Tuailai 2005 seminar - T Kaithang by ashrafp

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									               ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION
                   THROUGH MICRO FINANCE
                                             Seminar paper bawltu: T.Kaithang


Hiai thuluin a tup pen ahihleh ei singtang dawna teng Zomite/Mizote khosakdan leh inten-louten
bawlhoihna ding lampi zonna leh kikawkmuhna a hi. I thugelhpen Evangelical Baptist Convention
Saptuamin TUAILAI 2005 khawmpiliana simkhiak dia kibawl ahia. Hiai khawmpia hong paikhawmte
kiang kiaa hawm dia bawlkhiak a hihjiakin leh sumpung delhna dia zat dia bawl ahih louh manin
ngaihdan, muhdan leh theihdante mimal ngaihdan tamkhop kihel kha ding hi.

1. Sappaua i theih mahmah Planning i chih sek, ei pauin a baihlam zawngin “Maban khualna” chih
hiam “ Maban dinga kisakkhawlna” va chi diahduah le, i thei mahmaha. A gen a nuam sim viala, a
taktaka zat haksa ka sak a hia. Noute‟n leng baih na sa un ka gingta kei. Ei singtangmite hi mi
manmohte i hi ua. Kuma sim gen louh, a khaa sim leng gelkhawla, huai dia kisakkhawl haksa sa
maimah ka hi. I mizia tangpi hi nek di leng nekpah, sep ding le sep pahpah, nopbawl di leng ngak ngap
loua, nopbawl nuam pahte i hi ua. I planning bawl sun uh leng i loukhoh toh kituaka bawl a hia,
gamvat akipana buhlak tan khawng a hi tangpi hi. Huaijiak a hi dinga, kum khat sanga sau zaw
planning i bawl leng thei kha lou ka hi.

1.1. Loukhoua nekzongte i hi sek ua. Tuin jaw nekzonna tuamtuam i theita. I theihsa loukhoh kia hi
louin, kum li/nga daih ding hai leh thei huan/lou bawl dan i theia. Loukhou loute‟n sumsinna lam i
zuia. I sep dungjuiin planning le loukhoh sanga sau zaw bawl dan leng i thei panta hi. Huanah, i
tuailaite leng siamsinna lama a hong lut nung uh planning chih om zia theichian nai kei mahle hang, i
zang panta. Sikul, college, university kai sung kum tam a phak jiakin hiai hun sung kia hi louin, kai
zoh chiang tan dinga kisakkhawl a ngaia, huaiin planning hon bawlsak teitei hi.

1.2. Tulai hunah planning zat louh theih louh hong hita hi. I damsung hun kia hi louin, i tate leh tute
hun di gelkhawla, huai hun ding lunggel sak hong poimoh mahmahta. Hiaibang ngaihdan nei theita i
hihjiakin, hiai dotnate kidong le i chi hi:

       i)      Tuaban kum 20 leh kum 30 chiangin na inkuan nekzonna bang hi le na chia?
       ii)     Siamsinna lamah na tate/tute bang hi le uh na chi ?
       iii)    Na insung leh inkuanin tulaia vanzat phatuamte - telephone, computer, mobile phone
               leh car khawng neia, zang pha dingin na deih sam hia?
       iv)     Puansilh-nikten hoih leh kilawm zawte nang leh na inkuanpihte‟n nei le uh na chi hia?
       v)      Damtheihna lam leh damlou kepna lam a hoih zaw na lamen hia?
       vi)     Sum-le-pai dinmun hoih zaw nei dingin na kilamen hia?
       vii)    Nekzonna kip leh kingakna tham neih na lamen hia?
       viii)   Na khua bang dinmuna om dingin na deiha?

Tua i dotnate i dawn ding dan tangpi theih a haksa kei.

2. I DINMUN
2.1 Lou neih dan: Singtang khuaa tengte louneimi i hi lai ua. Gen tam louin i louneih dan uh hiai bang
a hi: Gamvat, louhal, mangkhoh, buh/haichi tuh, loukhou, buh lak chih a hi tangpi hi. Hiai hi kum tam
khop kikhek loua, i pupate hih dan tuni tana kizui lai ahi. I gamsung chiatah loumun kumtengin i khek
ua, kum tengin gammang lianpi vat siangin i halmang jel uhi. Hiai chindanin sing leh gua leh haichi
tuamtuamte a mangthang saka, sa leh vasate leng i hawlmang hiaihiai uhi. Lam tuamtuama siatna
hontun chu gen se kei lele tuate leng supna lianpi pha khin hi. Singtang lama hong kipante gen danin
tua i louneih danin leitang hoihna a nemanga, louah leng buh thak tam zou nawn lou hi. Inkuan kham
ding a khoukhia zou tawm hiaihiaita a hih manun, buh kiaah leng kitoudelh haksa suakta hi. Huan, i
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buh leh haichite leng a ngeingei mah kumtenga kichingin, sumsuah theih haichi i thei tawma, huaite
leng louah i ching kei hi. I lou neihdanah masawnna himhim om louin, i khohkhiak lah kiam hiaihiai a
hih leh sappaua i gen sek i gam “economy” se khinta hi lou ding hiam?




2.2 Sorkar nasep
        Lou nasema singtanga omte‟n laisim lam hon ngai poimoh ua. Laisiamna tungtawn leh sorkara
deihsaktuamna(reservation) zarin sorkar office leh sorkar munteah, sorkar sikul leh collegete ah sepna
tuamtuam i hon nei tei ua. Hiaibang sepnate jiakin singtang dawna tengte leng phaijang leh khopi zaw
deuhte ah i teng ua. Huchiin laisimna mun hoih zawte i naih ua, eite leng tulaia masawnna tehna khat
literacy percentage ah i kaltou sam uhi. Sorkar nasep neite inkuan kiain hamphatna tang ahi kei ua.
Amaute khaloh tungtawnin kholak ah sum hong tama, thil phatuam tamkhop hon piangsak in
phatuamna nei hi. State sorkar kia hi louin tuni chiangin Central sorkar nuaiah leng i om sauhsauh ua. I
nekzonna leh khosakna lamah masawnna tampi muhtheih omta hi.
     Sorkar nasep kia hi louin sorkar phuhkhiak bank, insurance, leh adangdang ah leng i om zeuhzeuh
ua. Tuni dinmun ah ahihleh private company ah leng bangzahhiam i lutta uhi. Mahni deihtelna jiak
leng hi thou mahleh sorkar lama sepna a om louh jiak leng a hi thou hi. State sorkar lamah sepna ding
omlou bang a hita.

2.3 Sumdawng
        Nekzon dan lam tuamtuam a om a. Louneih kia hilouin, sorkar nasep leng hi sam louin, sum
zonga nekzong mi hunkhop ki omta hi. Tutmuna sum zong-dawrngak/sumbuk ngak i chihte- banah
contract nasem, supply lama kizang leh vanzuak ding khualzinpiha, khua tuamtuama vanzuaka zin
leng i om uhi. Sumdawn i chihin chi tampi a huapkha. Sumdawngte dinmun leng kibanglou pipi a hi
lai.

2.4 Nektawm zong
     Khopi zaw deuha tengte lakah nitenga nektawm zong khosa tam khop om uhi. Amaute mehzuak,
sa leh nektheih tuamtuam bawlsa zuak bang, nitenga khut nasema kiloh bang a hi ua. Nekzon dan
chikhat himahleh nekzonna kip leh khamuanhuai jaw hi lou hi.

3. I nam economy tangthu sui di chi le, sui ding bangmah tham i nei kei uh. A tunga i gensa bangin eite
sunga sum(money) hong poimohna hi sawt nai kei mahleh sum nasep theih dan i theisiam viau ua. “Ka
pupa uh amau kitoudelhte a hi uh,” chiin kisathei nuam leleng, kisaktheihpih ding bang lua ana om lou
hi. A jiak ahihleh i kingakna pen louneih lah kingak theihna hi loua, i sumdawnna lah nam changkang
zawte toh kiteh theih ding hi lou laia, sorkara sepna lah tawm mahmahta.

3.1 Tua i gensa thil hong kilamdangin lam tuamtuamah a hon nawk hi: Singtang lama tengte‟n louneih
kingakna tham ching zou lou, chih ahon muh un khopi a hon zuan ua. Huaiah sep ding leh nekzonna
kituhtuahna ah hongtel tei uhi. Sorkar lama sepna muh ding kilamena laisim tam khopte sepna mu
louin hong om ua. Mi tengteng sumdawng thei i hih lou jiakin sep ding nei lou, khutsiam neihlouh
jiaka kilohna nei lou leng tam khop om thei hi.

3.2 Saptuam lam leng a hon nawkkha thama. Mite sepkhiak(income) a hong niam chiangin saptuama
thohlawm lut leng a niam ding chih theihsa a hi. Huan sep ding kichian a om louh chiangin mite
khovel/salam khelhnaah a puk ua. Taksap jiakin zu leh khamtheih juak hong pung ua, mahni kijuak
leng hong om uhi. Tuailaite hinkhua leng nasa tak a sawi kha a hihmanin khalama kiakniamna muh
theihin om hi. Khelhna hong uang semsemin khosung kivaihawmna leng siatlam manoh hi.

3.3 Mite‟n amau septheih bangchiat sep ding a neih chiang un buaina bawl man leng om lou uhi.
Thahat laite nasep neilou, om maimai theiloute hi khosung/khovel buaisaktu a hi nak uhi. En vel

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lehang, sep ding i nei siausiau uhia? Sep ding nei lou kholaka om maimai/vak maimai i tam viau uhia?
I singpi hoteltea nilenga tu maimai, laithai kimawl maimaia hun zang i tam uhia?

4. I masawna, i khantouh theihna dingin i dan zat lellelte bangzahhiam zat theih om mahleh a zattheih
nawn louh, i khanmoh bawk hi thei leng i theihkhiak ngai i sa. Huanah ngaihdan i neihsate leng i khek
ding bangzahhiam leng om dingin i gingta. Tuate tamlou takkhe le:

4.1 Sorkara sepna i muh kei leh a dang sep ding ngaihsun thei lou, chih ngaihdan nei tampi i om kha
ding uh. Laisim peuhmah sorkar a sep ding zong dia lungsim a kikoih tinten i hi uhi. Himahleh central
sorkar hiin state sorkarah hileh sep ding tawm hiaihiaita chih mitengin i muh leh i theih ahia.




Graduate(B.A./B.Sc./B.Com. etc.) tengtengin sorkarah sepna a nei ding uh chih kua mohpuak hi tuan
lou hi. Huaijiakin, laisimte‟n leng laisim chhan, tup-le-ngim kichian tak neih a ngaia. Sorkara sepna
ngim jiak hi lou, ei lunglut lam i sim hong poimoh zaw ding. Sumdawng ding, mahni kitoudelha sepna
kibawltawm ding, chihte lunggulh zawk di hita.

4.2 Laisimte‟n sepna hoih muh ding jiak hi loua, siamna-pilna lunggulh jiaka laisim tum hi jaw le
hang. Huan, lai theihtheihna leng kibang lou a hihmanin laisimte‟n khovel khangthu hiam,
telsuina(science) hiam, sumdawnna lamsang hiam, chemical hiam, geography hiam, loukhoh dan
hiam, ganvulh dan lam hiama theihna neia, i lungsim hon zasak zaw dite theihnopna jiaka laisim hile
hang nekzonna khat peuh peuh i sep chiangin le navak jaw leh pil zaw, namdangte toh kikawmtuahna
leh sepkhawmna lama leng siam zaw hi theihna hong hi ding hi.

4.3 Mimal leh mipi lungsimah midangte tungah kingakna lungput(dependency mentality) leng i nei
lian mahmaha. Nam tuantual i hihjiakin sorkarin nam tuantualte dopkangna dingin scheme tuamtuama
dingin sum tampi hawmkhia hi. Tamkhop a thawna hawmkhiak a hi ua, a khenlah leitawi dia piak leng
a hi. Mi tamtakin hiai sumte enlahin huai lam kia lunggulha mahni nasep leng sem man lou i om uhi.
Thagum sengloua summuh theih lunggulhnain thadahna piangsaka, taksapnain leng hon gamlat lou hi.
Hiaibang lungsim, grant leh subsidy ngaihna pen i tawpsan hun chianga mahni khantouhna dia
lungsim zang taktak pan hi ding hi hang.

4.4 Singtangah gam leitang neitu hihna i khua hausa chiat khutah om a hiin ka thei. Hausain a kep
siam leh bitna oma. Ana zangkhialte‟n lah mipite adingin leng buaina a tun thei uhi. Tua i gennop pen
huai lam hi zaw louin, i gama leitang hi mipi zat dia hausa khutah om himahleh, a neitu hihna mimal
khuta om hita leh bang tan haksatna a hon tun thei dia? chih iki dong nuam hi. Industrialised gam i hi
keia. Eite adinga means of production om sunte i khuak, i khut leh gam leitang a hi ua. I khuak leh tha
i nei teka. Gam leng i khuta om hileh a zat dan a phatuam zaw diam? A neituin thanop a suah zaw
diam?

4.5 Gam leitang i neih i phattuampih theihna dingin bang chia nasem ding i hia a? Hiai dotna hi lunglut
taka ngaihtuaha lungsim, ngaihtuahna leh tha i sen ngaita hi. Etsakna dingin anteh, haigah, sa, ngasa,
aktui, chihteah i kitoudelh theihna dingin gam leitang, mual leh guam i neihte bangchi danin zang le a
hoih dia?

4.6 Neitu hihna kua khutah a oma? Neitu i hihnop leh sep leng i sep ding a hi. Tha-le-zung bangteng
toh thanuam taka semtu mah a neitu hong hi leh, a sem loute tan ding hong om lou dinga. Tunia i
inmun, i lou leh leitangte leh gamte leng eia hi lou thei lua a hi, chih lau giugiau kawma pan i lak kul
mahmahta.

4.7 I tenna gamte lamlian dung leh gam laizang a hih louh jiak un kikawmtuahna mahmahah i buai
gige lai uhi. Lampi hoih i poimoha. Huaite banah tui dawn di tawi vialvialna dingin leng i hun leh tha a
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bei gai hi. Meivak le khopia tengte hamphatna neipha sam lehang i duhthusam a hi ding. Hiaite: lampi
hoih, tui kining ching leh meivak kingaktheihna nei samin adang lamen lua louin om thei lehang kei
duhthusam dan ahi.

4.8 Koi gam peuhah leng dan leh thupiak kepbitna lam a hoih louh chiangin masawnna ding piang lou
hi. Manipur gam dinmun i theichiata, masawnna gen ding a om thei kei hi. Thamlouin masawn
naksangin kiakniamna lam tampiah muhin a om khinta. Hichih laiin Mizoram state bangin a buaipih
pen masawnna leh khantouhna a hi. Hiaibang ngaihtuah theihna dingin eite leng lungsim thawveng leh
gamtat zalen i poimoh lua. Manipurin gambuaina jiaka hun leh masawnna bangzahta mansuah ahia,
chih gen theih hi lou hi.

5. Koilam manoh di i hi ua le? Ei hihtheih leh sep theihte a oma, ei thua i hih theih louh leng a om. I
thua om louteah buai louin ei kalsuan theihna lamah kalsuan dan di a om hiam chih houlim le. I houlim
chiangin a tunglama dotnate dawnna bawl kawm jel i sawm ding uh.

5.1 Tua kipan kum 20/30 khawng i ngaihsut chiangin khangthak hong om dite khosak dan di muh phak
haksa i sa hi. Himahleh eite nekzonna sanga hoihzaw leh muanhuaizaw i deihsak jiakin tuni akipana
huailam nga kawma pan i lak a kul ding hi. Tua i loukhoh dan khawng jaw sawt leng


daih nawn dingin i gingta keia. Gam leitang phatuam leh hlawk zawa zat dan di lunggel le uthuai i sa
hi. Huai dingin hiaibang haichite ching thei le:

       i). Meha zat theih
       ii) Theigah lam
       iii) Damdawia zat theih
       iv) Pak
       v) Sathau dia zat theih
       vi) Thautui dia zat theih(e.g. jatropha)

5.2 Gankhawi/Ganvulh lam leng sep theih a tamna lam a hi. Sane lah pung jel i himanin gangoh ding
gansa khoi hi nekzonna dia zattheih kia hi louin sumnak hoihpi mahmah ching thei hi. Gankhawi i gen
chiangin India gam malsak biala omte aksa, aktui leh ngasa hon vaktute hi India gam simlama Andhra
Pradesh lamte a hi uh chih i theita dingin ka gingta. Mizoram khopipen Aizawl bangah leng tua i gente
a hong tun kei leh aksa, aktui leh ngasa nek di kitasam pah mai hi.Hiaibang dinmun ahihmanin eite
kipat hun hita lou hia? Ganvulh lakah hiaite a pang thei dingin ka ging:
        i)      Vok
        ii)     Bawng( a nawitui, a sa, a vun, a guh phatuam vek)
        iii)    Ak(aksa, aktui)
        iv)     Ngasa
        v)      Ui hoih leh mantamte
        vi)     Ak kisual siamte
Gankhawi tam lehang, veterinary doctorte sep ding hong om di. Gan annek di juak pawl om dia, a
damdawi juak le om jel di uhi. Mi bangzah hiamin phattuampih ding uhi.

 5.3 I gam hauhsaknate laka poimoh pente gammang leh a sunga teng gansate a hi ua. Hiaite kepbitna i
uangbawla, denchianga tourism hong pian theihna di lampi dia a seppat kiphamoh petmahta hi. Huan
kawl leh tangsang i neihte leng rock climbing dia etlahhuai hong hi ding ua. Camping leh picnic neih
theihna mun dia puah theih leng bangzahhiam om ding hi. Hotel leh giahna mun khawng eite khuta
hong kinga dia. Nekmuh theihna sep ding gam leitang, gammang leh gansate‟n honpe ding uhi. I gam
kilawmnate leh siangthouna khangsawnte‟n a phattuampihna ding ua kembit dingin ei mohpuak hong
hita hi.Thau nei/tawi peumahin kap ding zong kei le, temtawi peuhmahin sat di zong kei le. I luite leng
gu, bomb leh khawla ngasa matna di hi kei le uh. Sappaua conservation i chih uh a taktaka
zangsiamte hih i sawm chiat ding uhi.
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 5.4 I gensa bangin siamsinna poimoh lua hi. Khantouhna tehna poimoh mahmahte laka khat siamsinna
a hia. Laisim siama, khovel tangthu leh i kim-i-kianga thil tungte houlim thei hih hi khantouhna
chiamtehna poimoh a hi. Tulai khovel dana computer, mobile phone chih khawng a zang theite hi nam
khangtou banga muh a hi ua. Hiai dana i kiteh chiangin computer leh mobile phone zang le
bangzahmah ki om nai lou hi. Himahleh, i tate leh tute khangah zaw amau khanpihte toh tehpih theihin
om le uh chih i deihsak chiat ua. Huai dingin tua siamsinna lam khawng uangbawl kul mahmahta hi.

5.5 Sap gam, gam masawnte toh i kibatlouhna khat hi inten-louten leh khuate a hi uh. I inte a siaa,
kholakte leng a hoih lou kia hi louin, gamtat theihna leng hi lou uhi. I tenna lah singtang kawmlak,
lampi lah lut ngellouhna. Sap gamte ah jaw khopi akipan kilometer 100 tan leng amau motor khawng
zangin nuamtakin lampi hoih ah tai ziahziah thei ua. Kihouna hoih tak phone khawng toh kithuah ua,
khopi gamlat chihin amau adingin a poina om lou hi. Hiaibang dinmun i tun ding i ngaklah chiat ding
uh. Tununga hong om ding khangthakte khualnaa i sep ding seppat a ngaita.

5.6 Puansilh-nikten siangthou leh kilawm nei chiat thei le, khovot leh kholum ah leng a hun toh
kituaka silh le ten di neithei sam lehang chih i duhthusam chiat ding uh. Huailam lunggulh thei leh nei
thei dinga pan i lak ngai petmah hi. Singtang puan-gatte silh leh teng nuam i om kei ua. Phaigam
puantea kinga i hihjiakin i deihte leina ding sum i sepkhiak ngai jel hi.

5.7 Damtheihna i neihna dingin sorkarin primary health center leh dispensary a hon bawlsaka. Doctor
leh a semtu mi bangzahhiam leng a koih hi. Himahleh, a mi om mahleh uh, damdawi om lou, inlamsa
leng kep om nawn lou, in om lele tui om lou, chih khawng i mu zengzung uhi.

Damlou kep ngaite lamet bang kikepna mun om lou hi. Hiai dinmun hi i khek a ngaitaa. Pan i lak
theih dan di bang oma? chih i kikum ding uh. Hiai thu i ngaihtuah laia i theih di ahihleh i damtheih
jawkna dingin i hihsa i tawpsan di bang, i hihlouh i pat di bang om tham dingin i gingta. Huaite leng
kikum nawn lehang.

5.8 “Sum nei lou”, chih hi suanlam piching, i gen mun mahmah a hi. Sum neihna dingin summuh a
ngaia, summuhna lam ngaa nasep leng i sep a poimoh bok hi. Tulela i nekzonna leh sep dante etthaka,
i kikhek leng ngaita ding. Sum laklut zawkna ding haichi leh buh i khohkhiak poimohta. Huai kia hi
louin, sum i zat dan leng ki velthak a kiphamoh ding. Sum neihin lungmuanna a tuna, chimoh guih
lehangle taivial louin pan ding dan ompah ding hi.

5.9 Nekzonna lauthawnghuai gige, meikuang paisuak dekdeka om i hi ua. I kum khat nasepin i nek dia
poimoh zah leng hon pe zou lou hi. ”Food Security” sapte‟n a chih dinmun uh tun a ngaklahhuai
mahmah. Himahleh tua i loukhoh danin hiai dinmun a honpi tung kei hial ding chih a kichian
mahmahta hi.

5.10 Mi houlimna a ka na zak khakna ah khua khen khata teng mite kituak taka teng kia hi louin, a
state pumpia leng theih tham vaihawmna dinmun lian taktak lente a hi ua. Etsaknain Nagaland a
Changki khua a gen uh gen sawn le: Changki khua hi laisiam a tam mahmah ua. “Graduate bangzah a
om ua?” chih hi louin, “Post-graduate bangzah a om ua?” chia kidong uh, chia gen ka za. Huai
dungzuiin Nagaland state sunga vaihawmna dinmuna uliante leng Changki khua suak hun khop om uh,
chih a hi. Khua-le-khua kitaitehna hi kuate‟n buh a hau zaw ua? Kuate‟n laisiam a hau zaw ua?
Kuate‟n gam polama sepna nei a hau zaw ua? Kua khuate sumdawnna ah a minthang zaw ua? chih
bang hi thei henla. Midangte‟n i khua a gen chiang un zahtak kawmin/phat kawmin hon gen thei le uh.
Tu lellela hiaibang minhoihna i tan theih nai kei le leng, tununga i ta leh tute khualna jiakin pan la
dingin i kisa diam?



                                              Section II
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GROUP DISCUSSION

Group 1. Sorkar mohpuakte bang a hi ua? A sep ding semin na thei hia?

Group 2. Mahni khuasung bawlhoihna dingin ei tuailaite‟n bang lamah pan i la ding ua?

Group 3. Louneih dan bawlhoihna dingin bangtengah pan la leng a hoih dia?

Group 4. Siamsinna lama masawnna i neihna dingin bangteng sem le i chi a?

Group 5. Gam leitang manpha jawa i zat theihna ding in gam leitang toh kisai bangbang bawlhoih
      tuak a oma?

Group 6. I gamsunga etnop-muhnop en dia mite a hong zin theihna ding un eite panlak ding
      bangte a hia?

Group 7. Ganvulh-gankhoina lama nekzonna ding dan houlim le.

Group 8. Khosung bawlhoihna dingin saptuamin bang lamah pan la ding a hia?

Group 9. Tunung sawtloua makai i hih theihna ding tuailaite banglamah kisakkhawl a poimoh a?

Group 10. Gingloute leh Kristiante bangbangah kilamdanna om ding a hia?


                                             Section III

MICRO – FINANCE

1. Hiai thu omzia theihsiamna dingin Sappau pen eipauin va let lehang. Micro i chihin „a neu/tawm‟ a
gena. A lian/za gennna dingin “macro” chih a kizang. Micro chih a kigen peuhmah chiangin neu hiam,
niam hiam leh tawm petmah genna ahi jel hi. Finance chih jaw i thei tangpi ua. Sum-le-pai tungtang,
muhna, muhdan, zatna leh zat dan leh hiai lam himhim a gen hi.

Micro-finance chih a hong pian main “micro-credit” chih kizang masa hi. Micro-credit chih a gen
ahihleh sum tawm khahkhah leitawi (loan) dia dia hawm a genna ahia. A minpuak toh kituakin a sep
leng leitawisak lamsang a hia, a huap leng a neu hi. Micro-finance in a huap lian zaw thama. Mi
tasamte kianga sum lam toh kisai peuhmah, savings(sumkholna), loan(leitawisakna), insurance(?),
leasing(vankhelhthoh), money transfer(sum kithottuahna), equity transaction(share kikhentuahna), leh
mite poimoh dan ngeina bang leh haksatguihna sum taksap banga piak khawng le a huam kha vek hi.
Tua i gen tengteng laktomin Micro-financein a septe laka poimoh thum chiang gelh zual le:
        Micro-credit: I gensa bangin mi tasamte kianga tawm khakha leitawi dia piak. Hiai hi tuma
akipana Bankte‟n weakersection kichite kianga loan a ana hawm sek uh genna a hi.
        Micro-saving: Mahni neih bangbang, tawm chikchik kholkhawm dia piakkhawm. Hiai hi
        self-help group(SHG) paidan a hong piankhiak nunga hong minthang a hi.
        Micro-insurance: Ngaihdan hong piang panpan leh kizang dek panpan a hi.

1.2 Micro-finance kichi hiin, micro-credit chih leng ka jakna a sawt nai kei hi. Gam tuam leh mun
tuamtuamah jaw kum tamkhop leng zat a hita kha ding. Himahleh, hiai tungtang hi Bangladesh gama
lohching taka zat a hong hih akipana khovel gam tuamtuama hong thangvel hiin i thei hi. Bangladesh a
a kipat dan sau lou gelh le. Professor Muhammad Yunus in Chittagong University ah Economics a
sinsak hi. 1974in Bangladesh gamah kialpi a tunga. University kianga khota khawng ah mi genthei
taka a om lai ua University class room sunga economics kisinsak toh a kiang naia kialpi tung lel kituak
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lou sain, Prof. Yunus tuh University kianga khua khawngah a dianglut jeljel hi. Sum tawm chik
mahmah taksap jiaka mi genthei taka a om uh a muh chiangin a ngai poimoh mahmaha. Taksap jiakin
sum leitawi ding sumpunga hawmte kiang ah a tai ua. Sumpung a lak ua kipanin saltang a hipah mai
uhi. Bangchia panpih thei ding ka hi hiam? chiin a kingaihtuah vungvung hi. Prof. Yunus in a veh
khak khuaah inkuan omte min a gelhkhiaa, mi 42 min a gelh khiaa. Sum a kiphamoh zah a gelhkhiak
leh $27 (India sumin Rs 1080.00 khawng hile kilawm). Amah neihsa a piaa. Bank omsa toh tua mi
gentheite kizopsak dia a gensak leh Bank ana utlou zomah uh. Prof Yunus guarantor dia a kizat akipan
ut lel uhi. Hiaibanga hon sem tou jelin kum 1983in Grameen Bank a hon pan ua. Huai akipan „micro-
credit‟ chih leng hon kizang pana. Collateral omlou (inmum-patta khawng ngailou a loan tawm
chikchikin bang chi lela na sem thei hiam chih Grameen Bank akipan khovelin hon theikhia hi.
Grammen Bank kum 20 a chin nung kum 2003 in khua 43000 ah, mi tuamtuam maktaduai 2.8 (numei
96%) kiangah sum tawm chikchik leitawisak ua, khatengin $34 maktaduai loanin hawm gige chi uhi.

1.3 Grameen Bank neitu kua ahi ua? Mi genthei taktakin hiai Bank capital 100ah 93 neitu hihna a tang
ua. Sorkarin 7% a tang hi. Grameen Bank akipana i theihtuakte a nuaiah ki taklang:

        1.3.1. Principles
                Grameen Bank kingakna leh thuginpi a nuaia bang a hi uh:
                i) Gentheihna/Taksapna hi mi genthei jiaka om hi louin, dan omsa leh a semsuah
                dia bawl sorkar leh vantang dante jiak a hi zaw.
                ii) A thawnpiaka thil/sumin taksapna a bawlhoih kei. Bawlhoih naksangin
                panpihna lametna leh huaia kingakna a liansak hi.
                iii) Mi genthei leh a hau hihtheihna a kibanga, hamphatna (opportunity) a
                gentheiin a neih louh jiaka amaha hihtheihna omsa kilang nai lou a hi jaw.
                iv) Mi a taksapna a letzoh phot leh ngaih poimoh a hia.
                v) Grameen Bank ngaihdanin mi genththeite‟n leiba ngai poimoh jaw ahi uh.
                vi) Numeite kianga loan hawmin inkuan sungah phattuamna a tun jaw. Numeite
                galmuhna a saua, a neihsa uh tawmchik akipan leng thil phatuam lamkhia uh.
1.3.2. Grameen credit
        i) Loan muh hi miteng tanvou a hi.
        ii) Mi gentheite‟n a taksapna uh a khup theihna ding ua kibawl ahi. A diakin numeite
        adingin.
        iii) Khat-le-khat kimuantuahna ah kingain, security(dahkhamah) kinga lou hi.
        iv) Sepgah mu thei dia mahni kitoudelhna ding omna di leh intenna om theihna bawl a hi.
        v) Bank dangte ngaihdan omsa-a gentheite muanhuai lou chi- pai dia kisa a hi.
        vi) Mi tasamte Bankah va hoh louin, Bankin amaute a veh ding hi.
        vii) Loan muhna dingin groupa member hih a ngaia. Loan leng kizawm ziahziaha piak,
        khat dinzou phet leng piak ding. A hunbi neia, bikhiah banga tawm chikchika dit ding.
        viii) Loan piak toh kithuahin sumkhol ngeingei ding chih a tel.
        ix) Loan chi thum a piak theih:
                a) Summuhtheihna chi adingin(interest 20%)
                b) In lamna(housing loan – interest 8%)
                c) Siamsinna loan(education loan- interest 5%)
        x) Khotang khantouhna leh hatna dingin group bawl poimoh ngaiha, makai ding sekna ding
        group sunga kitelna a zang uhi.

1.3.3. Social Goals (16 Decisions)
        Memberte hinkhua a hoihna dingin memberte mahin amau group sung chiat uah thupukna16
a bawl ua. Hiai thupuknate lakah a poimoh zualte lakah naupangte school kaisak ngeingei di, in tenna
hoih zaw lamkhiak ngeingei di, inkuan tam lou di, khotang phattuamna dinga sepkhawmna tel di, mou
vanken lak leh piak louh, tui siang nek di neih,   meh dinga kitoudelh di, naupangte siangthousak,
inkim leh tenna munte siangthou sak.

1.3.4. Tenna In leh Siamsinna
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        Tenna inte bawlhoihna dingin Grameen Bank in 1984 akipanin housing loan ana pe gigea.
        Tenna in 5,70,000 khawng lamkhiak a hita. Tenna in bawl a hih laiin ekbuk hoih hun tawk
        le bawl tel a hi jel. Tenna in kia hi louin nasepna mun hoih jaw nei chiat thei uhi.
        Naupangte siamsinna lama a khantouh theihna ding un Grameen Bankin education loan a
        pe tel chih i gen khata ua. Hiai in phatuamna lianpi a neia. School akipan college, huan
        medical khawng leh engineering lama leh university phain leng tam khop omta ua gen a hi.
Higher Education adingin education loan Grameen Bankin bawlsak nawn uhi. A siamtheite hoihjawk
semna ding scholarship leng bawl lai hi. Kumtengin mi 5000 khawng            scholarship mu om thei,
chih thu ki mu.

1.3.5. Grameen Phone
        Mi genthei leh a dainawl zaw deuha tengte‟n le phone a neih samna ding un, Grameen Phone
kichi, Norway gam Telenor leh Japan gama Marubeni companyte pangkhawmin a             dinkhia ua.
Grameen Bank loan zangin numei khatin khuttawi ding phone (handset) a leia, a khua ua dingin tulaia
i theih chiat PCO dan nei suak mai hi. Hiai danin kum 2003 chiang in 30000 val ding phone Grameen
Bank tungtawnin neita uhi. Tunah Grameen Phone hi Asia simlam gamah mobile phone operator
lianpen hong suaka.

1.3.6. Grameen Solar Energy & Grameen Communications/IT
        Ni zung akipana kawlphetha, solar energy i chih, i thei chiat uhiama. Hiaileng kho neuah koih
a hi ua. Solar energy jiakin mobile phone zattheiha, insungah vakna oma, sumbuk munte le vaksak hi.
        Mi gentheite zatphak di computer lamsanga software leh information technology le patsak
        a hi uhi. Hiai toh kisaiin company khawng panta uh.

1.3.7. Pension Fund leh Sumkhawlna
        Grameen Bank II tungtawnin loan Rs 8000 tunglam la tengtengin Rs 50 vel khawng
        khateng in a khawl luisak ua. Kum 10 nungin a pung toh a khawlsate a pekik ua.
        Huanah, loan late zankhat-mitsit tuak thei a hihmanun, insurance bawlsakna dingin
        kumtengin sum tamlou, khatvei koihsak uhi. Loan bat nei lai a sih zenzen leh, insurance
        akipan a loan ditsak jel uhi. Huai kia hi lou lai; insurancea sum khawlsa tamlou le a
        inkuanpihte‟n la khia ua, phattuamna nei hi.




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