Chapter 2 On line Study Guide Chapter Outline Background to the Emergence of Civilization in India Harappan Civilization: A Fascinating Enigma Political and Social Structures Harappan Culture A Lost Civilization? Arrival of the Aryans Early Aryans Mauryan Empire Caste and Class: Social Structures in Ancient India Caste System Daily Life in Ancient India Economy Escaping the Wheel of Life: The Religious World of Ancient India Hinduism Reincarnation Buddhism: The Middle Path Asoka, Buddhist Monarch Rule of the Fishes: India after the Mauryas Exuberant World of Indian Culture Literature Architecture and Sculpture Science Conclusion Terms and Persons to Know Ganges River Indus River valley Dravidians Aryans Harappan civilization Mohenjo-Daro clay seals Aryans Rigveda raja kshatriya maharaja dharma Alexander the Great Mauryan Empire Chandragupta Maurya Arthasastra varna castes brahmin vaisyas sudras jati importance of family importance of males guru females sati monsoon trade Hinduism Aryan gods sacrifice asceticism yoga Upanishads Brahman reincarnation karma Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama nirvana Atman bodhi Middle Path Jainism Asoka Kushan Kingdom Vedas Sanskrit Mahabharata Ramayana pillar stupa rock chamber sciences Arthasastra Caste system Polytheistic/polytheism Sati Syncretism Mapwork Map 2.1. Ancient Harappan Civilization 1.How was the geographical site of Harappan civilization similar to that of Sumer? Map Alexander the Great’s Travels in Asia 2. What kept Alexander from traveling farther into the Indian subcontinent? Map 2.2. The Empire of Asoka 3. What was the purpose of Asoka's pillar and rock edicts? What pattern do you discern in their placement? 4. What happened to the Mauryan empire after Asoka's death? Datework Chronology: Ancient India 5. For how long is the Mauryan dynasty an important centralizing force in India? How does the collapse of the Mauryan dynasty lead to the rise of the Kushan Kingdom? 6. What effect does Gautama Buddha have on Hinduism, the religious legacy of the Aryans? Chapter Timeline: First Indian agricultural settlements to the Reign of Asoka 7. Was Harappan civilization contemporaneous with Sumerian civilization? 8. When do the Aryans arrive? From where? 9. How long ago had Gautama Buddha lived when Asoka began to spread Buddhism? Primary Sources Hindu primary sources: The Duties of a King: The Arthasastra 10. At whose court did Kautilya apparently live? 11. What similarities do you perceive between this passage and the excerpt from the Bhagavadgita that introduced this chapter? How did these two literary works differ in purpose? Social Classes in Ancient India: The Law of Manu 12. What was the original Indian word for class (or caste)? What was its original meaning? In the Beginning: The Upanishads 13. How does this view of the beginnings differ from others that you know? Jain Primary Source: The Henpecked Monk: The Sutrakrtanga 14. Why might Jainism have failed to become as popular in India as Hinduism or Buddhism? Buddhist Primary Sources: How to Achieve Englightenment: The Sermon at Benares 15. Summarize the four noble truths in your own words. 16. Why is Buddha sometimes referred to as a reformer of Hinduism? What principles did he accept from the earlier religion? Is karma important here? Sources on the Lives of Women: Voices of Silence 17. What characteristics of ancient Indian society and family make writings by women scarce? 18. Is the writer of the third passage endorsing or rebelling against the woman's actions she describes? Hindu Primary Sources: Draupadi’s Humiliation: The Mahabharata 19. How was the woman to be humiliated? The Monkey-King in Sri Lanka: The Ramayana 20. Why was the Ramayana so popular with Indian audiences? What distinguishes this epic from the contemporaneous Mahabharata? Artwork Harappan Art: Mohenjo-Daro photograph 21. In what respects was Mohenjo-Daro comparable to a modern city? Harappan Bust 22. What could this bust tell about the Harappan civilization? Hindu Art: Triple-Headed Siva 23. How does this sculpture reveal the influence of Buddhism upon Hinduism? 24. How can one deity represent three different things? Is this idea of three-in-one reminiscent of anything in Christianity? Dancing Siva 25. Why was Siva originally known as "the Destroyer"? What aspects later accrued to this deity? 26. Is Siva male or female? Why might the artist have created a sculpture that leaves such categorization ambiguous? 27. Who are the other primary gods of Hinduism, and what do they represent? Buddhist Art: Asoka's Pillar 28. Compare this pillar to the Stele of Hammurabi from Chapter One. Is Asoka making any indirect statement about himself with such a monument? Sanchi Gate and Stupa 29. This monument was designed with a circular path surrounding the stupa; believers walked this in silent meditation. Why is this appropriate activity in the presence of one of his relics? A Buddhist Prayer Hall 30. What elements of the Indian tradition of asceticism do you see expressed in this chamber?
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