Abstract Thesis This thesis examines the effects that choral singing can have on the construction of Australian Aboriginal identities. The research is based on outcomes of an applied ethnomusicological project undertaken in the Lutheran Australian Aboriginal community of Hopevale, Northern Queensland Australia between September 2004 and June 2005. The project methodology used was participatory action research (PAR). I facilitated the Hopevale Community Choir to promote local wellbeing. The theoretical basis underpinning this approach is outlined in chapter one. Chapter two looks at the practicalities of the applied methodology and how I developed an ethnographically informed approach to choral facilitation. In the third chapter I use choir members’ biographies to investigate how choral singing influenced the lives of individual singers. Here I describe Hopevalian performance aesthetics based on the concept of ‘communal individuality’ where individual performers are seen as being as important as the choir as a whole. Chapter four, five and six discuss the influences of Australian social history and local Hopevalian history on the construction of identities. Chapter four presents the non- localised meta-theory related to constructs of Aboriginality. Chapters five and six examine localised, context-specific Hopevalian history and historiography and its impact on constructs of Hopevalian identity. In chapter six I show how hymnody was used in Hopevale during missionisation to influence local identities. In chapter seven I describe the choir’s four-day tour through Northern Queensland. I use the tour to further examine the relationship between Aboriginality, spirituality, tourism and wellbeing in relation to choral singing. The conclusion functions as an evaluation and summary of the applied project. It assesses the implications of the research outcomes and offers suggestions for future research. Throughout this thesis there is an emphasis on Aboriginal diversity, a concern for ‘voice’ in the construction of ethnography and advocacy for Aboriginal rights.