M.Sc_Tech_Env Sc

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                                   (Semester System of Examination)
Under the powers conferred by Section 4A of the Banaras Hindu University Act, 1915, as amended, and
under the provisions of Clause 3 or Section 18 of this Act, the University hereby institutes the three year
course of the degree of M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science and Technology and makes the following
ordinances governing admission, course of study, examinations and other matters relating to this Degree
under the Faculty of Science of the Banaras Hindu University.
(i)    The last date for the receipt of application of admission to M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science
       & Technology in the Faculty of Science shall be fixed each year by the Dean of the Faculty.
(ii)   The prescribed form of application serially numbered will be issued by the office of the Dean of
       the Faculty on payment of the prescribed amount of application fee.
(iii) The number of students to be admitted in the M.Sc. Tech. course in the coming session and their
      eligibility conditions for admission shall be prescribed by the Academic Council on the
      recommendation of the Faculty of Science.
(iv) Admission shall be made on merit as per criteria to be decided by the Faculty of Science.
(v)    All such application forms for the admission must be completed in all respects and attested copies
       of the marks-sheets must be attached with the application form. Incomplete application forms are
       liable to be rejected. Application form shall be filled in by the candidate in his/her own
(vi) The Centre for Environmental Science and Technology of the Faculty of Science shall have an
     Admission Committee constituted under Statute 18(xviii) of the academic Council consisting of
     the Coordinator (Chairman and Convener), and two senior most members involved in the teaching
     of M.Sc. Tech. Environmental Science & Technology Course.
(vii) Admission cannot, however be claimed by any candidate as a matter of right. The Admission or
      re-admission of a candidate shall be entirely at the discretion of the Admission Committee which
      may refuse to admit any student without assigning any reason therefore, Admission Committee
      may prescribe additional rules laying down the minimum standards for Admission.
(viii) Candidates who wish to seek admission at the same time to different courses of study shall apply
       on separate forms of application for each such course for which admission is sought.
2.     M.Sc. Tech. In Environmental Science & Technology DEGREE COURSE
i.     The courses of study leading to M.Sc. Tech. degree in Environmental Science & Technology of the
       University shall be conducted by the Centre for Environmental Science and Technology of the
       Faculty of Science and shall be of the minimum duration of 3 academic years.
ii.    A student of the M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science & Technology degree course shall not
       be permitted to seek admission concurrently to any other degree or diploma examination in the
       University unless otherwise provided for in the Ordinances hereinafter defined.

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iii.    To qualify for the M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science & Technology Degree, the candidate
        must satisfy the minimum requirement for entrance as prescribed hereinafter for this Degree
        (a)   Attend a regular course of lectures, and do to the satisfaction of the university, such as
              practicals, project work (dissertation + seminar), records and reports as may be prescribed.
              Examinations in the relevant prospectus of studies and,
        (b)   Pass in required number of papers/courses taught during the six semesters (3 year) for the
              degree of M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science & Technology. An examination shall be
              held at the end of each semester in various courses/papers taught during that academic year.
              The overall performance in practicals, project work (dissertation + seminar), records and
              written examinations in the prescribed number of courses/papers shall determine the result of
              the candidate for the M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science & Technology degree in
              accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed for the purpose.
iv.     A student shall be deemed to have pursued regular course of study in the subject during each year
        provided he/she has attended at least prescribed number/percentage (decided by the Science
        Faculty) of the classes actually held in each subject.
(i)     Application for admission to M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science & Technology course shall
        be made in candidate’s own handwriting on prescribed form approved by Academic Council. The
        application shall contain the desired information and shall reach the Coordinator on or before the
        last date fixed for the purpose. On his selection for admission to the M.Sc. Tech. in
        Environmental Science & Technology class the candidate shall within the time fixed by the
        Coordinator deposit the tuition, and other fees prescribed for the course.
(ii)    If the candidate fails to deposit the fees within the stipulated time, his/her selection shall
        automatically stand cancelled. Such a candidate shall not be admitted to the course concerned
        unless a fresh order to selection or extension of the date of payment of fees is issued by the
(iii) Those graduates who have passed B.Sc. (Hons.) /B.Sc. (10+2+3) or B.Sc. (Ag) or M.B.B.S. or
      BE/B. Tech. with a minimum of 50% marks (equivalent GPA with a minimum 50% aggregate at
      10 & 10+2 levels) shall be considered for admission to M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science &
(iv) Candidates fulfilling the qualification prescribed above shall submit the following certificates for
     considering his/her application for admission.
       (a) Migration certificate* from the University last attended indicating that he has passed qualifying
           examination from another University.
       (b) Certificate of character from the Principal of the College or equivalent authority of the University
           last attended and:
       (c) Such other certificates as may be required along with the application from:
       * not required for students passing their qualifying examination from this University

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(v)      If the Coordinator is satisfied that there are genuine difficulties in the production of the above
         certificates, he shall on the request of the candidate give him time to submit the above certificate
         and admit him provisionally to the M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science & Technology class.
         Admission shall be final only if he/she submits the certificates mentioned above within the
         prescribed period failing which the provisional admission shall be cancelled.
4.       Inter – University Ordinances
(i)      Notwithstanding anything contained in these Ordinances, a student who is qualified under the
         foregoing Ordinances for admission to University and who is a member of some other Indian
         University shall not be admitted to the University or any constituent Faculty thereof without the
         production of –
       (a)   leaving or transfer certificate signed by the Principal of the College or equivalent authority of
             the University last attended and certifying to the satisfactory conduct of the student mentioning
             the highest examination he/she has passed, and:
       (b)   a certified copy of all the entries against his name in the enrollment register of University if
             such a copy is obtainable.
(ii)     A student of some other Indian University shall in any case be admitted only at the beginning of
         the particular course which he/she proposes to take in the University.
Candidate admitted for the M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science & Technology course shall pay the
fee Rs. 30,000/- per academic year in addition with the normal tuition fee of the university.
(i)      The M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science & Technology course is of six semesters (three
         academic years). The examination shall be conducted at end of the each semester on such dates as
         may be fixed by the Dean in the various courses/papers taught during that academic year.
(ii)     The students admitted to M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science & Technology course shall be
         required to clear the course within prescribed number of years decided by the Faculty of Science.
(iii) The academic performance of a candidate shall be evaluated in respect of the courses of study
      prescribed for each semester through the examinations held in that academic year.
(iv) The total credits / marks assigned to the courses in different subject shall be decided by the
     respective Boards of Studies and shall be distributed in project work (dissertation + seminar),
     records, reports, practicals, industrial training and written examinations as per guidelines of the
     Faculty of Science.
(i)      Declaration of results, passing marks, rank/division etc shall be as per guidelines of the Faculty of
(ii)     A student admitted to M.Sc. Tech. (First year) course of studies will be promoted to the M.Sc.
         Tech. (Second year) provided he/she is eligible otherwise. However, only after clearance of all

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       papers of first year and second year examinations, the student shall be admitted to third year M.Sc.
       Tech. course.
(iii) Results of successful candidates fulfilling all the requirements for the degree of M.Sc. Tech. in
      Environmental Science & Technology shall be declared on their overall performance in project
      work (dissertation + seminar), records, reports, practicals and written examinations over the three
      academic years as per guide lines of the faculty of Science.
(iv) The marks obtained by him at the Examination will be considered as the basis for the University
     ranking, scholarship and other distinctions. Ranking shall be given to those candidates only who
     pass the main examination in one attempt.
(i)    Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary contained any where is the Ordinances governing
       M.A/M.Sc./M.Sc. Tech. Exams, a student who has pursued a regular course of study of M.Sc.
       Tech. in Environmental Science & Technology (First year) and has put in the required
       percentage of attendance may be promoted, if otherwise qualified, to the M.Sc. Tech. in
       Environmental Science & Technology second Year Class irrespective of the fact that he/she has
       failed or failed to appear at the relevant examination comprising the concerned course of study.
       However, only after clearing of all paper examinations of first year and second year, student shall
       be admitted to the third year classes.
(ii)   A promoted student shall, in order to maintain continuous academic progress, make up the
       deficiency of the lower examination at the subsequent end semester examination and shall also
       appear at the concerned higher class examination.
(iii) A promoted student shall appear in the lower examination in such items only in which he/she has
      failed to secure the minimum pass marks. In case he/she has failed to secure the required aggregate
      he/she will appear in all the papers in which he/she has failed plus in as many additional theory
      paper(s) as he may wish to offer to make up his/her deficiency in aggregate.
(iv) At the level of Third Year of M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science & Technology course there
     shall be a Second (Supplementary) examination for the benefit of those who have failed or failed to
     appear in the Main Examination of Final Year.
(v)    In the aforesaid Second (Supplementary) Examination failed candidates shall be allowed to appear
       in the Paper/Practical in which they have failed. In case they have failed to secure the minimum
       aggregate marks they will appear in the failed items plus in as many additional theory paper(s) as
       they may wish to offer to make up, their deficiency in aggregate.
(vi) Option once exercised under Clause 3 & 5 above shall be final.
Application of foreign nationals nominated by the Govt. of India shall be entertained provided that fulfill
the following conditions:
       (a)   That they fulfill the minimum eligibility requirements:

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       (b)   That the applications of scholarship holding Foreign Nationals (Under various schemes) are
             routed through Indian Council for Cultural Relations/Ministry of Human Resource &
             Development (Dept. of Education), Govt. of India, New Delhi.
       (c) That they have valid Residential permit/Student Visa for the prescribed duration of the
             concerned course.
       (d) That the antecedents of the candidate have been verified by the forwarding
             Agencies/Ministry and found in order.
       (e) That the candidates submit certificate verified by the Ministry/Agencies to the effect that
             he/she has been subjected to AIDS test and found negative.
       (f) That they have adequate knowledge of English and/or Hindi is per requirements of the
       (g) That the degree/certificates of the candidates have been approved by the Association of India
             Universities (AIU) as equivalent to the corresponding degree/certificates of the AIU.
(i)    A “Regular Student” is one who has pursued a regular course of study and obtained prescribed
       attendance mentioned hereafter and is eligible to appear in the examination for the aforesaid
(ii)   “Ex-student” means one who has read in the Faculty for at least one academic year preceding the
       date of the annual examination and has filled up the examination form, but has failed or failed to
       appear in the examination, though otherwise eligible.
(i) Seats shall be reserved for Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe candidates as per norms of the
     Govt. of India accepted by the Banaras Hindu University.
(ii) The SC/ST candidates shall have to submit a certificate stating that the candidate belongs to
     SC/ST. Such certificates shall be subject to certification from the concerned District Magistrate.
     The following are empowered to issue the certificate.
     (a) District Magistrate/ Additional District Magistrate / Collector / Deputy Commissioner /
          Additional Deputy Commissioner/ Deputy Collector/ 1st Class Stipendiary Magistrate/City
          Magistrate/ Sub-Divisional Magistrate/Taluka Magistrate/Additional Chief Presidency
          Magistrate/Presidency Magistrate.
     (b) Chief Presidency Magistrate/Additional Chief Presidency Magistrate/ Presidency Magistrate.
     (c) Revenue Officer not below the rank to Tehsildar.
     (d) Sub-Divisional Officer of the area where the candidate and/or his family normally resides.
     (e) Administrator/Secretary to the Administrator/Development Officer (Lakshdweep Islands)
          Candidates must note that certificate from any other person/authority will not be accepted in
          any case.
          Note: Admission shall be made strictly in order of merit which may be based on marks in the
          qualifying Examination/Written Test/Interview or any other/criteria as per the decision of
          concerned faculty/centre.

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              3–Year M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science & Technology
                       Syllabus based on the Semester System

Candidates who have passed B.Sc. (Hons.) /B.Sc. (10+2+3) or B.Sc. (Ag) or M.B.B.S. or BE/B. Tech.
with a minimum of 50% marks (equivalent GPA with a minimum 50% aggregate at 10 & 10+2 levels)
shall be considered for admission to M. Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science & Technology.
General Guidelines
  There shall be six semesters of 135 credits and each semester will have 22.5 credits.
  In first, second and third semesters, there shall be 5 core courses in each (3 credits for theory and 1.5
   credits for practical).
  In forth semester there shall be 10 elective courses (3 credits for theory and 1.5 credits for practical
   for each course), out of which 5 has to be opted by the student.
  In fifth semester there shall be Industrial tour (10credit), industrial training (10 credit) and report
   (2.5 credit) and presentation of training report (2.5 credit).
  In sixth semester there shall be project work: A case study on environmental issue (20 credits) and a
   seminar presentation based on project work (2.5 credit).
   Paper                                         Name                                          Credit
    C-1        Earth System Sciences                                                            4.5
     C-2       Computer Application & Statistics                                                 4.5
     C-3       Environmental Pollution and Management                                            4.5
     C-4       Geoinformatics                                                                    4.5
     C-5       Natural Hazards                                                                   4.5
                                                                            Total Credit         22.5
   Paper                                         Name                                          Credit
     C-6       Environmental Monitoring Technologies                                             4.5
     C-7       Environmental Biotechnology                                                       4.5
     C-8       Ecological Engineering                                                            4.5
     C-9       Chemical Hazards & Management Technologies                                        4.5
    C-10       Socio-economic Dimensions of Environmental Management                             4.5
                                                                            Total Credit         22.5

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   Paper                                        Name                             Credit
    C-11      Waste Management Technologies                                       4.5
    C-12      Air Monitoring & Management                                         4.5
    C-13      Water Management                                                    4.5
    C-14      Mining Environment & Management                                     4.5
    C-15      Bio-resource Management Technologies                                4.5
                                                                  Total Credit    22.5
SEMESTER 4: Any five electives from the following:
     E-1      Global Energy Scenarios & Non-Conventional Energy                   4.5
     E-2      Climate Change & Abatement Technologies                             4.5
     E-3      Environmental Legislation and Impact Assessment                     4.5
     E-4      Noise Pollution & Abatement Technologies                            4.5
     E-5      Technologies for Restoration of Degraded Soils                      4.5
     E-6      Biodiversity Conservation                                           4.5
     E-7      International Agreements on Environment                             4.5
     E-8      Environmental Modelling                                             4.5
     E-9      Industrial Ecology                                                  4.5
    E-10      Environmental Economics                                             4.5
                                                                  Total Credit    22.5
    C-16      Industrial Tour                                                     10
    C-17      Industrial Training                                                 10
    C-18      Presentation of Training Report                                     2.5
                                                                  Total Credit    22.5
     P-1      Project Work                                                        20
     P-2      Seminar based on project                                            2.5
                                                                  Total Credit    22.5

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                                          Proposed Syllabus
     M.Sc. Tech. in Environmental Science & Technology 3 Year (Six Semesters)
C.1 Earth System Sciences
Basic concepts of environmental science, major issues and challenges
Origin of earth, composition of earth atmosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and natural
Principles of environmentally sound technologies and scope of indigenous technology development
Ecosystem concept, structure and function: air, water, soil, law of limiting factors, primary producers,
consumers and decomposers, energy flow, food chains, food webs, ecological pyramids
Biogeochemical cycling of C, N and P
Population parameters, structure, growth regulation, life history strategies (r and k species), the concept
of carrying capacity
Community Concepts, methods of sampling and describing plant community, analytic and synthetic
Ecological succession and resilience
Biogeographical zones of India, major biomes of the world
C.2 Computer Application & Statistics
Basic concepts of computer, hardware, operating systems: Windows, Unix and Linux
Use of common application software in biology: word processing, spreadsheets, graphics and data base
Introduction to web browsing software and search engines
Introduction to sampling methodology
Measures of central tendency and graphical representation of data
Contingency tables and chi-squire test
Difference between sample means: t-test, range tests
Correlation measurements and regression analysis
Simple experimental design and analysis of variance
Introduction to multivariate methods
C.3 Environmental Pollution and Management
Types, major sources and effects of air pollutants, air borne diseases
Technologies for air pollution management
Types, major sources and effects of water pollutants, water borne diseases
Technologies for water pollution management

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Types, major sources and effects of soil pollutants
Technologies for soil pollution management
Major sources of noise pollution, effects of noise pollution on health
Technologies for noise pollution management
Types, major sources and effects of radioactive pollutants
Air, water and noise quality standards
C.4 Geoinformatics
Geographic Information Systems
Map Projections
Understanding geographic data
Global Positioning Systems
Photogrammetry Methods
Remote Sensing of environment
Digital Image Processing
Digital Cartography
Application of GIS and remote sensing in environmental monitoring and management
C.5 Natural Hazards
Extent and nature of natural hazards
Nature and extent of flood; environmental effects of flooding; flood mitigation methods
Landslides: causes, prevention and correction
Coastal hazards: tropical cyclone and tsunamis; coastal erosion; sea level changes and its impact on
coastal areas, hurricanes and tsunami
Earthquakes: causes, intensity and magnitude of earthquakes, geographic distribution of earthquake
zones, nature of destruction, protection from earthquake
Volcanism: nature, extent and causes of volcanism, geographic distribution of volcanoes, volcanism and
Disaster management Technologies: pre-disaster phase, actual disaster phase, post-disaster phase
Technological assistance for disaster management
Relief camps, organization, camp layout, food requirement, water needs, sanitation, security,
information administration
Role of NGOs in disaster management

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C.6 Environmental Monitoring Technologies
Meteorological monitoring technologies
Application of remote sensing for environmental monitoring
Vegetation mapping and monitoring of biodiversity
Optical and Molecular Spectroscopy
Non-Optical Spectroscopies
Physical and Chemical Sensors
Chromatographic and Partition Techniques
Chemical sensors
Biological Methods of environmental monitoring: Microbial Screening, DNA Probes, Bioassays
C.7 Environmental Biotechnology
Basic techniques in genetic engineering: Nucleic acid hybridisation and polymerase chain reaction as
sensitive detention methods
Introduction of clone genes into new hosts using plasmid and phage vector systems. Expression of genes
in new host
Use of micro-organisms in waste treatment and methane production
Production of microbial enzymes: cellulase, proteases, amylases
Alcohol and acetic acid production
Microbial leaching of low grade mineral ores
Molecular probes for organisms in mines and mine tailings
Biodegradation of petroleum pollutants
Biofiltration technologies for pollution abatement
Genetically engineered microbes and environmental risk
C.8 Ecological Engineering
Ecological engineering as a tool for restoration of degraded ecosystems
Ecology of Disturbed Ecosystems: disturbance and its impact on the structure and functioning of
terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
Concepts and strategies of restoration
Biological and biotechnological tools of restoration
Restoration of biological diversity: Acceleration of ecological succession, reintroduction of biota
Degradation and restoration of Forests ecosystems

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Degradation and restoration of grassland ecosystems
Degradation and restoration of aquatic ecosystems
Degradation and restoration of wetlands
Restoration of wastelands and degraded soils: Restoration of contaminated soils and soil fertility, mine
spoil restoration
C.9 Chemical Hazards & Management Technologies
Toxicity of chemicals and its dose effect relationships
Chemical hazards in air, water & soil and remedial measures
Monitoring and control of chemical hazards
Characteristics and hazards of radioactive materials, dispersion of radioactive materials
Risk assessment techniques for accidental release of toxic and inflammable materials
Occupational health hazards: Silicosis, asbestosis, bronchitis, heart disease, nasal cancer
Industrial chemical hazards and safety measures
Biochemical effects of toxic heavy metals, pesticides, carcinogens, mutagens and teratogens
Food adulteration, contaminations and related hazards
Handling and transport of hazardous materials, environmental safety, risk management and emergency
C.10 Socio-economic Dimensions of Environmental Management
Population explosion and social factors affecting development - poverty, affluence, education,
employment, child marriage and child labour
Environment and human health, human rights, value education, women and child welfare
Impact of development on environment - changing patterns of land use, land reclamation, deforestation,
resource depletion, pollution and environmental degradation
Basic concepts of sustainable development and social environmental issues
Community participation and capacity building programmes for sustainable socio-economic and
ecological development
Role of NGOs in environmental awareness and management
Role of media in environmental awareness and management
C.11 Waste Management Technologies
Sources of waste, types and characteristics
Sewage disposal and its management
Solid waste disposal

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Biomedical waste handling and disposal
Nuclear waste handling and disposal
Waste from thermal power plants, reuse and disposal
Waste minimization in industries, recycling and disposal technologies
Role of Microbes in waste minimization
Bio-chemistry of anaerobic fermentation and design of biogas systems
Application of phytoextraction and biofilteration techniques for waste management
C.12 Air Monitoring and Management
Basic principles of air pollution management
Ambient concentrations of air pollutants and trace gases
Air pollution and human health
Vehicular pollution, monitoring and abatement technologies
Meteorological parameters and dispersal of air pollutants
Air pollution control equipments
Control of particulate emission
Control of sulphur oxide and nitrogen oxides
Indoor air pollution and its control
Biological abatement of air pollution
C.13 Water Management
Global distribution of water, hydrological cycle and water balance on earth
Physico-chemical and biological properties of fresh water and water quality standard
Major sources of water pollution and its effect on surrounding water bodies
Effects of water pollutants on primary productivity of water bodies
Treatment technologies for domestic and industrial waste waters
Biological treatment of waste waters
Ozonization of secondary treated waste water
Ground water resources and its management
Water management strategies: rain water harvesting, artificial recharging of ground water and use of
domestic and industrial waste waters
Watershed development, river linking and hydro power projects

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C.14 Mining Environment & Management
Mining types and major environmental issues
Classification and properties of rocks
Classification and properties of minerals
Metallic and non-metallic mineral deposits
Geological and geographical distribution of mineral resources
Importance of mining and mineral resources
Impact of mining activities on health
Mine waste disposal and related problems
Mitigation technologies for mining related environmental problems
Restoration of mined areas
C.15 Bio-resource Management Technologies
Status and strategies for bioresource management
Sustainable exploitation and development
Forest resources management, social forestry and agro forestry
Grassland management
Cropland Management
Freshwater bioresource management
Marine bioresource management
Wetlands and estuary bioresource management
Microbial resource management
Wildlife management
E.1 Global Energy Scenarios & Non-Conventional Energy
Global patterns of energy consumption, rising demand and supply
Conventional energy sources, potential and limitations, methods of harnessing and environmental
consequences of their use
Types of non-conventional energy sources, potential and limitations, methods of harnessing and their
environmental consequences
Energy Conservation- efficiency in production, transportation and utilization of energy
Future sources of energy: hydrogen, alcohol, biodiesel, fuel cells

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E.2 Climate Change & Abatement Technologies
Greenhouse gases and global warming
Drought and desertification
Acid rain and abatement technologies
Ozone layer destruction and prevention
Technologies to minimize and combat climate change
E.3 Environmental Legislation & Impact Assessment
Powers and functions of Central & State pollution control boards
Duties and responsibilities of citizens for environmental protection
Important legislations related with environment: Wildlife Protection Act 1972, The Water (Prevention
and Control of Pollution) Act 1974. Prevention and Control of Air Pollution Act 1981, Forest
Conservation Act 1981, Environment (protection) Act 1986, Hazardous waste (Management and
Handling) Rules, 1989, Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), Environmental impact statement (EIS), Environmental
management plan (EMP) and Environmental clearance for establishing industry
Cost benefit analysis, Environmental audit, ISO 14000 standards and certification
E.4 Noise Pollution & Abatement Technologies
Noise pollution sources
Ambient noise level and its monitoring
Noise standards
Biological and behavioural effects of noise pollution
Noise pollution control technologies: physical and biological approaches
E.5 Technologies for Restoration of Degraded Soils
Physico chemical and biological properties of soil
Soil forming factors and soil development
Land use classification
Soil Erosion, factors effecting erosion
Principles and methodologies for soil conservation and restoration
E.6 Biodiversity Conservation
Biodiversity trends, diversity gradients and related hypotheses methods for monitoring biodiversity
Mega diversity zones and hot spots

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Biodiversity valuation, goods and services provided by biodiversity
Threats to biodiversity, major causes, extinctions, vulnerability of species to extinction, IUCN threat
categories, Red data book
Principles and strategies of biodiversity conservation
E.7 International Agreements on Environment
Global organizations working on ecology and environmental issues
United Nations Conference on Human Environment - UNCHE (Stockholm, 1972).
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development - UNCED (Rio de Janeiro, 1992)
World Summit on Sustainable Development - WSSD (Johannesburg, 2002)
Treaties/protocols related with environment
E.8 Environmental Modelling
Basic concept of environmental modeling, its scope and limitations
Air quality modelling
Surface and ground water quality modelling
Modelling of hazardous substances
Modelling for landscape and urban planning
E.9 Industrial Ecology
Industrial ecology and sustainable industry concept
Life Cycle Assessment, Inventory analysis and input/output techniques, applying LCA for Eco labeling
& solid waste management
Product design and development – design for environment
Material flow analysis and dematerialization, servicizing and consumption
Environmental management systems, greening supply chains, and life cycle management
E.10 Environmental Economics
World environmental history and economic development
Valuation of natural resources
Sustainable agriculture and development
Cost benefit analysis and integrated economic modelling
Environmental indicators and their use in resource management


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