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					Unit 2: Morphology


        PART 3
Word Formation Processes
            What is a
     word formation process?

 The lexicon of a language changes
  continuously. New words are created
  and old words may also disappear.
 The processes that allow new words to
  enter the language are called word
  formation processes.
      Two major kinds of word
        formation processes
 A word formation process may be the way in
  which a completely new word comes into the
  language.
 Word formation processes are also the ways
  that each speaker has to create complex words
  from simpler pieces. That is, the new word
  uses words already present in the language to
  create a new word.
              What is productivity?

 A productive word formation process is one that is
  very useful, that is one that can “produce” many new
  words nowadays.
         Some word formation processes are very productive:
            Affixation
            Compounding
            Conversion
         Others are not very productive:
            Backformation
            Reduplication
            Coining
         Completely new words (I)

 Coining: the creation of    Onomatopoeia: the
  a completely new word        creation of new words
      googol                   based on the sounds
      nerd                     made by the things to
      jerk                     which they refer
 Adoption of brand               cuckoo
  names                           buzz
      kleenex                     hiss
      aspirin                     meow
      xerox                       chirp
      band aid                    creak
        Completely new words (II)

 Borrowing: this is the result of language contact. It
  produces loan words (foreign words that become
  English words). There are loan words from very early,
  but also recent ones coming from different languages.
    glasnost, perestroika                Russian
    karaoke, sushi                      Japanese
    kindergarten, kaput,                German
    delicatessen, hamburger
    bagel, kosher                       Yiddish
    taco, tortilla, patio               Spanish
    déjà vu, cuisine, faux pas          French
     Words from existing words (I)

 Affixation: this           Clipping: this process
  process consists on         consists on the
  the addition of a           abbreviation of a long
  derivational affix          word
  (prefix or suffix) to        demonstration  demo
  an existing root.            typographical error  typo
                               facsimile  fax
     writer (write + er)
                               professional  pro
     kingdom (king + dom)
                               mathematics  math
     undo (un + do)
     Words from existing words (II)

 Blending: the                  Reduplication: this
  combination of two              process creates a new
  different words into one        word by repeating the
  by deleting part of the two     same root sometimes
  words before uniting            with some change in
  them.                           the second form.
   breakfast + lunch  brunch        itsy-bitsy
   smoke + fog  smog                hanky-panky
   web + log  blog                  so-so
   motor + hotel  motel             mish-mash
   Words from existing words (III)

 Acronyms: this process forms words from the
  initials of a group of words that designate one
  concept. Acronyms may differ in spelling and
  pronunciation.
     National Aeronautics and Space Administration  NASA
     North Atlantic Treaty Organization  NATO
     Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome  AIDS
     self-contained underwater breathing apparatus  scuba
     National Basketball Association  NBA
    Words from existing words (IV)

 Back-formation: this process is the opposite to the
  process of affixation. With affixation we create a new
  word by adding an affix; with back-formation we
  create a new word by erasing an affix.
      editor  edit
      backformation  backform
      resurrection  resurrect
      self-destruction  self-destruct
    Words from existing words (V)

 There are two other word formation processes
  that are very productive in English and that
  very often cause problems to ESL students.

     Conversion
     Compounding
                  Conversion (I)

 Conversion: this process is also known as zero-
  derivation. This process changes the part of speech
  and meaning of an existing root without producing any
  change in pronunciation or spelling and without adding
  any affix.
  I need someone to come to the blackboard.
      Is there a volunteer?
      Someone has to volunteer.
      Otherwise, I will volunteer someone.
                  Conversion (II)

 From Verb to Noun        From Name to Verb
     to attack  attack         Harpo  to Harpo
     to hope  hope             Houdini  to Houdini
     to cover  cover      From Adjective to Verb
 From Noun to Verb             dirty  to dirty
     comb  to comb             slow  to slow
     sand  to sand        From Preposition to Verb
     party  to party           out  to out
              Conversion (III)

 In some cases, conversion is accompanied by
  a change in the stress pattern known as
  stress shift.
     transpórt (V)  tránsport (N)
     rewríte (V)  réwrite (N)
     condúct (V)  cónduct (N)
     subjéct (V)  súbject (N)
                  Compounding

 Compounding is a very productive word formation
  process in English.
 Compounding creates a new word, called a compound,
  by combining two or more words.
 A compound is a word made out of free forms. These
  words may themselves be simple (a single morpheme)
  or complex (formed by more than one morpheme).
     blackboard (black + board)
     red hot (red + hot)
     typewriter (type + write-er)
     mother-in-law (mother + in + law)
      Exercise A: Which word
    formation process is used?

   Coining                      Reduplication
   Borrowing                    Acronyms
   Onomatopoeia                 Back-formation
   Adoption of brand names      Conversion (without
   Affixation                    stress-shift)
   Clipping                     Conversion (with
   Blending                      stress-shift)
                                 Compounding
           Spelling Compounds

 According to the way they are spelled we can
  distinguish three types of compounds
     open compound (two or more words written
      separately)
      salad dressing, Boston terrier
     hyphenated compound (words connected by a
      hyphen)
      age-old, mother-in-law, force-feed
     solid compound (two words written as one)
      keyboard, typewriter, blackbird
                Compound Nouns

 Noun + Noun         Verb + Noun
    wallpaper            breakwater
    football             crash pad
    ice-cream            kill joy
 Adjective + Noun    Preposition + Noun
    blackboard           downtown
    highway              underworld
    fast-food            afternoon
         Compound Adjectives

 Noun + Adjective      Verb + Adjective
    snow-white           (rare)
    machine readable       fail safe
    lead free
                        Preposition +
 Adjective +            Adjective
  Adjective                over-ripe
    blue-green             underfull
    bitter-sweet           overactive
    squeaky-clean
             Compound Verbs

 Noun + Verb         Verb + Verb
    browbeat             freeze dry
    carbon date          stir-fry
    color code        Preposition + Verb
 Adjective + Verb       over-achieve
    double-book          outperform
    softland             undercut
       Heads and modifiers (I)

 Compounds usually have a word that is
  the most important one, we call it the
  head, while the other word is usually the
  modifier.
 The head determines the syntactic
  category of the whole compound and
  receives the inflectional morphemes
  (plural, present tense, comparative, etc.)
       Heads and modifiers (II)

 Most compounds have the structure modifier + head
       blackboard
       office manager
       offset
 Some compounds have the structure head + modifier
       attorney general
       bother-in-law
       heir apparent
       Heads and modifiers (III)

 In general, the meaning of a compound is a
  specialization of the meaning of its head.
 Sometimes the modifier acts as an attribute of the
  head:
     a blackboard is a particular kind of board which is black
 Sometimes the relationship is not attributive, but a
  relationship that could also be expressed in terms of
  prepositions
      a footstool is a stool FOR one's feet
      an office manager is the manager OF an office
      an armchair is a chair WITH arms
      a raincoat is a coat AGAINST the rain
Exercise B
       Heads and modifiers (IV)

 Some compounds have no explicit head. We can think of
  these compounds as complex words where the head is
  not said (you have to imagine it)
     A skinhead is not a kind of head (a head made of skin) but a
     PERSON whose head is without hair (showing the skin)
     A redneck is not a kind of neck (a neck that is red), but a
     PERSON who usually works outside and burns its neck
 There are also some compounds in which it is hard to
  determine which is the head.
      blue-green is both a kind of blue and a kind of green
      maidservant is both a kind of maid and a kind of servant
      boyfriend is both a kind of boy and a kind of friend
Exercise C
      The structure of compounds (I)

 Compounds, like other words, have structures that can
  be represented with tree diagrams. Very often we
  have compounds that in turn become part of another
  compound. The internal structure of a compound can
  tell us what it means.
                 N
                               a project for
                               researching
         N             N

      research       project
        The structure of compounds (II)

                   N

                           N
                                          a report about a
                                             project for
    N                  N                researching which is
                                          four pages long



A         N    N           N    N



four – page research project   report
       The structure of compounds (III)

             N
                                                            N


   N                    N
                                                   N              N

                  N           N            N            N

student          film       festival     student       film     festival

 A festival about films (where         A festival about films where films
 films are shown) where the              have been made by students
     viewers are students
                  Now

 Do Exercise D
 Do Exercise E

				
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