What is health? Health is the defined as having: complete mental, physical and social well being It is not just the absence of disease What is disease? Disease is any abnormal of dysfunctional working of the body which impairs your health. Disease can be caused from internal failure of body organs or systems or can be externally infected from other organisms. Types of diseases. Diseases are classified according to their causes. They are: Deficiency Infectious Lifestyle Hereditary Socially transmitted Deficiency diseases These are caused by the lack of essential nutrients from your diet e.g vitamins and minerals in the body. ( is this an intrinsic failure of the body or an external cause?) Examples of deficiency diseases include Scurvy : Lack of Vitamin C Rickets: Lack of Vitamin D Night blindness- Lack of Vitamin A Scurvy Caused by a lack of Vitamin C. Symptoms include bleeding along gums and under nails Vegetables and fruits especially Citrus fruits are sources of Vitamin C and be used in treating this disease. Night Blindness Caused by lack of Vitamin A It is the inability to see normally in dim light Treated by taking Vitamin A supplements and foods as green leafy vegetables, eggs, milk products. Rickets Caused by lack of Vitamin D Causes loss of hair, weakened and poor bone development Vit D enriched foods include egg yolk, milk butter. Infectious disease Diseases that are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria and fungi They are also known as communicable diseases as they can be transmitted from person to person/species by an agent. Examples of infectious diseases include: Malaria- caused by bacteria that are transferred by mosquitoes HIV- caused by the virus transferred by blood and fluid exchange Tuberculosis –caused by bacterial infection of lungs air transmission Lifestyle Diseases This type of diseases are dependent on the diet, lifestyle of the people and their interactions with their environment. There is an increase in this type of disease in countries that are more industrialized and where people live longer. These include: Heart disease, Arterosclerosis Cancer-abnormal growth of cells Diabetes- affects body sugar levels Hereditary Diseases Caused by a genetic predisposition towards contracting the disease i.e. it can be passed along ffrom parent to offspring E.g. Sickle cell Anaemia,Haemophilia Social Diseases This is a disease that is most common within a group of people who are prone to it due to adverse condition. E.g. Sexual Transmitted diseases. Impact of disease on the economy of the country The nation’s greatest asset is its people. Why? If the people where affected by poor health or disease, what would be the effects on the economy? Impact of disease on the economy of the country TIME IS MONEY!!! An unhealthy person is less productive, therefore when less work gets done then less revenue is being generated An unhealthy person requires aid which adds to costs by the government to give healthcare Drains the country of vitality, creativity and wealth. E.g Africa and AIDS epidemic, H1N1 and China Body weight and Obesity Body weight regulation Body weight and body fat is linked to genetic, physical, lifestyle and behavioral factors. Weigh loss occurs when the amount of energy put into the body is less than the amount of energy taken out of the body. This can occur by eating low energy foods, eating less and being more active i.e. diet and exercise affects weight. Body weight regulation Weight Gain occurs when more energy is taken in than is being used up Eating high energy foods e.g fats carbohydrates, less active lifestyle and eating more food will generally result in weight gain. The metabolic rate is unique to each individual. It is how fast your body is able to use and convert food into energy. A higher metabolic rate uses energy at a faster rate and the person may lose weight faster than someone who has a lower metabolic rate Body weight regulation Genetics plays a big part in body fat and body weight. It can determine where a person stores most fat ( pear, apple, Hourglass) It also determine if a person is predisposed or inclined to store more fat or have a higher weight than others. Lifestyle Lifestyle affects weight. Persons who have a lifestyle in which more fatty and high carbohydrate foods are eaten may gain weight. Fast food- oil and sugar filled, as the main food source Behavioral patterns Disturbed eating patterns as overeating, purging, binge eating and self starvation are behaviours which affect the weight of persons These patterns are unhealthy methods of gaining or losing weight and can physically and mentally affect a person’s well being. They can also lead to diseases such as heart disease, anorexia, bulimia Diseases related to weight gain Obesity is a disease which results when excess body fat is accumulated and has an adverse effect on a persons health. This may result from overeating, eating an unbalanced diet, little or no exercise and may also be influenced by genetics. Diseases associated with weight loss Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by extremely low body weight, low body image and fear of gaining weight. Is more popularly experienced by girls and women than men. Within the teenage and young adult years Bulimia is another eating disorder whereby binge eating occurs followed by compensatory behaviour. Compensatory behaviour is actions that counteract binging. These include vomiting, using laxatives and fasting. Managing body weight Body weight can be managed by eating a balanced diet and exercising regularly. What other methods can be used as an aid to managing body weight?