Chapter 2 On line Study Guide by LeeGreenwood

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									                                      Chapter 2 On line Study Guide

                                              Chapter Outline

Background to the Emergence of Civilization in India

Harappan Civilization: A Fascinating Enigma
       Political and Social Structures
       Harappan Culture
       A Lost Civilization?

Arrival of the Aryans
         Early Aryans
         Mauryan Empire
         Caste and Class: Social Structures in Ancient India
                  Caste System
                  Daily Life in Ancient India
         Economy

Escaping the Wheel of Life: The Religious World of Ancient India
        Hinduism
                Reincarnation
        Buddhism: The Middle Path
                Asoka, Buddhist Monarch

Rule of the Fishes: India after the Mauryas

Exuberant World of Indian Culture
        Literature
        Architecture and Sculpture
        Science

Conclusion
                                       Terms and Persons to Know

Ganges River
Indus River valley
Dravidians
Aryans
Harappan civilization
Mohenjo-Daro
clay seals
Aryans
Rigveda
raja
kshatriya
maharaja
dharma
Alexander the Great
Mauryan Empire
Chandragupta Maurya
Arthasastra
varna
castes
brahmin
vaisyas
sudras
jati
importance of family
importance of males
guru
females
sati
monsoon
trade
Hinduism
Aryan gods
sacrifice
asceticism
yoga
Upanishads
Brahman
reincarnation
karma
Buddhism
Siddhartha Gautama
nirvana
Atman
bodhi
Middle Path
Jainism
Asoka
Kushan Kingdom
Vedas
Sanskrit
Mahabharata
Ramayana
pillar
stupa
rock chamber
sciences
Arthasastra
Caste system
Polytheistic/polytheism
Sati
Syncretism
                                                Mapwork

Map 2.1. Ancient Harappan Civilization
        1.How was the geographical site of Harappan civilization similar to that of Sumer?

Map Alexander the Great’s Travels in Asia
       2. What kept Alexander from traveling farther into the Indian subcontinent?

Map 2.2. The Empire of Asoka
        3. What was the purpose of Asoka's pillar and rock edicts? What pattern do you discern in their
        placement?

        4. What happened to the Mauryan empire after Asoka's death?
                                               Datework
Chronology: Ancient India
        5. For how long is the Mauryan dynasty an important centralizing force in India? How does the
        collapse of the Mauryan dynasty lead to the rise of the Kushan Kingdom?

        6. What effect does Gautama Buddha have on Hinduism, the religious legacy of the Aryans?

Chapter Timeline: First Indian agricultural settlements to the Reign of Asoka
        7. Was Harappan civilization contemporaneous with Sumerian civilization?

        8. When do the Aryans arrive? From where?

        9. How long ago had Gautama Buddha lived when Asoka began to spread Buddhism?

                                             Primary Sources

Hindu primary sources:
        The Duties of a King: The Arthasastra
                10. At whose court did Kautilya apparently live?

                 11. What similarities do you perceive between this passage and the excerpt from the
                 Bhagavadgita that introduced this chapter? How did these two literary works differ in
                 purpose?

        Social Classes in Ancient India: The Law of Manu
                 12. What was the original Indian word for class (or caste)? What was its original
                 meaning?

        In the Beginning: The Upanishads
                 13. How does this view of the beginnings differ from others that you know?

Jain Primary Source:
         The Henpecked Monk: The Sutrakrtanga
                 14. Why might Jainism have failed to become as popular in India as Hinduism or
                 Buddhism?

Buddhist Primary Sources:
        How to Achieve Englightenment: The Sermon at Benares
                15. Summarize the four noble truths in your own words.

                 16. Why is Buddha sometimes referred to as a reformer of Hinduism? What principles
                 did he accept from the earlier religion? Is karma important here?

Sources on the Lives of Women: Voices of Silence
        17. What characteristics of ancient Indian society and family make writings by women scarce?

        18. Is the writer of the third passage endorsing or rebelling against the woman's actions she
        describes?

Hindu Primary Sources:
        Draupadi’s Humiliation: The Mahabharata
                19. How was the woman to be humiliated?

        The Monkey-King in Sri Lanka: The Ramayana
               20. Why was the Ramayana so popular with Indian audiences? What distinguishes this
               epic from the contemporaneous Mahabharata?
                                            Artwork
Harappan Art:
       Mohenjo-Daro photograph
              21. In what respects was Mohenjo-Daro comparable to a modern city?

         Harappan Bust
                22. What could this bust tell about the Harappan civilization?

Hindu Art:
       Triple-Headed Siva
               23. How does this sculpture reveal the influence of Buddhism upon Hinduism?

                  24. How can one deity represent three different things? Is this idea of three-in-one
                  reminiscent of anything in Christianity?

         Dancing Siva
                 25. Why was Siva originally known as "the Destroyer"? What aspects later accrued to
                 this deity?

                  26. Is Siva male or female? Why might the artist have created a sculpture that leaves
                  such categorization ambiguous?

                  27. Who are the other primary gods of Hinduism, and what do they represent?

Buddhist Art:
        Asoka's Pillar
                28. Compare this pillar to the Stele of Hammurabi from Chapter One. Is Asoka making
                any indirect statement about himself with such a monument?

Sanchi Gate and Stupa
                 29. This monument was designed with a circular path surrounding the stupa; believers
                 walked this in silent meditation. Why is this appropriate activity in the presence of one
                 of his relics?

         A Buddhist Prayer Hall
                30. What elements of the Indian tradition of asceticism do you see expressed in this
                chamber?

								
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