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					                                  Art

2                      Study Guide


0                                                         Term 1



0
9
            IMP
                                          Grade
                                                                         11
                  AK              Impak Onderwysdiens BK              P.O. Box 15132
                                  trading as                          Lyttelton
                   ON




                                  Delta Education SA                  0140
                       DE




                                  CK 2005/041089/23                   Tel.: 012 664 8552
                          RW




                                  139 Rivier Road                     Hotline: 082 561 0131
T/A                               Lyttelton
                       YSDIEN




                                  0157
                                  Fax: 012 664 2618 or 012 664 2318
      EDUCATION
                             Sc




                                  E-mail: info@deltaeducation.co.za
                       c
Impak/Delta bied nie Kuns/Drama vir 2009 aan nie, eers vanaf 2010.
Die volgende werk is dus nie gemodereer of geproeflees nie. Dit is die
rou werk soos ontvang vanaf vakouteur. Impak/Delta aanvaar geen
verantwoordelikheid vir enige foute nie.

Indien u enige navrae het, moet dit asseblief direk aan vakouteur gerig
word.




Impak/Delta does not offer Art/Drama for 2009, but only from 2010. The
following work is not moderated or proof read. It is the original work from
the subject author. Impak/Delta therefore does not accept any
responsibility for any mistakes in the work.

For any queries please contacted the subject author.


VAKOUTEUR/SUBJECT AUTHOR
Wendy Kleynhans
info@mytutorcentre.co.za
083 245 2946
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                              Term One Lesson One

Introducing Visual Arts

“Arts and Culture is a crucial component of developing our human resources. This
will help in unlocking the creativity of our people, allowing for cultural diversity within
the process of developing a unifying national culture, rediscovering our heritage, and
assuring that adequate resources are allocated” (RDP, 1994)

What is Visual Arts?

Art is an indispensable component of human culture. Art is informed by and enriches
cultures. The need to exist in every person to be part of cultural heritage and to make
a contribution, big or small.

Through the subject Visual Arts the learner will develop knowledge, skills, attitudes
and values through the study of the diverse roles and functions of Visual Arts in
contemporary life and in different times and cultures. Learners will have the
opportunity to analyse the role of the Visual Arts in past and present cultures in Africa
and globally, and explore the inter relationship between art and society. Learners will
be encouraged ro research and debate issues of cultural bias, stereotyping and
discrimination embedded within images and cultural practices.

Learners applied what they have learned in the Visual Arts across subjects. They will
develop competencies and creative skills in problem solving, communication and
management of time and resources that contribute to lifelong learning and career
skills. They also learn about careers and business practices related to the visual arts.

The distinct, yet inter related Learning Outcomes for the Visual Arts in the Grade 10 –
12 Subject Statements are as follows.

Learning Outcome 1:
The learner is able to explore, develop and realise ideas in response to a brief.

The learner is provided with a variety of opportunities to explore and develop
personal thoughts and ideas. Learners undertake research form a variety of
resources, work within time and resource constraints and develop personal imagery.

Learning Outcome 2:
The learner is able to explore and apply materials, techniques, processes and
technologies in the making of objects of imagination and innovation.

Learners apply artistic processes and skills, to communicate meaning and intent in
original works of art. Through experimenting and producing they explore a variety of
media, techniques, processes, and technologies to find those most relevant to their
personal work.

Learning Outcome 3:
The learner is able to explore and apply two and three-dimensional visual language
thereby developing visual literacy skills.


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Learners are able to understand and apply meaning from works of art, including their
own, according to the elements of art, the principles of Visual Arts and aesthetic
qualities.

Learning outcome 4:
The learner is able to reflect on and critically evaluate own work and that of others.

Learners develop their perceptual and analytical skills so as to perceive and respond
to works of art. The emphasis is an ongoing reflection, deconstruction and evaluation
of Visual Arts processes, forms and products. They use the vocabulary of the Visual
Arts to express their observations.

The purpose of Visual Arts education enables learners to develop:

The ability to make, recreate and invent meaning;
Innovation, creativity and resourcefulness;
Effective expression, communication and interaction between individual groups;
A healthy sense of self, exploring individual and collective identities;
Understanding of South Africa’s’ rich and diverse culture;
Our place in the environment in South Africa;
Practical skills and different mode of thinking, within various forms of art and diverse
cultures;
Respect for human value and dignity; and
Insight into the inspirations and values of our nation.

Becoming a great artist in an ongoing process and takes years to accomplish. I can
never encourage enough the fact that you can only become better by constant
practice and observation. Art like many other entities take hard work, dedication and
passion. You will only succeed in this profession if your heart is completely in this.

Paint, draw and play as much as you can. Explore you surroundings as well as
yourself. You are living in time where we are making history in the art industry as we
speak. Take it in and consume every moment. Make notes of what you see. Most of
all have fun.

Please contact me as often as you like. I would like to hear some feedback and
suggestions. Remember to post your projects once a term.

Good Luck.
Wendy Kleinhans

Cell: 083 245 2946 (Between 16:00 – 17:00)
Email: wendykleinhans@vodamail.co.za
P.O. Box 2890, Houghton Estate, 2041




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Assessment for Practical Work

Due to the nature of this subject it is important for you to have continues evaluation.
As the caretaker / parent it is not always possible for you to have an objective view. It
is important to encourage students regularly and to comment on their works. Give
your own opinion. If a student is in a class set up it is important for learners to
comment and discuss each other’s work but not to criticise another learners work.

In this Guide I have provided you with ways to assess an art piece. Marks should be
allocated to every practical lesson and handed in as portfolio marks. If you feel that
your judgement will not justify the work please mention it. The mark will then not be
added to the grand total.

Every term a learner is to post one work of art to ME for assessment and will be send
back to him. (See Details) Term ONE and THREE – one Practical as mentioned in
the study guide. Term TWO and FOUR – Practical Exam.

*For the sake of convenience it is recommended that paintings be done on stretched
canvas. When a sculpture is to be handed in Photos of the process and final product
is required. Not the final sculpture itself.

Please note that the Second term practical exam will be 18 hours long. Include time
in you lesson plan.



Visual Literacy

What is visual literacy?

To be literate in art means to be able to read the meaning of an artwork. What is the
artwork implying? Getting behind the idea of the artist and understanding his thought
process. It is important for artist students to keep a visual dairy to represent their
thought processes.

How to go about ‘visual literacy’

No one person will completely understand the art of someone else because it is so
open to interpretation. For an art educator it is important to understand completely
what the learners’ intentions are for critique and help in the process of creating
works. You will create what we call a source book. This is an A3 visual dairy
available at all art shops.

As a home school learner there is not always someone present to lead you and often
you have to work alone. In order for assessment this book is the most important part
of your practical art education. No assessment will be done if a sourcebook is not
complete and if there is evidence of fraud. In this lesson you will learn how to prepare
and keep your visual dairy up to date.




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The Sourcebook

When do you make use of this book?

You will use your sourcebook for everything you do practically. All you PATs
(Practical Assessment Tasks) will also be done in this book as well as your informal
exercises handed out by your educator. Your final works will be done on canvas, as a
sculpture or any other media that you have chosen. These artworks have to be
photographed and should be pasted at the end of your lesson.

How does a sourcebook look?

Remember this is art. All your assignments have to be laid out creatively will clear
evidence of thought and planning. You can lay out each lesson different but this
needs to be done at all times. Invest in some proper glue. I have found that students’
images looks neat for about a month then all the images start to fall out and it never
put back properly. Do it right the first time. The sourcebook represent an individual.
Your personality should be represented in this.

Steps to follow in a PAT

Step 1
Paste the assignment given to you on the fist page.

Step 2
Page 1: On the next page write the name of the art work/assignment. Write your
name, surname address, telephone number, deadline date and also your declaration,
sign.

Page 2 onwards: rewrite the task in your own words to show that you understand
what are expected to do. Write down what you will need and the steps you are going
to follow. This cannot be one sentence.

Now ask questions. There should be at least ten questions.

Initially write the questions in any order and them group them to the following
meaningful categories.

Key question: this question is the central question that needs to be answered to
complete the task. It should focus on the essential concepts regarding the problem.
Construct this question in such a way that you will be able to answer the other
questions.

Questions

Organise your questions according to the topics you are going to be covering in the
PAT. Then organise your questions according to these 4 categories within the
topics.




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1.      Factual questions
        (The answers to these questions may be found in
        books/brochures/internet/agencies/speaking to people about the topic)
        What, who, when, how, where, name, define, identify

2.      Investigative questions
        (These questions use the answers to the factual questions. The similarities or
        differences between the facts are determined)
        Why, how, in which way

3.      Change questions
        (These questions show that you have thought about the information you have
        gathered. You try to see how the situation would be different. You make
        predictions & draw conclusions)
        Suppose, predict, if, how would, what are the possible consequences of

4.      Comparison questions
        (These types of questions encourage you to form your own opinions and
        express them. Take a view point on an issue and defend it)
        Defend, make a judgement, what do you think of, what is your opinion

** ALWAYS REMEMBER TO ADD YOUR SOURCES. ALWAYS HAVE FOUR OR
MORE DIFFERENT SOURCES.

Step 3: Planning the actual artwork

Write down your ideas of DIFFERENT approaches to the making of your artwork.
Write notes and probabilities down. You might want to come back to this section
again later.

Step 4: Creating Visual Resources

Find images of your subject matter for compositional purposes as well as the
development of your ideas. You may us images from magazines, newspaper,
Internet, *photographs etc. You are also required to collect newspaper articles,
quotes and captions in this section. Stick a postcard of the art gallery you have
visited inside. This needs to be at least FOUR full A4 pages or 2 A3 pages of found
images.
*Photographs: you are required to photograph all your processes in the making of the
art works – there should be clear evidence of this. Take as many photos as possible
and stick them in your book. This is great for AS 4 Personal Reflection




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Step 5: Compositional sketches

This comes to a total of four pages. Practice your compositions in this section. Even
if it is just one drawing (or part of the final drawing) at a time. Here are your headings
on each page and a description on what to do.
      1. Compositional drawing 1: Now that you have looked at visual resources –
          draw them yourself piece by piece. Make sure your proportions are right and
          that you can place other objects in perspective with this one.
      2. Compositional drawing 2
      3. Compositional drawing 3
      4. Final drawing
      5. Colour drawing (Sometimes optional)

Step 6: Personal reflection.

This is the most important step of your processes. On the last page you will now write
and essay on your job done. There will be a detailed description of this essay in your
lessons. If you are not required to write an essay you must still write a personal
reflection on what you have done.

If you feel this is not making sense right now, come back to this section when you are
doing your first assignment.

Marks allocated

For every assignment you have to do you get assessed twice. Once for your
preparation (sourcebook) and one for your actual artwork. The sourcebook counts
50% of this.

Your sourcebook will also be assessed at the end of the year by the Subject head.
You will have to send this in via post. This same sourcebook will also be assessed at
the end of grade 12. So whatever you do, take care of this. Don’t sell your artworks
or drawings until this time.




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                               Term One Lesson 2

Neo-classicism 1750 - 1800

Background

Neo-classicism began in Europe in the late 1700's and lasted until the early 1800's.
The movement revived ancient Classical Greek stylisation hence the name Neo-
classicism as well as the Roman stylisation in European art. Neoclassical art
emphasized courage, sacrifice, nationalism, and tradition. Neoclassicism spread
throughout Europe, but France and England were the countries that used
neoclassical art the most.

Neo-Classical artists at first sought to replace the sensuality and what they viewed as
the triviality of the Rococo style, which symbolised French aristocracy with a style
that was logical, solemn in tone, and moralizing in character.

After the French Revolution, France became a democracy, putting an end to
aristocratic rule. The new leaders of France wished to model the government on the
high virtues and moral principles of classical Rome. Therefore, neoclassical artists
were commissioned to create paintings and sculptures that depicted inspirational
scenes from Roman history. Even architecture and interior design began to reflect
the neo-classical period.

 Artist who worked in this style saw line and drawing as the most important element
of a work of art. A Neo-Classicist had a hard and precise outline; the drawing was
very clearly defined. The composition is balanced and harmonious and is often
based on a set of triangles set within rectangles. This precise mathematical quality
gave the painting an intellectual rather than an emotional impact. Also true of the
Greek Art of the Classical period. (450 BC)

Two prominent French Neo-Classic artist were:

Jacques Louis David (1748 – 1825)
Jean August Dominique Ingres (1780-1867)

Two famous paintings by David:

1) The Oath of Horatii (1785) – Figure 1 and 2

2) The Death of Morat (1793) Figure 3

All of David’s work had a political subject matter. Both these paintings of course then
the same. His early paintings were commissioned by the French Crown and
supported the monarchy. During the French revolution David became an enthusiastic
revolutionary and he used the same perceptive linear style to further the aims of the
revolution.

The subject matter of the Oath of Horatii comes from the historical story from ancient
Rome. The moral of the story is that Patriotism (love for one’s country) should be


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held in higher esteem than for love of one’s own family. The three Horatii brothers
are shown selflessly swearing on their fathers’ sword that they will sacrifice their lives
for their country. To settle a political dispute these three had volunteered to fight
three brothers from their neighbouring state of Alba IN the painting the sisters and
mother of the Horatii brothers weep for the impending battle, particularly tragic as
one of the sisters were engaged to be married to one of the Alban brothers. In this
painting David praises the Horatii brothers for their patriotism and stoicism. (Lack of
emotion in the face of danger and pain)

Masculine courage and resolve is contrasted with feminine weakness and emotion as
David sees it. See how the architecture in the background form a series of geometric
shapes, and the figures in the foreground form a series of triangles superimposed
onto the architectural structure. The painting is very clear and planned.




                             Figure 1: The Oath of Horatii 1785




                             Figure 2: The Oath of Horatii 1785




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                              Figure 3: Death of Morat 1793


Two famous paintings by Ingres:

1) The Bather (1808) Figure 4

2) The Turkish Bath (1852) Figure 5

Ingres used the same clear distinctive line that David uses, but his subject matter is
drawn form exotic rather than from politics and history. He repeatedly paints the
subject of exotic nudes in an oriental setting – often using his wife as a mode for his
paintings. He paints odalisques – the women who were concubines of the Sultan
Ancient Turkey. This was a subject very far removed from ordinary everyday life in
19th century France. It gave ingress a chance to paint without any sencure or
criticism some very exotic and sensuous paintings of naked woman. These were
woman in a far away time and a far away place - as such they were acceptable to the
French public.




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                Figure 4: The Bather 1808




             Figure 5: The Turkish Bath 1852




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                             Term One Lesson Three

Romanticism (1790-1850)

Beginning with the late -18th to the mid -19th century, new Romantic attitude begun
to characterize culture and many art works in Western civilization. It started as an
artistic and intellectual movement that emphasized a revulsion against established
values (social order and religion). Romanticism gained strength during the Industrial
Revolution. It was partly a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms
of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of
nature, and was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music, and literature.

Romanticism exalted individualism, subjectivism, irrationalism, imagination,
emotions and nature - emotion over reason and senses over intellect. Since
they were in revolt against the orders, they favoured the revival of potentially
unlimited number of styles (anything that aroused them).

Romantic artists were fascinated by the nature, the genius, their passions and inner
struggles, their moods, mental potentials and the heroes. They investigated human
nature and personality, the folk culture, the national and ethnic origins, the medieval
era, the exotic, the remote, the mysterious, the occult, the diseased, and even
satanic.

Romantic artist had a role of an ultimate egoistic creator with the spirit above strict
formal rules and traditional procedures. He had imagination as a gateway to
transcendent experience and spiritual truth

The movement stressed strong emotion as a source of aesthetic experience,
placing new emphasis on such emotions as fear, horror and awe.

Romanticism reached beyond the rational and Classicist ideal models to elevate
medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived to be authentically
medieval, in an attempt to escape the confines of population growth, urban sprawl
and industrialism, and it also attempted to embrace the exotic, unfamiliar and distant
in modes more authentic than chinoiserie, harnessing the power of the imagination to
envision and to escape.

 "Realism" was offered as a polarized opposite to Romanticism. Romanticism
elevated the achievements of what it perceived as misunderstood heroic individuals
and artists that altered society. It also legitimised the individual imagination as a
critical authority, which permitted freedom from classical notions of form in art. There
was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability.

Symbolism

Symbolism and myth were given great prominence in the Romantic conception of art.
Symbols were the human aesthetic resemblance of nature's symbolic language.
They were valued because they could simultaneously suggest many things, and
were thus thought superior to the one-to-one communications of metaphors. It
proved them with a way to express more infinitively.


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French Romantic Artists

·      Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
·      Eugene Delacroix

The Death of Sardanapalus

The Death of Sardanapalus is a story about the king of Nineveh, who, when
besieged, ordered a massacre of his entire retinue before he too was burned to
death in this palace. The picture shows Sardanapalus lying on his ornate bed
watching a alive killing a horse while frenzied woman are killed in front of him. It is
filled with passion and emotion, dramatic diagonals and vibrant colour




Figure 1: The death Of Sardanapolus ,1828

Liberty Leading the People – 1830

Liberty Leading the People commemorates the French Revolution. Accompanied by
a boy (a child of the common people) brandishing a pistol, a young man wearing a
top hat, (the dress of the university student of those days) and carrying a rifle, and a
labourer with his sword is the figure of Liberty herself. She carries a bayonet and a
tricolour flag. Helped by the ordinary people, the working classes and the students,
she storms the barricades while the city of Paris burns behind her.
http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/romanticism/eugenedelacroix-
LibertyLeadingthePeople28July1830.jpg




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           Figure 2: Liberty Leading the people.




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                             Term One Lesson Four

Realism Mid-19th Century

The earliest Realist work began to appear in the 18th century, in a reaction to the
excesses of Romanticism and Neo-classicism.

Realism is an approach to art in which subjects are depicted in as straightforward a
manner as possible, without idealizing them and without following rules of formal
artistic theory.

The artists wanted to do away with the idealization of subjects, which was a common
feature of Neoclassicism and Romanticism. They wanted to show the natural truth of
their subject. Realism is therefore sometimes called 'Naturalism'.

Realist artists chose subjects from everyday life around them. Often we see in their
paintings images of some the poorer members of society. Before this, many artists
had deliberately overlooked such subjects.

Realism sets as a goal not imitating past artistic achievements but the truthful and
accurate depiction of the models that nature and contemporary life offer to the
artist. The artificiality of both the Classicism and Romanticism in the academic art
was unanimously rejected, and necessity to introduce contemporary to art found
strong support. New idea was that ordinary people and everyday activities are worthy
subjects for art.


Realists attempted to portray the lives, appearances, problems, customs, and
mores of the middle and lower classes, of the unexceptional, the ordinary, the
humble, and the unadorned.


They set themselves faithfully to reproduce all to that point ignored aspects of
contemporary life and society - its mental attitudes, physical settings, and material
conditions.




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Figure 1: Gustave Coubert, Burial at Ornans. 1849


This work depicts a funeral in a bleak provincial landscape, attended by obscure
persons ‘of no importance’ the type of people presented in novels. While an officious
clergymen reads the ‘office of the dead’, those in attendance cluster around the open
gravesite, their faces representing to all degrees a response to the situation although
re painting is monumental – like the others of that century contemporary critics were
horrified by the ordinariness of the subject matter and the antiheroic composition.
Arranged in a weaving line extending across the broad width of the canvas, the
figures are portrayed in groups- and sombrely clad woman at the back right., a semi-
circle of equally clad men stand by the open grave, and assorted churchmen at the
left.

The observer’s attention is on the wall of figures seen at eye level. The dark pit of
the grave opens onto the viewers space in the centre foreground. The artis controlled
the composition in a masterful way by his sparing use of bright colour.




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           Figure 2: Honore Daumier, The Third Class Carriage.




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                                Term One Lesson Five

Impressionism 1867 – 1886

Definition: Impressionist art is a style in which the artist captures the image of an
object as someone would see it if they just caught a glimpse of it.


Impressionist motto – The human eye is a marvellous instrument.

A movement in French painting sometimes called optical realism because of its
almost scientific interest in the actual visual experience, and effect of light and
movement on the appearance of objects.

The name 'Impressionists' came as artists embraced the nickname a conservative
critic used to ridicule the whole movement. Painting 'Impression: Sunrise' by Claude
Monet fathered critical referral. Impressionist fascination with light and movement
was at the core of their art.

Exposure to light and/or movement was enough to create a justifiable and fit artistic
subject out of literally anything. Impressionists learned to directly record visual
sensations of nature, unconcerned with the actual depiction of physical objects in
front of them.

Impressionism had a lasting effect and influence worldwide.




                      Figure 1: Figure 2: Claude Monet, Sunrise




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Sunrise

Claude Monet painted this famous painting, Sunrise. He displayed it at a Paris art
show and because of the patchy texture; it caused one critic to call the whole show
impressionist, which gave the movement its name. Monet had a fascination with light
and that led him to not only paint this picture, but also several others showing the
same effect on different objects.

Characteristics

-      The artists like to capture their images without detail but with bold colours.
-      Impressionist painters attempted to accurately and objectively record visual
       reality in terms of the transient effects of light and colour.
-      Their pictures are very bright and vibrant.
-      They paint the pictures with a lot of colour and most of their pictures are
       outdoor scenes.
-      Impressionist fascination with light and movement was at the core of their art.


                           Impressionists:

                           E     Everyday life
                           L     Light
                           B     Brushstrokes
                           O     Outdoor settings
                           W     Weather and
                           atmosphere


They paint the pictures with a lot of colour and most of their pictures are outdoor
scenes. Their pictures are very bright and vibrant. The artists like to capture their
images without detail but with bold colours. Some of the greatest impressionist artists
were Edouard Manet, Edgar Degas,

The impressionist style of painting is characterized chiefly by concentration on the
general impression produced by a scene or object and the use of unmixed primary
colours and small strokes to simulate actual reflected light.

The Impressionists incorporated new scientific research into the physics of colour to
achieve a more exact representation of colour and tone.

The sudden change in the look of these paintings was brought about by a change in
methodology: applying paint in small touches of pure colour rather than broader
strokes, and painting out of doors to catch a particular fleeting impression of colour
and light.
They paint the pictures with a lot of colour and most of their pictures are outdoor
scenes.




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The Artist’s subject matter

Pissaro and Sisley painted the French countryside and river scenes.
Degas enjoyed painting ballet dancers and horse races.
Renoir loved to show the effect of sunlight on flowers and figures.
Monet was interested in subtle changes in the atmosphere. (Lilies)

Claude Monet (1840 – 1926)
Paris, France

Claude Monet was the leading figure in the growth of impressionism.

Claude Monet was born in Paris, France. By the time he was fifteen Monet had
become popular as a caricaturist (one who makes exaggerated portraits of people).
Through an exhibition of his drawings at a local frame shop in 1858, Monet met
Eugène Boudin, a landscape painter who became a great influence on the young
artist. Boudin introduced Monet to outdoor painting, an activity that soon became his
life's work.

Monet's constant movements during this period were directly related to his artistic
ambitions. He was interested in natural light, atmosphere, and colour, and he tried to
record them in his paintings as accurately as possible.

Monet exhibited regularly in the impressionist group shows, the first of which took
place in 1874. On that occasion his painting Impression: Sunrise (1872) inspired a
newspaper critic to call all the artists "impressionists," and the name stuck. Monet
and the impressionists discovered that even the darkest shadows and the gloomiest
days contain a wide variety of colours. However, Monet learned that he had to paint
quickly and to use short brushstrokes loaded with individual colours. Monet was also
influenced by Japanese prints.

Late work

Monet's wife died in 1879; in 1892 he married Alice Hoschedé. During the 1890s he
devoted his energy to paintings of haystacks (1891) and the facade (front) of Rouen
Cathedral (1892–94). In these works Monet painted his subjects from the same
physical position, allowing only the light and weather conditions to vary from picture
to picture. By 1899 he began work on his famous paintings of the many water lilies in
his gardens at Giverny, France. Monet's late years were very difficult. His health
declined rapidly, and by the 1920s he was almost blind.




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    Figure 2: Woman with a Parasol - Madame Monet and Her Son by Claude Monet 1875


Standing on a gentle hill with the wind whipping her voluminous skirts around her
legs, Camille presides over this vision of summer. Jean is at her side, but colour and
movement are the true subjects of this painting.

Tints of pink and yellow make Camille's white dress shimmer, and shades of violet
and brown lurk in the shadows that her figure casts upon the lush green ground. The
buoyancy of her parasol and swaying wildflowers express the motion of the wind.




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             Figure 3: La Gare Saint-Lazare. Les signaux by Claude Monet - 1877


Monet rented a small apartment in Paris to have ready access to the Saint-Lazare
train station, where he planned to set up his easel on the platforms and the adjacent
streets as the trains pulled in and out.

The thick air that surrounded the station made a striking contrast to the clarity of the
country atmosphere in which he usually worked. To Monet, the smoky fog was the
source of magnificent colour variation, but one critic complained that the pink and
purple smoke transformed the scene into an illegible scrawl.




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                Figure 4: Degas, Dancers




           Figure 5: Edgar Degas Blue Dncers




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                Figure 6: George Seurat,




               Figure 7: The Swing Seurat




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                                   Figure 8: Water lilies

Test Your Knowledge

1.   What is the historical background that brought the Impressionists together?
2.   Look for differences in style and subject matter among the Impressionists.
3.   What were all Impressionists concerned with in their paintings that held them
     together?
4.   Compare the works of Monet's Woman With A Parasol and Degas' Four
Dancers.

Research Task

Research ONE of the French impressionistic painters below and complete the
following task.

Edgar Degas
Édouard Manet
Claude Monet
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, (1841-1919)
Alfred Sisley, (1839-1899)

Task to include

Intro
Characteristics of such a style.
Biography
Style
Painting
Technique
Analyses
Opinion
Reference list.


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Reference:

http://www.notablebiographies.com/Ma-Mo/Monet-Claude.html
http://entertainment.howstuffworks.com/claude-monet-paintings-1873-187813.htm




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                              Term One Lesson Six

Post-Impressionism 1880-1920

Roger Fry a British artist and critic named the style Post-Impressionism in 1910.
Post-Impressionists extended Impressionism while rejecting its limitations: they
continued using vivid colours, thick application of paint, distinctive brushstrokes and
real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to
distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary colour.

Post-Impressionism in Western painting, movement in France that represented both
an extension of Impressionism and a rejection of that style's inherent limitations.

Impressionism was based, in its strictest sense, on the objective recording of nature
in terms of the fugitive effects of colour and light.
The Post-Impressionists rejected this limited aim in favour of more ambitious
expression, admitting their debt, however, to the pure, brilliant colours of
Impressionism, its freedom from traditional subject matter, and its technique of
defining form with short brushstrokes of broken colour.

The work of these painters formed a basis for several contemporary trends and for
early 20th-century modernism. The Post-Impressionists often exhibited together, but,
unlike the Impressionists, who began as a close-knit, convivial group, they painted
mainly alone.

It was the Post-Impressionists who bridged Impressionism's faithfulness to nature to
the styles of the early 1900s-Fauvism, Cubism and abstract art.




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"Matamoe," by Paul Gauguin Post-Impressionism refers to an artistic style that
followed Impressionism at the end of the 1800s. Most Post-Impressionist artists
began as Impressionists, but then decided to try new ideas. Some, like Vincent van
Gogh and Paul Gauguin, leaned toward a more spiritual and expressive approach.
They wanted to add emotion and symbolic meaning to their art. Their works often
contain bold, unrealistic colours and expressive brushstrokes.

The Post-Impressionists were dissatisfied with the triviality of subject matter and the
loss of structure in Impressionist paintings, though they did not agree on the way
forward.

Georges Seurat and his followers concerned themselves with *Pointillism, the
systematic use of tiny dots of colour.


*Definition: Pointillism is the painting technique in which dots of unmixed, pure colour
are juxtaposed on the canvas. The dots blend together in your eye to create tones
when you look at the painting from a distance. The French Neo Impressionist painter
George Seurat is credited with developing Pointillism.




  A French painter who was a leader in the neo-impressionist movement of the late
  19th century, Georges Seurat is the ultimate example of the artist as scientist. He
  spent his life studying colour theories and the effects of different linear structures.




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Figure 1: George Seurat Pointillism


Paul Cézanne set out to restore a sense of order and structure to painting, to "make
of Impressionism something solid and durable, like the art of the museums". He
achieved this by reducing objects to their basic shapes while retaining the bright
fresh colours of Impressionism.


Paul Cezanne

Cezanne began painting outdoors in 1872 and exhibited with the Impressionists a
few times before breaking with them in 1887. While the Impressionist's focused on
dissolved form; Cezanne focused on arrangements of constructed forms. Young
artists often romanticize the last twenty years of Cezanne's life spent in Provence in
the South of France. Because they see him as a rebellious, reclusive primitive who
“gave it all up to be an artist”, they take “artistic permission” from him. “If Cezanne did
it, I can do it.”

Cezanne developed a theory of what art should be and then attempted to explain it
through his paintings. He believed that there was hidden order in nature and that it
was to be found in non-traditional, ambiguous space; therefore, he abandoned the
traditional illusionist distinctions of foreground and background. His paintings are
abstract, yet objects within them are recognizable. Cezanne's revolutionary theories
and work lead to Cubism.




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Figure 2: Still life with bowl of cherries




Figure 3 Still life - Lemons


Although their individual styles differed profoundly, all of these artists moved away
from the aesthetic program of impressionism and, in particular, from the
impressionists' emphasis on depicting a narrow spectrum of visual reality. It would be
a mistake to view the postimpressionists as simply rejecting their impressionist
heritage; rather, they accepted the revolutionary impact of impressionism and went
on to explore new aesthetic ideas, many of which grew out of concepts implicit in
impressionism. Aside from a general dissatisfaction with impressionism and a widely
shared interest in surface pattern, however, the postimpressionists displayed few
stylistic or thematic similarities.




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Major Post-Impressionist artists

   ·    Paul Cézanne (1839–1906)
   ·    Henri Rousseau (1844-1910)
   ·    Paul Gauguin (1848-1903)
   ·    Vincent van Gogh (1853–1890)
   ·    Georges Seurat (1859–1891)
   ·    Paul Ranson (1864–1909)



Test Your Knowledge

   1.      Explain the different techniques between impressionism and post-
           impressionism.                                                (6)
   2.      What is meant when talking about pointillism?                 (3)
   3.      What is the subject matter of post-impressionism generally?
   4.      Why do you think that these painters worked more alone than the
           impressionistic painters who often worked together?




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