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									What is health?
 Health is the defined as
  having: complete
  mental, physical and
  social well being
 It is not just the absence
  of disease
What is disease?
 Disease is any abnormal of dysfunctional working of
  the body which impairs your health.
 Disease can be caused from internal failure of body
  organs or systems or can be externally infected from
  other organisms.
Types of diseases.
 Diseases are classified according to their
  causes. They are:
 Deficiency
 Infectious
 Lifestyle
 Hereditary
 Socially transmitted
Deficiency diseases
 These are caused by the lack of essential nutrients
 from your diet e.g vitamins and minerals in the body. (
 is this an intrinsic failure of the body or an external

 Examples of deficiency diseases include
Scurvy : Lack of Vitamin C
Rickets: Lack of Vitamin D
Night blindness- Lack of Vitamin A
 Caused by a lack of
 Vitamin C. Symptoms
 include bleeding along
 gums and under nails
Vegetables and fruits
 especially Citrus fruits
 are sources of Vitamin C
 and be used in treating
 this disease.
Night Blindness
 Caused by lack of
  Vitamin A
 It is the inability to see
  normally in dim light
 Treated by taking
  Vitamin A supplements
  and foods as green leafy
  vegetables, eggs, milk
 Caused by lack of
  Vitamin D
 Causes loss of hair,
  weakened and poor bone
 Vit D enriched foods
  include egg yolk, milk
Infectious disease
 Diseases that are caused by pathogens such as
  viruses, bacteria and fungi
 They are also known as communicable diseases as they can
  be transmitted from person to person/species by an agent.
 Examples of infectious diseases include:
 Malaria- caused by bacteria that are transferred by
 HIV- caused by the virus transferred by blood and fluid
 Tuberculosis –caused by bacterial infection of lungs air
Lifestyle Diseases
 This type of diseases are dependent on the diet,
  lifestyle of the people and their interactions with their
 There is an increase in this type of disease in countries
  that are more industrialized and where people live
 These include:
Heart disease, Arterosclerosis
Cancer-abnormal growth of cells
 Diabetes- affects body sugar levels
Hereditary Diseases

 Caused by a genetic predisposition
 towards contracting the disease i.e. it
 can be passed along ffrom parent to

 E.g. Sickle cell Anaemia,Haemophilia
Social Diseases
 This is a disease that is most common within a group
  of people who are prone to it due to adverse condition.
 E.g. Sexual Transmitted diseases.
Impact of disease on the economy
of the country
 The nation’s greatest asset is its people.
 Why?
 If the people where affected by poor health or disease,
  what would be the effects on the economy?
Impact of disease on the economy
of the country

 An unhealthy person is less productive, therefore
  when less work gets done then less revenue is being
 An unhealthy person requires aid which adds to costs
  by the government to give healthcare
 Drains the country of vitality, creativity and wealth.
  E.g Africa and AIDS epidemic, H1N1 and China
Body weight and Obesity
Body weight regulation
 Body weight and body fat is
  linked to genetic, physical,
  lifestyle and behavioral

 Weigh loss occurs when the
  amount of energy put into
  the body is less than the
  amount of energy taken out
  of the body.
 This can occur by eating low
  energy foods, eating less and
  being more active i.e. diet and
  exercise affects weight.
Body weight regulation
 Weight Gain occurs when more energy is taken in than
 is being used up

 Eating high energy foods e.g fats carbohydrates, less
  active lifestyle and eating more food will generally
  result in weight gain.
 The metabolic rate is unique to each individual. It is
  how fast your body is able to use and convert food into
  energy. A higher metabolic rate uses energy at a faster
  rate and the person may lose weight faster than
  someone who has a lower metabolic rate
Body weight regulation
 Genetics plays a big part in
  body fat and body weight.

 It can determine where a
  person stores most fat ( pear,
  apple, Hourglass)

 It also determine if a person is
  predisposed or inclined to
  store more fat or have a
  higher weight than others.
 Lifestyle affects weight.

 Persons who have a lifestyle
  in which more fatty and high
  carbohydrate foods are eaten
  may gain weight.

 Fast food- oil and sugar filled,
  as the main food source
Behavioral patterns
 Disturbed eating patterns as overeating, purging,
  binge eating and self starvation are behaviours which
  affect the weight of persons
 These patterns are unhealthy methods of gaining or
  losing weight and can physically and mentally affect a
  person’s well being.

 They can also lead to diseases such as heart disease,
 anorexia, bulimia
Diseases related to weight gain
 Obesity is a disease which results when excess body fat
  is accumulated and has an adverse effect on a persons
 This may result from overeating, eating an unbalanced
  diet, little or no exercise and may also be influenced by
Diseases associated with weight
 Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized
  by extremely low body weight, low body image and
  fear of gaining weight.
 Is more popularly experienced by girls and women
  than men. Within the teenage and young adult years
 Bulimia is another eating disorder whereby binge
  eating occurs followed by compensatory behaviour.
 Compensatory behaviour is actions that counteract
  binging. These include vomiting, using laxatives and
Managing body weight
 Body weight can be managed by eating a balanced diet
  and exercising regularly.
 What other methods can be used as an aid to
  managing body weight?

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