Parley Market Research

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Parley Market Research Powered By Docstoc
					         John Ogonowski
            Latin America
Farmer-to-Farmer Program
USAID                                                                            FIU
                                 The following report is on the commodities: carrots, broccoli,
Executive Summary                cauliflower, and beets. The basis for this report is to give
                                 information that will help determine the potential marketable
                                 opportunity of importation of these commodities into the United
                                 States. This report will also help determine if there is an
                                 excess in demand outside of the current distribution of these
                                 commodities in the United States.

                                         Throughout the report there will be statistical data,
                                 market characteristics, market access information, and prices
                                 on each commodity. There is also information including the
                                 distribution channels, commercial practices, sales promotion,
                                 market perspectives, list of potential importers, and upcoming
                                 commercial events. At the end of the report there are
                                 recommendations to help determine what steps and actions
                                 should be taken for the implementation of the different
                                 commodities.



                                 Nerina Valladares
                                 Daniel Barrio
                                 Hector Garcia
                                 Matthew Fuccile




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Table of Contents                                                                     Market Access......................................... 37

Introduction ........................................................ 3               Prices ...................................................... 39

Product Description: Carrots ............................. 6                  Product Description: Beets............................... 41

        Statistical Data .......................................... 7                 Statistical Data ........................................ 42

        Market Characteristics ............................ 10                        Market Characteristics ............................ 44

        Market Access ........................................ 14                     Market Access......................................... 48

        Prices...................................................... 16               Prices ...................................................... 50

Product Description: Broccoli ......................... 18                    Distribution Channels ....................................... 51

        Statistical Data ........................................ 19          Commercial Practices ...................................... 56

        Market Characteristics ............................ 22                Sales Promotion ............................................... 60

        Market Access ........................................ 26             Market Perspectives......................................... 61

        Prices...................................................... 28       Importers Lists & Distribution Networks............ 64

Product Description: Cauliflower .................... 30                      Upcoming Commercial Events ......................... 65

        Statistical Data ........................................ 31          Conclusions and Recommendations ................ 68

        Market Characteristics ............................ 34                References ....................................................... 69

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Introduction


Introduction                Program Rationale
                            The John Ogonowski Farmer-to-Farmer Program, funded by
                            the United States Agency for International Development,
                            provides voluntary technical assistance to farmers, farm
                            groups, and agribusinesses in developing and transitional
                            countries to promote sustainable improvements in food
                            processing, production, and marketing. The program relies on
                            the expertise of volunteers from U.S. farms, land grant
                            universities, cooperatives, private agribusinesses, and
                            nonprofit farm organizations to respond to the local needs of
                            host-country farmers and organizations.

                            To date, approximately one million farmer families
                            (representing about five million people) have been direct
                            beneficiaries of the FTF Program. Volunteers have provided
                            direct hands-on training to over 80,000 people.
                            Winrock International and Florida International University’s
                            College of Business Administration have combined their
                            resources and knowledge to implement the John Ogonowski
                            Farmer-to-Farmer Program in Latin America, from 2003-2008.

                            The MAR 4613 course was created to add value to the
                            Farmer-to-Farmer Program and prevent scarce volunteer
                            resources from being diverted to requests for assistance,
                            which are best, completed in the United States. The resulting
                            freed up resources allow the program to fulfill requests with
                            volunteers where an in country expert is a necessity. Of added
                            value, hosts receive this additional US-based volunteer service
                            at no cost to the FTF program.



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Introduction

Research Objectives                                                    Research Method
The objective of this research is to analyze the US market             Given that the research objectives include getting background
potential of a variety of commodities. Our goal is to provide          information of the potential market of the commodities included
information on a variety of commodities, which can then be             in the report, the research was conducted using an explorative
applied by our in-country partners to their business strategies.       design. Two main methods were employed: secondary data
The primary beneficiaries of these reports are small and               research and personal interviews. In some instances focus
medium-sized farming cooperative groups which do not have              groups with consumers were conducted.
the capability nor the resources to conduct these studies on
their own.                                                             The secondary research was conducted by searching and
                                                                       interpreting existing information relevant from governmental
It is of critical importance that while drawing conclusions to         and private electronic sources. When specific information
satisfy the research objective, a thorough analysis is carried         about a commodity was not found secondary research was
out. In order to do so, some of the questions which must be            guided by similar commodities relevant to the information
analyzed are:                                                          needed.
     1. What is the demand of the product in question?
     2. Who are the buyers and consumers of the product?               In order to complement the secondary research, personal
     3. What are the quality standards and packaging                   interviews with experts were conducted. The interviewees
        requirements?                                                  were either academic or commercial experts in the production
     4. What is the distribution system for the product?               and commercialization of the commodities in question. In
     5. Who are the competitors?                                       some cases, the researchers felt the need to complement this
     6. What government regulations apply to the import of this        information direct input from the consumers; in those cases
        product?                                                       focus groups session were conducted.

If it is a new product for the market, additional questions must       The sources of the information are cited through out the
be asked:                                                              content of the report. Contact information of the experts is
      1. Who are the potential buyers of this product?                 provided. At the end of the report conclusions and
      2. What are the potential distribution channels?                 recommendations for future action are suggested.
      3. What are the additional important issues which must be
          investigated before attempting to export the product?
      4. Are there any regulations which might inhibit this
          product from being sold in the US market?

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Carrots




                                Carrots


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Carrots


Product Description                Very often seen as an orange root with green leaves and a
                                   rough texture, the carrot is a root vegetable. Usually grown in
                                   spring and summer. Carrots can grow best in deep and rich
                                   soils that contain muck or sand
                                   Scientific Classification: Carrots belong to the parley family.
                                   Apiaceae or Umberlliferae. They are Diacus Carota1



                                   NUTRITIONAL FACTS2               Calories 35
                                   Protein .86 grams                Carbohydrates 8.19 grams
                                   Dietary Fiber 2 grams            Calcium 24.18 mg
                                   Iron .47 mg                      Phosphorus 23.4
                                   Vitamin A 19,152 IU              Vitamin C 1.79




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Carrots


Statistical Data                U.S. Production Data
                                The US produced 26.8 million CWT for fresh consumption and
                                9.4 million CWT for processing in 2004; and a total of 36.2 cwt
                                produced in 2004. The production value is $577 Million
                                according to NASS and is sold for an average of $18.76 per
                                CWT California harvest 75% of the US production, while
                                Michigan and Wisconsin have 5% each of the production. For
                                processing, Washington has 47%, California 32%, and
                                Wisconsin 20%3




                                There has been an steady grown in the US production of Fresh Carrots




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Carrots


Apparent Consumption                                                        Statistics of Foreign Trade
                                                                            Total imports for the US is $43.6 million, from which 60%
Current demand in the US is an average of11.9 Pounds per                    came from Canada then Mexico with 15%. The US is a net
person. 70% is for fresh consumption mostly used in                         exporter of Carrots, with 10.5% of the internal production being
combination of other vegetables to soups and salads                         exported which is $94.4 million in exports, and the US is one
                                                                            of the world’s largest exporters of carrots together with the
                                                                            Netherlands and Mexico.




 The increase of consumption of Fresh Carrots has grown in par with the       The significant growth in US exports of Carrots have made the US a net exporter.
                            US production
                                                                            Only 7% of the US consumption of carrots was satisfied by
                                                                            imports. This is an increase from the 1990’s, but stiff is a small
                                                                            piece of the overall puzzle in the US. In 2004, 2,975 million
                                                                            pounds of carrots was produced in the United States. As
                                                                            compared only 197.2 million pounds of carrots was imported


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Carrots

into the US. Mexico and Canada are the largest importers of
carrots in the US.
                                                                                          Origin of Importe d Carrots

 Origin of Importations
                                                                                 Others
                                                                                  25%
                                                                                                                                     Canada
More than half of all imported Carrots came from Canada in
2004. Twenty five million of U.S. imported carrots were from                                                                         Mexico
Canada in 2004, Mexico accounted for 15 percent ($6.6
million). According to Canada Statistics, most of the carrots                                                                        Others
                                                                                                                        Canada
imported from Canada went to northeastern US. The U.S.                                                                   60%
                                                                              Mexico
imports of carrots accounted for 8.2 percent of US                             15%
consumption and imports of frozen carrots accounted for 6
percent of domestic consumption of processed carrots
(frozen or canned) according to ERS 2005.4


                                                                                            Import Data from ERS 2004




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Carrots


Market Characteristics           Consumer Preferences
                                         Carrots are eaten uncooked, chopped, whole, or
                                 shredded into salads for color. They often cooked in soups.
                                 The greens are safe to eat, but are rarely eaten. The most
                                 popular types of carrots eaten are the baby/mini carrots which
                                 are considered to be a great snack, especially for children. 6
                                 Also, the body loves carrots because it is filled with vitamin A,
                                 fiber, and potassium that helps the cells keep the body
                                 healthy. Vitamin A reduces the risk of some cancers and
                                 diseases associated with aging. Moreover, these nutrients also
                                 help eyes adapt to see in the dark.

                                 People prefer to use carrots for:
                                    • Juice- a healthy drink that is high in beta-carotene and
                                        loaded in minerals and vitamins
                                    • Baking- as an ingredient to bake carrot cakes or
                                        muffins
                                    • Prevent breast cancer- eating more carrots instead of
                                        beef controls the damage to DNA, which manages all
                                        your cells
                                    • Long, slender carrots are desired for fresh market.
                                        Blunt-tipped Nantes varieties are preferred for sliced,
                                        processed products




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Carrots


Quality Standards
The reason for the standards is to describe the quality                Storage
requirements for carrots.
                                                                                      •      Carrots can be kept in the refrigerator in a
Carrots standards mainly consist of color, shape, and length.
                                                                                             plastic bag for up to 10 days. It is advisable
                                                                                             to remove green tops before storing as they
Color
                                                                                             will diminish the carrots shelf life. 9
            •   Usually orange or white with a woody texture. 6
                                                                                      •      Cool (32°F), moist (95% RH)
            •   The deeper the orange, the stronger the beta-                                2-4 weeks- immature carrots; four to five
                carotene.                                                                    months- mature carrots 8
Sizing
         a) Early carrots and small roots must not be less than
            10mm or 8 grams, but no more than 40mm or 150
            grams.
         b) Main crop carrots and large roots must not be less
            than 20mm or 50 grams, but no more than 45mm
            or 200 grams


Presentation
      a) Bunched carrots- must be presented with their
          roots, packaging must be consistent in weight, and
          set evenly in one or more layers11
      b) Topped carrots- must be presented in small
          packages, foliage must be cut off at the top without
          damaging the root, and arranged evenly in several
          layers 11




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Carrots

 Market Segments                                                     Acceptable Conditions
The market for carrots are compromised of two segments                    Carrots are evaluated, accepted, or unaccepted
      a) Fresh market carrots which have brilliant                  depending on 11:
          standardized color and a small core. Carrots are             • Texture
          produced in many states, but California, Colorado,           • Cleanliness
          Michigan and Florida are the most important for              • Well Colored
          the fresh market.
      b) Processed market carrots which are bigger but still        Packaging
          have uniform color, flavor, and sweetness                        Carrots must be packed to protect the produce
                                                                    appropriately. The materials used to package are to be new,
                                                                    clean, and free from all foreign matter to avoid any internal or
                                                                    external damages to the vegetable. 11

                                                                    After packaging and preparation, carrots must be 11:
                                                                        • Clean and free from any impurities
                                                                        • Washed and free from pests
                                                                        • Fresh appearance
                                                                        • Free from any major defects
                                                                        • Green or purple tops are not allowed

                                                                    Temperature
                                                                            Carrots must be stored at 33 F and at a high humidity
                                                                    to prevent flaccidness. Bunched carrots may be stored for
                                                                    about 10 to 14 days and carrots without tops can be stored for
                                                                    four to six months.




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Carrots

Competition                                                            Demand Trends
       Nowadays, people want to eat healthier therefore they           Availability- Year- round (preferably warm- spring /summer
prefer organic carrots versus processed ones because they              season, mid July-April) 51
are higher in nutrients. For example, vitamin A’s competition
would be liver and sweet potatoes. Liver is high on cholesterol;       Consumer Consumption
sweet potatoes have to be cooked, so carrots are preferred               • The overall consumption of carrots has increased due
because they can be eaten raw.                                              to the baby peeled carrots as a product.
                                                                         • Carrots are eaten both raw and cooked
                                                                         • Finger-size carrots are preferred because they are
                                                                            tenderer and sweet, distinct from thick, long carrots
                                                                            which are less tasty and have a woody core which may
                                                                            need to be removed.
                                                                       Usage- Carrots may be shredded, chopped, or cooked whole.
                                                                       They are delicious roasted, boiled, steamed, stir-fried, grilled,
                                                                       and they are best accompanied with any vegetable. Carrots
                                                                       enhance the nutritional value of soups, stews, and salads.
                                                                       How and when are they sold?
                                                                              In spring- sold in bunches with the green tops
                                                                              In winter- sold at auction as washed carrots
                                                                       **most carrots are sold without the tops because they draw
                                                                       moisture from the roots, yet people prefer to buy them with the
                                                                       tops because it ensures them their freshness. 7




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Carrots

                             Tariff Measurements
Market Access                United States tariffs for carrots that are not reduced in size
                             range from .7 cents per kilogram to 1.4 cents per kilogram.
                             The United States tariff for carrots that are reduced in size is
                             higher at 14.9%. These rates are for nations that are in normal
                             trade status with the United States. For nations that are not in
                             normal trade status with the United States, the tariff rate is
                             higher at 8.8 cents per kilogram to 17.6 cents per kilogram for
                             carrots that are not reduced in size, and 35% for carrots that
                             are reduced in size. 14

                             Imports
                                      Only 7% of the US consumption of carrots was
                             satisfied by imports. This is an increase from the 1990’s, but
                             stiff is a small piece of the overall puzzle in the US. In 2004,
                             2,975.0 million pounds of carrots was produced in the United
                             States. As compared only 197.2 million pounds of carrots was
                             imported into the US. Mexico and Canada are the largest
                             importers of carrots in the US.13




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Carrots

                                                                         be larger than the required diameter. Only 10% of the tops on
Restrictions                                                             the bunch can fail to meet the requirements for grade, and no
                                                                         more than 5% for decay. Only 25% of the tops can be off-
         There is currently no information available for
                                                                         length in any lot. 12
restrictions on carrots when it comes to market access into the
                                                                                 The second grade for carrots is US Commercial. In
United States. The one restriction that Jim Eckles, CEO and
                                                                         order to be US Commercial grade only 20% of the carrot roots
Consultant of Context Network Consulting, brought up was the
                                                                         for bunches in any lot fail to meet the requirements for grade,
“growing season” of carrots within the United States. The
                                                                         and the roots can only have 5% smaller than the diameter, and
demand at that time would be at its lowest, and the restrictions
                                                                         10% of roots can be larger than the specified diameter. No
in market access would be at its highest at this point.
                                                                         more than 10% of carrot roots can have serious defects. Only
                                                                         10% of the tops of the bunch in any lot can fail to meet the
                                                                         requirements. Only 25% of the tops can be longer than the
                                                                         specified length. 12
Regulations                                                                      The term “unclassified” is given to the carrots that have
                                                                         not been classified with the grades given above. 12
The following information is the United States Standards from
the USDA:
        There are three grades for carrots in the United States.
The first grade is US No. 1. In order to be graded as US No.1
the carrots of similar varietal characteristics the roots of which
are firm, fairly clean, fairly well colored, fairly smooth, well
formed, and which are free from soft rot, and free form
damage caused by freezing, growth cracks, sunburn,
pithiness, woodiness, internal discoloration, oil spray, dry rot,
other disease, insects or mechanical or other means. The
bunch must be fresh and free of decay, and the bunch must
have full tops and the length of the top must not be more than
20”. In order to be referred to as US No.1 the carrots must
have only 10% of the carrot roots in any lot fail to meet the
requirements for the grade, and only 5% of the lot can have
defects with serious defects, Only 5% of the roots can be the
minimal diameter, and only 10% of carrot roots in any lot can



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Carrots

                           The adjusted price of carrots including inflation has fluctuated
                           some since the 1990’s. In 2001 the price of carrots was at
Prices                     $15.3 per cwt. This was higher than it was in 1989 when the
                           price of carrots was $14.7 per cwt. 14

                           The following data for corn is from ACNeilson Homescan Data:


                                               COST TO BUY CARROTS:

                                  FRESH                 CANNED                FROZEN

                               Baby-$1.88/lb         Whole-$1.07/lb           Carrots-
                                                                              $1.16/lb
                               Whole-$.54/lb          Sliced-$.52/lb



                                             COST TO EAT CARROTS*:

                                    FRESH                  CANNED             FROZEN

                                  Baby-$.20                 Whole-$.34      Carrots-$.23

                                   Whole-$.10               Sliced-$.17


                           * Dollar per serving (ACNeilson Homescan Data converted to
                           servings using factors from The Food Guide For Child Nutrition
                           Programs by the USDA/ Food and Nutrition Service) 11




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Broccoli




                           Broccoli

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Broccoli

                                   Generally all green vegetable from the cabbage family, very
Product Description                popular thought the world for its high content in fiber and
                                   vitamins.
                                   Scientific Classification: Broccoli belongs to the mustard
                                   family. Brassicaceae or Cruciferae. Brassica16



                                   NUTRITIONAL FACTS9

                                   Calories 23                       Vitamin C 49 mg

                                   Dietary fiber 2.4 grams           Folic Acid 53.3 nanograms

                                   Protein 2.3 grams                 Calcium 89 mg

                                   Carbohydrates 4.3 mg              Iron 0.9 mg




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Broccoli

                                U.S. Production Data
Statistical Data                   •   The US produced $640 million with 138,000 acres
                                       harvested in 2004. Production has been in a constant
                                       increase since 1979 it has nine-folded.
                                   •   92% of the harvested broccoli in the US comes from
                                       California, then Arizona.




                                   US production of Fresh Broccoli has multiplied itself more than 8x




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Broccoli

Apparent Consumption                                                                      Statistics of Foreign Trade
The increasing demand for FRESH broccoli has pushed                                       Exports of fresh broccoli were $108 million in 2004, almost a
production and imports to focus on the fresh market. Per                                  $40 million increase in the last 20 years not much exports of
capita consumption is the U.S. of fresh broccoli is 4.5lbs. per                           frozen broccoli. The U.S exports of broccoli to Canada
year and 2.1lbs per year for processed or frozen broccoli.                                accounted for 53% of the value of U.S. broccoli exports, then
                                                                                          by Japan at 35% and Taiwan for 9%
                                                                                          Less than 10% of consumed broccoli is imported; the total
                                                                                          value of imported (fresh and processed) broccoli was to
                                                                                          $206.5 million, making the United States a net importer of
                                                                                          broccoli




                                                                        17
       Agricultural Marketing Resource Center, Commodity Profile 2006




                                                                                                                                                                  17
                                                                                                 Agricultural Marketing Resource Center, Commodity Profile 2006




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Broccoli

Imports on broccoli only account for about 7% of the domestic
use in the US. In 2001, 1,850.0 million pounds of broccoli was
produced in the US, only 100.0 million pounds were imported
from other countries



Origin of Importations
The majority of frozen broccoli imports come from Mexico with
83% of imports, Guatemala with 14%, 5% Ecuador, 4%
Canada, and the rest of the world with 3% (China, Peru…)29



                                 Origin of Broccoli imports 2004




                                     Guatemala 14% Others    Canada Ecuador
                                          4%        3%         4%     6%
  Canada
  Ecuador
  Mexico
  Guatemala 14%
  Others
                                                    Mexico
                                                     83%




            Mexico is currently the largest importer of broccoli to the US (2006)




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Broccoli


Market Characteristics           Consumer Preferences
                                      •    People prefer fresh broccoli to frozen.
                                      •    Hybrid broccoli is preferred because it matures more
                                           regularly which means a big fraction of the heads can
                                           be cropped at one time.
                                      •    In the US, broccoli has become the most desired
                                           cruciferous vegetable because it contains vitamin C
                                           and beta-carotene which can reduce the risk of some
                                           cancer or heart disease.22
                                      •    It is also desired because it can be eaten cooked or
                                           raw and it is low in cost.



                                 Quality Standards
                                        The reason for the standards is to describe the quality
                                 requirements for broccoli.
                                 Broccoli standards mainly consist of color, shape, and length.

                                 Color
                                          Bright or Dark Green, but sometimes purple on its
                                 tops. Dark green broccoli when overcooked might cause
                                 nutrient loss.

                                 Sizing
                                          a)   The floral stem must be a minimum of 8mm but no
                                               more than 20mm in its package




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Broccoli

       b)   The head must be a minimum of 6cm, but if it is
            pre-packed or bunched it shall be a minimum of             Market Segments
            2cm. In its package, the head must not exceed
            4cm if the head has a diameter less than 10cm or              Eating five or more servings of vegetables is easy and a
            8cm if the head has a diameter of 10cm or more. 24         smart way to maintain healthy. Broccoli tastes great, is an
                                                                       energy booster, and in general, is: 21
Presentation
      a) Vertically/ Horizontally - it must be tightly packaged,          •   easy to prepare
          but the pressure must not damage the head of the
          broccoli                                                        •   colorful and crunchy
      b) Pre-packed/Bunched- if put together must be about
          the same weight 24                                              •   cholesterol free

                                                                          •   low in fat
Storage
• Broccoli must be kept very cold about 32° F, moist                      •   low in Calories
   conditions for about 10 to 14 days with a 95% relative
   humidity.18                                                            •   full of vitamins, minerals, and fiber
• Store unwashed broccoli in plastic bags in the refrigerator.
   Broccoli left unrefrigerated quickly becomes tough and
   woody. It can be stored fresh in the refrigerator for 3-5           Below is the quantity of 1 serving of vegetables:
   days before it becomes old eventually developing a strong
   undesirable flavors. 22                                                •   1/2 cup raw or cooked vegetables such as broccoli,
                                                                              cauliflower, or zucchini




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Broccoli

Acceptance Conditions                                                  Competition
Broccoli is evaluated, accepted, or unaccepted depending               Where to market most of broccoli?
on24:                                                                  Broccoli is grown in almost every state including Alaska and
    • Texture                                                          Hawaii, but most of its demand market is in California. The
    • Cleanliness                                                      next leading US broccoli production states would be in
    • Well Colored                                                     Arizona, Oregon, Maine, and Washington.23
Packaging
       Broccoli must be packed to protect the produce
appropriately. The materials used to package are to be new,
clean, and free from all foreign matter to avoid any internal or
external damages to the vegetable. Also, if crushed ice is
used, ensure that broccoli’s head does not lie in melted wate.
       30

After packaging and preparation, broccoli must be24:
   • Firm and compact
   • Tightly grained
   • Free of major defects such as shape, coloring, and                Demand Trends
       traces of frost
   • Buds must be practically closed                                   Availability- In most areas broccoli grows best if planted in
   • Fresh and free of any foreign smell/taste                         late summer (mid July-mid Nov.) so it can mature during cool
   • Clean and free from any pests                                     periods. 51
   • Free of unusual external moisture
Temperature                                                            Consumer Consumption
       During the growing period, broccoli is best when                  • In a 1999 survey, 84 percent of broccoli consumers
temperatures remain between 40 degrees and 70 degrees F.                    purchased pre-cut broccoli
Temperatures below 25 degrees F. can damage or kill                         florets in
broccoli, so it should be planted early enough to mature before          • The increase in broccoli consumption is good news for
these conditions occur.                                                     both growers and consumers because the demand is
                                                                            anticipated to continue to rise as prices and incomes
                                                                            also increase.


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Broccoli

  •   As new value-added products are brought in and as
      possible health benefits of broccoli become better
      understood through medical and nutritional research,
      consumers will benefit from eating broccoli
  •   Consumers are strongly motivated to consume broccoli
      because of a linkage of compounds in broccoli with
      strong anti-cancer activity in the body.
  •   Pre-cut and packaged products provide more
      convenience for consumers.




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Broccoli


Market Access                Tariff Measurements
                                      The US has three tariff lines throughout the year on
                             imports of broccoli. From June 5th through October 15th the
                             tariff for countries that are in normal trade relations with the
                             United States is 2.5%. From October 16th through June 4th
                             imports of broccoli that is not cut, sliced, or reduced in size is
                             10%; and 14% if the broccoli is reduced in size. Countries that
                             do not have normal trade relations with the United States have
                             import tariffs anywhere from 35-50%. 28


                             Restrictions
                                      There is currently no information available for
                             restrictions on broccoli when it comes to market access into
                             the United States. The one restriction that Jim Eckles, CEO
                             and Consultant of Context Network Consulting, brought up
                             was the “growing season” of carrots within the United States.
                             The demand at that time would be at its lowest, and the
                             restrictions in market access would be at its highest at this
                             point.

                             Regulations
                                     There are two grades for broccoli: US No. 1 and
                             Unclassified. In order for broccoli to be classified as US No. 1
                             it must be fresh, fairly tender, fairly clean, well trimmed, and of
                             characteristic color for the variety or type. No more than 10%
                             of the units in any lot may fail to meet the requirements. The
                             other grade for broccoli is called “unclassified”. Unclassified


Summer 2006     Florida International University                                           26
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Broccoli

consists of broccoli which has not been classified in
accordance with the US No. 1 grade. The requirements for
broccoli is that it has similar varietal characteristics, fresh,
fairly tender, fairly clean, well trimmed, and does not have any
damage. 25




Summer 2006                                               Florida International University     27
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Broccoli


Prices                     Prices for broccoli since 1989 have varied. The lowest price for
                           fresh broccoli was in 1999 when the price for fresh broccoli fell
                           to $24.6 per cwt. The price then recovered, but then fell again
                           in 2001 to $25.8 per cwt. In 2004 the price for fresh broccoli
                           leveled up to $31.1 per cwt. The price for processing broccoli
                           has decreased since 1989. The lowest point for processing
                           broccoli was in 2001, but the price rebounded in 2002 and
                           2003. The price for processing broccoli in 2004 has gone up to
                           $19.9 per cwt. The retail price for broccoli has actually
                           increased about 32% since 1995. 2
                           The following data from ACNeilsen Homescan

                                                 COST TO BUY BROCCOLI:
                                           FRESH                          FROZEN
                                       Fleurets-$1.02/lb              Fleurets-$1.53/lb
                                       Regular-$.88/lb                 Spears-$1.35/lb
                                      Chopped-$1.08/lb

                                                 COST TO EAT BROCCOLI*:
                                           FRESH                          FROZEN
                                        Fleurets-$.07                   Fleurets-$.29
                                         Regular-$.18                    Spears-$.25
                              Chopped-$.22
                            * Dollar per serving (ACNeilson Homescan Data converted to
                           servings using factors from The Food Guide For Child Nutrition
                               Programs by the USDA/ Food and Nutrition Service) 11



Summer 2006   Florida International University                                          28
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Cauliflower




                           Cauliflower

Summer 2006   Florida International University     29
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Cauliflower


Product Description                One of the most difficult to grow vegetable in the cabbage
                                   family; can only be grown in the cool season. This "cabbage
                                   flower," Has been gowned and consumed for over 2000 years
                                   with origination from the Far East.

                                   Scientific Classification: Cauliflower belongs to the mustard
                                   family. Brassicaceae or Cruciferae. Its scientific name is
                                   Brassica oleracea botrytis15


                                   NUTRITIONAL FACTS13
                                   Calories 25                      Protein 2g
                                   Carbohydrate 5.1 g               Dietary Fiber 2.5 g
                                   Potassium 303k mg                Phosphorus 44k mg
                                   Folate 57k mcg                   Vitamin A 19k grams




Summer 2006           Florida International University                                         30
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Cauliflower


Statistical Data                U.S. Production Data
                                As of 2004, US showed to be at its plateau of Cauliflower
                                production on the last 25 years.
                                • The US produced harvested 42,000 acres for Cauliflower
                                   in 2004. The production Value is $222 Million according to
                                   NASS and is sold for a price $30.5 per CWT for fresh
                                   consumption and 22.5 per CWT for processing.
                                • Production value for fresh consumption is $222.6 million
                                   and $7.8 million for processing.
                                • California accounts for 87% of the production. New York
                                   and Arizona follow with roughly 3% of the production each.




                                                                                                        30
                                       Agricultural Marketing Resource Center, Commodity Profile 2006




Summer 2006        Florida International University                                                          31
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Cauliflower

Apparent Consumption                                                        Statistics of Foreign Trade
Current demand of consumption for fresh cauliflower is 1.7                  The United States was a net exporter of Cauliflower in 2004
pounds per capita compared to 0.4 pounds of processed                       with almost $30 million in net exports. Ranked third in the
cauliflower per capital30                                                   world with 11% of the world’s exports in 2003; Spain currently
                                                                            exports 36% of the total world’s exports




Cauliflower consumption in the US peaked in the 80’s but has been in a
         steady decline for both fresh and processed markets
                                                                                    US exports twice as much as they import Cauliflower

                                                                               72% of the US exports go to Canada, 22% to Japan, and
                                                                               4% to Mexico



Summer 2006                                                    Florida International University                                           32
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Cauliflower

                                                                             Origin of Importations
                                                                             The US imported $32 Million in Cauliflower were over 75%
                                                                             was for processing. 80% of Imports come from Canada and
                                                                             Mexico. Cauliflower is usually imported with broccoli can of ten
                                                                             be classified on same importation lots.




   The Preferred destination for Cauliflower exports from the US was
                            Canada in 2004



Currently the US ranks as number 6 in the world as a
Cauliflower producer with only 2% of the total production.
China leads with 44% and India with 29% of the world’s total
production.




Summer 2006                                                     Florida International University                                        33
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Cauliflower


Market Characteristics           Consumer Preferences
                                    •   Cauliflower is most commonly eaten cooked, but it may
                                        also be eaten raw or pickled.
                                    •   Only the head, the white curd, is preferably eaten.
                                    •   Most of the time it is boiled because it is low in fat and
                                        calories.31




Summer 2006         Florida International University                                         34
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Cauliflower

Quality Standards
The reason for the standards is to describe the quality                  Storage
requirements for cauliflower.
Cauliflower standards mainly consist of color, shape, and
                                                                                    •   Very cold around 32° F and moist conditions
                                                                                        about 95% relative humidity for 2 to 4 weeks. 32
length. Most of the cauliflower marketed now is closely
trimmed leaves, prepackaged in perforated film, and packed in                       •   Storage life is about 2 weeks at 38F, 7-10 days
fiberboard containers. The film wraps should provide four to                            at 40°F, 5 days at 50°F, and 3 days at 60°F.
six 1/4-inch holes per head to allow enough airing. 33                              •   Packed in pack trays of 6-15 each per tray or
                                                                                        packed in boxes, always depending on the size
Color                                                                                   the cauliflower’s head.
         Uniformly white to ivory or cream in color
Sizing
      The minimum diameter is fixed at 11cm, but in the
package the head must not exceed 4cm. 36

Presentation
                a)   With leaves- the green leaves of the
                     cauliflower must protect head entirely and
                     the stem should be cut off a little below the
                     leaves
                b)    Without leaves- the leaves and the non-
                     edible parts of the stem must be removed.
                     It is possible to have a small amount of
                     tiny, tender pale leaves, which must be
                     untrimmed and close to the head.
                c)   Trimmed- plenty of leaves are to be left on
                     to protect the head. Leaves must be
                     strong, trimmed, and may not exceed 3cm
                     from the head. The stem should be cut off
                     a little under the leaves. 36



Summer 2006                                                 Florida International University                                        35
USAID                                                                                                                 FIU
Cauliflower

 Acceptable Conditions                                                 Competition
Cauliflower is evaluated, accepted, or unaccepted depending            Most of the cauliflowers produced in the United States come
on36:                                                                  from California.34
   • Texture
   • Cleanliness
   • Well Colored                                                      Demand Trends
Packaging                                                              Availability- Mid July- Late November 51
       Cauliflower must be packed to protect the produce
appropriately. The materials used to package are to be new,            How are they sold?
clean, and free from all foreign matter to avoid any internal or       Cauliflower is often sold raw with pickled onions and pickles.
external damages to the vegetable. 36                                  According to the United States Department of Agriculture, one
                                                                       cup of raw cauliflower provides 77% of an adult's DRI of
After packaging and preparation, cauliflower must be36:                vitamin C.
   • Fresh/clean and free of any foreign smell/taste
   • Clean and free from any pests
   • Free of unusual external moisture
   • Heads must be well formed, firm, and compact
   • Close texture
   • Free of major defects such as in shape or coloring

Temperature- Cauliflower should be stored at 32F with a
relative humidity of at least 95% so it can prevent it from
wilting. Cauliflowers in good condition may be acceptable for 3
to 4 weeks at 32F. The storage life is about 2 weeks at 38F, 7
to 10 days at 40F, 5 days at 50F, and 3 days at 60F. 35




Summer 2006                                               Florida International University                                      36
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Cauliflower


Market Access                Tariff Measurements
                                      The US has three tariff lines throughout the year on
                             imports of cauliflower. From June 5th through October 15th the
                             tariff for countries that are in normal trade relations with the
                             United States is 2.5%. From October 16th through June 4th
                             imports of cauliflower that is not cut, sliced, or reduced in size
                             is 10%; and 14% if the cauliflower is reduced in size. Countries
                             that do not have normal trade relations with the United States
                             have import tariffs anywhere from 35-50%. 37




                              Restrictions
                                      There is currently no information available for
                             restrictions on cauliflower when it comes to market access into
                             the United States. The one restriction that Jim Eckles, CEO
                             and Consultant of Context Network Consulting, brought up
                             was the “growing season” of carrots within the United States.
                             The demand at that time would be at its lowest, and the
                             restrictions in market access would be at its highest at this
                             point.




Summer 2006     Florida International University                                          37
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Cauliflower

Regulations
There are three grades to cauliflower by the United States.
The first grade is called a “US No. 1” which means that only
10% of the cauliflower is any lot which in a lot fails to meet the
requirements. The second type of grade is called “US
Commercial means that only 20% of the cauliflowers in a lot
fail to meet the requirements for a grade. The third grade of
cauliflower is called “unclassified” which means that the head
of cauliflower has not been given a grade. Regulations for
cauliflower are only 5% of the heads of cauliflower can be
smaller than the regulated size; and 5% of the heads of
cauliflower can be larger than the regulated size. The
requirements for cauliflower is that the curds must be clean,
compact, have the right color, the leaves must be fresh and
closely trimmed unless otherwise specified. The standard
sizing variation for cauliflower requires that the cauliflower
must be no more than 4” in diameter and the curd of the
cauliflower can be no more than 1 ½” in diameter. 39




Summer 2006                                                 Florida International University     38
USAID                                                                         FIU
Cauliflower

                           The price for cauliflower has been slowly increasing for the
                           past two decades. From 2003-2005, the farm price for
Prices                     cauliflower has averaged 32.1 cents per pound. This is only
                           2% higher than the price was in 1993-1995. After assign
                           inflation into the equation the price of cauliflower has actually
                           dropped 36% since 1983-1985. The price for frozen
                           cauliflower has also been on an increase. The price of frozen
                           cauliflower per pound in 2003-2005 was 24.2 cents. This was
                           7% up from 1993-1995. 38

                           The following data for broccoli is from ACNielsen Homescan
                           Data:

                                            COST TO BUY CAULIFLOWER:
                                            FRESH                           FROZEN
                                       Fleurets-$.54/lb                 Fleurets-$1.16/lb
                                        Head-$1.08/lb                     Cut-$1.16/lb

                                           COST TO EAT CAULIFLOWER*:
                                            FRESH                           FROZEN
                                         Fleurets-$.16                    Fleurets-$.31
                                          Head-$.17                         Cut-$.25

                           * Dollar per serving (ACNeilson Homescan Data converted to
                           servings using factors from The Food Guide for Child Nutrition
                               Programs by the USDA/ Food and Nutrition Service) 54




Summer 2006   Florida International University                                            39
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Beets




                           Beets

Summer 2006   Florida International University     40
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Beets


Product Description                The Table beet, which can also known as garden beet or
                                   blood turnip, is a very popular garden vegetable in the US. The
                                   tops are served fresh as greens and the roots. It is also
                                   consumed as juice

                                   Scientific Classification: Beets belong to the goosefoot family,
                                   Chenopodiaceae. Beta Vulgaris.40


                                   NUTRITIONAL FACTS6
                                   Calories 31                       Protein 1.5 grams
                                   Carbohydrate 8.5 grams            Dietary Fiber 1.5 grams
                                   Potassium 259 mg                  Phosphorus 32 mg
                                   Folate 53.2 mcg                   Vitamin A 58.5 IU




Summer 2006           Florida International University                                         41
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Beets


Statistical Data                U.S. Production Data
                                   •   Grew $30 million in beets.
                                   •   The top producing state was Minnesota with 31% and
                                       Idaho second with 22%


                                Apparent Consumption
                                The per capita consumption of fresh and processed Beets in
                                the US is .8 lbs. per year as of 2004 with a steady decrease
                                from the past 20 years; 1.1 lbs. per year in 1984
                                Most of the consumption of Beets in the United States is for
                                processing into another product: such as sugar. As a matter
                                of fact Beets are responsible for being the source of 30% of
                                the sugar supply in the US




Summer 2006        Florida International University                                    42
USAID                                                                                                                                  FIU
Beets

                                                                         Origin of Importations
                                                                         $652 Million in Beets (74% of total imports) came from
                                                                         Canada, $194 Million (22%) come from Mexico, and the other
                                                                         4% came from mixed countries such as Brazil…

                                                                                                         Origin of Beet imports 2004




                                                                                                                   Other Countries
                                                                                                        Mexico           4%
                                                                                                         22%
                                                                           Canada
                                                                           Mexico
                                                                           Other Countries
      US Sugar consumption and it’s sources: 30% of Sugar                                                                                 Canada
           consumption in the US comes from Beets41                                                                                        74%




Statistics of Foreign Trade                                                             Canada is the largest beet importer to the US41

  •     . The US imported $882 million in Beets in 2002




Summer 2006                                                 Florida International University                                                       43
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Beets


Market Characteristics           Consumer Preferences
                                    •   Canned beets have a sphere shape being the most
                                        popular; it has excellent quality and is very sweet.
                                    •   Beets are preferred because they contain folate and
                                        folic acid that prevent neural-tube birth defects and aid
                                        against heart disease and anemia. Beets are also high
                                        in fiber. Insoluble fiber helps to keep your intestinal
                                        track running easily and soluble fiber helps to keep
                                        your blood sugar and blood cholesterol levels on
                                        track.49

                                 Quality Standards
                                 The reason for the standards is to describe the quality
                                 requirements for carrots.
                                    • Beets are considered one of the sweetest of
                                        vegetables containing more sugar than carrots and
                                        sweet corn. The content in beetroot is typically 10%
                                        and the sugar beet is about 15 to 20%.45
                                    • In a fresh market, beets produced are about 7 tons per
                                        acre, processing beets should produce 13 to 15 tons
                                        per acre
                                    • All types of beets must be firm with smooth skin and
                                        the leaves should be a dark green42

                                 Beets standards mainly consist of color, shape, and length.




Summer 2006         Florida International University                                        44
USAID                                                                                                                    FIU
Beets

Packaging                                                              Nutritional Value
         Fresh market beets are usually bunched by hand and
are packaged in 35lb half crates or 32lb bushel crates. Beets           Great supply of potassium, vitamins C and A. There is 55
planned for processing are harvested into bulk trucks or               calories per cup. 42
trailers for immediate transport and processing.
                                                                       Storage
After packaging and preparation, beets must be:                                   •   Store at 32°F with relative moisture of 90-95%.
   • Fresh/clean and free of any foreign smell/taste                              •   To help maintain the freshness, sprinkle beets
   • Clean and free from any pests                                                    lightly.
   • Free of unusual external moisture                                            •   Beets should not be stored in large volume; and
   • Free of major defects such as in shape or coloring                               they should be stored in well-ventilated
   • Smooth, hard, uniformly round, and free of cuts and                              containers to help dissolve heat
       bruises                                                                    •   It is better to store beets with the tops chopped
                                                                                      off in separate plastic bags in the coldest part of
Color                                                                                 the refrigerator. These should last up to one
   •
         They can be red, purple, or yellow in color 42                               week, but the greens should be eaten as soon
                                                                                      as possible. 43

Sizing
                Leaves- heart-shaped, 5-20 cm long on wild
                plants
            •
                Flowers- each flower very small, 3-5 mm
                diameter 45
                Young beets, excellent in salads, are about an
                inch and a ½-inch diameter and are fine
                textured and tender.
                Medium and large size beets are fine for
                cooking
                Very large roots are too woody for eating
                despite of cooking method.43




Summer 2006                                               Florida International University                                          45
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Beets

                                                                       The top sugar-producing countries, including sucrose from
Acceptable Conditions                                                  sugar beets and sugar cane, by tons, 2002:

Temperature- The best growth of beet hypocotyls occurs                           Country                             Tons
between 60 and 65°F. Below 50°F causes a physiological
shift from vegetative (rosette) to reproductive (flower bolting)          1.   Brazil                   26,136,000
growth for 2 weeks. Cooler weather will support the growth of
                                                                          2.   India                    22,110,000
deep red pigmentation and also advances the production of
high quality beets, high sugar content, and deep coloration. 44           3.   China                    10,436,800

Competition                                                               4.   U.S.                     8,382,000

                                                                          5.   Thailand                 7,494,300m
       Sugar beets are grown in 12 states and are a slight bit
more than half of all developed sugar produced domestically.
In a forum conducted by Darren Gibbons in November 16,
2003 he found the following facts on beets48:
                                                                       Demand Trends
Who grows the most?
                                                                       Availability- Beets are produced mostly year round because
The top beet-producing states by tons, 2003:                           they succeed in more than 30 states. It is first available in July
                                                                       and through April51, but June through October are its peak
State                                         Tons                     season .42
   1. Minnesota                   9,558,000
   2. Idaho                       6,086,000                            Consumer Consumption
   3. North Dakota                5,838,000
                                                                         • They can be micro waved, steamed, boiled, pickled,
                                                                            roasted or eaten raw. Beets contain more natural sugar
   4. Michigan                    3,238,000                                 than starch, so some people prefer to eat them roasted
   5. California                  1,850,000                                 in a hot oven. 42
                                                                         • It can be cooked and eaten warm with butter
U. S. Total                       30,624,000
                                                                         • Cooked and pickled and eaten as a cold condiment
***Few are produced in North Carolina                                    • Peeled and shredded and eaten in a salad



Summer 2006                                               Florida International University                                          46
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Beets

   •   Stems can be cooked with other accompaniments to
       increase nutritional value45

Usage
The following beets have different uses45:
   1. Beet root or table beet used as a root vegetable
   2. Mangold beet used as animal fodder
   3. Sugar beet grown for sugar
   4. Chard is used a a leaf vegetable




Summer 2006                                              Florida International University     47
USAID                                                                          FIU
Beets


Market Access                Tariff Measurements
                             The US tariff on beets for countries with normal trade relations
                             with the United States is 1.9%. For countries that do not have
                             normal trade relations with the US has a tariff of 12%. The
                             ending effective date on beets is on 12/31/2020. At this point
                             the tariff on beets is scheduled for a “tariff treatment change”.
                             55




                             Restrictions
                             There is currently no information available for restrictions on
                             beets when it comes to market access into the United States.
                             The one restriction that Jim Eckles, CEO and Consultant of
                             Context Network Consulting, brought up was the “growing
                             season” of carrots within the United States. The demand at
                             that time would be at its lowest, and the restrictions in market
                             access would be at its highest at this point.

                             Regulations
                             There are two different types of grades for beets: US No.1 and
                             US No. 2. In order to be US No.1 the beets must be well
                             trimmed, firm, fairly smooth, well shaped, fairly clean, free from
                             soft rot, and free from damage caused by cuts. Bunched beets
                             or beets with sort tops must be fresh and free of damage
                             caused by discoloration. In order to be US No. 2 the roots
                             must be well trimmed, firm, not excessively rough, not
                             seriously mis-shaped, free from soft rot, and free of serious


Summer 2006     Florida International University                                          48
USAID                                                                                          FIU
Beets

damage caused by cuts, dirt, freezing, growth cracks, disease,
animals or insects. All other beets hat fail to beet the
qualifications are called “unclassified”. Only 10% of the roots in
the bunch can fail to meet the requirements, and only 5% can
have serious damage. Only 10% of the tops in the bunches
can fail to meet the requirements, and only 5% for decay. Only
5% of the tops and roots can fail to meet the size
requirements. 50


Technical Procedures
There is no information available on the technical procedures
of beets.




Summer 2006                                                 Florida International University     49
USAID                                                                     FIU
Beets

                           Price situation on the beets market has remained some what
Prices                     stable. Under the pressure of constantly growing offer of
                           beets; producers have tried to keep prices on the same level.

                             The following data for beets is from ACNeilson Homescan
                                                       Data:

                                             COST TO BUY BEETS:
                                                   CANNED
                                                    $.65/ lb



                                             COST TO EAT BEETS*:
                                                   CANNED
                                                      $.23

                           Dollar per serving (ACNielsen Homescan Data converted to
                           servings using factors from The Food Guide For Child Nutrition
                           Programs by the USDA/ Food and Nutrition Service) 54




Summer 2006   Florida International University                                      50
USAID                                                                                 FIU
Distribution Channels

                                     The Following information is from Jim Eckles, CEO and
Distribution Channels                consultant of Context Network Consulting:
                                                According to Jim Eckles, CEO and consultant of
                                     Context Network Consulting having the proper distribution
                                     channels is probably the key. The proper way for distribution
                                     for vegetables into the United States is through a “pull through”
                                     distribution. In a “pull-through” distribution, the customer’s
                                     purchases initiate the action in the supply chain.1 In the case
                                     of distributing vegetables into the US it will all depend on the
                                     current market demand of the vegetable in question. This
                                     changes seasonally. In order to be successful in importing
                                     vegetables in the United States, the timing of the farmer’s crop
                                     availability is the key. Typically when the vegetable in question
                                     is in it’s “off season”, the need for that crop in the United
                                     States is at its highest. Distribution is easier during seasons
                                     when production is low. There is an advantage to the farmer
                                     that is looking to import goods into the United States to
                                     program supply when the region is low. Nobody will want to
                                     purchase crops when there is high production. Typically the
                                     importers have distributors within the US that they sell to.
                                                In general the distributors, who are known as
                                     “Packers”, contract the farmers, or “Growers”, to grow the
                                     crops. In “pull-through” distribution means that after the
                                     customer purchases the good, the retailer will then contact the
                                     “Packer”, and the “Packer” will then contact the “Grower” on
                                     what the need for the vegetable is. In some cases the
                                     “Growers” will do their own packing, and in this case the
                                     farmer will do the growing, do their own packing, and then will
                                     have warehouses basically sell the “Growers” crops to the
                                     food chains. There are different levels of buyers in agriculture,
                                     and quite a few of the buyers are large.
                                     56 & 57




Summer 2006             Florida International University                                         51
USAID                                                                                                 FIU
Commercial Practices

Distribution Channels-
The route taken by goods as they move from producer to consumer.59




                                                        Producer


                                Agent              Consumer               Wholesaler                 Retailer


               Wholesaler                                      Retailer                  Consumer   Consumer

    Retailer                                                                Consumer

   Consumer


                             Consumer




Summer 2006                                           Florida International University                          52
USAID                                                                                                                 FIU
Distribution Channels

                                                                           2. Indirect Marketing Channel- In this channel the growers
Choices of Distribution                                                       and consumers do not meet. The producers sell their
Channels                                                                      goods through intermediaries’ or middlemen which
                                                                              include wholesalers and retailers. The large scale
                                                                              goods may be sold in auctions (a common market
The producer has the choice of which distribution channel to                  where growers and wholesalers/retailers usually
use. It can choose amongst the channels available to him.                     meet.60) or individual contracts with produce
                                                                              companies.
Ways to sell produce in the fresh market58:
  1. Direct Marketing Channel- In this channel, the producer
      sells directly to the consumer through farmer’s
      markets, roadside stands, and pick-your-own
      operations, or even door to door sales or through own
      retail stores. There is no middleman present in this
      process.
          • In farmer’s markets, the need for packing is
               reduced, but the prices are higher because the
               producer sells their products as a retailer. In
               this process, growers take all the steps from the
               producer to the consumer.
          • A roadside stand eradicates the use of
               transportation because the products are usually
               sold in the farm where vegetables are
               produced. In this process, producers are given
               the opportunity to sell as retailers by buying the
               vegetables wholesale.
          • In pick-your-own operations, consumers drive
               to the farm, pick the produce they desire, and
               transport the items to their homes. Consumers
               are willing to pay the retail price due to the
               freshness of the products.




Summer 2006                                                Florida International University                                     53
USAID                                                                                                                  FIU
Distribution Channels


Difference between                                                    Functions59
Wholesalers and Retailers
       In order to determine which channel to use, one must                    Wholesalers                       Retailers
know the distinction of the intermediaries.59                            1. Collects large quantities      1. Buys and assembles
                                                                            of goods from                  the goods that are in
                                                                            manufacturers,                 high demand by the
         Wholesalers                        Retailers                                                      consumer.
Wholesalers are the              Retailers are traders who buy
middlemen who buy in bulk        from wholesalers or                     2. Safely stores vegetables        2. Storage of readily
quantities & sell in small       producers and sell to                      in cold warehouses.         supplied goods
quantities to retailers.         consumers.                              3. Distributes goods to           3. Sell goods for
Buy goods in large quantities    Buy goods in small quantities              different retailers            cash/credit to
Deals with limited range of      Deals with wide variety of                                                    consumers.
goods                            goods                                   4. Provides financial              4. Render personal
Requires more capital to start   Requires less capital to start             support to producers by     services by providing advice
& run a business                 & run a business                           credit or by sending        on quality and usefulness of
Buys goods directly from         Buys goods from wholesalers                money in advance.           goods.
producer                                                                 5. Assumes the risks of            5. Bears risks of theft of
Sell goods for resale            Sell goods for consumption                 changes demand,             goods, destruction of quality
No direct contact with           Direct contact with consumers              increase in prices,         of goods, and change in
consumers                                                                   spoilage or deterioration   taste of consumers.
No special decoration to the     Special decoration to the                  of goods.
shop                             shop to attract consumers




Summer 2006                                              Florida International University                                         54
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Distribution Channels

Procedures when choosing a                                               Below is a pie chart of the participants who exported fruits and
                                                                         vegetables into the United States in 1999. 63
distributor
61

     1. Make personal relationships with the distributor in order
        to decide on the paramount business partner. A good
        distributor should have ample storage amenities, a
        broad customer base, a fine distribution network and
        transportation system, offer crucial market information,
        and have long lasting relations in the retail market.
     2. Determine how the advertising and marketing of the
        goods will be performed.
     3. Present the products to purchase managers of the
        most significant supermarkets, convenience stores and
        gas marts so that the managers can create a demand
        for the products in return.
     4. Find out the requirements or instructions of the
        products being retailed.        For instance, labeling
        instructions containing name of product, list of
        ingredients, weight, country of origin, name of
        manufacturer, batch number, health registry, expiration
        date, instructions when valid, and a quantitative label of
        the ingredients.
     5. Abide by the trade regulations, customs, and standards
        of the country where products are being imported.
     6. Keep up to date with new development of food industry
        in your field.
     7. Find trade shows as a prospect opening to do
        business.




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Commercial Practices


Commercial Practices                Procedures to Make Orders
                                    In order to make an order, the purchasing/procurement agent
                                    must know in advance the characteristics of the product to
                                    order. This may include the description and variety of the
                                    product and desired average size and or weight, and origin of
                                    the product. The vendor must insure the buyer that all required
                                    inspections by agriculture authorities in the country of origin
                                    will be performed and must supply all required documentation
                                    to clear customs at the point of destination. It is important to let
                                    the vendor/supplier of the requirement of the destination
                                    country (in the United States these are enforced by the
                                    USDA); failure to comply could result in the loss/destruction of
                                    the shipment. It is very important to establish responsibilities in
                                    order top determine who is liable for these types of
                                    occurrences. The contract between the parties will establish all
                                    the conditions of the deal, and should include desired
                                    documentation and requirement to be met by exporting party

                                    These products are ordered in carton boxes of 20 lbs each.
                                    The product is protected internally with a plastic bag to protect
                                    them from contamination. The gross weight per box including
                                    packaging should not exceed 22 Lbs. 9

                                    The order to the vendor/supplier will contain the following
                                    information:

                                        •   Quantity: In net pounds.

                                        •   Description: should be as detailed possible. If these
                                            were samples previously delivered by vendor and



Summer 2006            Florida International University                                            56
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Commercial Practices

      accepted by buyer, the order should make references                           TRANSPORTATION     INSURANCE AND
      to such fact.                                                                 TRANSPORTATION COST FROM PORT OF
                                                                                    ORIGIN TO PORT OF DESTINY.
  •   Final Use of product: whether is for fresh consumption,
      or to for processing.                                                     O   LANDED: INCLUDES CIF PLUS ALL
                                                                                    EXPENSES AND DUTIES AT THE PORT OF
  •   Unit Price: indicate unit price in US dollar per unit of                      DESTINATION.
      sale (per Lbs, per 20 Lbs box, per 100 Lbs, etc)

  •   Total Price: Indicate total price multiplying unit price
      times quantity,

  •   Delivery terms: order must indicate terms of delivery as
      per INCOTERMS65, meaning what is included and
      what is excluded in the price to be quoted

         O    EX-WORKS: PRODUCT DELIVERED AT THE
              VENDORS WAREHOUSE.

         O    FAS: FREE ALONG SIDE. PRODUCT IS
              DELIVERED NEST TO TRANSPORTATION
              VESSEL

         O    FOB: FREE ON BOARD. PRODUCT IS
              DELIVERED INSIDE THE TRANSPORTATION
              VESSEL.

         O    C & F: COST PLUS FREIGHT; PRICE
              INCLUDES     FOC     (COST)    PLUS
              TRANSPORTATION COST FROM PORT OF
              ORIGIN TO PORT OF DESTINATION.

         O    CIF: COST, INSURANCE AND FREIGHT.
              QUOTED     PRICE   INCLUDES  FOB,


Summer 2006                                             Florida International University                          57
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Commercial Practices

                                                                           •   Open Line Of Credit: vendor gives buyer a line of credit
Systems and Terms of Payment                                                   up to certain amount, which is paid for by buyer on a
                                                                               revolving basis.
Your order must include chosen payment terms willing to
accept: 9

   •   Prepayment: buyer pays before product is delivered.              Transportation
   •   COD (Cash on Delivery): Buyer pays on delivery
                                                                           •   Ocean: normally used for large shipments, mostly used
   •   30/60/90 day Credit: vendor gives the buyer 30/60/90                    internationally. Trip takes longer, freight costs are less.
       days to make payment after Invoice date, or product
       delivery.                                                           •   Air: can be used for smaller shipments, most costly
                                                                               way of transportation, product reached destination
   •   10/2: Buyer that pays on credit with regular 30 day                     faster
       cycles, has the option to pay within 10 days to receive
       2% discount on prompt payment                                       •   Land: Normally used internally, and between
                                                                               neighboring countries, costs are more than Ocean and
   •   Letter of Credit: Buyer opens a letter of credit thru a                 less than Air
       local bank (originating bank) to the favor of the vendor
       the correspondence bank (receiving bank) in his                     •   Train: Widely used in developed countries, is an
       country of origin. Vendor must comply with all the                      alternative to land freight and can move large
       terms indicated in the letter of credit in order to get                 quantities of goods, normally used in combination with
       paid. These terms include the supply of original                        Ocean cargo.
       Invoiced and Bill of Transportation (Ocean: Bill of
                                                                           •   Multimodal: a combination of 2 or more of the above
       Lading; Air: Airway Bill; Land: Delivery ticket). The
                                                                               modes of transportation (i.e. Ocean and land, Ocean
       buyer may request additional documents to be
                                                                               and Train, etc…)
       delivered such as certificate of origin, certificate of
       agriculture inspection, customs clearance papers, etc.               Normally when transported by land in long hauls or ocean,
       Once in order, the receiving bank proceeds with                  the product must be refrigerated in order to avoid potential
       payment according ton negotiated terms between the               spoilage, Based on the type of product and the estimated
       parties.                                                         length of the trip between origin and destination, one mode of



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Commercial Practices

transportation will be chosen versus another. The freight cost
associated with movement of goods must be taken into                    Packing, Types Used: Crates
account, and the buyer must have done research associated
with associated costs in order to determine the mode of
                                                                        and Labels
transportation so the vendor can pack the product accordingly,
and this cost can be figured in the final quote that the vendor         Under fresh consumption, packaging at the retail lever is very
will give the buyer.                                                    straight forward; the product is packaged into its standard
                                                                        selling unit (1 lb. or 2 lbs.) then tied together and usually
The following costs and expenses must be taken into account             “stamped” with the label of the farmer/grower or distributor,
when estimating final pricing: 9                                        depending on branding strategy.
   •   Product price.                                                   At the wholesale and transportation stage, packaging has
                                                                        similar criteria included in shipping terms: Crates that include
   •   Warehousing Costs                                                no more that 20 lbs of product. Labels on the crates or boxes
                                                                        include product description, crop date, inspected date(s), and
   •   Packaging Costs                                                  expected last day of fresh consumption or “expiration” date
   •   Loading Costs (i.e. loading products in a container)             from which retailers have to know maximum shelf life of
                                                                        product to prioritize by date if shipments have products from
   •   Transportation costs from vendors warehouse to port              varying crop dates 9
       of origin

   •   Delivery costs (forwarding agent fees)

   •   Loading Costs to the transportation vehicle

   •   Ocean, land or Air Freight.

   •   Transportation Insurance.

   •   Customs Clearance Costs & Duties

   •   Transportation costs from port airport to buyer’s
       destination.


Summer 2006                                                Florida International University                                        59
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Sales Promotion


Sales Promotion                In properly promoting your vegetable, the two most important
                               factors are quality and price. Most packing houses already
                               have arrangements set up with suppliers, so in order to sell
                               your product you will need to sell it to a distributor who is
                               already dealing with other suppliers. One strategy would be to
                               work out a deal with distributors to supply them with the
                               product at a time in the year when the market is dried up. If
                               the quality is consistently high, you could turn this one time
                               deal into a year long deal. Another possible strategy would be
                               to offer your product at a lower cost compared to other
                               suppliers. Now quality again is a big factor, because if quality
                               is high, you open the door to dealing with this distributor again.
                               It might also be a good idea to send out free shipments of your
                               product to the distributors. A high quality product can basically
                               sell itself.

                               When promoting your product it is important to keep the timing
                               of your availability in mind. It is very difficult to import when
                               there is an excess in the market. If the market is flooded and
                               you are holding onto a large supply, you might be forced to
                               give the vegetables away. Nobody will handle your product
                               when there is high production. If you could workout deals to
                               export when the market is dried up, you will have an extreme
                               advantage.

                               As stated by Jim Eckles, CEO and Consultant for Context
                               Network Consulting, “It is pointless to put the product in the
                               ground without somebody to sell it to.”56




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Market Perspectives


Market Perspectives                Current and Future Market
                                   Tendencies
                                   Many recent changes in the lifestyles and attitudes of
                                   consumers have influenced eating habits and food purchasing
                                   behaviors. The overall share of the food and grocery sales
                                   captured by retail food outlets is decreasing while the trend
                                   towards foodservice is developing, with supermarkets being
                                   the fastest growing segment of foodservice. In 2000, 76% of
                                   consumers ate out at least once per week, with 40% eating out
                                   two to three times per week.

                                   Many Americans are attempting to live a more health
                                   conscious lifestyle due to the growth in public knowledge of
                                   balanced diets, wellness, and physical fitness.           Most
                                   supermarket shoppers believe that freshness is more
                                   important than price. The consumption of food perceived to be
                                   healthier is growing. The growing awareness of health
                                   concerns, coupled with improved widespread knowledge of
                                   environmental and organic issues all act together to increase
                                   the number of consumers that are environmentally sensitive
                                   and nutritionally minded. Many of these people have started
                                   buying organically grown products. The organic market has
                                   quickly gained much popularity with consumers and sales are
                                   increasing each year. Perceived by consumers as even
                                   healthier then traditional produce, organic produce has seen a
                                   recent boom. These trends could be extremely profitable for
                                   produce growers that target this expanding market segment.




Summer 2006           Florida International University                                      61
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Market Perspectives

As America becomes more culturally diverse, the varieties and                 •   At least one serving of a vitamin A-rich fruit or
preparation styles of foods consumed are becoming more                            vegetable a day.
diverse. Consumers from different cultural backgrounds are
purchasing foods that are associated with their distinct cultural             •   At least one serving of a vitamin C-rich fruit or
heritages. As the cultural makeup of America changes, the                         vegetable a day.
American taste palate is also going through a change. Sellers
                                                                              •   At least one serving of a high-fiber fruit or vegetable a
of fresh produce must take note that certain ethnic groups
demand raw commodities. African American and Hispanic                             day.
cultures place more of an emphasis on making complete                         •   Several servings of cruciferous vegetables a week.
meals with fresh foods.                                                           Studies suggest that these vegetables may offer
                                                                                  additional protection against certain cancers, although
By following these trends and tendencies closely, food                            further research is needed.
producers will be able to maximize their profitability and
growth.

                                                                           Tips for Safe Handling of Fruits and
                                                                           Vegetables
Customer’s Preferences and
                                                                                  •Wash hands with warm water and soap for at least 20
Guidelines of Consumption                                                            seconds before and after handling food.

Guidelines for Consumption                                                        •Rinse raw produce in warm water. Don't use soap or
Are you taking the 5 A Day challenge? The challenge, offered                         other detergents.
by the National Cancer Institute--a branch of the National
                                                                                  •Use smooth, durable and nonabsorbent cutting
Institutes of Health--is to eat at least five servings of fruits and
                                                                                     boards.
vegetables a day, and these are some ways consumers are
rising to the occasion. For the most part, any fruit or vegetable                 •Wash cutting boards with hot water, soap and a
will do in helping consumers reach their 5 A Day goal. In                            scrub brush to remove food particles. Then sanitize
selecting your daily intake of fruits and vegetables, the                            the boards by putting them through the automatic
National Cancer Institute recommends choosing:                                       dishwasher.




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Market Perspectives

      •Store cut, peeled and broken-apart fruits and
          vegetables at or below 40 degrees Fahrenheit.                Potential Market Segments
      •When buying from a salad bar, avoid fruits and                  The future and potential markets for broccoli, cauliflower,
          vegetables that look brownish, slimy or dried out.           carrots, and beets can be influenced in many ways. Unlike
          These are signs that the product has been held at            many other foods, vegetables have the benefit of being a
          an improper temperature.                                     natural and healthy choice. In order to establish a higher
                                                                       demand for these vegetables, it is necessary to push these
                                                                       vegetables through to new markets. Give the public more
                                                                       knowledge and opportunity to create savory dishes utilizing
Customer Preferences                                                   these vegetables. One of the better ways to do this would be
                                                                       through the Food Network.         More people are watching
“Most consumers are either fruit- or vegetable-prone, but not          television now then ever before, and a lot of them are watching
both, according to a new study that not only identified produce        the Food Network. The Food Network has established many
preferences, but also linked them to certain lifestyle traits.”        culinary stars who continue to show us many new and
Vegetable lovers tend to entertain guests more often, cook             innovative ways to cook food. Through this Network we can
nutritious meals more frequently, try new recipes more                 reach brand new markets, those inexperienced cooks whose
frequently, eat spicier foods, and drink more wine according to        knowledge was limited, teaching them all the possibilities with
findings published in Journal of the American Dietetics                these vegetables. Another possibility is through educating the
Association. Genetics appear to play a large role. Your                local restaurants.      Most of the influence on trends is
genetics decide whether you have a greater sensitivity to bitter       established at the local restaurants. By just creating one new
foods, such as vegetables, or if you have more of a sweet              popular dish utilizing these vegetables, you can create a much
tooth, and you prefer fruits. There can be a genetically-              larger demand for the vegetables.
determined sensitivity to propylthiouracil, which is the bitter
taste in vegetables such as broccoli. About 70% of people can
sense this bitter taste. Also, by having a good cook in the
family, you may have a predisposition to like vegetables.
Finally, another factor is household income; people with higher
income tend to eat more fruits and vegetables.




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Importers List and Distribution Networks


Importers List and
                                                 Name                  Address              Telephone #
Distribution Networks                            All-American Farms    7700 Congress Ave
                                                                       Boca Raton, FL
                                                                                            561-479-0205

                                                                       33487
                                                 Marjam Foods Inc.     5371 NW 188 St       305-621-9612
                                                                       Opa Locka, FL
                                                 Forbes Frozen         614 Wooster Pike     513-576-6660
                                                 Foods
                                                                       Terrace Park, OH
                                                                       45174
                                                 Terrapin Produce      20 SW 27th Ave       954-351-2600
                                                 Inc.                  Pompano Beach, FL
                                                                       33069
                                                 Hartog Foods Inc      529 Fifth Avenue     212-687-2000

                                                                       New York, NY 10017
                                                 MasterTrade           PO Box 133           215-380-5699
                                                                       Concordville, PA
                                                                       19331
                                                 Beaver Street         1741 West Beaver     800-874-6426
                                                 Fisheries             St.
                                                                       Jacksonville, FL
                                                                       32209
                                                 BMT Weiser            530 Fifth Avenue     212-302-4200

                                                                       New York, NY 10036




Summer 2006                         Florida International University                                  64
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Upcoming Commercial Events


Upcoming Commercial
                                          June – December 2006
Events                                    Name of
                                          Show
                                                        Date       Location      website

                                          International June 11-   New           www.iddba.com
                                          Dairy-Deli-   13         Orleans, LA
                                          Bake
                                          Seminar &
                                          Expo
                                          IFT Food      June 25-   Orlando, FL   www.ift.org
                                          Expo          27
                                          Fancy Food    July 9-    New York,     www.specialtyfood.co
                                          Show –        11         NY            m
                                          Summer
                                          National      July 14-   Las Vegas,    www.nnfa.org
                                          Nutritional   16         NV
                                          Foods
                                          Association
                                          Marketplace
                                          Southern      Aug. 10-   Atlanta, GA   www.sna.org
                                          Nursery       12
                                          Association
                                          Western       Aug. 26-   Los         www.westernfoodexp
                                          Foodservice   28         Angeles, CA ola.com
                                          & Hospitality
                                          Expo
                                          Florida       Sept. 8-   Orlando, FL   www.fraexpo.com
                                          Restaurant    10
                                          Show




Summer 2006                  Florida International University                                    65
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Upcoming Commercial Events

Food &          Sept.      Honolulu, HI   www.eatright.org            America’s       Nov. 8-    Miami, FL     www.worldtrade.com
Nutrition       16-19                                                 Food &          10
Conference                                                            Beverage
& Expo                                                                Show and
World Dairy     Oct. 3-7   Madison, WI www.world-dairy-               Conference
Expo                                   expo.com                       Private Label   Nov. 12-   Chicago, IL   www.plma.com
Natural         Oct. 4-7   Baltimore,  www.expoeast.com               Manufacturer    14
Products                   MD                                         s Association
Expo East                                                             Kosherfest      Nov. 14-   New York,     www.kosherfest.com
National        Oct. 7-    Orlando, FL    www.nfraweb.org                             15         NY
Frozen &        11                                                    Expo Comida     Nov. 14-   New York,     www.expo-comida-
Refrigerated                                                          Latina - East   15         NY            latina.com
Foods                                                                 National        Nov. 15-   Las Vegas,    www.nacsonline.com
Convention                                                            Association     18         NV
International   Oct. 15-   Los         www.westcoastseafo             of
West Coast      16         Angeles, CA od.com                         Convenience
Seafood                                                               Stores Show
Show                                                                  Corn &          Dec. 6-8   Chicago, IL   www.amseed.org
Expo Comida     Oct. 15-   Los            www.expo-comida-            Sorghum and
Latina - West   16         Angeles, CA    latina.com                  Soybean
SupplySide      Oct. 18-   Las Vegas,     www.supplysideshow          Seed
West            20         NV             .com                        Research
Produce         Oct. 20-   San Diego,     www.pma.com                 Conference
Marketing       24         CA                                         and Seed
Association                                                           Expo
Fresh
Summit
Western         Nov. 4-7   Kansas         www.amseed.org
Seed & Lawn                City, MO
Seed
Conference



Summer 2006                                              Florida International University                                     66
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Upcoming Commercial Events

Why should my company participate in Trade Shows?
   •   Trade shows are the most cost-effective and efficient
       marketing tool available to exporters.

   •   Trade shows provide in-country market research.

   •   Trade shows provide opportunities for product testing.

   •   Trade shows provide face-to-face contact with buyers.

   •   Trade shows offer opportunities to meet important
       distributors and agents

How much does it cost to participate?

Costs of participating in shows include booth fees, promotional
materials translated into the language, shipping of samples,
and travel for representatives. In 2002/2003, booth fees
ranged from $2,000 to $9,500 and averaged $4,000
depending on the size, location, and popularity of the show.




Summer 2006                                                Florida International University     67
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Conclusions

                               Based on this our primary and secondary research for Carrots,
Conclusions and                Broccoli, Cauliflower, and Beets, we have concluded there is a
                               large market opportunity with heightening levels of

Recommendations                consumption and demand. There are currently major
                               competitors to compete with when penetrating the US market
                               from Central America and Canada.
                               Because of the “healthy” and “organic” eating trends, the net
                               consumption of all four of these vegetables is bound to keep
                               its upward pace. The fresh vegetable market is a multibillion
                               dollar industry and the 300+ million inhabitants of the US will
                               require a daily dosage of this very important food group,
                               especially since the U.S. is on a trend for net exports on fresh
                               products. The U.S. is currently a service based economy and
                               Central America should take advantage of being an
                               Agricultural based economy to exploit this industry trends of
                               the next decades to come.
                               The biggest gap to fill into the US market is probably for Beets,
                               the U.S. is still a net importer of beets. Although consumption
                               of fresh beets has reduced in the US, production of sugar from
                               beets has increased, and there is a big opportunity for Central
                               America to compete with Canada to export beets into the U.S.




Summer 2006       Florida International University                                         68
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References

                           Carrots
References                    1. Scientific information about Carrots. World Book
                                  Encyclopedia (1999 Edition)
                              2. Vegetable Definition and Nutritional Facts.
                                  http://www.wikipedia.com
                              3. Agricultural Marketing Resource center, Carrots 2004
                                   http://www.agmrc.org/
                              4. ERS 2005. Economic Research Service (USDA)
                                  http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Vegetables/vegpdf/Fr
                                  CarrotHigh.pdf
                              5. P. Caunce & Son Brow Farm, “Carrots,”
                                  http://www.browfarm.co.uk/carrots_about.htm
                              6. Wikipedia Encyclopedia
                                  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carrot
                              7. “Flanders' carrots conquer the market”,
                                  http://www.herwi.com/vegetables.carrots.html
                              8. “Carrot Production and Processing in Georgia”,
                                  http://pubs.caes.uga.edu/caespubs/pubs/PDF/RR653.p
                                  df#search='carrots%20consumer%20preferences'
                              9. “Carrots” by Jeanette Ferrary and Louise Fiszer,
                                  http://www.sallys-
                                  place.com/food/columns/ferray_fiszer/carrots.htm
                              10. “Watch your garden grow- Carrot” ,
                                  http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/veggies/carrot1.html
                              11. “UN/EC Standard FFV -10 concerning the marketing
                                  and quality control of Carrots”
                                  http://www.unece.org/trade/agr/standard/fresh/fresh_e/
                                  10carrot.pdf
                              12. “United States Standards for Grades of Bunched
                                  Carrots”


Summer 2006   Florida International University                                     69
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References

      http://www.agribusinessonline.com/regulations/grades/                http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/envirohort/426-403/426-
      grades_us_fresh/carotbch.pdf                                         403.pdf
  13. “Vegetables and Melons Outlook- Commodity
      Highlight: Carrots”                                              21. Neighborhood House, Inc, “Parents Resources”
      http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Vegetables/vegpdf/Fr                http://www.nhweb.org/programs/parenting-program-
      CarrotHigh.pdf                                                       parents.shtml#fruit
  14. “Commodity Profile: Carrots – Agricultural Marketing
      Resource Center”                                                 22. “Watch your garden grow- Broccoli”,
      http://www.agmrc.org/NR/rdonlyres/DFF947E0-70C8-                     http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/veggies/broccoli1.html
      43ED-94FB-90189A345C61/0/Carrots2006.pdf                         23. USDA Economic Research Service,
                                                                           http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Vegetables/vegpdf/Br
Broccoli                                                                   occoliHigh.pdf
  15. Scientific information about Broccoli. World Book                24. “UN/EC Standard FFV -10 concerning the marketing
      Encyclopedia (1999 Edition)                                          and quality control of broccoli,
  16. Broccoli Definition and Nutritional Facts.                           http://www.unece.org/trade/agr/standard/fresh/fresh_e/
       http://www.wikipedia.com                                            48brocco.pdf
  17. Broccoli Consumption Data from Agricultural Marketing
      Resource 2006                                                    25. “United States Standards for Grades of Collard Greens
      http://www.agmrc.org/NR/rdonlyres/3541E364-463E-                     or Broccoli Greens”
      48EF-A67E-4E1015120B33/0/Broccoli2006.pdf                            http://www.agribusinessonline.com/regulations/grades/
  18. “Vegetable Garden Selected Vegetable Crops-                          grades_us_fresh/grnscolr.pdf
      Broccoli,”                                                       26. “Commodity Profile: Broccoli - Agricultural Marketing
      http://www.ag.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/vegetable/b                 Resource Center”
      roccoli.html                                                         http://www.agmrc.org/NR/rdonlyres/4055B7A3-1A42-
                                                                           4370-9D90-A9D60890D373/0/Broccoli2005B.pdf
  19. “All about Broccoli”, Hormel Foods,                              27. “Vegetables and Melons Outlook- Commodity
      http://www.hormel.com/templates/template.asp?catite                  Highlight: Broccoli”
      mid=114&id=863                                                       http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Vegetables/vegpdf/Br
  20. “Cole Crops or Brassica”, Virginia Cooperative                       occoliHigh.pdf
      Extension Revised 2000,                                          28. “Commodity Profile: Cauliflower - Agricultural
                                                                           Marketing Resource Center”


Summer 2006                                            Florida International University                                      70
USAID                                                                                                                  FIU
References

     http://www.agmrc.org/NR/rdonlyres/3541E364-463E-                          http://www.unece.org/trade/agr/standard/fresh/fresh_e/
     48EF-A67E-4E1015120B33/0/Cauliflower2006.pdf                              11califl.pdf
                                                                           37. “Commodity Profile: Cauliflower - Agricultural
  Cauliflower                                                                  Marketing Resource Center”
                                                                               http://www.agmrc.org/NR/rdonlyres/3541E364-463E-
                                                                               48EF-A67E-4E1015120B33/0/Cauliflower2006.pdf
  29. Import Data from USDA, Foreign Agricultural Service.
      http://www.fas.usda.gov                                              38. “Vegetables and Melons Outlook- Commodity
  30. Cauliflower Consumption Data from Agricultural                           Highlight: Cauliflower”
      Marketing Resource Center                                                http://www.ers.usda.gov/Briefing/Vegetables/vegpdf/Ca
      http://www.agmrc.org/NR/rdonlyres/3541E364-463E-                         uliflowerHigh.pdf
      48EF-A67E-4E1015120B33/0/Cauliflower2006.pdf                         39. “United States Standards for Grades of Cauliflower”
  31. P. Caunce & Son Brow Farm, “Cauliflower,”                                http://www.agribusinessonline.com/regulations/grades/
      http://www.browfarm.co.uk/cauliflower_about.htm                          grades_us_fresh/cauliflo.pdf
  32. “Vegetable Garden Selected Vegetable Crops-
      Cauliflower,”http://www.azrangelands.org/pubs/garden/
      mg/vegetable/cauliflower.html
                                                                        Beets

  33. “Cauliflower,” Douglas C. Sanders, 2001,                             40. Scientific information about Beet. World Book
      http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/hil/hil-10.html                       Encyclopedia (1999 Edition)
                                                                           41. ERS 1998 USDA Consumption Project 6H
  34. Wikipedia Encyclopedia,                                                  http://www.agmrc.org/agmrc/commodity/grainsoilseeds
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cauliflower                                 /sugarbeets/sugarbeetsprofile.htm
  35. ”Cauliflower,” Oregon State University, Last revised                 42. “Beets by Jeanette Ferrary and Louise Fiszer,”
      August 6, 2004                                                           http://www.sallys-
      http://oregonstate.edu/Dept/NWREC/cauliflower.html                       place.com/food/columns/ferray_fiszer/beets.htm

  36. “UN/EC Standard FFV -10 concerning the marketing                     43. “5 A Day: Vegetable of the Month: Root Vegetables”
      and quality control of cauliflower,”                                     http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/5aday/month/root_v
                                                                               egetables.htm



Summer 2006                                                Florida International University                                      71
USAID                                                                                                                 FIU
References

  44. “Beet” http://www.uga.edu/vegetable/beet.html                          http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aib790/aib790d.p
                                                                             df
  45. Wikipedia Encyclopedia                                             55. “Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States”
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beet                                      http://hotdocs.usitc.gov/docs/tata/hts/bychapter/0600C
                                                                             07.pdf
  46. Beets & Chard, August 6, 2004
      http://oregonstate.edu/Dept/NWREC/beetch.html

  47. Beet Production, Douglas C. Sanders, Extension                  Distribution Channel References:
      Horticultural Specialist                                           56. Jim Eckles, CEO and Consultant, Context Network
      http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/hort/hil/pdf/hil-4.pdf                   Consulting.Telephone: (954)217-0785.
                                                                             E-Mail: jeckles@myacc.net
  48. Sugar Beets: Facts & Figures, Forum 11/16/2003 ,
                                                                         57. Inbound Logistics- Glossary of Terms
      http://www.inforum.com/specials/sugarbeets/index.cfm
                                                                             http://www.inboundlogistics.com/glossary/p.shtml
      ?page=articles&id=43982
                                                                         58. “Direct and Indirect Marketing of Fruit and Vegetables”,
  49. ”Beet,” University of Illinois Extension,                              Dr Ali Muhammad Khushk and Aslam Memon,
      http://www.urbanext.uiuc.edu/veggies/beet1.html                        http://www.dawn.com/2003/11/03/ebr5.htm
                                                                         59. Channels of Distribution,
  50. “United States Standards for Grades of Beets”                          http://www.nos.org/Secbuscour/20.pdf#search='distribu
      http://www.agribusinessonline.com/regulations/grades/                  tion%20channels%20for%20vegetables'
      grades_us_fresh/beets.pdf                                          60. “Explaining Grower’s Performance in Different
                                                                             Marketing Channels for Greenhouse Vegetables”,
General                                                                      Lusine Aramyan, Christien J.M. Ondersteijn, Alfons
                                                                             G.J.M. Oude Lansink, O. van Kooten, Jo H.M.
  51. Products: http://www.caei.ca/productlistframe.htm 1c                   Wijnands;
  52. Trends and Perpectives of Vegetable Brassica                           http://www.ifama.org/conferences/2004conference/Pap
      Breeding     World-Wide,      António      A.   Montei,                ers/Aramyan1049.pdf#search='distribution%20channel
      http://www.agrsci.unibo.it/wchr/wc2/monteiro.html 2c                   s%20for%20vegetables'
  53. www.unece.org                                                      61. Nicaragua Retail Food Sector, USDA Foreign
                                                                             Agricultural Service GAIN Report, 2/13/2004,
  54. “How Expensive Are Fruits and Vegetables - How                         http://www.fas.usda.gov/gainfiles/200402/146105462.p
      Much Do We Pay for Fruits and Vegetables”


Summer 2006                                              Florida International University                                       72
USAID                                                                                                              FIU
References

      df#search='nicaragua%20distribution%20channels%20                 http://www.importers.com/Directory.php?search=&section
      of%20vegetables'                                                  =414&search_role=all&countryID=167&Submit=Go
  62. Create a Graph,
      http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph/index.asp?ID         Upcoming Commercial Events/Trade Shows
      =D1964FC6A54A786B2
  63. El Salvador Product Brief Processed Fruits &                  64. Trade Event Calendars, Databases and Current Recruitment,
      Vegetables, 2001, Ana Elizabeth de Iglesias, Admin.                http://www.fas.usda.gov/agx/trade_events/trade_events.a
      Assistant,                                                         sp
      http://www.fas.usda.gov/GainFiles/200107/120681297.
      pdf#search='distribution%20channels%20for%20veget
      ables%20from%20central%20america'

Commercial Practices References

  64. Interview with Industry Expert: Carlos Garcia (Customs
      Agent in Mexico)
      June 10, 2006
  64. International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) 2006,
      http://www.iccwbo.org/

Market Perspectives

     61.http://www.agmarketing.ifas.ufl.edu/dlfiles/DadeAgL
     andRetentionAppendixVolumeC.pdf

Importers List and Distribution Networks
  62. “Foreign Importers and Buyers”,
      http://www.tradeindia.com/Importers_Buyers/Foreignim
      porters/Agriculture/Vegetable
  63. “Agri, Food, and Beverage”


Summer 2006                                            Florida International University                                      73

				
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