Invertebrate Animal Diversity Study Guide
How did we get all of this invertebrate diversity?
What are the events that have led to today’s diversity?
What is the Cambrian Explosion and what are some potential causes for it?
What are some extinct groups of organisms that are related to living organisms now?
How can ancestral relationships be illustrated on phylogenetic trees?
What are sister taxa and how can you recognize them on a phylogenetic tree?
What are clades and can you recognize them on a tree?
Can you recognize older diversification events versus younger ones on a tree?
What is the common ancestor to all Metazoan life and what evidence supports this hypothesis?
Distinguish between plesiomorphies, synapomorphies, and autapomorphies? Know the key
features that led to today’s diversity (ie key examples of each of these from lecture)
Know the key features which unite the major clades and phyla of invertebrates.
What are the major extinction events and how have they affected diversity?
What are the main body plans of Poriferans?
What are some other important body plans discussed in class? What are the key features and
segments in these body plans (think chordates, arthropods, mollusks, etc)? How are they
modified across these groups?
Know some key sister taxa, and what unties them.
How do surface area:volume relationships affect the size of an organism?
Distinguish between multicellularity and coloniality.
What advantages to colonial organisms have over solitary organisms?
What are some unique features of freshwater organisms to deal challenges they face in their
Discuss feeding and defense in Cnidarians.
Compare and contrast swimming and locomotion in Scyphozoans and Ctenophores.
What is a hydrostatic skeleton? How is it involved in feeding and locomotion?
How does a neural net allow for differential cell signaling?
What are some examples of mutualism and how does each partner benefit?
Discuss bioluminescence. What organisms display this and how does this benefit the organisms?
Discuss reef-building in sponges and corals. How are they similar? Why are they important?
What is coral bleaching? What are some of the causes?
How do protostomes and deuterostomes differ in their development with respect to cleavage,
blastopore development, tissue layer organization, and cell fate?
How are tissue layers arranged in coelomates, acoelomates, and pseudocoelomates?
How do coelomic spaces aid in digestion and locomotion?
How do antagonistic muscles control movement in hydrostatic skeletons?
What other ways do we see invertebrates control movement (specifically think about unique
solutions using antagonistic muscles, hydrostats, exoskeletons, or others)
What are some adaptations seen in meiofauna and how do they relate to their ecology?
What is cryptobiosis?
Discuss the relationships of the Lophophorates and Trochozoans.
What are some advantages of metamerism?
What are some examples of different waste removal systems?
How do Annelid body plans relate to their habitat and locomotion?
Discuss some feeding strategies of Annelids and Annelid allies.
Discuss the all the common feeding methods we covered in lab and in class, how do they differ?
How do they reflect in the design of the organism? Can you think of any unique ones?
How do leeches differ from other Annelids with respect to body morphology, locomotion,
feeding, and reproduction?
How do Sipulculids, Echiurans, and Pogonophorans feed and obtain energy?
Compare and contrast body morphologies among the worm-like trochozoans.
What is the HAM and how does it compare to body morphologies seen in different Molluscan
What are some criteria that make invertebrates good biomonitors and bioindicators?
What are the functional tagma in Ecdysozoans?
Discuss feeding and digestion in Crustaceans.
What are the key morphological and mechanical features of exoskeletons?
How do exoskeletons allow for movement?
Discuss the 5 steps of molting.
How do hormones control molting in insects and crustaceans?
What are some adaptations that have allowed for terrestrialization?
What are 5 hypotheses regarding the evolution of wings from protowings?
Explain ametabolous, hemimetabolous, and holometabolous development in insects.
Compare and contrast tube-foot positioning in Echinoderms.
How do Echinoderms feed and defend themselves?
What are the key Chordate features?
Discuss jet propulsion. Which organisms use jet propulsion?
How do Larvaceans feed?
What are some of the key larval forms we discussed? Why are they important?
Know the key points of the guest lecture (Rob has telegraphed this one plenty of times).