hard mass of wood that
    dom movement of molecules.                    is formed where a branch grows
kinetochore. quinetócoro. The por-                out from a tree; a node on a stem,
    tion of a chromosome where the                such as a joint on grasses (Poaceae);
    attachment is made to a spindle               a nodr where leaves grow from a
knotted                                    220                             krummholz
   stem.                                            into carbon dioxide; molecules re-
knotted. nudoso. Full of knots or hav-              duced in the process can be used
   ing knots.                                       in forming electron carriers for use
Kranz anatomy. anatomía de Kranz.                   in the last stage of the aerobic path-
   A specialized leaf anatomy in which              way; tricarboxylic
   the vascular bundle is surrounded              acid cycle; Citric Acid Cycle.
   by bundle sheath cells.                       kremnophyte. cremnófito. A plant
Krebs Cycle. ciclo de Krebs. A stage                that grows alongside a steep wall.
   of aerobic respiration in which there         krummholz. krummholz. Literally
   is a mitochondrial oxidation of                  crooked forest; the low, wind-
   pyruvic acid being broken down                   distorted forest at timberline.
L                                             221                                lactone


L. L. In botany, an abbreviation for                  fringe.
    Linnaeus.                                     lacinla. lacinla. One of the straps
labellate. labelado. Having a labellum                forming the fringe on the outer
    or lip-like parts.                                portion of the blade of the petals
labellum. labelo. labium. Lip; the                    of certain flowers; also, one of the
    lowest or middle of the three pet-                incisions making this fringe.
    als of the corolla, usually larger            lack. falta. Deficient; being with-
    than the other two and sometimes                  out.
    with a spur or different in color             lacking. ausente. The condition of
    or shape, as in the Lamiaceae and                 not having any.
    Orchidaceae.                                  lacrimiform. lacrimiforme. Teardrop-
labial. labial. Of the lips.                          shaped.
labiate. labiado. Lipped; having the              lactase. lactasa. An enzyme in cer-
    corolla or calyx divided into two                 tain yeasts, capable of decompos-
    parts and overlapping in such a                   ing lactose into glucose and ga-
    manner that gives the suggestion                  lactose.
    of lips.                                      lactescence. lactescencia. The large
labium (pl. labia). labio. The lower                  flow of sap from a wounded tree.
    lip of a two-lipped corolla.                  lactic acid. ácido láctico. A colorless,
labyrinthiform. labirintiforme. Marked                odorless acid formed by lactoba-
    by sinuous lines; maze-like.                      cilli in vegetable and fruit juices.
laccate. laccado. hoja laciniada. Hav-            lactic dehydrogenase. de(s)hidro-
    ing the shiny appearance of hav-                  genasa lático. The enzyme which
    ing been waxed or varnished, as                   reduces pyruvic acid.
    in laccate leaves.                            lactiferous. lactífero. Producing a
lacerate. lacerado. Having the appear-                milky latex or substance.
    ance of an irregular cut or tearing,          lactiferous tube. tubo lactífero. In
    as with a lacerate leaf.                          some fungi, tubes filled with la-
lacinia. lacinia. An incision in a leaf,              tex that coagulates on a wound.
    petal, etc; also, a slender lobe,             lactific. lactifico. Producing latex.
    projecting from the margin of a thal-         lactoflavin. lactoflavina. A yellow
    lus.                                              pigment produced by Eremothecium
laciniate. laciniado. Cut or deeply                   ashbyii; one of the vitamin B’s; ri-
    incised, forming irregular segments               boflavin.
    or lobes; said of leaf margins, petals,       lactone. lactona. Any of a group of
    and bracts, which appear as if cut                anhydrides produced by the loss
    into bands.                                       of a molecule of water from the
laciniform. laciniforme. Resembling                   hydroxyl.
lacuna                                   222                              lamination
lacuna (pl. lacunae). laguna. A hol-              characters are inherited during
    low air space or chamber within a             sexual reproduction.
    tissue; a small hollow in the thal-        lamella (pl. lamellae). laminilla. Erect
    lus of a lichen; also, a depression           foliage scales on the petals of certain
    in the surface of a plant.                    corolla that form part of the co-
 lacunose. lagunar. Having a pitted               rona; gills forming the fruit-bearing
    surface or a surface with many hol-           surface of some fungi; also, an erect
    low spaces, or lacunae, as a lacunose         layer of cells on the midrib of some
    leaf.                                         mosses (Musci); also, membranes
lacustrine. lacustre. Pertaining to a             that occur in plastids and form the
    lake; also, living in or on the shores        basic structural unit of the chloro-
    of a lake.                                    plasts; also, a gill of an agaric.
lacustrine peat. turba lacustre. The           lamellar. lamelar. Having foliage cells
    decomposition of vegetation to form           arranged in erect layers.
    peat under anaerobic conditions.           lamellate. lamelado. Covered with
lacyeous. lacieo. Milky.                          thin foliage plates or scales.
laevi-. laevi-. A Latin prefix that            lamelliform. lameliforme. Having the
    means, “smooth”.                              form or structure of lamella.
laevigate. laevígado. Shining or lus-          lamellose. lameloso. Stratified.
    trous, commonly used to describe           lamina. lámina. A flat, sheet-like struc-
    an epidermal excrescence; levigate.           ture, as leaf tissue, other than veins;
lag-period. fase de retardo. The period           the blade, as distinguished from the
    between the initial inoculation of            stem; the border or the broad part
    a culture medium with an organ-               of the petal in a polypetalous co-
    ism and the resumption of normal              rolla; the flat, broad portion of a
    growth.                                       leaf surface; the blade or the ex-
lageniform. lageniforme. Flask-                   panded part of a leaf or petal.
    shaped; shaped like a Florentine           laminar. laminar. A leaf-like stamen
    vase.                                         without a distinct anther or fila-
lake forest. bosque lago. A conifer               ment but having a superficial or
    (Coniferae) dominated forest in               embedded microsporangia; also,
    North America, occurring around               thin, flat, and expanded, as a leaf
    the Great Lakes, and in the north-            blade.
    ern New England; said to be a tran-        laminarin. laminarina. A polysac-
    sition area between the boreal co-            charide storage product found in
    niferous forests and the southern             brown algae. It is constructed of
    deciduous forests with little sur-            ß-D-glucopyranose units, linked in
    viving 19 th century harvesting.              the 1 : 3 position.
lake. lago. A large, natural body of           laminate. laminado. Arranged in thin
    fresh water formed from precipi-              plates or layers.
    tation, land runoff, ground water,         laminate placentation. placentación
    or a combination of one or more               laminado. Having the placenta
    of these.                                     located over the inner surface of
lamarckism. larmarckismo. lamar-                  the ovary wall.
    quismo. The theory that acquired           lamination. laminación. Arrangement
laminated bulb                               223                      lateral meristem
    in thin layers; also, a layered struc-     lapidicolous. lapidicólo. Living un-
    ture.                                          der or around rocks, as lapidicolous
laminated bulb. bulbo laminado. A                  moss (Musci).
    bulb composed of a number of               lasio-. lasio-. A Greek prefix that
    swollen leaf bases, each of which              means, “woolly”.
    completely encloses all parts of the       late. tardío. tarde. After the set time,
    bulb inside it, e.g. onion.                    as late blooming.
lammas shoot. vástago lamas. An                latent. latencia. Dormant or unde-
    abnormal, non-recurring shoot that             veloped, as buds not externally vis-
    develops late in the season from a             ible.
    terminal bud.                              latent period. periodo de latencia.
lanate. lanso. Covered with long, tan-             tiempo de latencia. A period of
    gled hair or trichomes; woolly.                suspended development, often oc-
lanceolate. lanceolado. A flat sur-                curring at the beginning of the dry
    face with the shape of a lance; longer         season, winter or autumn; dormancy.
    than wide with the widest point            lateral. lateral. Growing on the side
    below the middle and the margins               of a structure, as a side shoot from
    symmetrically curved, as a lanceo-             a shoot or root, or side growths
    late leaf; lance- shaped.                      which develop from the main bran-
lanceoloid. lanceoloide. A solid struc-            ches of a tree, shrub, or other plants;
    ture with the shape of a lance; egg-           also, on or near the edge of a thallus
    shaped.                                        or fruit.
lanci-. lanci-. A Latin prefix that            lateral branch. rama lateral. Branches
    means, “lance-shaped”.                         that grow on the sides of stems.
land. tierre. terreno. suelo. The              lateral bud. yema lateral. Buds that
    solid part of the earth’s surface,             emerge from nodes located below
    divided into four landforms with               the terminal bud and in axils of
    distinct vegetation: plains, plateaus,         leaves or leaf scars where the pre-
    hill lands, and mountains. When                vious year ’s leaves were attached;
    broadly used, refers to soil, sur-             axillary bud.
    face soil, mineral deposits, and           lateral embryo. embrión lateral. A
    water supplies in a certain area.              basal embryo surrounded by abun-
landlocked. sin salida al mar. sin                 dant endosperm.
    litoral. Living in waters shut off         lateral flower. flor lateral. An in-
    from the sea.                                  florescence that develop from nodes
lani-. lani-. A Latin prefix that means,           below the apex of the main stem.
    “woolly”.                                  lateral leaf. hoja lateral. A leaf oc-
lanuginose. lanuginoso. Cottony, with              curring on the side of the stem, as
    soft, finely intertwined hair, similar         in the heterophyllous family Selag-
    to lanate but with shorter hair.               inellaceae.
lanugo. lanugo. A covering of soft,            lateral lobe. lobo lateral. One of the
    thick downy hairs on the surface               two lobes to either side of the
    of leaves or fruit.                            midlobe of a three-lobed labellum.
lanulose. lanuloso. Short, cottony hair;       lateral meristem. meristemo lateral.
    a very shortened form of lanate.               Plant growth that occurs in the
lateral root                                 224                                     layer
    cambium, as distinct from apical                   heat, light, or frost.
    meristem; responsible for secondary            lati-. lati-. A Latin prefix that means,
    growth that increases diameter;                    “wide” or “broad”.
    vascular cambium.                              laticifer. laticífero. A plant cell that
lateral root. raíz lateral. See secondary              secretes latex.
    root.                                          laticiferous. laticífero. Producing la-
lateral shoot. brote lateral. vástago                  tex.
    lateral. Shoots that emerge below              laticiferous duct. tubo lacticífero. A
    the principal bud.                                 cavity into which latex is secreted.
lateral stipule. estípula lateral. Having          laticostate. latiacostillado. Broad-
    stipules joined to the petiole and                 ribbed, as a laticostate leaf.
    the free part of the stipules located          latidentate. latidentado. Broad-
    along the petiole.                                 toothed, as latidentate leaves.
lateral style. estilo lateral. The style           latifoliate. latifolio. Broad-leaved.
    is located at the side of the ovary.           latifolious. latifolioso. Broad-leaved.
latewood. leña tardio. leña de otoño.              latifolius. latifolius. Latin meaning
    leña estrecho. The denser portion                  “broad-leaved”.
    of an annual growth ring which is              latiseptate. latiseptado. Having wide
    produced late in the season; com-                  septa or dissepiments.
    posed of thick-walled xylem cells,             latitude. latitud. The distance north
    a smaller radial, and cells gener-                 or south from the equator with one
    ally longer than those formed earlier              degree of latitude equaling approxi-
    in the season.                                     mately 69 statute miles or 60 nau-
latex (latices. pl) látex. A white or                  tical miles.
    yellowish sticky substance produced            latrorse. latrorso. Dehiscing longi-
    in specialized tissues within plants,              tudinally and laterally.
    including poppies (Papaveraceae),              lattice. retícula. A vestigial sieve
    milkweeds (Asclepias) and others                   plate on the side wall of a phloem
    used to make chicle (Achras) and                   sieve tube, with vaguely defined
    rubber (Hevea) products.                           edges and very minute pores.
latex cell. célula látex. A simple or              latticed. clatrado. de celosia. Hav-
    branched cell, derived from the                    ing venation-like latticework or
    enlargement of a single cell and                   threads of a net; also, a crystal-
    containing latex.                                  line-like appearance caused by the
latex duct. tubo látex. An elongated,                  orientation of molecules in a solid
    branched, aseptate system of anas-                 or liquid; reticulated; clathrate.
    tomosing hyphae, containing latex              laurium. laurio. A drain formation.
    and present in some of the larger              lawn. césped. pasto. Covered with
    agarics.                                           grass, especially around a house.
latexosis. latexosis. An abnormal se-              lax. laxo. Loose, not compacted, as
    cretion of latex due to a pathological             a lax cluster of flowers.
    conditon.                                      laxi-. laxi-. A Latin prefix that means,
lath house. cobertizo. An open wood                    “loose” or “unstrung”.
    lath or plastic screen structure for           layer. estrato. A branch from a liv-
    protecting plants from excessive                   ing plant bent into the ground and
layer                                        225                      leaf divergence
    covered with soil so that it will take         the stem of a plant.
    root and form a new plant while            leaf abscission. abscisión de las hojas.
    attached to the parent; also, a plant          The shedding or falling of leaves
    propagated by layering; also, a stra-          that occurs from the breakdown of
    tum of vegetation, as the shrubs               at the cells base of the leaf;
    in a forest.                                   shed(ding).
layer. tejido. Tissue of a uniform thick-      leaf area index. indice (de superficie)
    ness spread over a definite area;              foliar. indice del área foliar. A
    stratum.                                       numerically based index of the ratio
layering. acodadura. A type of artifical           of leaf area to ground area in a plant
    vegetative or asexual propagation              community.
    that produces a root by a branch           leaf axil. axila de la hoja. The an-
    being bent down and covered with               gle between the leaf and the stem.
    soil, so that rooting of a new plant       leaf base. base foliar. The bottom
    occurs while attached to the par-              or lower portion of the leaf; also,
    ent plant; also the banding seen in            the base of the leafstalk where it
    thick cell walls, due to the pres-             joins the stem.
    ence of wall layers differing in water     leaf blade. limbo (foliar). lámina
    content, chemical composition, and             foliar. lámina de hoja. The flat,
    physical structure; also the grouping          enlarged part of a leaf.
    of vegetation in a forest into two         leaf bud. yema foliar. A plant bud
    or more defined layers differing in            that produces a leaf or branch rather
    height, as trees, shrubs, and ground           than a flower bud which produces
    vegetation.                                    a flower; a bud that develops into
leach. lixiviar. lavar. To remove solu-            a leafy branch.
    ble materials from soil or plant tis-      leaf cushion. cojinete foliar. A swollen
    sue with water; to treat by down-              leaf base; pulvinus.
    ward drainage, as rain washing away        leaf cutting. esqueje de hoja. A cutting
    nutrients from the soil.                       made from a single leaf, as with a
leaching. lixivación. A natural or ar-             succulent leaf. When purposely
    tificial process in which various              rooting a succulent leaf, the leaf
    chemicals in the upper layers of               can be placed on top of clean sand,
    soil are dissolved and carried to              where it will begin to root after a
    the lower layers, and in some cases            week. Once there are a sufficient
    to groundwater.                                number of roots, set the leaf root
leader (of a tree). guí (del arbol). The           down into a shallow hole in the
    main or terminal shoot of a plant,             sand. The leaf will soon produce
    such as the topmost point of a fir             leaves from the base of the plant.
    (Pinaceae) or the strongest shoot              The mother leaf will soon die, leav-
    of a young fruit tree.                         ing a new plant.
leaf. hoja. A thin, usually flat part          leaf divergence. divergencia foliar.
    of a plant growing from a stem or              The angle of the intersection of the
    up from the roots, that photosynth-            planes passing longitudinally thro-
    esizes and transpires, developing              ugh the middles of two successive
    usually from a bud and borne on                leaves.
leaf gap                                     226                                     lectin
leaf gap. espacio foliar. A paren-                 leaf scar. cicatriz foliar. cicatriz de
    chyma-filled interruption in a stem’s              la hoja. The mark that remains on
    cylinder of vascular tissue, imme-                 the twig where a leaf once grew.
    diately above the point where a                leaf scorch. escaldadura foliar.
    branch of vascular tissue occurs;                  quemadura foliar. Foliage that ap-
    also, a space in the stele of plant                pears to have been dried by heat,
    where the leaf trace emerges; la-                  occurring from a variety of con-
    cuna.                                              ditions, including dryness, high tem-
leafless. áfilo. sin hojas. afoliado.                  perature, disease, or lack of cer-
    deshojado. Having no leaves or                     tain nutrients in the soil.
    bearing no leaves; aphyllous.                  leaf sheath. vaina foliar. vaina de
leaflet. folíolo. hojilla. Small blades                la hoja. A leaf base or other tu-
    or separate segments of a compound                 bular portion of the leaf that wraps
    leaf attached to a stalk (rachis) that             around the stem where it grows.
    is without buds in the axil of its             leafstalk. pecíolo. tallo de la hoja.
    petiole; a subdivision of a com-                   Petiole; the supporting stem of the
    pound leaf.                                        leaf which attaches to a twig or
leaf-like. foliiforme. Foliiform.                      branch.
leaf margin. margen foliar. The sur-               leaf surface. superficie de la hoja.
    rounding, outer edge of a leaf.                    superficie foliar. The upper side
leaf mold. moho de hoja. mantillo                      of a leaf.
    de hoja. Decomposing leaves on                 leaf tip. ápice foliar. The top point
    the surface of wooded areas; also,                 of a leaf.
    mold (fungi) living from decom-                leafy. folioso. foliado. hojoso. Having
    posing foliage.                                    many leaves; foliose.
leaf mosaic. mosaico de hoja. The                  lecanorine. lecanorina. A type of
    arrangement of leaves on trees,                    apothecium surrounded by a rim
    shrubs, or vines where the petiole                 of tissue of the same color as the
    length and position enables each                   thallus; especially occurring in the
    leaf to receive the maximum amount                 genus Lecanora.
    of sunlight.                                   lecideine. lecideina. A type of
leaf primordium. primordio de hoja.                    apothecium that lacks a margin of
    primordio foliar. In buds, merist-                 thalline tissue; especially occur-
    ematic tissue that develops into a                 ring in the genus Lecidea.
    flower.                                        lecithin. lecitina. A group of nitro-
leaf trace. rastro foliar. traza foliar.               gen-phosphorous fatty substances
    The vascular bundle(s) extending                   (phosphatidyl choline) found in both
    from the stem to the leaf.                         plant and animal tissues.
leaf raceme. racimo foliar. A raceme               lecithinase. lecitinasa. An enzyme
    in which the bracts differ little, or              for hydrolyzing lecithin and its
    not at all, from the ordinary foli-                components.
    age leaves of the plant.                       lecithoprotein. lecitoproteina. Li-
leaf rosette. roseta foliar. A cluster                 poprotein.
    of leaves crowded on short                     lectin. lectina. A generic term for
    internodes.                                        proteins extracted from plants.
lectotype                                   227                             leptoform
lectotype. lectotipo. One of a group              Citrus limon (Cistaceae).
    of syntypes, which prior to publi-        lentic. léntico. Pertaining to or liv-
    cation of the original description,           ing in freshwater habitats, such as
    is selected and designated through            stagnant or swamp-like water; as
    published papers to serve as the              lentic plants.
    type specimen.                            lenticel. lenticela. A lens-shaped group
leeward. sotavento. The side away                 of cells that form pores in the corky
    from the direction of a prevailing            layer of bark (periderm); appear-
    wind, as the leeward or lee side              ing as a raised spot, filled occa-
    of a rock.                                    sionally with a powdery substance.
leggy. ahilamiento. Weak-stemmed,                 These pores permit atmospheric
    spindly plants with sparse foliage            gases to reach tissues below the
    caused by too much heat, shade,               surface.
    crowding, or over fertilization.          lenticular. lenticular. Shaped like a
legume. legumbre. Any plant of the                lentil or a double convex lens, as
    pea family, Fabaceae (Legum-                  some seeds; biconvex.
    inosae); any of the dicotyledonous        lentiform. lentiforme. Lenticular.
    plants which bear pods that have          lentiginous. lentiginoso. Covered with
    a number of seeds, as beans (Phase-           minute dots; freckled; speckled.
    olus) and peas (Clianthus); also,         lentil. lenteja. Lens esculenta, an an-
    from one carpel, a dry dehiscent              nual plant of the pea family or the
    fruit, with an elongated pod that             small edible seeds which are shaped
    splits in two along two sutures,              like double convex lens.
    containing seeds attached along one       lepido-. lepido-. A Greek prefix that
    edge; has a capability to fix atmos-          means, “scaly”.
    pheric nitrogen in nodules on its         lepidote. lepidoto. Covered with
    roots if inoculated with proper bac-          minute scales, as some parts of cer-
    teria.                                        tain Bromeliaceas or leaves of
leguminous. leguminosa. Pertaining                Aetoxicaceae; squamulose.
    to or of the group of plants bear-        lepis. lepis. The minute scales on
    ing legumes, or pods to which peas            the