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									Institute of Air and Space Law                                                    Course Outline
McGill University                                                                      Fall 2010



                           PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL AIR LAW*†
                                         Term I - (3 credits)

                                 Instructor: Prof. Armand de Mestral


COURSE DESCRIPTION                                                      Course No: ASPL 633

The course in Public International Air Law examines the relevant principles and rules of
international law that affect the use of air space and aeronautics. The following topics
are reviewed:

         Public international law : jurisdiction over persons, territory and airspace, law of
          treaties, settlement of international disputes, incidents of statehood, law of
          international organisations etc.
         sources of international air law;
         the relevant international aviation organizations and their law-making functions;
         the law-making institutions and processes affecting the regime of air space and
          international air navigational and air transport;
         the legal regime of the national and international air space;
         the international standards and recommended practices regulating safety,
          security, air navigation, airports, and the environment;
         aircraft accident investigation;
         the concept of civil and state aircraft;
         State certification and licensing of aircraft and airmen under international
          standards;
         the exchange of air traffic rights; and
         dispute resolution.


Method of Evaluation: Optional paper (33 1/3%) and final for 66 2/3% or 100% final
examination.
Teaching Hours: Tuesdays, & Thursdays 14:30 – 16h (NCDH Room 204 ? )
Professor Information: Preferred method of communication is after class, by email or by


    McGill University values academic integrity. Therefore all students must understand the
    meaning and consequences of cheating, plagiarism and other academic offences under the
    Code of Student Conduct and Disciplinary Procedures (see www.mcgill.ca/integrity for
    more information).


†
     In accord with McGill University’s Charter of Students’ Rights, students in this course
    have the right to submit in English or in French any written work that is to be graded.
                                                                                       Page 1 of 12
Institute of Air and Space Law                                           Course Outline
McGill University                                                             Fall 2010



appointment. To make appointments:           Phone    (514)   398-6643     or      email:
armand.de.mestral@mcgill.ca

VISITORS: Several visitors have been invited to the class. The dates of their
presentations will be announced at the beginning of the course.

READINGS. Students are requested to purchase copies of Dempsey, PUBLIC
INTERNATIONAL AIR LAW (2008) and the requisite basic documents volume of the
ANNALS OF AIR AND SPACE LAW from Maria D’Amico at the IASL Secretariat
office. Required readings will all be from these two volumes. An excellent companion
text is Milde, ESSENTIAL AIR AND SPACE LAW (2008)




                                                                                Page 2 of 12
Institute of Air and Space Law                                                                                                          Course Outline
McGill University                                                                                                                            Fall 2010




COURSE OUTLINE:


                                                            TABLE OF CONTENTS


Table of Contents                                                                                                                                         i
Preface ............................................................................................................................................... xiii

September 2, 7 & 9
INTRODUCTORY CLASSES: THE CONTENT AND FUNCTION OF PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW
( STUDENTS WHO HAVE NO PRIOR BACKGROUND IN PUBLIC INTERNATIONAL LAW SHOULD
REGISTER IN THE COURSE, OR AS A MINIMUM ARRANGE TO AUDIT THE COURSE IN PUBLIC
INTERNATIONAL LAW

CHAPTER I - INTRODUCTION                                                                                        1

September 14
CHAPTER II - MULTILATERAL CONVENTIONS
I.    INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 7
II.   AVIATION TECHNOLOGY: WAR & PEACE ...................................................................... 9
III.  EARLY ATTEMPTS AT AIR TRANSPORT REGULATION ................................................. 11
IV.   THE EVOLUTION OF CONVENTIONAL AIR LAW .......................................................... 14
      A.     THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES .................................                       ....................................... 14
      B.     THE CONVENTION RELATING TO THE REGULATION OF AERIAL
              NAVIATION (PARIS CONVENTION OF 1919) ........                                    .......................................... 15
      C.     THE MADRID AND HAVANA CONVENTIONS .....                                           .......................................... 17
      D.     THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION
             (THE CHICAGO CONVENTION OF 1944) .................                                .......................................... 18
      E.     THE ANTARTIC TREATY OF 1959 ..............................                        .......................................... 31
      F.     THE OUTER SPACE TREATY OF 1967 ........................                           .......................................... 31
      G.     THE LAW OF THE SEA CONVENTION OF 1982 .....                                       .......................................... 32
V.    AIR LAW IN THE 21ST CENTURY ........................................................................................ 36
VI.   SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................ 36

September 16
CHAPTER III - THE CHICAGO CONVENTION
I.    THE CHICAGO CONVENTION AS A SOURCE OF INTERNATIONAL AIR LAW .......... 41
      A.      BASIC PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL AVIATION LAW ................................. 43
      B.      NATIONAL SOVEREIGNTY OVER AIRSPACE ........                                            .......................................... 44
      C.      NATIONALITY: REGISTRATION, CERTIFICATES & LICENSES ............................ 44
      D.      AIRCRAFT CATEGORIZATION ..................................                             .......................................... 47
      E.      RIGHTS OF OVERFLIGHT AND TRAFFIC RIGHTS                                                .......................................... 48
II.   THE CHICAGO CONVENTION AS THE CONSTITUTION OF AN INTERNATIONAL
      ORGANIZATION ................................................................................................................. 49
III.  SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................ 55
IV.   APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................ 55
      A.      NEW ZEALAND AIR LINE PILOTS' ASSOCIATION
              v. ATTORNEY-GENERAL ...............................................                    .......................................... 55
      B.      INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION, MAKING AN ICAO
              STANDARD (2007) ..........................................................             .......................................... 61
                                                                                                                                                Page 3 of 12
Institute of Air and Space Law                                                                                                      Course Outline
McGill University                                                                                                                        Fall 2010


                        1.          DEVELOPMENT OF SARPS ......................              61
                        2.          REVIEW OF DRAFT SARPS ......................             62
                        3.          ADOPTION/PUBLICATION OF ANNEX AMENDMENTS                 63
                        4.          APPROVAL/PUBLICATION OF OTHER ANNEX MATERIAL AND
                                    PROCEDURES ............................................. 64
                        5.          IMPLEMENTATION OF SARPS/UNIVERSAL SAFETY OVERSIGHT
                                    AUDIT PROGRAMME ................................         64

September 23
CHAPTER IV - SAFETY
I.     INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 66
II.    THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL LAW OF AVIATION SAFETY ........... 70
       A.    THE CONVENTIONAL LAW OF INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION .............. 70
       B.    INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AS SOFT LAW, OR HARD LAW? ...................... 75
       C.    BILATERAL REQUIREMENTS .....................................                       .......................................... 80
III.   DOMESTIC COMPLIANCE WITH INTERNATIONAL AVIATION SAFETY
        REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................. 83
       A.    TO COMPLY, OR NOT TO COMPLY: THAT IS THE QUESTION............................ 83
       B.    UNILATERAL OVERSIGHT OF STATE COMPLIANCE WITH
              INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS: NAME AND SHAME ...................................... 85
                        1.    THE COURTS CLIP THE WINGS OF THE UNITED STATES:
                        BRITISH CALEDONIAN v. BOND ............................                                                                   85
                        2.    US AIRPORT SECURITY AUDITS............                                                                              88
                        3.    US SAFETY AUDITS ..................................                                                                 90
                        4.    EU BLACKLISTING OF AIRLINES ..........                                                                              96
            C.MULTILATERAL OVERSIGHT OF STATE COMPLIANCE WITH
              INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS .............................                                     .......................................... 101
IV.     THE SUBSTANTIVE AVIATION SAFETY OBLIGATIONS UNDER INTERNATIONAL
         AND DOMESTIC LAW ........................................................................................................ 107
        A.    CIVIL AVIATION AUTHORITY: ESTABLISHMENT AND ADMINISTRATION .. 109
        B.    AGENCY PROCEDURES ...............................................                           .......................................... 113
        C.    PERSONNEL LICENSING .............................................                           .......................................... 116
        D.    AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION .....                                                  .......................................... 118
        E.    NATIONALITY, OWNERSHIP, AND REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS ............ 121
        F.    AIR CARRIER OPERATOR CERTIFICATION ...........                                              .......................................... 122
        G.    AIR CARRIER ECONOMIC REGULATION ...............                                             .......................................... 123
        H.    SCHOOLS AND APPROVED MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS ...................... 125
        I.    AIR NAVIGATION FACILITIES ...................................                               .......................................... 125
        J.     TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS .....                                                    .......................................... 126
        K.    PENALTIES FOR NONCOMPLIANCE .......................                                         .......................................... 126
V.      THE THEORETICAL PARADIGM OF COMPLIANCE WITH AND ENFORCEMENT OF
        INTERNATIONAL LAW ...................................................................................................... 128
VI.     CONCLUSION ...................................................................................................................... 138
VII. APPENDIX .................................................................................................................................. 139
        A.    BRITISH CALEDONIAN AIRWAYS v. BOND .............                                            .......................................... 139
        B.    AIR NEW ZEALAND v. DIRECTOR OF CIVIL AVIATION ......................................... 144
        C.    R. v. SECRETARY OF STATE FOR TRANSPORT .......                                              .......................................... 147
        D.    HONDURAS AIRCRAFT REGISTRY, LTD. v. GOVERNMENT OF HONDURAS.... 148
        E.    THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION: ANNEXES
              RELEVANT TO SAFETY ................................................                         .......................................... 152
                        1.          ANNEX 1: PERSONNEL LICENSING .......                                                                          152
                        2.          ANNEX 7: AIRCRAFT NATIONALITY AND REGISTRATION
                                                                                                                                            Page 4 of 12
Institute of Air and Space Law                                                                                               Course Outline
McGill University                                                                                                                 Fall 2010


                                  MARKS.........................................................       153
                       3.         ANNEX 8: AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT                                   154
                       4.         ANNEX 12: SEARCH AND RESCUE ........                                 157
                       5.         ANNEX 13: AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT AND INCIDENT
                                  INVESTIGATION .......................................                158
                       6.         ANNEX 18: THE SAFE TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS BY
                                  AIR ................................................................ 160

September 25,26,27 WEEKEND : IASL AIR LAW SYMPOSIUM AT ICAO PLEASE ATTEND IN
LIEU OF OCTOBER 28 CLASS

September 28: VISITOR Mr Frank Manuhutu, European Air Safety Agency

September 30
CHAPTER V - AIR NAVIGATION
I.    INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 164
II.   CAPACITY & CONGESTION ............................................................................................... 165
III.  INTERNATIONAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................. 167
IV.   NAVIGATIONAL AIDS ........................................................................................................ 171
V.    ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ...................................................................................... 172
VI.   STATE DUTIES ..................................................................................................................... 175
      A.     REGULATORY OVERSIGHT .................................................................................. 175
      B.     FEES AND CHARGES ....................................................                   .......................................... 177
VII.  PRIVATIZATION AND CORPORATIZATION OF AIR NAVIGATION SERVICES ........... 179
VIII. CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................................................... 186
      A.     GOVERNMENT OWNERSHIP AND CONTROL ......                                                 .......................................... 186
      B.     QUALIFICATIONS AND APPOINTMENT PROCESS                                                  .......................................... 189
      C.     ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY REQUIREMENTS ............................. 192
      D.     RESTRICTIONS ON REVENUE SOURCES .................                                       .......................................... 195
      E.     ACCESS TO CAPITAL MARKETS................................                               .......................................... 196
      F.     SAFETY AND ECONOMIC REGULATION AUTHORITIES ..................................... 198
      G.     PRICE AND SERVICE CONTROLS ..............................                               .......................................... 201
      H.     APPEAL PROCESSES .....................................................                  .......................................... 203
      I.     LIABILITY .........................................................................     .......................................... 204
VIII.  APPENDIX ........................................................................................................................... 205
      A.     FEDERATION OF TOUR OPERATORS v. HER MAJESTY'S TREASURY ................ 205
      B.     CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ANNEXES RELEVANT TO
             AIR NAVIGATION .........................................................                .......................................... 209
                       1.         ANNEX 2: RULES OF THE AIR ................                   209
                       2.         ANNEX 3: METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE FOR INTERNATIONAL AIR
                                  NAVIGATION..............................................     210
                       3.         ANNEX 4: AERONAUTICAL CHARTS ....                            212
                       4.         ANNEX 5: UNITS OF MEASUREMENT TO BE USED IN AIR AND
                                  GROUND OPERATIONS ............................               214
                       5.         ANNEX 6: OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT (PARTS I, II AND III)         215
                       6.         ANNEX 10: AERONAUTICAL TELECOMMUNICATIONS (VOLUMES
                                  I, II, III, IV AND V) ...................................... 218
                       7.         ANNEX 11: AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES ......                        219
                       8.         ANNEX 15: AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION SERVICES                  222


October 7
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Institute of Air and Space Law                                                                                                   Course Outline
McGill University                                                                                                                     Fall 2010


CHAPTER VI - SECURITY
I.    INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 226
II.   MULTILATERAL CONVENTIONS, RESOLUTIONS AND DECLARATIONS ................... 233
      A.     INTRODUCTION ............................................................                 .......................................... 233
      B.     THE CHICAGO CONVENTION OF 1944 ...................                                        .......................................... 236
      C.     THE TOKYO CONVENTION OF 1963 ........................................................................... 237
      D.     THE HAGUE CONVENTION OF 1970 .......................................................................... 241
      E.     THE MONTREAL CONVENTION OF 1971 .................................................................. 243
      F.     ANNEX 17 TO THE CHICAGO CONVENTION (1974) .............................................. 248
      G.     THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION OF 1977 .................................................................. 253
      H.     THE BONN DECLARATION OF 1978 ........................................................................... 255
      I.     THE MONTREAL PROTOCOL OF 1988 ........................................................................ 259
      J.     THE MONTREAL CONVENTION OF 1991 .................................................................. 259
      K.     UNITED NATIONS RESOLUTIONS & CONVENTIONS ........................................... 260
      L.     ICAO RESOLUTIONS & AMENDMENTS TO ANNEX 17 ......................................... 261
III.  RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF STATES UNDER THE AVIATION SECURITY
       CONVENTIONS .................................................................................................................. 264
      A.     PROHIBITED ACTS .......................................................................................................... 264
      B.     RIGHTS OF STATES.......................................................................................................... 266
      C.     DUTIES OF STATES .......................................................................................................... 267
IV.   DOMESTIC RESPONSES TO AERIAL TERRORISM: UNITED STATES LEGISLATION .... 271
      A.     INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 271
      B.     UNITED STATES LAW—OVERVIEW ........................................................................... 273
      C.     THE ANTIHIJACKING ACT OF 1974 ............................................................................ 277
      D.     THE AIR TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ACT OF 1974 ........................................... 278
      E.     THE AIRCRAFT SABOTAGE ACT OF 1984 .................................................................. 280
      F.     THE INTERNATIONAL SECURITY AND DEVELOPMENT COOPERATION
             ACT OF 1985 ....................................................................................................................... 281
      G.     THE FOREIGN AIRPORT SECURITY ACT OF 1985 ................................................... 283
      H.     THE AVIATION SECURITY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 1990 .................................... 285
      I.     THE FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION REAUTHORIZATION ACT
              OF 1996 .............................................................................    .......................................... 286
      J.     THE OMNIBUS CONSOLIDATED APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 1997 .................... 289
      K.     THE AIRPORT SECURITY IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2000 ....................................... 289
      L.     THE AVIATION AND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ACT OF 2001 ................... 290
      M.     THE HOMELAND SECURITY ACT OF 2002 ..............                                          .......................................... 295
      N.     AN OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. SECURITY REGIME BEFORE AND AFTER
             SEPTEMBER 11, 2001 ......................................................                 .......................................... 297
V.    PRIVACY ............................................................................................................................... 301
VI.   THE PROSPECTUS FOR LAW AS A DETERRENT TO AERIAL TERRORISM ................... 309
VII.  CONCLUSION ...................................................................................................................... 313
VIII. APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................ 316
      A.     EID v. ALASKA AIRLINES ................................................................................................ 316
      B.     UNITED STATES v. DAVIS .............................................................................................. 317
      C.     UNITED STATES v. YOUSEF ........................................................................................... 321
      D.     THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION: ANNEX 17 ....... 325
                       ANNEX 17: SECURITY - SAFEGUARDING INTERNATIONAL CIVIL
                            AVIATION AGAINST ACTS OF UNLAWFUL INTERFERENCE                                                                     325

October 14
CHAPTER VII – AIRPORTS: Class project Allocation of slots at Heath Row Airport
I.     AIRPORT PLANNING.......................................................................................................... 330
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Institute of Air and Space Law                                                                                                       Course Outline
McGill University                                                                                                                         Fall 2010


            A.   THE PLANNING PROCESS ............................................................................................ 330
            B.   PUBLIC INPUT & ACCEPTANCE .................................................................................. 332
            C.   THE PLANNING ORGANIZATION.............................................................................. 333
            D.   NEEDS ASSESSMENT & DEMAND FORECASTING ................................................. 334
            E.   FACILITIES ASSESSMENT .............................................................................................. 338
            F.   ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT ............................................................................... 339
            G.   FACILITIES DESIGN......................................................................................................... 340
            H.   FINANCIAL PLANNING ................................................................................................ 341
            I.   ALTERNATIVE PLANNING METHODOLOGIES ...................................................... 342
            J.   THE AIRPORT MASTER PLAN ...................................................................................... 343
            K.   THE BUSINESS PLAN ...................................................................................................... 346
            L.   AIRPORT CERTIFICATION ............................................................................................ 350
            M.   ALTERNATIVES TO AIRPORT EXPANSION .............................................................. 350
            N.   PLANNING: SUMMARY ................................................................................................. 351
II.         INTRODUCTION TO AIRPORT FINANCE ......................................................................... 353
            A.   GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF AIRPORT FINANCE                                                                                      353
            B.   SOURCES OF CAPITAL                                                                                                         354
            C.   FUNDING FOR AIRPORT INFRASTRUCTURE                                                                                         356
                        1.          CASH FLOW                                                                                                      356
                        2.          COMMERCIAL DEBT (BONDS)                                                                                        358
            D.          PRIVATIZATION                                                                                                              361
            E.          OPERATING COSTS & REVENUE                                                                                                  366
                        1.          ICAO REGULATION OF AIRPORT CHARGES                                                                             366
                        2.          FINANCE METHODOLOGIES                                                                                          368
            F.    AIRPORT ACCOUNTING & CONTROL PRACTICES                                                                                              370
            G.    FINANCE: SUMMARY                                                                                                                    371
III.        AIRPORT DESIGN ................................................................................................................ 372
            A.    TERMINAL & AIR FIELD CONFIGURATION: A MULTI-GENERATIONAL
                  ANALYSIS ........................................................................        .......................................... 373
            B.    AIR FIELD DESIGN ........................................................                .......................................... 376
            C.    RUNWAYS, TAXIWAYS & APRONS ............................................................................ 379
            D.    AIRPORT TOWER & CONTROL CENTER ................................................................... 385
            E.    SAFETY INFRASTRUCTURE .......................................................................................... 386
            F.    AIRCRAFT FUEL FACILITIES ........................................................................................ 386
            G.    CARGO & MAIL FACILITIES ......................................................................................... 386
IV.         APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................ 387
            A.    DADE COUNTY v. AEROLINEAS PERUANASA ......................................................... 387
            B.    AERLINTE EIREANN TEORANTA v. CANADA ........................................................... 390
            C.    THE CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ANNEXES
                  RELEVANT TO AIRPORTS ............................................................................................. 392
                        1.          ANNEX 9: FACILITATION ...................................................................... 392
                        2.          ANNEX 14: AERODROMES (VOLUMES I AND II)                                                      394


October 19
CHAPTER VIII - THE ENVIRONMENT
I.     INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 399
II.    ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF TRANS-PORTATION .................................................. 401
       A.    SURFACE CONTAMINANTS ......................................................................................... 404
       B.    SURFACE LEVEL EMISSIONS ........................................................................................ 404
       C.    NOISE .................................................................................................................................. 406
       D.    THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT .......................................................................................... 409
       E.    DEPLETION OF THE OZONE LAYER .......................................................................... 412
                                                                                                                                             Page 7 of 12
Institute of Air and Space Law                                                                                                        Course Outline
McGill University                                                                                                                          Fall 2010


           F.      PROJECTED GROWTH OF AIR TRANSPORT & ITS EMISSIONS ........................... 413
III.       NOISE .................................................................................................................................... 415
           A.      ICAO REGULATION OF NOISE .................................................................................... 416
           B.      PHASE-OUT ....................................................................................................................... 422
           C.      HUSHKIT ............................................................................................................................ 425
           D.      THE BALANCED APPROACH TO NOISE ................................................................... 426
                       1.     LAND USE PLANNING ............................................................................ 428
                       2. OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES ....................................................................... 429
                       3.     OPERATION RESTRICTIONS ................................................................. 430
           E.          THE BALANCED APPROACH IN ACTION                                                                                               431
           F.          AIRPORT SITING .............................................................................................................. 431
                       1.           LAND ............................................................                                                433
                       2.           LOCATION ..................................................                                                      436
           G.          EXAMPLES OF BALANCED AIRPORT POLICIES ..................................................... 442
                       1.           JAPAN AIRPORTS ......................................                                                            442
                       2.           GERMAN AIRPORTS .................................                                                                443
           H.    TRADE OFFS ...................................................................................................................... 443
IV.        EMISSIONS ........................................................................................................................... 444
           A.    THE INTERNATIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS ........ 445
                       1.           STOCKHOLM DECLARATION ............................................................... 445
                       2.           GENEVA CONVENTION ......................................................................... 447
                       3.           VIENNA CONVENTION .......................................................................... 447
                       4.           RIO CONFERENCE ................................................................................... 448
                       5.           KYOTO PROTOCOL ................................................................................. 450
           B.          ICAO REGULATION OF AVIATION EMISSIONS ...................................................... 451
           C.          MARKET BASED MEASURES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS .................................. 458
                       1.           INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 458
                       2.           DOMESTIC TRANSPORTATION ............................................................ 459
                       3.           FORMS OF MARKET BASED MEASURES ........................................... 460
                       4.           ICAO POLICY ON MARKET BASED MEASURES                                                                 480
V.         RECONCEPTUALIZATION OF UNDERLYING CONTRIBUTORY CAUSES OF AVIATION
           POLLUTION ......................................................................................................................... 493
           A.   RATIONAL PRICING ....................................................................................................... 494
           B.   TRADE POLICY ................................................................................................................. 497
           C.   TRANSPORT POLICY ...................................................................................................... 499
VI.        CONCLUSION: SUSTAINABILITY AS THE NEW PARADIGM ......................................... 502
VII.       APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................ 508
           A.   NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF CLEAN AIR AGENCIES v. ENVIRONMENTAL
                PROTECTION AGENCY ................................................................................................... 508
           B.   QUEEN v. OMEGA AIR .................................................................................................... 510
           C.   CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ANNEX 16:
                ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION (VOLUMES I AND II) ....................................... 515

October 26: VISITOR Dr Tissa Aberyatne, ICAO Secretariat Legal Bureau

October 28 NO CLASS : CCIL CONFERENCE IN OTTAWA

November 2

CHAPTER IX - THE EVOLUTION OF AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENTS
I.   INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 517
II.  BERMUDA I .......................................................................................................................... 522

                                                                                                                                              Page 8 of 12
Institute of Air and Space Law                                                                                                            Course Outline
McGill University                                                                                                                              Fall 2010


III.       THE BENELUX BILATERALS: THE FIRST GENERATION "OPEN SKIES"
            AGREEMENTS ..................................................................................................................... 528
IV.        DOT "CITIES PROGRAM" .................................................................................................... 541
V.         THE SECOND GENERATION "OPEN SKIES" BILATERALS .............................................. 543
VI.        ANTITRUST IMMUNITY ..................................................................................................... 546
VII.       THE 1995 U.S. INTERNATIONAL AVIATION POLICY ...................................................... 548
VIII.      THE 2001 APEC MULTILATERAL AGREEMENT ON THE LIBERALIZATION OF AIR
           TRANSPORTATION [MALIAT] ........................................................................................... 552
IX.        THE YAMOUSSOUKRO DECISION .................................................................................... 558
X.         ICAO'S FIFTH WORLDWIDE AIR TRANSPORT CONFERENCE ...................................... 559
XI.        THE EUROPEAN UNION: BEYOND "OPEN SKIES" .......................................................... 565
           A.     THE COMMISSION STRUGGLES WITH THE COUNCIL AND MEMBER
                  GOVERNMENTS ON THE ISSUE OF BILATERALS . 566
           B.     THE PROPOSED COMMON TRANSATLANTIC AVIATION AREA ...................... 570
           C.     THE ECJ 'OPEN SKIES' DECISION .............................. 573
XII.       SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ...................................................................................... 578


CHAPTER X - MAJOR PROVISIONS IN AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENTS
I.    INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 583
II.   ENTRY (CARRIER AND ROUTE DESIGNATION) ............................................................. 584
III.  NATIONALITY REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................................... 592
      A.     NATIONALITY OF AIRCRAFT ....................................                              .......................................... 592
      B.     NATIONALITY OF AIRLINES ......................................                            .......................................... 593
      C.     FOREIGN OWNERSHIP RESTRICTIONS IN U.S. LAW .......................................... 598
IV.   CABOTAGE .......................................................................................................................... 608
      A.     THE CHICAGO CONVENTION ...................................                                .......................................... 608
      B.     CABOTAGE RESTRICTIONS IN U.S. LAW ................                                        .......................................... 612
V.    PRICING ............................................................................................................................... 615
VI.   CAPACITY/FREQUENCY ................................................................................................... 625
VII.  DISCRIMINATION AND FAIR COMPETITION ................................................................. 634
VIII. DISPUTE RESOLUTION ....................................................................................................... 646
IX.   SECURITY ............................................................................................................................. 650
X.    CARGO ................................................................................................................................. 652
XI.   SEVENTH FREEDOM ........................................................................................................... 655
XII.  THE PROSPECTUS FOR BILATERAL AND MULTILATERAL AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENTS
           ............................................................................................................................................... 656
XIII.      SUMMARY & CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................ 657
XIV.       APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................ 660
           A.          DHL AIRWAYS, INC. (ASTAR) ......................................                           .......................................... 660

November 16: VISITOR, Mr Peter Bombay, EU Representative to ICAO

November 23
CHAPTER XI - DISPUTE RESOLUTION
I.   INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 666
II.  ARBITRATION OF INTERNATIONAL AVIATION DISPUTES .......................................... 669
     A.      BILATERAL AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENTS .......................................................... 669
     B.      UNITED STATES v. FRANCE (1963) ............................................................................... 676
     C.      UNITED STATES v. ITALY (1965) ................................................................................... 678
     D.      UNITED STATES v. FRANCE (1978) ............................................................................... 680
                                                                                                                                                   Page 9 of 12
Institute of Air and Space Law                                                                                                       Course Outline
McGill University                                                                                                                         Fall 2010


            E.    BELGIUM v. IRELAND (1981) .......................................................................................... 687
            F.    UNITED STATES v. UNITED KINGDOM (1992) .......................................................... 690
            G.    AUSTRALIA v. UNITED STATES (1993) ........................................................................ 696
III.        ADJUDICATIONS BEFORE THE ICAO COUNCIL ............................................................. 700
            A.    THE CHICAGO CONVENTION .................................................................................... 700
            B.    INDIA v. PAKISTAN (1952) .............................................................................................. 703
            C.    UNITED KINGDOM v. SPAIN (1969).............................................................................. 704
            D.    PAKISTAN v. INDIA (1971) .............................................................................................. 705
            E.    CUBA v. UNITED STATES (1998) .................................................................................... 709
            F.    THE UNITED STATES v. THE EUROPEAN UNION (2000) ........................................ 711
IV.         THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE ..................................................................... 719
            A.    THE COLD WAR CASES ................................................................................................. 720
            B.    LIBYA v. UNITED STATES (1992) ................................................................................... 721
            C.    IRAN v. UNITED STATES (1996) ..................................................................................... 724
            D.    PAKISTAN v. INDIA (2000) .............................................................................................. 726
V.          CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................................................... 727
            A.    POLITICAL MEANS OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION ....                                               .......................................... 727
            B.    LEGAL MEANS OF DISPUTE RESOLUTION ............                                           .......................................... 729
VI.         APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................ 737
            A.    SUMMARY OF THE JUDGMENT OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
                  OF 18 AUGUST 1972: CASE CONCERNING THE APPEAL RELATING TO THE
                  JURISDICTION OF THE ICAO COUNCIL ..................                                      .......................................... 737

November 25: VISITOR Dr Ludwig WEBER, Former Legal Advisor, ICAO

December 2 REVIEW CLASS

To be coverd if time allows:
CHAPTER XII - THE INTERSECTION OF AIR LAW & SPACE LAW
I.      INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 741
II.     THE SPACE LAW CONVENTIONS ..................................................................................... 743
III.    THE SPATIALIST APPROACH: PRECISELY, WHERE IS IT? .............................................. 746
        A.       TERRITORIAL AIRSPACE ............................................................................................... 747
        B.       AIRSPACE ABOVE THE HIGH SEAS ............................................................................ 749
        C.       OUTER SPACE ................................................................................................................... 749
        D.       PROBLEMS WITH THE SPATIALIST APPROACH .................................................... 750
IV.     THE FUNCTIONALIST APPROACH: PRECISELY, WHAT IS IT? ...................................... 751
        A.       AIRCRAFT .......................................................................................................................... 752
        B.       SPACE OBJECT .................................................................................................................. 754
        C.       AEROSPACE VEHICLE .................................................................................................... 755
        D.       PROBLEMS WITH THE FUNCTIONALIST APPROACH .......................................... 755
V.      WHICH SUBSTANTIVE RULES OF LAW APPLY? ............................................................. 756
        A.       REGISTRATION, SAFETY AND NAVIGATION ....... 756
        B.       SECURITY .........................................................................       .......................................... 757
        C.       LIABILITY .........................................................................      .......................................... 757
VI.     THE NEED FOR A UNIFIED LEGAL REGIME .................................................................... 760

APPENDICES ..................................................................................................................................... 765

       A. CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION
          SIGNED AT CHICAGO, ON 7 DECEMBER 1944 [CHICAGO CONVENTION]                                                                               765


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Institute of Air and Space Law                                                                                                       Course Outline
McGill University                                                                                                                         Fall 2010


      B. CONVENTION ON OFFENCES AND CERTAIN OTHER ACTS COMMITTED ON
         BOARD AIRCRAFT SIGNED AT TOKYO, ON 14 SEPTEMBER 1963
          [TOKYO CONVENTION]                                                 793
      C. CONVENTION FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF UNLAWFUL SEIZURE OF AIRCRAFT
         SIGNED AT THE HAGUE, ON 16 DECEMBER 1970 [HAGUE CONVENTION]         801
      D. CONVENTION FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF UNLAWFUL ACTS AGAINST THE
         SAFETY OF CIVIL AVIATION SIGNED AT MONTREAL, ON 23 SEPTEMBER 1971
         [MONTREAL CONVENTION 1971]                                          807
      E. PROTOCOL FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF UNLAWFUL ACTS OF VIOLENCE AT
         AIRPORTS SERVING INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION, SUPPLEMENTARY
         TO THE CONVENTION FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF UNLAWFUL ACTS AGAINST
         THE SAFETY OF CIVIL AVIATION, DONE AT MONTREAL ON 23 SEPTEMBER 1971
         SIGNED AT MONTREAL, ON 24 FEBRUARY 1988 [MONTREAL PROTOCOL 1988]    813
      F. CONVENTION ON THE MARKING OF PLASTIC EXPLOSIVES FOR THE PURPOSE OF
         DETECTION SIGNED AT MONTREAL, ON 1 MARCH 1991[MONTREAL
          CONVENTION 1991]                                                   817
      G. INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSIT AGREEMENT
         SIGNED AT CHICAGO, ON 7 DECEMBER 1944 [TRANSIT AGREEMENT]           825
      H. INTERNATIONAL AIR SERVICES TRANSPORT AGREEMENT
         SIGNED AT CHICAGO, ON 7 DECEMBER 1944 [TRANSPORT AGREEMENT]         829
      I. STANDARD FORM BILATERAL AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENT
         ADOPTED AS PART OF THE FINAL ACT OF THE CHICAGO CONFERENCE ON
         INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION, 7 DECEMBER 1944
          [STANDARD FORM BILATERAL]                                          835
      J. STANDARD FORM BILATERAL AIR TRANSPORT AGREEMENT
         ADOPTED AS PART OF THE FINAL ACT OF THE CHICAGO CONFERENCE ON
         INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION, 7 DECEMBER 1944
          [STANDARD FORM BILATERAL]                                          839
      K. US CURRENT MODEL OPEN SKIES AGREEMENT
         RELEASED BY THE BUREAU OF ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS AFFAIRS OF THE US
         DEPARTMENT OF STATE, UPDATED 13 APRIL 2004
         [MODEL OPEN SKIES AGREEMENT]                                        847

INDEX ............................................................................................................................................... 861

TEXT:
Dempsey, P., Public International Air Law, McGill 2008
SUPPLEMENTARY BIBLIOGRAPHY:
Annals of Air and Space Law, particularly vol. XXX No. 1 (2005)
Banner, S., Who Owns the Sky? 2008
Birnie, P. & Boyle, A., International Law and the Environment, 1993
Brownlie, I., Principles of Public International Law, 7th ed., 2008
Buergenthal, T., Law-making in the International Civil Aviation Organization, 1969
Cartou, L., Droit aérien, 1963
Cheng, B., Law of International Air Transport, 1977
Cooper, J.C., Explorations in Aerospace Law, (I.A. Vlasic, ed.), 1968
--- The Right to Fly, 1947.
de Coninck, F., European Air Law: New Skies for Europe, 1993
Dempsey, P.S., Hardaway, R. & Thoms, W., Aviation Law & Regulation (two volumes),
1993
Dempsey, P.S., Law and Foreign Policy in International Aviation, 1987

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Institute of Air and Space Law                                                            Course Outline
McGill University                                                                              Fall 2010



Dempsey, P., Janda, R., Nyampong, Y., Saba, J. & Wilson, J. ―Governance of
Commercialized Air Navigation Services‖, XXXI Annals of Air & Space Law 213-347
(2006)
Dempsey, P., “Compliance & Enforcement in International Law: Achieving Global
Uniformity in Aviation Safety”, 30 North Carolina Journal of International Law and
Commercial Regulation 1-74 (2004)
Dempsey, P. "The Role of the International Civil Aviation Organization on Deregulation,
Discrimination & Dispute Resolution" 52 JOURNAL OF AIR LAW & COMMERCE 529-83
(1987)
Dempsey, P., ―Flights of Fancy and Fights of Fury: Arbitration and Adjudication of
Commercial and Political Disputes in International Aviation‖, 32 Georgia Journal of
International & Comparative Law 231-305 (2004)
Dempsey, P., ―Aviation Security: The Role of Law in the War against Terrorism‖, 41
Columbia Journal of Transnational Law 649-733 (2003)
Diederiks-Verschoor, I., An Introduction to Air Law, 3rd rev. ed., 1988
Folliot, M.G., Les relations aériennes internationales, 1985
Gesell, L. & Dempsey, P., Aviation and the Law, Coast Aire 2005, ch. 20
Giemulla, E. & Schmid, R., European Air Law (Loose-leaf), 1992
Heere, W.P., International Bibliography in Air Law 1900-1971, 1972
Honig, J.P., The Legal Status of Aircraft, 1956
Juglart, M., Traité de Droit aérien, 2nd ed., 1989, v. I, 1992, v. II (by E. du Pontavice, J.
Dutheil de la Rochère & G. Miller)
Loewenstein, A., European Air Law: Towards a New System of International Air Transport
Regulation, 1991
Matte, N.M., Treatise on Air-Aeronautical Law, 1981
McGill Centre for Research in Air and Space Law, Legal, Economic and Socio-Political
Implications of Canadian Air Transport, 1980
McWhinney, E., Aerial Piracy and International Terrorism, 1987
Mendes de Leon, P., Air Transport Law and Policy in the 1990s, 1991;
-----Cabotage in Air Transport Regulation, 1992.
Milde, M., International Air Law and ICAO, 2008
Naveau, J., International Air Transport in a Changing World, 1989
Park, Ki-Gab, La Protection de la Souveraineté aérienne, 1991
Peng, M.-M., Le statut juridique d'aéronef militaire, 1957
Pharand, D., Canada's Arctic Waters in International Law, 1988
Shawcross, C.N. & Beaumont, K.M., Air Law, 4th ed., 1985
Sochor, E., The Politics of International Aviation, 1991
Starke, J.G., Introduction to International Law, 11th ed., 1994
Zylicz, M., International Air Transport Law, 1992

         Additional reading material will be recommended during the lectures on specific subjects.




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