Urbanization and Immigration (PowerPoint)

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					Urbanization and Immigration

          Chapter 25
          Essential Questions?
• How did immigration and industrialization
  shape urban life?

• How did the rapid industrialization of the
  Gilded Age create economic, social, and
  political change in the US?
              Urban Frontier
• NY, Chicago, Philadelphia become cities of 1
  million people by 1890
• Skyscrapers, elevators, electric trolleys,
  electricity, plumbing, and telephones allow
  cities to expand upward and outward.
• De jure (by law) and de facto (by common
  occurrence) segregation creates ethnic
  neighborhoods in large cities.
               Urbanization
• Brooklyn Bridge an engineering marvel of the
  day
• Department stores and mail order catalogs
  become influential in urban and rural life
• Problems: waste disposal, crime, impure
  water, animal poo, urban slums, disease
  infestation, overcrowding, dumbbell
  tenements
Dumbbell Tenements
Waste Disposal
                 Old vs. New
• Old Immigrants: German, British, Irish
  – Primary immigrants before Civil War
• New Immigrants: Italian, Croats, Slovaks,
  Greeks, Poles, Chinese
  – Primary immigrants after Civil War
  – No history of democracy
  – Different language, religious beliefs, customs
  – Many feared new couldn’t assimilate
            Why’d They Come?
•   Overcrowding in Europe
•   Unemployment
•   “Land of Opportunity”
•   Industrialists welcomed and encouraged.
    Why?
Polish Immigrants
Italian Immigrants
    Reactions to New Immigrants
• Political machines used them for their benefit
• Settlement Houses: benevolent Americans
  established these to ease transition.
  – Jane Addams creates Hull House in Chicago
• Women take a leading role in helping these
  new Americans
  – Immigrant women enter the work force, mostly as
    textile workers
    Reactions to New Immigrants
• Nativism rears its ugly head
  – Fear that immigrants would ruin tradition,
    mongrelize
  – Fear of socialism, communism, and anarchism
  – American Protective Association- anti immigrant
• Industrialists new that immigrants were less
  likely to unionize. Why?
      Laws Against Immigration
• 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act: bans all Chinese
  immigration
• 1882: extremely poor, criminals, and convicts
  banned
• 1885: no foreign workers under contract
• 1917: literacy tests
Despite these obstacles immigrants poored into
  US
Statue of Liberty
         • Gift from France

         • Give me your tired, your
           poor
         • Your huddled masses
           yearning to breathe
           free,
         • The wretched refuse of
           your teeming shore.
                Darwin v. God
• Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species
  – Evolution, natural selection, survival of the fittest
  – By 1875, most scientist agreed
• Clergy rejected
  – Word of God Infalliable
• Many began to combine Darwin with religious
  thought
  – Creative Design
Charles Darwin
            Learnin’ and Such
• Tax-supported elementary schools are
  compulsory during this era.
• High schools and textbooks from tax dollars
  are on the rise
• “Normal schools” = teacher schools increase
• Private Catholic schools
• Cities offered better educational opportunities
  than the country
Different Responses to Segregation
• Booker T. Washington
  – Born a slave
  – Built the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama
  – Taught AA trades such as agriculture to help them
    achieve economic independence
  – Often avoided the issue of social and political
    equality
  – 1st: make AA economically healthy
  – 2nd: Reach for political and civil rights
Different Responses to Segregation
• Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois
  – From a upper middle class AA family
  – 1st AA to graduate from Harvard
  – Demanded immediately inclusion of AA in the
    social, economic, and political aspects of US.
  – Founder of the NAACP, editor of The Crisis
  – Called Washington and “Uncle Tom”
  – Late in life he denounced US citizenship
     Why Were They so Different?
Booker T. Washington   Dr. W. E. B. Du Bois
                   Mr. Peanut
• George Washington
  Carver
• Professor of agriculture
  at Tuskegee
• World renounced
  chemist
• Discovered hundreds of
  uses for peanuts
• Helped revitalize
  southern farming
              College Education
• Colleges increase after
  Civil War
• More women and
  minorities attend
  segregated and all-girls
  schools
• Morrill Act: 1862, gave
  federal land to states
  for military and
  agricultural schools
  (Land-grant schools)
              Other Schools
• Religious colleges flourished: Wake Forest
• New Industrialization demanded vocational
  training
• Medical schools became legitimate and
  increased: Duke
             What Cha’ Readin’
• Library of Congress builds a 13 acre building
• Public Libraries expand across the nation
   – Andrew Carnegie donates millions to libraries
• Newspaper circulation increases
   – Sensationalism sells papers: sex, scandals, snooping
   – Know: William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer:
     prominent editors of this era
   – Yellow Journalism: down playing legitimate news in
     favor of sensational stories
                   Activote
• 1. Who was a prominent immigration
  reformer?
  – A. Ida B. Wells
  – B. Carrie Nation
  – C. Susan B. Anthony
  – D. Jane Addams
  – E. Joseph Pulitzer
                 Activote
• 2. Which group is considered “new
  immigrants”?
  – A. Slovaks
  – B. Swedish
  – C. British
  – D. Germans
  – E. irish
                  Activote
• 3. Who was called an “accomodationist” by
  rivals?
  – A. WEB DuBois
  – B. Booker Washington
  – C. Barack Obama
  – D. George W. Carver
  – E. Marcus Garvey
                   Activote
• 4. What law created “land-grant” colleges?
  – A. Homestead Act
  – B. Interstate Commerce Act
  – C. Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  – D. Land-Grant Act
  – E. Morrill Act
                  Activote
• 5. Who used yellow journalism to their
  advantage?
  – A. Booker Washington
  – B. William McKinley
  – C. Andrew Carnegie
  – D. William R. Hearst
  – E. Terrence Hearst

				
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