ABILITY AND ACHIEVEMENT

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					                          Ability & Achievement
ABILITY AND ACHIEVEMENT




                          1
    REVISED INTELLIGENCE STRUCTURE TEST
                                     (IST-R)

        D. Liepman, A.Beauducel, B. Brocke, R. Amthauer

         Purpose
         The IST-R is an intelligence test battery with a broad range of applications, based on the
         structural model of intelligence.

         Age Range
         15 to 60 years.

         Time
         Depending on which modules are used, the time taken for the test can range from 77
         minutes (basic module) to 130 minutes.

         Qualification Level 2

        Areas Measured
        The battery measures Verbal, Numerical and Figural intelligence. Each area of intelligence
        is assessed through three sub-tests.

        • The Verbal Intelligence sub-tests are Sentence Completion, Verbal Analogies and
          Similarities.

        • The Numerical Intelligence sub-tests are: Numerical Calculations, Number Series
          and Numerical Signs.

        • The Figural Intelligence sub-tests are: Figure Selection, Cubes and Matrices.

        The inclusion of three sub-tests in each area means several different types of item are used
        to measure each area. Thus the battery avoids the error of simply equating one particular
        type of item with an individual area of ability. When all nine sub-tests are administered, an
        overall score on reasoning is computed along with separate scores for each ability area and
        the sub-tests within that area.

        This version of IST contains the verbal, numerical and figural/spatial ability modules. The
        following additional components of the complete battery are currently being developed
        for the UK edition:

        • Verbal memory

        • Figural memory

        • Logical thinking

        • Figural-visual knowledge

        • Numerical knowledge

        • General knowledge.

        The complex structure on which the battery is based is reported in Beauducel, Brocke and
        Liepmann (2001) and Liepmann, Beauducel, Brocke and Amthauer (2007). The full battery
        also differentiates fluid intelligence and crystallised intelligence. The IST-R thus allows
        intellectual abilities to be assessed in a contemporary and well-differentiated manner.




2
                                                                                               Ability & Achievement
Administration and Scoring
The battery can be administered individually or in a group setting.


Psychometric Properties
• The total normative sample consisted of 1894 cases from 15 to 69 years. Age specific
  norms are provided. The sample came from England (London and Leeds), Ireland
  and Wales. It comprised male and female school children, apprentices, students
  and professionals from various fields.

• Internal consistencies (Cronbach’s alphas) range from .86 to .95 for the factor scores
  with an internal consistency of .95 for the Total Reasoning score.

• Internal consistencies for the sub-scales range from .69 to .79 (Verbal sub-scales),
  .86 to .91 (Numerical sub-scales) and .76 to .82 (Figural sub-scales). Co-efficients are
  presented separately for the males and females as well as for the total sample.

• Item-total correlations and difficulty levels are presented for each item.

• Confirmatory factor analysis supports a three factor solution. The Factor correlations
  indicate that a second order factor representing reasoning can be formed.

• Evidence of validity is derived by means of multivariate analyses. Correlations with
  other assessment instruments (d2 test, WAIS-R, MWT-BV, CFT20 and FRT) as well as
  with school performance indicate convergent and discriminant validity.

Product Code Description                                               Quantity      Price
5535901      Basic Module Form A, Basic Module Form B, Extended Module 1             £224.00
             A, Extended Module B, 15 Answer Sheet Knowledge Test
             Form A/B, Templates Basic Module Form A (2), Templates
             Basic Module Form B (2), Template Knowledge Test Form A,
             Template Knowledge Test Form B, 15 Scoring Sheet Extended
             Module, 15 Test Profile, Empty Folder.
5535902      IST Manual                                                1             £94.00
5535903       IST Basic Module Form A                                         1      £7.40
5535904       IST Basic Module Form B                                         1      £7.40
5535905       Extended Module Form A                                          1      £5.60
5535906       Extended Module Form B                                          1      £5.60
5535907       Answer Sheet Basic Module Form A/B                              50     £34.00
5535908       Answer Sheet Knowledge Test Form A/B                            50     £22.00
5535909       Templates Basic Module Form A                                   2      £22.00
5535910       Templates Basic Module Form B                                   2      £22.00
5535911       Template Knowledge Test Form A                                  1      £19.40
5535912       Template Knowledge Test Form B                                  1      £19.40
5535913       Scoring Sheet Extended Module                                   50     £22.00
5535914       Test Profile                                                    50     £34.00
5535915       Empty Folder                                                    1      £11.40
5974703       IST Online Administration and Report Generation (HTS)           1      £12.00
5974704       IST Bureau Processing Fee (Hogrefe administer the test and      1      £12.00
              generate reports on your behalf)
5974705       IST Hogrefe Full Bureau Service (Incorporates administration,   1      £38.00
              report processing and telephone feedback *price of test not
              included)




                                                                                               3
    REYNOLDS INTELLECTUAL ASSESSMENT SCALES™
                     (RIAS™)

           Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD & Randy W. Kamphaus, PhD

            Purpose
            To assess verbal intelligence, non-verbal intelligence and memory.

            Age Range
            3 to 94 years.

            Time
            Administration time is 30 to 35 minutes for all sub-tests; 20 to 25 minutes for overall
            general intelligence and 10 minutes for memory assessment.

            Qualification Level 2

           Key features
           • A high quality, reliable instrument providing the necessary information to help
             clinicians make decisions regarding classification, selection and educational placement.
           • Provides a thorough assessment of the client’s current level of intellectual
             functioning and also allows the assessor to evaluate the relationship between
             memory and cognitive skills.
           • Time efficient and cost effective.
           • Facilitates continuity of measurement across all developmental stages from ages 3
             to 94 years for both clinical and research purposes.
           • Eliminates dependence on motor coordination and visual motor speed in the
             measurement of intelligence.
           • Eliminates dependence on reading for the measurement of intelligence.
           • Provides accurate prediction of basic academic achievement that is comparable to
             that of intelligence tests two or three times longer than the RIAS.
           • Avoids items that show differential item functioning associated with gender or
             ethnicity.


           Areas Measured
           The RIAS includes a two sub-test Verbal Intelligence Index (VIX), a two sub-test Nonverbal
           Intelligence Index (NIX), and a Composite Intelligence Index (CIX) (created by combining
           the VIX and NIX sub-tests).

           • The CIX assesses overall general intelligence (g), including the ability to reason, solve
             problems and learn.
           • The VIX assesses verbal intelligence by measuring verbal problem solving and verbal
             reasoning where acquired knowledge and skills are important.
           • The NIX assesses non-verbal intelligence by measuring reasoning and spatial ability
             using novel situations and stimuli that are predominantly non-verbal.
           • The CMX is a Composite Memory Index derived from two supplementary
             memory sub-tests; Verbal Memory and Nonverbal Memory. The Verbal Memory
             sub-test provides a basic, overall measure of short-term memory skills (e.g. working
             memory, short-term memory, learning) and measures recall in the verbal domain.
             The Nonverbal Memory sub-test measures the ability to recall pictorial stimuli in
             both concrete and abstract dimensions.




4
                                                                                                 Ability & Achievement
Psychometric Properties
• The Professional Manual provides normative data based on 2,438 individuals ages 3
 to 94 years residing in 41 U.S. states, matched to the 2001 U.S. Census data for age,
 gender, geographic region, ethnicity, and years of education completed.
• Analyses of the reliability of the RIAS demonstrate relatively high reliability with
 respect to internal consistency, over time and consistency between multiple
 administrators.
• Reliability is shown to be robust with respect to age, gender and ethnicity.
• The RIST (Screening version of the RIAS) shows internal consistencies and test-
 retest reliabilities that are sufficient for screening purposes.
• The Professional manual presents evidence of the validity of RIAS as a measure of
 intelligence and memory. Evidence includes exploratory and confirmatory factor
 analyses as well as correlations with other tests.

Product Code Description                                                    Quantity   Price
5516000      RIAS Introductory Kit (Includes RIAS/RIST Professional         1          £380.00
             Manual, 3 Volume Set of Stimulus Books, 25 RIAS/RIST Record
             Forms, in a soft sided attache case)
5516001      RIAS/RIST Combination Kit (Includes RIAS Professional Manu-    1          £398.00
             al, 3 Volume Set of Stimulus books, 25 RIAS Record Forms and
             25 RIST Record Forms, in a soft attache case)
5516002      Professional Manual RIAS/RIST                                  1          £98.00
5516006      RIAS Record Forms                                              25         £60.00
5516003      RIAS/RIST Stimulus Book 1                                      1          £78.00
5516004      RIAS Stimulus Book 2                                           1          £78.00
5516005      RIAS Stimulus Book 3                                           1          £99.00




                                                                                                 5
    REYNOLDS INTELLECTUAL SCREENING TEST
                   (RIST)

          Randy W. Kamphaus, PhD and Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD

           Purpose
           To provide clinicians with a quick overall estimate of general intelligence, as well as
           enough information to determine if a more comprehensive evaluation is warranted.

           Age Range
           3 to 94 years.

           Time
           10 to 15 minutes.

           Qualification Level 2

          The RIST provides a quick, reliable assessment of an individual’s general cognitive abilities.
          It is not intended to replace a more comprehensive intellectual assessment such as the
          RIAS or other similar instruments. The RIST may be used by a variety of individuals under
          the supervision of a professional with appropriate training and credentials for using
          intelligence tests.

          Derived from the Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales™ (RIAS™), this brief screening
          measure helps to identify individuals ages 3 to 94 years who need a more comprehensive
          intellectual assessment, or to document the continuing presence of intellectual deficits.
          The RIST serves as a quick screener at re-evaluation or follow-up when a full RIAS may
          not be warranted. It also provides a quick overall estimate of general intelligence (g) for
          individuals with intellectual strengths who may benefit from a full RIAS evaluation that
          may result in placement in educational programmes for the gifted and/or talented.
          The RIST is also a valuable tool for estimating intelligence in large groups, research
          investigations, determining the current cognitive status of patients, planning vocational
          and rehabilitation programmes, multiple gate assessments, and reassessing individuals
          who have had a previous comprehensive evaluation.

          The RIST consists of two RIAS sub-tests: ‘Guess What’ (a verbal sub-test) and ‘Odd-
          Item Out’ (a non-verbal sub-test). These two sub-tests were selected on the basis of
          theoretical, empirical, and practical considerations. ‘Guess What’ is a classic measure of
          crystallised intelligence, whereas ‘Odd-Item Out’ shares characteristics with marker tasks
          of fluid intelligence. Both sub-tests have good psychometric properties, factor analytic
          and criterion-related validity evidence, and both are efficiently administered and scored.
          The summed sub-test T-scores are converted to yield the RIST Index (M=100, SD=15).
          Conversion tables provided in the RIAS/RIST Professional Manual can be used to obtain
          percentile ranks, 90% and 95% confidence intervals, T-scores, z-scores, NCEs and stanines.
          RIST norms are based on the RIAS normative sample of 2,438 individuals.

          The examiner presents the two RIST sub-tests (‘Guess What’ and ‘Odd-Item Out’) to the
          client, beginning with the age-based sub-test item, and then records the client’s responses
          on the RIST Record Form. Item administration continues until the end rule criterion for
          each sub-test is met. The Total Raw Score for each sub-test is transferred to the RIST Score
          Summary Table on the RIST Record Form. Each sub-test raw score is converted to a T-score
          using the appropriate age-specific conversion tables provided in the RIAS/RIST Professional
          Manual.




6
                                                                                                 Ability & Achievement
Psychometric Properties
The RIST was administered to 507 individuals representing 15 different clinical groups.
Those individuals diagnosed with learning disabilities or dementia had mean RIST
Index scores in the mid 70s, well below the normal population mean. Thus, the RIST can
effectively differentiate between individuals with and without intellectual impairment.

The RIST reliability data support its use as an intellectual screening instrument. For the
RIST Index, the median reliability (alpha) coefficient is .95, test-retest reliability is .84
(corrected for restriction of range), and the median SEM is 3.35. These data suggest that
the RIST functions well as either a first or second screening gate.

The RIST Index is highly correlated with the FSIQs of the WISC-III® (.83) and the WAIS®-III
(.67). The relationships between the RIST Index and the WISC-III and WAIS-III VIQs and PIQs
are similar to the pattern found for the RIAS Indexes. Thus, evidence supports the RIST as
an appropriate screening instrument for intelligence.

The RIST correlates well with the WIAT®, a measure of academic achievement. Similar to
results for the RIAS, the highest correlations are between the RIST Index and the WIAT®
mathematics (.69), language (.67), and Total Composite (.66) scores.

Product Code Description                                                    Quantity   Price
5562701      RIST Introductory Kit (Includes RIAS/RIST Professional         1          £192.00
             Manual, RIAS/RIST Stimulus Book 1, and 25 RIST Record
             Forms)
5562702      RIAS/RIST Professional Manual                                  1          £98.00
5562703      RIST Record Forms                                              25         £38.00
5562704      RIAS/RIST Stimulus Book 1                                      1          £78.00
5562705      RIST to RIAS Conversion Kit (Includes Stimulus Books 2 and 3   1          £220.00
             and 25 RIAS Record Forms in a soft-sided attache case)




                                                                                                 7
           SON-R NON-VERBAL INTELLIGENCE TEST 2.5-7 YEARS
                            (SON-R 2.5-7)

                              P. J. Tellegren, M. Winkel & J. A. Laros

                               Purpose
                               The SON-R tests are used to measure general intelligence in children. The sub-tests
                               measure abstract and concrete reasoning, spatial ability and visual perception. The use
                               of written or spoken language is not required during testing. Thus SON-R is especially
                               suited to children with difficulties in the area of language and verbal communication
                               and for children where English is not the first language.

                               Age Range
                               The SON-R tests are suitable for all children between the ages of 2.5 to 7 years in two
                               separate age groups (for description of the SON-R 5.5-17 years see page 10).

                               Time
                               Approximately 50 minutes (excluding breaks).

                               Qualification Level 2

                              Key features
                              • The adaptive test procedure and the feedback that is given after each item enhance
                                    motivation in the test taker and contribute to the general acceptability of the
                                    instrument.
                              • The fact that the scales do not require written or spoken language during testing makes
                                    them particularly suited for:

                                ◦      Children with hearing impairment
                                ◦      Children with language or verbal communication difficulties
                                ◦      Children with autism or ASD
                                ◦      Children whose first language is not the language of the test version used
                                ◦      Children and adults with learning disabilities
                                ◦      Children who are difficult to test (e.g. because of test anxiety).




    Name of sub-test   Task part 1                              Task part 2
    1. Mosaics         Copying different mosaic patterns        Copying mosaic patterns in a frame using red, yellow and
                       in a frame using 3-5 red squares.        red/yellow squares.

    2. Categories      Sorting cards into two groups            Three pictures of objects have something in common.
                       according to the category to which       From a series of five pictures, two must be chosen that
                       they belong.                             have the same thing in common.

    3. Puzzles         Puzzle pieces must be laid in            Putting three to six separate puzzle pieces together to
                       a frame to resemble a given              form a whole.
                       example.

    4. Analogies       Sorting discs into two                   Solving an analogy problem by applying the same rule as
                       compartments on the basis of             in the example.
                       form and/or colour and/or size.

    5. Situations      Half of each of four pictures            One or two pieces are missing from a drawing of a
                       is printed. The missing halves           situation. The correct pieces) must be selected from a
                       must be placed with the correct          number of alternatives.
                       pictures.

    6. Patterns        Copying a simple pattern.                Copying more complex patterns.




8
                                                                                                  Ability & Achievement
The sub-tests can be grouped into two types: reasoning tests, (Categories, Analogies and
Situations) and spatial performance tests (Mosaics, Puzzles and Patterns). The performance
tests are so-called because the item is solved while manipulating the test stimuli. In
the reasoning tests the correct solution is chosen from a number of given alternatives.
However, perceptual, spatial and reasoning ability play a role in all of the sub-tests.

The performance sub-tests can be found in a similar form in other intelligence tests
although in other tests these require verbal directions. Reasoning tests are also found
in other batteries but they often have a verbal form, (e.g. verbal analogies). An adaptive
procedure is used to prevent the administration of too many easy or too many difficult
items.


Administration and Scoring
Administration can be non-verbal or with verbal directions. The spoken directions do
not give any additional information. The choice of administration format allows for the
assessor to adapt to the communication ability of each child. Administration takes about
50 minutes (excluding breaks). Time limits for completing items are only used in the
second part of the performance tests and the time limit is generous.

An important way in which SON-R tests differ from most intelligence tests is that after
each item feedback is given by telling the test taker whether the solution was correct
or incorrect. The test administrator provides help in the case of incorrect solutions by
demonstrating what the correct answer should be. One of the advantages of this is that
the test taker has the opportunity to adjust his or her strategy. In traditional tests where no
feedback is allowed the test-taker may assume incorrect answers are correct and continue
using a faulty strategy.

Scoring and analysis software is supplied with the kit. After the raw scores, the test date
and the date of birth have been entered, the standardised scores are calculated and a
profile sheet can be printed out. The standardised scores are based on the exact age of
the subject.

Psychometric Properties
• UK normative data is currently being analysed for 673 children from England,
  Wales and Scotland of the age of 2.6 up to 6.11 years. The following psychometric
  properties are based on the Dutch standardisation sample.
• The mean internal consistency of the sub-tests is .72.
• The mean reliability of the overall is .90 increasing with age from .86 (two-year olds)
  to .92 (7 year olds).
• Test-retest reliability of the overall IQ score (with an interval of 3-4 months) is .79.
• Correlation with teachers ratings: .46.
• Mean correlation with WPPSI-R: .75 and mean correlation with BAS: .85.
• Numerous studies have been conducted with clinical groups to confirm the validity
  of the test.

Product Code Description                                                    Quantity Price
5513501      Test carrying-case, test material, inclusive of software       1        £1,336.00
             analysis program but not including manual, record sheets
             and consumable materials.
5513502      Manual                                                         1         £88.00
5513505      Record Forms                                                   50        £68.00
5513503      Question Booklets for Patterns sub-test                        50        £160.00
5513506      Software program for analysis (CD)                             1         £218.00




                                                                                                  9
        SON-R NON-VERBAL INTELLIGENCE TEST 5.5-17 YEARS
                         (SON-R 5.5-17)

                          P. J. Tellegren, M. Winkel & J. A. Laros

                           Purpose
                           The SON-R 5.5-17 assesses a broad spectrum of cognitive abilities without involving
                           the use of language. This makes it especially suited to children with difficulties in the
                           area of language and verbal communication and for children for whom English is not
                           the first language.

                           Age Range
                           The SON-R tests are suitable for all children between the ages of 2.5 to 17 years in two
                           separate age groups (for a description of the SON-R 2-5.5 - see page 8).

                           Time
                           1 to 2 hours.
                           Qualification Level 2


                          Key features
                          The adaptive test procedure and the feedback that is given after each item enhance
                          subject motivation and contribute to the general acceptability of the instrument.

                          The fact that the scales do not require written or spoken language during testing makes
                          them particularly suited for:

                          • Children with hearing impairment
                          • Children with language or verbal communication difficulties
                          • Children with autism or ASD
                          • Children whose first language is not the language of the test version used
                          • Children and adults with learning disabilities
                          • Children who are difficult to test (e.g. because of test anxiety).


                          Areas Measured
                          SON-R 5.5-17 comprises of seven different sub-tests which are administered in the order
                          below:


     Name of Sub-test       Description

     1. Categories          Three pictures of objects have an underlying concept in common. From a series of five
                            pictures, two must be chosen that have the same thing in common.

     2. Mosaics             Copying mosaic patterns in a frame using red and white squares.

     3. Hidden Pictures     A search object is printed on the flap of a main picture. This object is hidden a number of
                            times in the main picture.

     4. Patterns            Each pattern consists of one or more continuing lines that each has its own systematic
                            pattern. The middle part is missing and the respondent is required to fill this in.

     5. Situations          One or two pieces are missing from a drawing of a situation. The correct piece(s) must be
                            selected from a number of alternatives.

     6. Analogies           Solving an analogy problem by applying the same rule as in the example.

     7. Stories             A number of picture cards are placed in the wrong sequence. The respondent is required to
                            discover the story and place the cards in the correct sequence.




10
                                                                                                     Ability & Achievement
The first three of the sub-tests are multiple choice; the other four are performance tests
based on observation of activity. In terms of content, the sub-tests can be divided into four
groups: abstract reasoning (Categories and Analogies), concrete reasoning (Situations and
Stories), spatial ability (Mosaics and Patterns) and perceptual ability (Hidden Pictures). An
adaptive test procedure is used which reduces by half the number of items that would
otherwise need to be used.


Administration and Scoring
Administration takes about one to two hours. An important way in which SON-R tests
differ from most intelligence tests is that after each item feedback is given by telling the
test taker whether the solution was correct or incorrect. The test administrator provides
help in the case of incorrect solutions by demonstrating what the correct answer should
be. One of the advantages of this is that the test taker has the opportunity to adjust his or
her strategy. In traditional tests where no feedback is allowed the test taker may assume
incorrect answers are correct and continue using a faulty strategy. The disadvantage of
giving feedback is the fact that receiving negative feedback can be demotivating. This
drawback is partly compensated for through the adaptive nature of the test procedure.


Software for scoring and analysis is available. After the raw scores, the test date and the
date of birth have been entered, the standard scores are calculated and a profile can be
printed out. The standardised scores are based on the exact age of the subject.


Psychometric Properties
• The internal consistency of the individual sub-tests across the age group ranges
  from .71-.82.
• The average reliability of the sub-tests is .76.

• The reliability for the overall score on the test is .93.

• For test takers with hearing impediments scores on SON-R 5.5-17 years show a
  correlation of .76 with scores on previous editions of the SON administered more
  than three years earlier.

• There are clear relationships with various indicators of school performance.

• Data is also provided on relationship of scores with time of administration; regional
  differences, sex differences and ethnic groups.

Product Code Description                                                       Quantity Price
5513601      Test carrying-case, test material, inclusive of software analy-   1        £1,266.00
             sis program but not including manual, record sheets and
             consumable materials.
5513602      Manual                                                            1        £88.00
5513605      Record Forms                                                      50       £66.00
5513603      Question Booklets for Patterns sub-test and 50 Search forms       50       £224.00
             for Hidden Pictures sub-test.
5513606      Software program for analysis (CD)                                1        £218.00




                                                                                                    11
     TEST OF IRREGULAR WORD READING EFFICIENCY
                      (TIWRE)

           Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD and Randy W. Kamphaus, PhD

            Purpose
            To assess reading comprehension through the use of phonetically irregular words.

            Age Range
            3 to 94 years.

            Time
            2 minutes per form.

            Qualification Level 2

           The TIWRE offers a rapid assessment of the examinee’s reading vocabulary by using
           the pronunciation of phonetically irregular words to measure reading comprehension.
           Phonetically irregular words cannot be pronounced correctly unless they are already a part
           of the reader’s vocabulary, and therefore they are especially useful for measuring reading
           comprehension. The TIWRE is different from other reading comprehension assessments
           because it utilises this concept and presents only phonetically irregular letters and words
           for pronunciation. This easy-to-administer measure is supported by validity evidence and
           is highly reliable. With three equivalent forms, the TIWRE provides its user with the ability
           to monitor changes in reading performance over relatively short periods of time with no
           detectable practice effect from testing itself.

           The TIWRE was designed to have multiple applications in a variety of environments,
           including educational, clinical and rehabilitation settings. It can be used to assess current
           reading level, to measure response to intervention (RTI) in reading, to assess reading
           levels for completing self-reports or questionnaires and to screen for individual reading
           difficulties rapidly. The TIWRE can enhance the accuracy and overall efficacy of progress
           monitoring and can lead to more frequent, accurate assessments of real reading skill in a
           variety of contexts.

           Psychometric Properties
           The TIWRE was normed using a large, nationally-drawn U.S. stratified sample of 2,438
           individuals ages 3 to 94 years. Reliability coefficients for all forms are in the mid-to-
           high .90s. Change in reading comprehension is measured by comparing scores from
           two administrations and using the provided pre-calculated significance score ranges to
           determine statistically significant levels of change.

            Product Code Description                                                   Quantity Price
            5514831      TIWRE Introductory Kit (Includes TIWRE Professional Manual,   1        £146.00
                         25 Record Forms, 25 Profile Forms and Set of 3 Laminated
                         Stimulus Cards)
            5514832      TIWRE Professional Manual                                     1        £54.00
            5514833      TIWRE Record Forms                                            25       £40.00
            5514834      TIWRE Profile Forms                                           25       £32.00
            5514835      TIWRE Laminated Stimulus Cards (Set of 3)                     1        £28.00




12
                                                                                                 Ability & Achievement
  TEST OF MEMORY AND LEARNING (TOMAL-2)


Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD and Judith K. Voress, PhD

 Purpose
 To assess memory functioning in children, adolescents and adults.

 Age Range
 5 to 59 years 11 months.

 Time
 Core Battery: 30 minutes; Core plus Supplementary: 60 minutes.

 Qualification Level 2

The TOMAL-2 is a memory battery used for evaluating general and specific memory
function for children, adolescents, and adults ages 5 to 59 years 11 months. The standard
battery for the TOMAL-2 consists of eight core sub-tests, six supplementary sub-tests and
two delayed recall tasks.

TOMAL-2 sub-tests include Memory for Stories, Facial Memory, Word Selective Reminding,
Visual Selective Reminding, Object Recall, Abstract Visual Memory, Digits Forward, Visual
Sequential Memory, Paired Recall, Memory for Location, Manual Imitation, Letters Forward,
Digits Backward, and Letters Backward, plus two verbal delayed recall tasks and cued recall
procedures. TOMAL-2 core indexes consist of the Verbal Memory Index, Nonverbal Memory
Index and Composite Memory Index. TOMAL-2 supplementary indexes are composed
of the Verbal Delayed Recall Index, Learning Index, Attention and Concentration Index,
Sequential Memory Index, Free Recall Index and the Associative Recall Index.


Key features
• Reduced administration time.
• Additional analyses to ensure a culturally fair assessment of memory.
• Improved scoring and administration.
• Expanded norms—now normed for children, adolescents and adults, ages 5 to 59
  years 11 months.
• Reformulated core sub-tests and core indexes.
• Redesigned, convenient to use Record Booklet.
• New Verbal Delayed Recall Index .
• Additional interpretive tables and text.


Psychometric Properties
The TOMAL-2 was normed on more than 1,900 children, adolescents and adults ages 5 to
59 years 11 months, drawn from 31 states representing all major regions of the U.S. The
sample was designed to be representative of the U.S. population as a whole on gender, age,
ethnicity, urban/rural residence and geographic distribution. The TOMAL-2 was evaluated
at the item and sub-test levels for both gender and ethnic bias. The results of these studies
provide strong evidence for a lack of bias and favour consistency across gender and across
U.S. born ethnic populations.

The TOMAL-2 scores include standardised or scaled scores and percentiles. Sub-test
scaled scores appear in a familiar metric with a mean of 10 and a standard deviation
of 3. Composite scores and indexes also are scaled to a familiar metric for ease of use
and comparability with other tests (M=100; SD=15). Reliability estimates are uniformly
high, with all composite and some sub-test reliability values in the .90s, with the balance




                                                                                                13
     exceeding .85. Test-retest reliability coefficients are all greater than .70 for the sub-tests,
     with most greater than .80. For the composite indexes all but one value exceeds .80.


     Product Code Description                                                   Quantity Price
     5514841      TOMAL-2 Complete Kit (Includes TOMAL-2 Examiner's             1        £368.00
                  Manual, Picture Book A, Picture Book B, 25 Profile/Summary
                  Forms, 25 Examiner Record Booklets, a set of Delayed Recall
                  Cue Cards, Visual Selective Reminding Test Board, and 15
                  Facial Memory Chips)
     5514842      TOMAL-2 Examiner's Manual                                     1        £70.00
     5514843      TOMAL-2 Profile/Summary Forms                                 25       £44.00
     5514844      TOMAL-2 Examiner Record Booklets                              25       £64.00




14
                                                                                                                       Ability & Achievement
   WIDE-RANGE ASSESSMENT OF MEMORY AND
            LEARNING (WRAML2)

David Sheslow, PhD, Wayne Adams, PhD

 Purpose
 Evaluating an individual’s memory functioning, both immediate and delayed memory
 ability, as well as the acquisition of new learning.

 Age Range
 5 to 90 years.

 Time
 Core battery: less than one hour.

 Qualification Level 2

The WRAML2 Core Battery is composed of two Verbal, two Visual and two Attention/
Concentration sub-tests, yielding a Verbal Memory Index and an Attention/Concentration
Index. Together, these sub-tests yield a General Memory Index. A new Working Memory
Index has been added, which is comprised of the Symbolic Working Memory and Verbal
Memory sub-tests. Four new recognition sub-tests have been added: Design Recognition,
Picture Recognition, Verbal Recognition and Story Memory Recognition. The Story Memory
sub-test includes new stories, and the Picture Memory sub-test provides new full colour
scenes. The designs on the Design Memory Cards have been changed, and an additional
Design Card has been added.

The Core Battery takes less than an hour to administer. A Screening Battery, consisting of
four sub-tests from the Core Battery provides an overview of memory functioning. Several
sub-tests are included to supplement the Core Battery, allowing the examiner to add
additional sub-tests and indices to facilitate qualitative analyses when indicated.


Essentials of WRAML2 and TOMAL-2 Assessment
Two widely used memory measures, WRAML2 and the Test of Memory and Learning, 2nd
Edition (TOMAL-2) are used to help professionals measure memory and to supplement
evaluations of ADHD and reading problems in children and adolescents, as well as a
number of other disorders for people of many ages. The authors give practical guidance
about administration, scoring and interpretation of results for both assessment measures.
This book is designed to help busy mental health professionals quickly learn the skills
needed to administer and interpret both the WRAML2 and the TOMAL-2.


Optional Scoring Software
The WRAML2 Scoring Software provides unlimited reports and is easy to use. Enter the
individual’s name, age and test date, and the raw test data as requested. As raw scores
are entered, scaled scores and other interpretive information appear automatically. After
all requested information is filled in, the program prints out a completed report which
includes: the conversion of Raw Scores to Scaled Scores, Index Scores and Percentiles;
a Core sub-test and Optional sub-test Scaled Score Chart; a WRAML2 Index Chart; an
Index Discrepancy Analyses; the differences between Core sub-test scores and related
Recognition sub-test scores; Retention Scores for Story Memory, Sound Symbol, and Verbal     Computer requirements:
Learning; a Qualitative Analysis of Story Memory; a chart of Verbal Learning performance     Windows® 98/Me/2000/
across trials with related Slope and Retention Scores; and a chart of Sound Symbol           XP, Windows® Vista™
performance across trials with related Slope and Retention information.                      with Administrator
                                                                                             permissions; CD-ROM
                                                                                             drive.



                                                                                                                      15
     Psychometric Properties
     The new WRAML2 is normed for children, adolescents and adults ages 5 to 90 years. The
     normative sample was constructed using a national (U.S.) stratified sampling technique,
     controlling for age, sex, race, religion and education.

     As with the original WRAML, the WRAML2 includes standard scores, scaled scores and
     percentiles. Age equivalents are provided for the child and pre-adolescent age groups. Only
     one sub-test (Visual Learning) was eliminated in the revision.

     Alpha reliabilities for the Core Battery Verbal Memory Index, Visual Memory Index and
     Attention/Concentration index are .92, .89, and .86 respectively. The alpha reliability for the
     General Index is .93.

     Product Code Description                                                  Quantity Price
     5516901      WRAML2 Introductory Kit (Includes WRAML2 Administration      1        £462.00
                  and Scoring Manual, 25 Examiners Forms, 25 Picture
                  Memory Response Forms, 25 Picture Memory Recognition
                  Forms, 25 Design Memory Response Forms, 25 Design
                  Memory Recognition Forms, 4 Picture Memory Scenes, 5
                  Design Memory Cards, Finger Window Cards, Sound Symbol
                  Booklet, 2 Symbolic Working Memory Cards in a soft case
                  with removable strap)
     5516902      WRAML2 Administration and Scoring Manual                     1         £81.00
     5516903      WRAML2 Examiners Forms                                       25        £62.00
     5516904      WRAML2 Picture Memory Response Forms                         25        £44.00
     5516905      WRAML2 Picture Memory Recognition Forms                      25        £44.00
     5516906      WRAML2 Design Memory Response Forms                          25        £34.00
     5516907      WRAML2 Design Memory Recognition Forms                       25        £34.00
     5516908      WRAML2 Picture Memory Cards (Set of 4)                       1         £24.00
     5516909      WRAML2 Design Cards                                          1         £34.00
     5516910      WRAML2 Finger Window Card                                    1         £34.00
     5516911      WRAML2 Sound Symbol Booklet                                  1         £52.00
     5516912      WRAML2 Working Memory Cards (Set of 2)                       1         £44.00




16
                                                                                              Ability & Achievement
  WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST 4 (WRAT4)


Gary S. Wilkinson, PhD & Gary J. Robertson, PhD
 Purpose
 To measure reading, spelling and mathematical computation.

 Age Range
 5 to 94 years (Individual or group administration).

 Time
 Approximately 15 to 25 minutes for respondents in the 5 to 7 year age range.
 Approximately 35 to 45 minutes for respondents who are 8 years or older.

 Qualification Level 2

The Wide Range Achievement Test 4 (WRAT4) is the latest offering in a test series first
published in 1946. The various editions of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT)
have enjoyed widespread use in a variety of settings as a measure of the basic academic
skills necessary for effective learning, communication and thinking, reading, spelling and
performing basic mathematical calculations.


Applications
• Enables collection of initial data for psychological, educational and vocational
  assessments.

• Time-efficient small group administration in selected maths and spelling areas to
  assist in identification of individuals requiring a more comprehensive academic
  evaluation.

• In conjunction with the WRAT-Expanded (see page 20), a broader range of academic
  skills can be assessed for the diagnosis of specific learning disorders by identifying
  discrepancies between achievement and reasoning ability.

• Academic progress can be assessed over time.

• Individuals diagnosed with learning and/or cognitive disorders can be re-evaluated.


New features in the fourth Edition

• Updated norms.

• An entirely new measure of reading achievement; Sentence Comprehension, has
  been added to enhance the range of content and in response to user feedback
  suggesting a need for a measure of reading comprehension.

• Age-based norms also have been extended from age 75 years in the third edition
  to age 94 years in the fourth edition to allow assessment of basic literacy skills in
  older adults.




                                                                                             17
     Areas Measured
     The WRAT4 includes four sub-tests:
     Word Reading measures letter and word decoding through letter identification and word
     recognition.
     Sentence Comprehension measures an individual’s ability to gain meaning from words
     and to comprehend ideas and information contained in sentences through the use of a
     modified closed technique.
     Spelling measures an individual’s ability to encode sounds into written form through the
     use of a dictated spelling format containing both letters and words.
     Math Computation measures an individual’s ability to perform basic mathematics
     computations through counting, identifying numbers, solving simple oral problems and
     calculating written mathematics problems.

     In addition to providing derived scores and interpretive information for the sub-tests, the
     WRAT4 also yields a Reading Composite score, obtained by combining the Word Reading
     and Sentence Comprehension standard scores.


     Administration and Scoring
     Administration time varies depending upon the age, skill and behavioural style of the
     individual being tested. For children (ages 8 years and older) and adults, the administration
     time is between 30 to 45 minutes. For younger children (ages 5 to 7 years) the administration
     time is between 15 to 25 minutes.

     Although the WRAT4 will most often be administered individually, the Spelling and Maths
     Computation sections of the respective sub-tests maybe administered to small groups. It
     is recommended that small groups be limited to no more than 5 participants.

     Alternate forms, designated the Blue Form and the Green Form, were developed and
     equated during standardisation by use of a common-person research design. Derived
     scores were developed for both age and grade-referenced groups. Standard scores,
     percentile ranks, stanines, normal curve equivalents, grade equivalents, and Rasch ability
     scaled scores are provided.

     The Blue Form and the Green Form can be used interchangeably with comparable results,
     thus permitting re-testing within short periods of time without the potential practice
     effects that may occur from repeating the same items. The alternate forms also can be
     administered together (i.e. Combined Form) in a single assessment.


     Psychometric Properties
     • WRAT4 was standardised on a representative U.S. national sample of more than
       3,000 individuals ranging in age from 5 to 94 years.

     • Median internal consistency coefficients across ages for each of the alternate forms
       used individually range from .87 to .96.

     • Median internal consistency coefficients across ages for alternate forms combined
       range from .94 to .96.

     • Alternate-form immediate re test reliability coefficients ranged from .78-.89 for an
       age-based sample (and .86-.90 for a grade-based sample).

     • Alternate-form delayed (approximately 30 days) retest study indicated that practice
       effects are quite small. Mean score difference of .4-2.2 for an aged-based sample
       and .1-.5 for a grade-based sample.


18
                                                                                                Ability & Achievement
• WRAT4 validity evidence is derived from the content and structure of the test battery,
  studies with special groups of individuals, and correlations with other widely used
  achievement and cognitive ability measures.

Product Code Description                                                    Quantity Price
5532401      WRAT4 Introductory Kit Includes WRAT4 Professional             1        £194.00
             Manual, 25 each Blue Test/Response Forms, 25 each Green
             Test/Response Forms, 25 Blue Sentence Comprehension
             Response Booklets, 25 Green Sentence Comprehension
             Response Booklets, Set of 2 Word Reading/Spelling Cards, Set
             of 3 Sentence Comprehension Cards and 1 Place Marker)
5532402      WRAT4 Professional Manual                                      1        £78.00
5532403      WRAT4 Blue Test/Response Forms                                 25       £40.00
5532404      WRAT4 Green Test/Response Forms                                25       £40.00
5532405      WRAT4 Blue Sentence Comprehension Response Booklets            25       £40.00
5532406      WRAT4 Green Sentence Comprehension Response Booklets           25       £40.00
5532407      WRAT4 Word Reading/Spelling Cards (Set of 2)                   1        £9.00
5532408      WRAT4 Sentence Comprehension Cards (Set of 3 and 1 Place       1        £9.00
             Marker)
5533121      WRAT4/WRAT4-SP Combination Kit CD-ROM (includes                1        £360.00
             WRAT4 Introductory Kit and WRAT4-SP CD-ROM)
5533122      WRAT4-SP CD-ROM                                                1        £148.00
5533123      WRAT4-SP Vista Conversion CD-ROM                               1        £44.00
5533126      WRAT4 PMV Professional Manual                                  1        £46.00
5533124      WRAT4 PMV:SP Introductory Kit CD-ROM                           1        £112.00
5533125      WRAT4 PMV:SP Vista Conversion CD-ROM                           1        £44.00




                                                                                               19
     WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST EXPANDED
                (WRAT EXPANDED)

           Gary S. Wilkinson PhD and Gary J. Robertson PhD

            Purpose
            To screen for non-verbal reasoning ability and achievement in reading and maths.

            Age Range
            Ages 5 to 24 (covering college age students who may have learning disabilities).

            Time
            Reading Comprehension: 40 minutes; Maths: 40 minutes; Non-verbal reasoning: 30
            minutes.

            Qualification Level 2

           Key features
           • Group administration provides a ‘snapshot’ of the general knowledge level in a classroom
             while individual administration can be used to monitor progress.
           • The Group form provides a non-verbal reasoning component which gives an assessment
             of reasoning ability factoring out language disabilities that may be interfering with
             achievement. On the Individual form, test levels and the ‘level scoring rule’ allow for
             assessment using a minimal number of items, thus saving time.
           • WRAT-Expanded has been normed on a U.S. sample aged 5 to 24 so covers college age
             students who may have learning difficulties.

            Product Code Description                                                             Quantity Price
            5532501      WRAT-Expanded Group Assessment Kit (includes 1 Manual for each          1        £270.00
                         Group, Technical Supplement, 10 each G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, G-5, Scoring
                         Forms, and 10 each G-1, G2, G3, G4, G5 Item booklets)
            5532502      WRAT-Expanded Group 1 (Grade 2) Kit (includes Group 1 Manual, 25        1        £156.00
                         Group 1 Booklets and 25 Group 1 Scoring Forms)
            5532503      WRAT-Expanded Group 2 (Grades 3-4) Kit (includes Group 2 Manual,        1        £156.00
                         Technical Supplement, 25 Group Booklets, and 25 Group 2 Scoring
                         Forms)
            5532504      WRAT-Expanded Group 3 (Grades 5-6) Kit (includes Group 3 Manual,        1        £156.00
                         Technical Supplement, 25 Group 3 Booklets and 25 Group 3 Scoring
                         Forms)
            5532505      WRAT-Expanded Group 4 (Grades 7-9) Kit (includes Group 4 Manual,        1        £156.00
                         Technical Supplement, 25 Group 4 Booklets and 25 Group 4 Scoring
                         Forms)
            5532506      WRAT-Expanded Group 5 (Grades 10-11) Kit (includes Group 5              1        £156.00
                         Manual, Technical Supplement, 25 Group 5 Booklets and 25 Group 5
                         Scoring Forms)
            5532507      WRAT-Expanded Form 1 Kit (includes Form 1 R/M Manual, Form 1            1        £156.00
                         R/M Flipbook Set and 25 Form R/M Response Forms)
            5532522      Form 1 R/M Manual                                                       1        £56.00
            5532523      Form 1 R/M Flipbook (Set of 2)                                          1        £154.00
            5532524      Form 1 R/M Response Forms                                               25       £48.00
            5532525      Technical Supplement                                                    1        £48.00
            5532526      Level 1 Administration Manual                                           1        £22.00
            5532527      Level 2 Administration Manual                                           1        £22.00
            5532528      Level 3 Administration Manual                                           1        £22.00
            5532529      Level 4 Administration Manual                                           1        £22.00
            5532530      Level 5 Administration Manual                                           1        £22.00
            5532531      Level 1 Booklets                                                        25       £78.00
            5532532      Level 2 Booklets                                                        25       £78.00
            5532533      Level 3 Booklets                                                        25       £78.00
            5532534      Level 4 Booklets                                                        25       £78.00
            5532535      Level 5 Booklets                                                        25       £78.00
            5532536      Level 1 Scoring Forms                                                   25       £78.00
            5532537      Level 2 Scoring Forms                                                   25       £34.00
            5532538      Level 3 Scoring Forms                                                   25       £34.00
            5532539      Level 4 Scoring Forms                                                   25       £34.00
            5532540      Level 5 Scoring Forms                                                   25       £34.00



20
 WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST EXPANDED




                                                                                                Ability & Achievement
  EARLY READING ASSESSMENT (WRAT ERA)

Gary J. Robertson PhD

 Purpose
 To assess pre-reading and beginning reading skills.

 Age Range
 Pre-school and child.

 Time
 40 Minutes.

 Qualification Level 2

The ERA is part of the WRAT-Expanded series and is an individually administered measure
of important pre-reading and beginning reading skills for use in pre-school and school
age children. Four sub-tests measure these important aspects of early reading: letter
recognition and visual perception of word parts, letter sounds, word comprehension and
sentence comprehension. Performance may be interpreted on each of the sub-tests and
on three composites: Pre-reading skills, Reading Skills and Total Battery.

The child’s reading skill acquisition determines whether the entire test is given or whether
only selected sub-tests are used. Children who are not yet reading words and sentences
can be assessed with only the two pre-reading tests (letter recognition/visual perception
and letter sounds), whereas children already reading would most likely be given only the
two reading tests (word comprehension and sentence comprehension). Administration of
all four sub-tests requires about 40 minutes, with the two parts—pre-reading and reading
requiring about 20 minutes each.


Psychometric Properties
U.S. norms are available based upon both age and grade reference groups. Sub-test
scaled scores, standard scores for the three composites, percentile ranks and stanines are
available. The Record Form provides a convenient score summary and profile to facilitate
the interpretation and use of the test results. The manual contains useful illustrations of
appropriate uses and interpretation of results.

Product Code Description                                                 Quantity Price
5532701      WRAT-Expanded Early Reading Assessment (ERA)                1        £224.00
             Introductory Kit
5532702      WRAT-Expanded Early Reading Assessment (ERA) Manual         1        £64.00
5532703      WRAT-Expanded Early Reading Assessment (ERA) Flipbook       1        £126.00
5532704      WRAT-Expanded Early Reading Assessment (ERA) Record         25       £50.00
             Forms




                                                                                               21
     WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST 4 - SCORING
               PROGRAM (WRAT4-SP)

           Gary S. Wilkinson, PhD & Gary J. Robertson PhD
           The WRAT4-SP scores and generates reports after manual entry of raw sub-test scores from
           the WRAT4 Blue, Green and Combined Forms. The WRAT4 Score Report includes a WRAT4
           Score Summary Table, the WRAT4 Standard Score Profile for basic interpretation and the
           WRAT4 Standard Score Comparison Table that can be used for an extended interpretation.
           Program functionality includes navigational tools (e.g. menu system, Quickstart dialog
           box, Toolbar, Status Bar), file handling and report editing.


           features of the WRAT4 Score Report:
           • Provides unlimited scoring and report generation after manual entry of an
             individual’s WRAT4 raw sub-test scores.
           • Score Summary includes raw scores, standard scores (based on either age based or
             grade based norms), confidence intervals (85%, 90% or 95%), percentile ranks and
             three optional scores (grade equivalents, NCEs or stanines).
           • Generates profile graphs with the ability to overlay profiles from prior
             administrations for the same client.
           • Quick and easy data entry.
           • Includes built-in, easy to use report editing features.
           • Exports client data to many spreadsheet and database programs.
           • Exports client reports to common word processing programs.
           • Includes an optional password feature to ensure privacy and security of client data.

            Product Code Description                                              Quantity Price
            5533142      WRAT4-SP CD-ROM                                          1        £160.00
            5533143       WRAT4-SP Vista Conversion CD-ROM                        1         £44.00
            5533144       WRAT4 PMV:SP Introductory Kit CD-ROM                    1         £120.00
            5533145       WRAT4 PMV:SP Vista Conversion CD-ROM                    1         £44.00
            5533141       WRAT4 PMV Professional Manual                           1         £48.00




22
                                                                                              Ability & Achievement
                WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST 4
                INTERPRETIVE REPORT (WRAT4-IR)

Gary S. Wilkinson, Jack Martin
The WRAT4-IR scores, profiles and interprets an individual's performance on the WRAT4
Forms. After manual entry of the individual's raw sub-test scores, the software can
generate one or more of the following five reports:

Score Report/Combined Score Report:
• Score Summary Table; includes raw scores, standard scores (based either on age-
  based or grade-based norms), confidence interval (85%, 90% or 95%), percentile
  rank and three optional scores (grade equivalents, NCEs or stanines).
• Standard Score Profile; graphical representation of standard scores.
• Standard Score Comparison Table; indicates the significance and prevalence of
  Standard Score differences.

Interpretative Report/Combined Interpretative Report:
• Overview.
• Score Summary Table: includes raw scores, standard scores (based either on age-
  based or grade-based norms), confidence interval (85%, 90% or 95%), percentile
  rank and three optional scores (grade equivalents, NCEs or stanines).
• Score Comparison Summary: Standard Score Profile, graphical representation of
  standard scores. Sub-test and Composite Summary, description of scores obtained
  from the sub-tests and composite.
• Sub-test Comparisons: Description of inter-sub-test comparisons as well as
  suggested interpretation of each score comparison.
• Recommendations: based on sub-test standard scores and the significance of score
  comparisons recommendations are provided for use in educational intervention
  planning.

feedback Report:
• Overview.
• Score Comparison: Summary of score comparisons, also includes age appropriate
  recommendations that are useful in both the home and the classroom.
• Program functionality includes navigational tools (e.g. menu system, Quickstart
  dialogue box, Toolbar, Status Bar) file handling and report editing features.

features of the WRAT4 Interpretative Report:
• Provides comprehensive reports that save valuable clinician report writing time.
• Provides useful documentation to assist in educational and intervention planning
  for children and adults.
• Can be easily edited onscreen to incorporate additional clinical information and
  interpretative statements.
• Generates profile graphs with the ability to overlay profiles from prior
 administrations for the same client.
• Quick and easy data entry.

Product Code Description                                                  Quantity Price
5533132      WRAT4-IR Vista Conversion CD-ROM                             1        £44.00
5533131       WRAT4-IR Software CD-ROM (includes WRAT4-IR On-Screen       1        £276.00
              Software Manual, Quick Start Guide, Unlimited Use Scoring
              and Reporting)
5533133       WRAT4-SP Upgrade to the WRAT4-IR CD-ROM                     1        £116.00
5533134       WRAT4/WRAT4-IR Combination Kit CD-ROM (Includes             1        £498.00
              WRAT4 Introductory Kit and WRAT4-IR Software)



                                                                                             23
     WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST 4 PROGRESS
         MONITORING VERSION (WRAT4-PMV)

          Gale H. Roid, PhD & Mark f. Ledbetter, PsyD

           Purpose
           To monitor academic progress in students school and college/university.

           Age Range
           5 to 24 years.

           Time
           10 to 15 minutes to administer and score all four sub-tests.

           Qualification Level 2

          The WRAT4-PMV is an ideal instrument for teachers, psychologists, educational
          diagnosticians (and other assessment professionals) to use to obtain a performance
          baseline and, if necessary, to monitor a student’s academic performance via brief repeated
          test administrations throughout the school year. The WRAT4-PMV expands the utility of the
          WRAT4 by providing design features that enable users to monitor efficiently the progress
          of students who have learning difficulties, students in special education placements,
          under-achieving students in regular education placements and students who exhibit other
          conditions that affect school learning. Specific applications of the WRAT4-PMV include:

           • Monitoring students who are not making adequate progress within the standard
            curriculum or general education instructional approach in order to document the
            need for an informal or formal evaluation referral.
           • Quarterly progress monitoring of students in special education programmes.
           • Monitoring of instructional effectiveness for students in general education in order
            to evaluate response to alternative instructional methods.
           • Monitoring effectiveness of informal or formal tutoring programmes, or response
            to intensive specialised interventions.
           • Normative benchmark evaluation of basic academic areas.
           • Monitoring to assist with informing decisions regarding future educational
            placement of students.
           • Assist educational decision making by providing a norm-referenced perspective
            that can be combined with informal curriculum or criterion-referenced probes.
           • Although the methods and standards for establishing adequate yearly progress
            (AYP) are varied in different states and local districts, repeated testing during the
            school year may assist schools in showing student progress in special education and
            No Child Left Behind funded programmes in order to meet U.S. Federal Standards
            for AYP.
           • Researchers who are validating evidence-based instructional programmes must
            show convincing research data on student learning outcomes. The WRAT4-PMV can
            provide researchers with brief, easy-to-use tests that utilise national norms, offering
            evidence of progress and improvement in basic academic skills.


          Suitable for:
          Derived from the WRAT4, the WRAT4-PMV allows users to monitor a student’s academic
          performance via brief repeated tests that are both parallel and psychometrically equivalent.




24
                                                                                                    Ability & Achievement
Evaluating Level of Performance
Examiners can determine a student’s level of performance relative to a nationally
representative sample of grade-level peers by using the colour-shaded normative profile.
This eliminates the need to convert Total Raw Scores to derived scores when evaluating
performance within a WRAT4-PMV level.

Out of Level Testing
Out of level testing can provide valuable information as well as an accurate measurement
and can be accomplished using shorter tests. Depending on the achievement level of a
student, examiners can administer a WRAT4-PMV level that is below or above the student’s
enrolled grade level. Matching the appropriate test difficulty level with the achievement
grade level of a student (i.e. ‘out of level’ testing) can be an effective way to elicit student
participation in the evaluation.

Evaluating Changes in Performance Over Time
Within a WRAT4-PMV level, repeated administrations of equivalent sub-test forms
enable examiners to examine student performance graphically at various time intervals.
Evaluating meaningful change in performance over time is facilitated by using the Within
Level Score Comparison Tables.

For progress monitoring across grades using different WRAT4-PMV levels, Total Raw Scores
on any sub-test level/form can be converted to derived Level Equivalent (LE) scores. LE scores
provide a common metric across WRAT4-PMV levels, grades and forms, and are particularly
useful in assessing across level score differences and by graphically representing potential
growth or decline over longer periods of time.

The WRAT4-PMV is an adaptation of the Wide Range Achievement Test Fourth Edition
(WRAT4) and is specifically designed as a reliable, time-efficient instrument for monitoring
the academic progress of students in Grades K-12 and college. Measuring four basic
academic areas (i.e. word reading, sentence comprehension, spelling, math computation),
the WRAT4-PMV is composed of six levels that correspond to specific grade-range academic
content appropriate for assessing and monitoring progress for Grades K-1, 2-3, 4-5, 6-8,
9-12, and 13-16 (i.e. college). Each WRAT4-PMV level consists of four parallel 15-item forms
(i.e. probes) that are psychometrically equivalent.

Word Reading Sub-test
The WRAT4-PMV Word Reading Record Sheet is used by the examiner and contains the
administration instructions and the letter and/or the words for each of the four forms on
one side and space to summarise and profile scores on the other side. There is a separate
Word Reading Record Form for each of the six levels.

The WRAT4-PMV Word Reading List Card is used by the participant and contains the letters
and/or the words for the Word Reading Sub-test. There is a separate Word Reading List
Card for each of the six levels.

Sentence Comprehension Sub-test
The WRAT4-PMV Sentence Comprehension Record Booklet is used by the examiner and
contains the administration instructions, a place to record and score the participant’s
responses and a list of correct and incorrect responses for each of the four forms. It
also contains space to summarise and profile scores. There is a separate Sentence
Comprehension Record Booklet for each of the six levels. The WRAT4-PMV Sentence
Comprehension Card includes the Sentence Comprehension Sub-test items that are read
by the participant. It contains all four forms of the sub-test. There is a separate card for



                                                                                                   25
     each of the six levels. The Place Marker is provided for the participant to use as an aid
     while reading the sentences from the Sentence Comprehension Card.

     Spelling Sub-test
     The WRAT4-PMV Spelling Response Booklet is used by the participant to record responses
     for each of the four forms. There is a separate Spelling Response Booklet for each of the six
     levels.

     The WRAT4-PMV Spelling Card is used by the examiner and includes the administration
     instructions and the letter and/or words that are read to the participant. There is a separate
     Spelling Card for each of the six levels.

     Math Computation Sub-test
     The WRAT4-PMV Math Computation Response Booklet is used by both the participant and
     the examiner. For Levels 1-3, it contains the correct responses for the Oral Math items and
     space to score the participant’s responses. For all of the levels, space is provided for the
     participant to record responses for the Math Computation items and for the examiner to
     summarise and profile scores.

     Psychometric Properties
     For the WRAT4-PMV normative sample, 1,929 individuals ranging in age from 5 to 24 years
     were selected from the larger pool of WRAT4 standardisation participants in order to obtain
     a nationally representative sample that was largely reflective of the development goals of
     the WRAT4-PMV. The WRAT4-PMV normative sample used U.S. demographic stratification
     variables for gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment (as an index of socio-economic
     status) and geographic region.

     Median alpha reliability coefficients across the WRAT4-PMV six levels and four forms
     demonstrate very good internal consistency, especially given the brevity of the 15-item
     test forms. Alpha coefficients for the Word Reading, Sentence Comprehension, Spelling,
     and Math Computation sub-tests were .80, .81, .79, and .74, respectively. Test-retest
     stability coefficients and alternate-form reliabilities are presented for all WRAT4-PMV Form
     combinations. Average test-retest reliability coefficients for the Word Reading, Sentence
     Comprehension, Spelling, and Math Computation sub-tests were .88, .89, .93, and .77,
     respectively. Average alternate-form reliability coefficients were .80 (Word Reading), .80
     (Sentence Comprehension), .81 (Spelling), and .63 (Math Computation).

     Validity evidence for the WRAT4-PMV is derived from evaluating patterns of correlations
     among external measures of established constructs. Measures of achievement include the
     Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement: Second Edition-Brief Form (KTEA-II), and the
     Wechsler Individual Achievement Test®: Second Edition (WIAT®-II), measures of cognitive
     ability include the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale-Fifth Edition (SB5), and the Reynolds
     Intellectual Assessment Scale™ (RIAS™).
     Product    Description                                                                         Quantity   Price
     Code
     5532421    WRAT4-PMV Level 1 Introductory Kit (Includes WRAT4-PMV Professional Manual, 25      1          £268.00
                Level Equivalent Profile Forms, 25 Word Reading Record Sheets, Word Reading List
                Card, 25 Sentence Comprehension Record Booklets, Set of 3 Sentence Comprehension
                Cards, 25 Spelling Response Booklets, Spelling Card, 25 Math Computation Response
                Booklets and Computation Cards)
     5532422    WRAT4-PMV Level 1 Spelling Response Booklets                                        25         £58.00
     5532423    WRAT4-PMV Level 1 Sentence Comprehension Record Booklets                            25         £58.00
     5532424    WRAT4-PMV Level 1 Math Computation Response Booklets                                25         £58.00
     5532425    WRAT4-PMV Level 1 Word Reading Record Sheets                                        25         £30.00
     5532426    WRAT4-PMV Level 1 Spelling Card                                                     1          £5.00
     5532427    WRAT4-PMV Level 1 Sentence Comprehension Cards (Set of 3)                           1          £5.00
     5532428    WRAT4-PMV Level 1 Math Computation Card(s)                                          1          £5.00
     5532429    WRAT4-PMV Level 1 Word Reading List Card                                            1          £5.00



26
                                                                                                              Ability & Achievement
5532431   WRAT4-PMV Level 2 Introductory Kit (Includes WRAT4-PMV Professional Manual, 25      1    £268.00
          Level Equivalent Profile Forms, 25 Word Reading Record Sheets, Word Reading List
          Card, 25 Sentence Comprehension Record Booklets, Set of 3 Sentence Comprehension
          Cards, 25 Spelling Response Booklets, Spelling Card, 25 Math Computation Response
          Booklets and Computation Cards)
5532432   WRAT4-PMV Level 2 Spelling Response Booklets                                        25   £58.00
5532433   WRAT4-PMV Level 2 Sentence Comprehension Record Booklets                            25   £58.00
5532434   WRAT4-PMV Level 2 Math Computation Response Booklets                                25   £58.00
5532435   WRAT4-PMV Level 2 Word Reading Record Sheets                                        25   £30.00
5532436   WRAT4-PMV Level 2 Spelling Card                                                     1    £5.00
5532437   WRAT4-PMV Level 2 Sentence Comprehension Cards (Set of 3)                           1    £5.00
5532438   WRAT4-PMV Level 2 Math Computation Card(s)                                          1    £5.00
5532439   WRAT4-PMV Level 2 Word Reading List Card                                            1    £5.00
5532441   WRAT4-PMV Level 3 Introductory Kit (Includes WRAT4-PMV Professional Manual, 25      1    £268.00
          Level Equivalent Profile Forms, 25 Word Reading Record Sheets, Word Reading List
          Card, 25 Sentence Comprehension Record Booklets, Set of 3 Sentence Comprehension
          Cards, 25 Spelling Response Booklets, Spelling Card, 25 Math Computation Response
          Booklets and Computation Cards)
5532442   WRAT4-PMV Level 3 Spelling Response Booklets                                        25   £58.00
5532443   WRAT4-PMV Level 3 Sentence Comprehension Record Booklets                            25   £58.00
5532444   WRAT4-PMV Level 3 Math Computation Response Booklets                                25   £58.00
5532445   WRAT4-PMV Level 3 Word Reading Record Sheets                                        25   £30.00
5532446   WRAT4-PMV Level 3 Spelling Card                                                     1    £5.00
5532447   WRAT4-PMV Level 3 Sentence Comprehension Cards (Set of 3)                           1    £5.00
5532448   WRAT4-PMV Level 3 Math Computation Card(s)                                          1    £5.00
5532449   WRAT4-PMV Level 3 Word Reading List Card                                            1    £5.00
5532451   WRAT4-PMV Level 4 Introductory Kit (Includes WRAT4-PMV Professional Manual, 25      1    £268.00
          Level Equivalent Profile Forms, 25 Word Reading Record Sheets, Word Reading List
          Card, 25 Sentence Comprehension Record Booklets, Set of 3 Sentence Comprehension
          Cards, 25 Spelling Response Booklets, Spelling Card, 25 Math Computation Response
          Booklets and Computation Cards
5532452   WRAT4-PMV Level 4 Spelling Response Booklets                                        25   £58.00
5532453   WRAT4-PMV Level 4 Sentence Comprehension Record Booklets                            25   £58.00
5532454   WRAT4-PMV Level 4 Math Computation Response Booklets                                25   £58.00
5532455   WRAT4-PMV Level 4 Word Reading Record Sheets                                        25   £30.00
5532456   WRAT4-PMV Level 4 Spelling Card                                                     1    £5.00
5532457   WRAT4-PMV Level 4 Sentence Comprehension Cards (Set of 3)                           1    £5.00
5532458   WRAT4-PMV Level 4 Math Computation Card(s)                                          1    £5.00
5532459   WRAT4-PMV Level 4 Word Reading List Card                                            1    £5.00
5532461   WRAT4-PMV Level 5 Introductory Kit (Includes WRAT4-PMV Professional Manual, 25      1    £268.00
          Level Equivalent Profile Forms, 25 Word Reading Record Sheets, Word Reading List
          Card, 25 Sentence Comprehension Record Booklets, Set of 3 Sentence Comprehension
          Cards, 25 Spelling Response Booklets, Spelling Card, 25 Math Computation Response
          Booklets and Computation Cards
5532462   WRAT4-PMV Level 5 Spelling Response Booklets                                        25   £58.00
5532463   WRAT4-PMV Level 5 Sentence Comprehension Record Booklets                            25   £58.00
5532464   WRAT4-PMV Level 5 Math Computation Response Booklets                                25   £58.00
5532465   WRAT4-PMV Level 5 Word Reading Record Sheets                                        25   £30.00
5532466   WRAT4-PMV Level 5 Spelling Card                                                     1    £5.00
5532467   WRAT4-PMV Level 5 Sentence Comprehension Cards (Set of 3)                           1    £5.00
5532468   WRAT4-PMV Level 5 Math Computation Card(s)                                          1    £5.00
5532469   WRAT4-PMV Level 5 Word Reading List Card                                            1    £5.00
5532471   WRAT4-PMV Level 6 Introductory Kit (Includes WRAT4-PMV Professional Manual, 25      1    £268.00
          Level Equivalent Profile Forms, 25 Word Reading Record Sheets, Word Reading List
          Card, 25 Sentence Comprehension Record Booklets, Set of 3 Sentence Comprehension
          Cards, 25 Spelling Response Booklets, Spelling Card, 25 Math Computation Response
          Booklets and Computation Cards
5532472   WRAT4-PMV Level 6 Spelling Response Booklets                                        25   £58.00
5532473   WRAT4-PMV Level 6 Sentence Comprehension Record Booklets                            25   £58.00
5532474   WRAT4-PMV Level 6 Math Computation Response Booklets                                25   £58.00
5532475   WRAT4-PMV Level 6 Word Reading Record Sheets                                        25   £30.00
5532476   WRAT4-PMV Level 6 Spelling Card                                                     1    £5.00
5532477   WRAT4-PMV Level 6 Sentence Comprehension Cards (Set of 3)                           1    £5.00
5532478   WRAT4-PMV Level 6 Math Computation Card(s)                                          1    £5.00
5532479   WRAT4-PMV Level 6 Word Reading List Card                                            1    £5.00
5533141   WRAT4-PMV Professional Manual                                                       1    £49.00
5532486   WRAT4-PMV Profile Forms                                                             25   £20.00
5532481   WRAT4-PMV Elementary Comprehensive Kit (The Comprehensive Elementary School         1    £698.00
          Form contains the Professional Manual and all Forms and Materials for Grades K-5)




                                                                                                             27
               WIDE RANGE ACHIEVEMENT TEST 4 PROGRESS
          MONITORING VERSION SCORING PROGRAM (WRAT4-PMV:SP)

                                  Gale H. Roid, PhD, Mark f. Ledbetter, PsyD, and PAR Staff

                                   Purpose
                                   To provide unlimited scoring and report generation for WRAT4-PMV raw sub-test
                                   scores.

                                   Qualification Level 2

                                  The WRAT4-PMV:SP provides unlimited scoring and report generation after entry of a
                                  student’s WRAT4-PMV raw scores. Program functionality includes navigational tools, file
                                  handling and report editing.

                                  • Generates graphical profiles of a student’s Total Raw Scores. The Profile includes
                                    shaded grade-based bands that indicate average expected performance. Profile
                                    options enable the examiner to produce customised graphs, including the ability to
                                    overlay profile results from prior test administrations.
                                  • Generates Within Level Score Reports that include a Score Summary Table, a Level
                                    Profile of Total Raw Scores, and a Profile of Level Equivalent (LE) scores. The report
                                    enables the examiner to compare any combination of repeated test administrations
                                    and displays a table indicating the statistical significance of score difference.
                                  • Generates Across Level Score Reports that include a Profile of LE scores and an LE
                                    Score Significant Difference Table. The scoring program converts all Within Level
                                    Total Raw Scores to LE scores and performs all necessary calculations to evaluate
                                    the statistical significance of all LE score differences. User-defined features enable
                                    the examiner to customise the LE Score Profile.
                                  • Includes built-in, easy-to-use report editing features.
                                  • Exports a student’s data into common formats that can be imported into many
                                    spreadsheet and database programs. The exporting feature allows for both
                                    individual and group exporting of data. Also exports a student’s reports, including
                                    the graphical profiles to most common word processing programs.
                                  • Includes an optional password feature to ensure privacy and security of client data.
                                  • Requirements: Windows® 2000/XP/Vista™; NTFS file system; CD-ROM drive for
                                    installation; Internet connection or telephone for software activation.

                                  Product Code Description                                                  Quantity Price
                                  5533144      WRAT4-PMV:SP Introductory Kit CD-ROM (Includes Unlim-        1        £120.00
                                               ited-Use Scoring and Reporting with On-Screen Help and
                                               Quick Start Guide)
                                  5533145      WRAT4-PMV:SP Vista Conversion - CD-ROM                       1           £44.00
                                  5533141      WRAT4-PMV Professional Manual                                1           £48.00




     Computer requirements:
     Windows® 2000/
     XP/Vista™; NTFS file
     system; CD-ROM drive
     for installation; Internet
     connection or telephone
     for software activation.




28
                                                                                               Ability & Achievement
WIDE RANGE INTELLIGENCE TEST (WRIT)


Joseph Glutting, PhD, Wayne Adams, PhD & David Sheslow, PhD

 Purpose
 To provide a general measure of intelligence.

 Age Range
 4 to 85 years (Individual administration).

 Time
 20 to 30 minutes.

 Qualification Level 2

Key features
• An efficient measure with administration times averaging less than 30 minutes.

• Only one set of materials is needed to assess pre-school children as young as age 4
  years to adults age 85 years.

• Provides colourful, attractive and engaging sub-tests that encourage participation
  from the individual being evaluated, regardless of age.

• Helps to document the ability levels of individuals and provides an estimate of
  cognitive ability for psychiatric or vocational rehabilitation evaluations.

• Helps to identify learning disabilities, giftedness, neuropsychological impairments
  and other exceptionalities.

• Co-normed with the Wide Range Achievement Test, allowing for sound and efficient
  determination of an intelligence/achievement discrepancy.

• Conceptual roots are related to a hierarchical model of ability familiar to psychologists
  trained in individual testing, making it quick and easy to learn to administer.

• Strong psychometric integrity.


Areas Measured
The WRIT assesses both verbal and non-verbal abilities by means of Verbal and Visual
scales. Each scale consists of two sub-tests that address a group of specific abilities.


Verbal Scales
• Vocabulary: this sub-test requires an individual to define a word (verbally) that has
  been dictated and used in a sentence by the assessor.

• Verbal Analogies: this sub-test requires an individual to complete verbal analogies
  dictated to them by the assessor.


Visual Scales
• Diamonds: this sub-test requires an individual to construct specific designs using
  single or multiple diamond-shaped pieces.

• Matrices: this sub-test requires an individual to evaluate a series of pictures and to
  select the option that best completes a visual array.

• The WRIT yields a Verbal (Crystallised) IQ and a Visual (Fluid IQ) which generate a
  General IQ when combined.




                                                                                              29
     Psychometric Properties
     • Standardised on 2,285 individuals (U.S.).

     • IQs are highly correlated with those from traditional and much lengthier cognitive
      measures, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children®-3rd Ed. (WISC®-III)/WRIT (.90) and
      Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale®-3rd Ed. (WAIS®-III)/WRIT (.91).

     Product Code Description                                                Quantity Price
     5532601      WRIT Complete Kit (Includes WRIT Test Manual, Matrices     1        £210.00
                  and Diamonds Easel Stimulus Book, Examiner Forms, Set of
                  21 Diamond Chip, all in a sturdy carrying case)
     5532602      WRIT Test Manual                                           1        £44.00
     5532603      WRIT Matrices and Diamonds Easel Stimulus Booklet          1        £120.00
     5532604      WRIT Examiner Forms                                        25       £38.00
     5532605      WRIT Diamond Chips (set of 21 with case)                   1        £32.00




30