Ancient Greece Study Guide 1 How did geography affect the development of Greece politically economically and socially Greece is surrounded by water

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Ancient Greece Study Guide 1 How did geography affect the development of Greece politically economically and socially Greece is surrounded by water Powered By Docstoc
					                                       Ancient Greece Study Guide

    1. How did geography affect the development of Greece politically, economically, and socially?
Greece is surrounded by water (Greek peninsula is located in the Mediterranean) and most of Greece is
mountains.
Politically-Greece couldn’t be united into an empire because of mountains so it developed independent city-
states.
Economically-Greece lacked resources and arable land so they became excellent sailors and traded for goods
and colonized other places.
Socially-Because they lacked land and resources and had to trade and colonize, Greece had influence on and
was influenced by other cultures. City-states had shared language and religion.

   2. Why was the Parthenon built? Who built it? What are three types of columns used in Ancient
       Greek architecture? Which one was used on the Parthenon?
The Parthenon was built as a temple to honor the goddess Athena, and it was built by Pericles during Athens’
Golden Age.
Three types of Ancient Greek columns: Doric (oldest and simplest), Ionian (came next and had a scroll-
shaped capital), Corinthian (latest style, most highly decorated with intricate leafy flowery carvings).
Doric columns were used in the Parthenon.

    3. Describe the political and social structure of Athens.
Political Structure-Athens was eventually the world’s first democracy (government ruled by the citizens) and
free adult males were considered citizens.
Social Structure-Citizens had political rights while women, foreigners, and slaves had no political say.
Athens valued beauty, art, education, freedom, and democracy.

    4. What is democracy? Who was considered a citizen? Who was not considered a citizen?
Democracy is government by the people (citizens).
Citizens in Athens were free adult males.
Non-citizens were women, foreigners, and slaves.

    5. Describe the political and social structure of Sparta.
Political Structure-Sparta had an oligarchy (government ruled by a few wealthy—usually military generals—
leaders).
Social Structure-The wealthy elite were at the top, the free farmers, artisans, and merchants were in the
middle, and slaves were at the bottom. The society was militaristic and aggressive.

    6. Which types of government were used in Ancient Greece?
Monarchy-rule by dynasty (king/queen)
Aristocracy-rule by the nobles (landed wealthy class)
Oligarchy-rule by a few elite leaders
Tyranny-rule by one strong leader
Democracy-rule by the people

   7. During what wars were the Spartans and Athenians allies? Who were they fighting? What was
       the outcome of the war?
During the Persian Wars Sparta and Athens were allies.
Sparta and Athens (and other Greek city-states) were fighting against the Persian Empire.
Greece won and was able to maintain its independence.

   8. What is the Delian League and when was it formed? What is the Peloponnesian League?
The Delian League was the alliance between Athens and her allied Greek city-states.
The Peloponnesian League was the alliance between Sparta and her allied Greek city-states.
    9. Who was fighting in the Peloponnesian wars? What was the cause of the fighting?
During the Peloponnesian War Athens and Sparta were fighting each other.
They were fighting for supremacy in Greece (caused by their competition for control over trade in the
Mediterranean).
Sparta won, but both sides were severely weakened by the 20 plus years of fighting which left them vulnerable
to the Macedonian attack.

    10. What is the Golden Age of Athens? What respected Athenian statement glorified Athens during
        this time? What type of government flourished in Athens at this time?
The Golden Age of Athens is the period of growth and rebuilding which took place between the Persian Wars
and the Peloponnesian War. During this period art and philosophy flourished.
Pericles was the respected statesman who worked to strengthen the Athenian empire, glorify Athens, and
extend democracy during this time. This is why the Golden Age is sometimes called the Age of Pericles.
During the Golden Age Athens had a democratic form of government.

    11. List three Greek philosophers and what they are known for.
Socrates-Father of Greek Philosophy; he believed that you must question everything in order to reach the
truth.
Plato-student of Socrates; wrote the Republic.
Aristotle-student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the great; the Father of the Scientific Method.

   12. Who is known as the “Father of Tragedy”?
Aeschylus is the Father of Tragedy; he wrote the Oresteia Trilogy.

   13. What are Herodotus and Thucydides known for?
Both Herodotus and Thucydides are known for their historical writings.
Herodotus is the Father of History and wrote The Persian Wars and Thucydides wrote the Peloponnesian
Wars.

   14. What is Hippocrates known for?
Hippocrates is known as the Father of Medicine because he developed the first medical schools and made
medicine more of a science rather than a magical/spiritual study.

   15. List famous Alexandrian scientists and what they’re known for.
Euclid-Father of Geometry, wrote the Elements.
Pythagoras-Pythagorean Theorum.
Archimedes-developed the lever, pulley, and Archimedes screw.

   16. Who conquered a huge empire after his father Philip II’s death?
Alexander the Great

   17. Where was Alexander the Great’s empire?
Alexander the Great’s empire included Macedonia, Greece, Egypt, Persia (Anatolia, east through
Mesopotamia up to the border of India).

   18. How did Alexander’s empire spread Greek culture?
Alexander spread Greek culture (as well as Hellenistic culture which is a mix of Greek, Egyptian, Persian,
and Indian) through conquest.

   19. What word is used to describe Greek culture?
Hellenic

   20. What word is used to describe the blending of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian culture?
Hellenistic