CHAPTER II TROPICAL RAIN FOREST IN INDONESIA The particular characteristics and the Tropical Rain Forest Tropical rainforests are forests with tall trees, warm climate, and rainfall high. In some rain forests, rainfall is greater than 1 inch per day! Rainforests are found in Africa, Asia, Australia, and Central and South America. Largest rain forest the world is the Amazon rain forest. Rainforests are found in the tropics, the region between Capricorn and Tropic of Cancer. In this area, the sun is very strong and with the quantity of the same time each day throughout the year, making warm and stable climate. Each rainforest is unique but there are certain features common to all forest tropical rain. 1. Location: rain forest in the tropics 2. Rainfall: rainforests obtain rainfall for at least 80 inches per year 3. Canopy: rainforests have a canopy, which is the layer of branches and leaves formed by dense rain forest trees 4. Biodiversity: rainforests have a high tingkan biotic diversity (biodiversity). Biodiversity is the term for all living things - such as plants, animals and fungi - found in an ecosystem. The researchers believe that about half of the plants and animals found on Earth live in rainforests 5. Symbiotic relationships between species: species in the rainforest often work together. Relationship is a symbiotic relationship in which two different species mutually beneficial relationship with each other help. For example, some plants make small residential structures and sugar for ants. In return, ants protect the plant from other insects that may want eat the leaves of these plants Tropical rainforests support the greatest diversity of living organisms on earth. Although it covers only less than 2% of the earth's surface, rain forests sheltering more than 50% of plants and animals on earth. Here a few examples of rain forest wealth: • rainforests have 170,000 of the 250,000 known plant species on earth • United States has 81 species of frogs, while Madagascar is smaller than Texas, has about 300 species. • Europe has 321 butterfly species, while a park in the rainforests of Peru (Parks Manu National) has 1300 species. Rainforests have so many plants and animals for the following reasons: • Climate: rain forest located in the tropics, they receive a lot of sunlight. Ray the sun is converted into energy by plants through photosynthesis. Because many rays sun, then a lot of energy contained in the rainforest. This energy is stored in vegetation plants eaten by animals. • Canopy: rain forest canopy structure in making available more space for plants to grow and animals to live. Canopies provide new food sources, protection, and hiding places, providing another world to interact with other species. For example, there are several plants in the canopy called bromeliads, which store water in leaves. Animals like frogs use these pockets of water for hunting and put the egg-telurnyaFungsi Tropical Rain Forest Rain forest ecosystem functioning for global. Rain forest: • provide a home to many plants and animals; • help stabilize the world's climate; • protect from floods, droughts, and erosion; • is a source of medicines and food; • sustain the life of tribal people; and • are interesting places to visit • Rainforests provide a home for plants and wildlife. Rain forest is home to many species of plants and animals in the world, including endangered species. When forest is cleared, many species that have faced extinction. Some species in the forest rain can only survive in their natural habitat. Zoos can not save whole animal. • Rainforests help stabilize the world's climate by absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Disposal of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is believed to give effect to climate change through global warming. Because of the rain forest has an important role in overcoming global warming. Rainforests also affect local weather conditions with rain and makes regulate temperature. Tropical Rain Forest Issues Each year an area of rainforest the size of New Jersey cut down and destroyed. Plants and animals used to live in these forests, if not death, must find a new forest to live. Why does this rain forest destroyed? Humans are the main causes of forest loss. Man cutting down the rain forest with a lot of reasons, including: • timber for building and wood to make fire; • agriculture for small and large farms; • land to poor farmers who have nowhere else to live; • grass to feed cattle; • road construction One of the major causes destruction of rain forests is deforestation. Many types of wood used for furniture, flooring, and construction is taken from tropical forests in Africa, Asia and South America. With buying certain wood products, people in places like the United States are directly helping rain forest destruction. While logging can be done within certain rules that reduce environmental damage, most logging in the rainforest is very destructive. Large trees are cut down and dragged through the forest, while access roads that are open make poor farmers convert forest to agricultural land. In Africa loggers workers rely on the animals around for get proteins. They hunt wild animals such as gorillas, deer, and chimpanzees for food. Research has found that the number of species found in rain forests that have been logged much more lower than the number found in the primary rain forest untouched. Many animals in the rainforest can not survive with the changing environment. Local people usually rely on logging in rain forests for firewood and materials building. In the past, such practices were not particularly damaging to the ecosystem. However, today in areas with large human populations, the sheer number of people wood from an area of rainforest can be extremely damaging. For example, some regions in forests around the camps for displaced persons in Central Africa (Rwanda and Congo) had actually lose the whole tree. CHAPTER III PRESERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY BIOLOGICAL IN INDONESIA Tropical Rain Forest Preservation Rainforests are disappearing very quickly. The good news is that many people who want to save rain forest. The bad news is to save the rain forest will not be easy. This will require business people working together in order to maintain the rain forest and wild life can survive for our children to appreciate and enjoy it. Some steps for saving rainforests and, on a broader scale, ecosystems throughout the world is focused on "Trees": • Teach others about the importance of the environment and how cans They help save the rainforests. (Teach others about the importance of the environment and how they can help save forests rain) • Restore Damaged Ecosystems by planting trees on land Nowhere forests have been cut down. (Repair of damaged ecosystems by planting trees in areas where forests have been cleared.) • Encourage people to live in a Way That does not hurt the environment (Encourage people to live in a way that does not damage the environment) • Establish parks to protect rainforests and wildlife (Establish parks to protect forests wet and wild) • Support companies operate in Ways That That minimizes damage to the environment (Supports companies companies working in the rules that minimize damage to the environment) Education is a crucial part in saving the rain forests of the world. People should be able to see beauty and understand the importance of these forests so that they will want to protect. Environmental education should be taught, both in western countries like the United States and countries that have rainforests such as Bolivia and Madagascar. In the United States, people need to realize their role in rain forest loss. As For example, buying certain products like mahogany contributes to the cutting of rainforests in countries other countries. If the American people to make efforts to learn about the environment, they will realize loss of what would naturally be lost if the rain forest. They also can make the decision to buy products and support companies and organizations that help the rainforest. In the countries of the rain forest, local people sometimes do not understand what the importance of rain forests. With education programs, they can learn that forests provide key services (such as clean water) and is home to plants and animals that can not be found in other parts of the world. Most children in areas such as Madagascar know that lemurs are not found in America. They seem happy when they find out that lemurs only live in Madagascar In trying to protect rain forests, we also need to see how damaged forests can be brought back to health. Although it is not possible to replant a rainforest, some rain forest can recover after clearcut - especially if they receive assistance through planting trees again. In some cases, can also use the forest land has been cleared for used as agricultural land so as to provide food for the people around him. When they have food, they do not need to cut down more forest to plant crops. One of the promising results of research refers to the ancient societies that lived in the rainforest Amazon before the arrival of Europeans in the 15th century. Apparently they were able to enrich the soil rain forests, which are usually quite barren, using charcoal and animal bones. With improve the quality of land, many areas of the Amazon that has been cleared can be used to support agriculture. This can reduce pressure on rainforest areas for agricultural land. Furthermore, soil land called "terra preta" can be used to help fight global warming because too absorb carbon dioxide, an important greenhouse gas. Rare Animals and Plants Conservation Rare animals that exist among them: 1.cendrawasih (Paradisaea minor), 2. tree kangaroos (Dendrolagus ursinus), 3. maleo (Macrocephalon maleo), 4. king parrots (Probosciger aterrimus), 5. hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros), 6. cassowary (Casuarius Casuarius), 7. estuarine crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), 8.buaya Irian (Crocodylus novaeguinae) Preservation is to: ● Conserve native habitat back of these rare animals and plants. ● Making the Law on protection of rare animals and plants. ● Empower local communities to protect and preserve animals and rare plants. ● Providing lessons about the importance of tropical rain forest conservation in schools school.
Pages to are hidden for
"TROPICAL RAIN FOREST IN INDONESIA"Please download to view full document