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The Rise of Labor Unions (PowerPoint)

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					 The Rise of
Labor Unions



   1800-1950
    Not a Great Beginning
• 1806 – Commonwealth vs. Pullis
• First reported case arising from
  a labor strike in the US
  – 3 Day trial
  – Defendants found guilty of “a
    combination to raise their wages”
   Not a Great Beginning
• 1830-40s – Craft Unions
• Unions organized around their
  craft and their skill when
  bargaining with their employers
   Not a Great Beginning
• 1840s – Commonwealth vs. Hunt
• Mass. Ruled that unions were
  legal organizations and had the
  right to organize and strike
   Not a Great Beginning
• 1866 – National Labor Union
• 1st national labor union in US
• Persuaded Congress to pass and
  8 hr day for federal employees
• Not strong legislation that went
  away during the recession of
  1873
     Baby Steps to Success
•   1869 – Knights of Labor
•   Formed by Uriah Stephens
•   Grew under Terrance Powderly
•   Open to skilled and unskilled
    workers
Knights of Labor




                   Terence V. Powderly
    Knights of Labor Demands
•   Abolition of child/prison labor
•   Equal pay for men and women
•   Safety codes in the workplace
•   Prohibition of foreign contract labor
•   Increase circulation of greenbacks
•   Abolition of the National Bank
•   8 hr work day
•   Worker’s cooperatives
•   Worker owned factories
Labor Force Distribution
       1870-1900
 Changes
  in the
  Labor
  Force
1870-1910
               Strike!

•   1877 – Great Railroad Strike
•   Workers protested wage cuts
•   Halted movement of US railroads
•   Federal troops called in
•   Strike put down, 30 workers
    killed and 100+ wounded
Railroad Strike of 1877
The Corporate “Bully-Boys”
     Pinkerton Guards
         Molly McGuires
• 1885 – Irish coal-mining activists
• Group infiltrated by Pinkerton
  and James McParlan
• Were blamed for committing
  coalfield crimes and kidnapping
  – Based on testimony of Pinkerton
• Some were executed
            The Molly Maguires,
                   1875



 James
McParland
        Haymarket Riot
• Began as a rally for striking workers of
  the McCormick Reaper Co
• Scabs were abused by strikers and
  protected by Pinkerton Guards
• Someone threw a bomb, killing 8 police
  officers
Haymarket Riots,
    1886
Haymarket Martyrs
       Anarchist organizers
       were arrested and tried
       The German immigrants
       were given the death
       penalty
       Neebe, a German-Am,
       got 15 years in prison
Gov. Peter Altgeld, IL
• Progressive who worked
  for child labor laws and
  workplace safety
• Pardoned 3 men from Haymarket
• Refused to break up Pullman
  strike, 1896
Governor John Peter Altgeld
   AFL and Gompers - Goals
• Catered to the skilled worker
• Represented workers in matters of
  national legislation
• Maintained a national strike fund
• Evangelized the cause of unionism
• Prevented disputes among the many
  craft unions.
• Mediated disputes between
  management and labor.
• Pushed for closed shops.
    Homestead Strike, 1892
• Operations Officer, Henry C. Frick,
  decreased worker pay by 22% to break
  the union of steelworkers
• Workers planned to keep scabs out
• Frick hired Pinkerton
  and advertised as far
  away as Boston for
  replacements
              Striker behind
              shield during
              cannon fire
    Homestead Strike, 1892
• Clashes between Pinkerton guards and
  strikers lasted for weeks
• Frick was injured in a murder attempt
• E. European scabs crossed picket lines
• With no federal assistance, the strike
  was broken
• The depression of 1893, further
  hindered union support
  Homestead Steel Strike
                 (1892)




                       Homestead Steel
                           Works

  The Amalgamated
   Association of
Iron & Steel Workers
Big Corporate Profits!
    Pullman Strike, 1894
• Wildcat strike after wage cuts
• The American Railway Union
  was the first nationwide union
  • led by Eugene Debs
• Pres. Cleveland ordered federal
  troops to end strike
             Strikers face
                  National
                    Guard
     Pullman Strike, 1894
• Black workers, afraid of being
  locked out of another job market,
  broke the picket lines to work,
  facing additional racial hostility
• Debs ignored the injunction and
  was arrested
  • Defended by Clarence
    Darrow
• Became a socialist
A “Company
   Town”:
Pullman, IL
Pullman Cars
The Pullman Strike of 1894
President
 Grover
Cleveland




     If it takes the entire army and navy to
    deliver a postal card in Chicago, that card
                 will be delivered!
International Workers of the
      World - Wobblies
           • 1885 – Irish coal-
             mining activists
           • Group
 International Workers of the
       World - Wobblies
• Founded in 1905
  • Socialist
  • Anarchists
  • radicals
• Promoted worker
  solidarity
  International Workers of the
        World - Wobblies
• Big Bill Haywood
• AL “failed” to
  organize the working
  class
• Welcomed women
  and immigrants
• Won at strike in
  Lawrence, MA
The Hand That Will Rule the
  World One Big Union
     Mother Jones
Organizer for the
 United Mine Workers
Founded the Social
 Democratic Party in
 1898
One of the founding
 members of the IWW
 in 1905
     Lawrence, MA Strike of
        Textile Workers
• Called “Bread and Roses” strike
• Mgmt lowered wages when law
  limiting work week went into effect
• 20,000 strikers, mostly immigrant,
  lasted 2 months
 The “Bread & Roses” Strike
• Demands
 •   15 c hr wage increase
 •   Double time for overtime
 •   No discrimination against strikers
 •   End to “speed up” on assembly line
 •   End to discrimination against
     foreign immigrant workers
Labor Union Membership
Workers Benefits Today
  International Workers of the
        World - Wobblies
• Big Bill Haywood
• AL “failed” to
  organize the working
  class
• Welcomed women
  and immigrants
• Won at strike in
  Lawrence, MA

				
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