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A Quick Guide to Referencing OTC Assignments

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					 A Quick Guide to Referencing OTC Assignments
   This is not designed to be an exhaustive document, but to cover the most common issues faced by OTC
   students. For fuller details on referencing assignments, please see the full ‘Footnotes Referencing Guide’
               (available @ <http://resources.glos.ac.uk/departments/lis/referencing/index.cfm>).




R      eferencing is the aspect of academic work used to indicate how and when you are drawing
       upon what others have said. Referencing is important because it reflects the research you have
       done and your capacity for interacting with others’ ideas. It also allows you to indicate which parts of
your work are original, and which parts repeat or reflect what others have written. Every time that you
quote from, refer to, or draw upon another’s work, you must reference your source accurately and
correctly, otherwise you may be deemed guilty of plagiarism (stealing another’s words and ideas) and/or
academic bad practice (please see section 7 of the University Regulations for Assessment).



F     ootnotes/endnotes            are the form of referencing to be used in all OTC assignments. They
      allow you to give accurate information about your sources, and also precise details about where in a
      source a particular point or quotation is to be found. Footnotes can also be used to provide brief
further comments upon the ideas in your main text. However, you must not use them to develop or detail
the main points or arguments of your assignment.
Footnotes (at the bottom of each page) are preferred, but endnotes (at the end of the document) are also
acceptable. (N.B. Harvard/Author-Date referencing in the text is not acceptable.) Reference numbers
should be in superscript Arabic numerals (or in brackets if superscript is not possible), and must be at the
end of the quotation or point, after the final word or quotation mark, and outside any punctuation you are
using; e.g. ‘The theology of the Psalms may be simple, but it is not one dimensional’.1

There are three basic varieties of footnote/endnote reference:
    1. Full format – giving all the publication details. You can choose to give an author’s forename/s in
       full or just use their initial/s, but be consistent.
    2. Short format – used after a first, full format reference to a source (giving only author’s surname,
       short title, page number).
    3. Ibid. – An optional alternative to the short format, used only when the source in question is exactly
       the same as the one immediately preceding it. An ibid. reference looks like this: ibid., p.16. There is
       no need to put the page number if that is also exactly the same as in the previous reference.

Books
      Author/s, Title, Series [if appropriate], edition [if not the first] (Town: Publisher, Date), page/s.
    For example:
    • G. Stanton, The Gospels and Jesus, Oxford Bible Series, 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford University
       Press, 2002), p.19.
          Short format: Stanton, Gospels and Jesus, p.19.
    • M. Borg, Jesus, A New Vision: Spirit, Culture and the Life of Discipleship (London: SPCK, 1993),
       pp.35-38.
          Short format: Borg, Jesus, A New Vision, pp.35-38.

Chapters/Articles in Edited Volumes
      Author/s, ‘Chapter/Article Title’, in Book Title, Series [if appropriate], edition [if not the first], ed. by
       Editor/s (Town: Publisher, Date), page range [for the article, with pp.] (page/s) [for the specific point/quotation].
    For example:
    • S. Motyer, ‘Two Testaments, One Biblical Theology’, in Between Two Horizons: Spanning New
      Testament Studies and Systematic Theology, ed. by J.B. Green and M. Turner (Grand Rapids:
      Eerdmans, 2000), pp.143-164 (p.149).
          Short format: Motyer, ‘Two Testaments’, p.149.

Journal Articles
      Author, ‘Article Title’, Journal Title, Volume Number (Date), page range [for the article, without pp.]
      (page/s) [for the specific point/quotation].
    For example:
    • C. Gempf, ‘Two Opinions about Exegesis’, Vox Evangelica, 21.2 (1991), 81-88 (p.83).
          Short format: Gempf, ‘Two Opinions’, p.83.
Websites
        Author [if available], “Item Title”, Title of Site/Complete Work [if appropriate], Date of publication/last
     revision [if available] <URL> [Date of Access].
     For example:
     • M. Bonz, “Religion in the Roman World”, From Jesus to Christ,
        <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/portrait/religions.html> [accessed
        09/06/08].
            Short format: Bonz, “Religion in the Roman World”.

Please note: If you want to cite or quote the ideas of one person but have only read them (or about
them) in another source, not in the original, your footnote must give details for both the source you have
read and the original.
    For example:
    • N.T. Wright, Who was Jesus? (London: SPCK, 1992), p.15, cited in H. Moxnes, Putting Jesus in
       His Place: A Radical Vision of Household and Kingdom (Louisville: WJKP, 2003), p.33.
[N.B. If you had already given a full reference for the Moxnes book you could use short format for that part of the reference.]



B       ibliography. You must include a bibliography with every OTC assignment. It is a list of all the
         sources that you have consulted in researching and writing your assignment, not just those actually
         cited in the text, and demonstrates the breadth and depth of your preparatory work. Bibliographies
should be arranged alphabetically by author surname, with the first author’s surname placed before their
initial/s or forename/s. Apart from this, bibliographical entries are presented in the same way as full format
footnotes (although you should indent the second and any subsequent lines of each entry to make the
bibliography easier to read – see the example below). Do not subdivide bibliographies into books,
websites, journal articles, etc., although you may want to divide the bibliography for a church history
assignment into primary and secondary sources.

If appropriate, the version/s of the Bible used in an assignment should be listed a few lines below the
bibliography, and full publication details should be provided. It is usual to say something along the lines of:
‘Unless otherwise stated, all biblical quotations are taken from the XYZ version’ + details.

Edited Volumes
Each article you have read from an edited work needs its own entry in the bibliography (with full details).
However, if you also need to include the edited work in its own entry:
      Editor/s, ed. or eds, Book Title, Series [if appropriate], edition [if not the first] (Town: Publisher,
       Date)                           [See the Green and Turner entry below for an example.]

For example, a bibliography made up of sources mentioned in the examples above:

     Bibliography
     Bonz, M., “Religion in the Roman World”, From Jesus to Christ,
            <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/religion/portrait/religions.html>
            [accessed 09/06/08]
     Borg, M., Jesus, A New Vision: Spirit, Culture and the Life of Discipleship (London: SPCK, 1993)
     Gempf, C., ‘Two Opinions about Exegesis’, Vox Evangelica, 21.2 (1991), 81-88
     Green, J.B., and M. Turner, eds, Between Two Horizons: Spanning New Testament Studies
            and Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000)
     Motyer, S., ‘Two Testaments, One Biblical Theology’, in Between Two Horizons: Spanning New
            Testament Studies and Systematic Theology, ed. by J.B. Green and M. Turner (Grand
            Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000), pp.143-164
     Moxnes, H., Putting Jesus in His Place: A Radical Vision of Household and Kingdom (Louisville:
            WJKP, 2003)
     Stanton, G., The Gospels and Jesus, Oxford Bible Series, 2nd edn (Oxford: Oxford
            University Press, 2002)


     Unless otherwise stated, all biblical quotations are taken from the NRSV (Oxford: Oxford University
     Press, 1995).

 [N.B. Notice that ‘ed.’ (= editor) has a full point whereas ‘eds’ (= editors) and ‘edn’ (= edition) do not. This reflects a general
        rule that a full point is not used where the last letter of the unabbreviated word appears in the abbreviation.]
Q       uotations should be used sparingly and presented in ‘quotation marks’ (not “quotation marks”).
       It is better to put things in your own words and reference your sources than to use lots of
       quotations. As a general rule, use quotations when you want to draw particular attention to the
exact wording used by your source, or when a paraphrase of the original would be less economical,
elegant and/or striking.

Longer quotations (about 40+ words) should be displayed (= indented, not double spaced and not in
‘quotation marks’). Do not italicize quotations unless: [i] doing so to emphasize a word or phrase; [ii] the
original is italicized. Always state in your footnote whether the italics are original or your addition. Use an
ellipsis (= ... [3 full points; no more, no less]) in the middle of a quotation to indicate that you have left out
some of the original. Do not use an ellipsis at the start or end of a quotation. If you need to add a
letter/word/phrase to a quotation for it to make sense in the context of your assignment, place the
additional material in square brackets. Always provide a footnote/endnote reference for a quotation.



B      iblical references should normally be displayed in brackets in your main text – e.g. (1 Sam.
       8.9) – not placed in footnotes. (Putting biblical references in footnotes in order to dip under a word
       limit is not acceptable.) Please use either a full point or a colon between chapter and verse (but be
consistent about which), and use Arabic not Roman numerals; e.g. 2 Kings 17.1 or 2 Kings 17:1 not II
Kings 17v1. In a list of biblical references, it is usual to cite texts in their canonical order. Use commas to
divide verses within a chapter, and semicolons to divide verses in different chapters or books; e.g. Matt.
7.2; 8.15, 17-22; Mk 6.1, 3, 11; Lk. 8.4-10; 9.1. Use v. as an abbreviation for verse; vv. to abbreviate
verses; e.g. v.7 and vv.7-9.

A list of the normal abbreviations for biblical texts follows. Please only use them when giving references,
not when referring to a whole text within a normal sentence; e.g. ‘One of Paul’s aims in writing 1
Corinthians was to end factionalism in the believing community (1 Cor. 3:1-9)’.
                 Genesis       Gen.                           Habakkuk       Hab.
                  Exodus       Ex.                            Zephaniah      Zeph.
                 Leviticus     Lev.                              Haggai      Hag.
                Numbers        Num.                           Zechariah      Zech.
            Deuteronomy        Deut. or Dt.                     Malachi      Mal.
                  Joshua       Josh.
                  Judges       Jdg.
                     Ruth      Ruth                             Matthew      Matt.
                1 Samuel       1 Sam.                               Mark     Mk
                2 Samuel       2 Sam.                               Luke     Lk.
                  1 Kings      1 Kgs                                John     Jn
                  2 Kings      2 Kgs                                Acts     Acts or Ac.
             1 Chronicles      1 Chron. or 1 Chr.               Romans       Rom.
             2 Chronicles      2 Chron. or 2 Chr.          1 Corinthians     1 Cor.
                     Ezra      Ezra                        2 Corinthians     2 Cor.
               Nehemiah        Neh.                            Galatians     Gal.
                   Esther      Est.                           Ephesians      Eph.
                       Job     Job                           Philippians     Phil.
                  Psalms       Ps.                           Colossians      Col.
                Proverbs       Prov.                    1 Thessalonians      1 Thess.
             Ecclesiastes      Ecc.                     2 Thessalonians      2 Thess.
           Song of Songs       Song                           1 Timothy      1 Tim.
                   Isaiah      Is.                            2 Timothy      2 Tim.
                Jeremiah       Jer.                                 Titus    Tit.
            Lamentations       Lam.                            Philemon      Phile. or Philem.
                  Ezekiel      Ezek. or Ez.                    Hebrews       Heb.
                   Daniel      Dan.                               James      Jas
                   Hosea       Hos.                              1 Peter     1 Pet.
                      Joel     Joel                              2 Peter     2 Pet.
                    Amos       Am.                                1 John     1 Jn
                 Obadiah       Obad.                              2 John     2 Jn
                   Jonah       Jon.                               3 John     3 Jn
                   Micah       Mic.                                 Jude     Jude
                  Nahum        Nah.                          Revelation      Rev.


                                                                                                       September 2008