This training guide was created to help first-level supervisors by LeeGreenwood


									This training guide was created to help first-level supervisors conduct OSHA required safety training. If the supervisor presently has a training program in place that covers the training requirements and certifies the training with a training roster , this guide does not need to be used. It may be used in whole or in part to satisfy requirements. Any questions or suggestions for improvement of this training guide should be directed to the PAARNG State Safety Office.
The State Safety Office has 2 (two) VCR films available that cover “Forklift Fundamentals” and “Forklift Operations”. It is highly recommended that these two films be used as part of the forklift training. These films may be borrowed by contacting the State Safety Office at 717 -861-8813.


S UBJ E CT: Fork l ift Tra i ni ng RE FE RE NCE : 2 9 C F R P A R T 1 9 1 0. 1 78 a n d T B - 4 3- 0 1 4 2. TR AI NI NG RE Q UI RE ME NTS : 1 . 2 9 C F R P A R T 1 9 1 0 . 1 7 8 r e q u i r e s t h a t a
training program for Powered Industrial Trucks be developed and im plem ented. All forklift drivers must be trained prior to operating the equipment. The first -line supervisor must ensure that training is conducted prior to assigning an individual to drive a forklift truck. OSHA requires both classroom training and practical exercise training to evaluate competence before the trainee is certified. Classroom training will be documented at Enclosure 4. Only current and previous training records will be m aintained on file. Trainees may only operate a forklift truck under the direct supervision of a trainer who has the knowledge, training, and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence and where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees. Read the paragraph entitled (Avoidance of Duplicate Training) on page 10 of this guide before deciding to conduct any training. 2. Refresher training will be conducted only if any of the following occurs: a. The operator has been observed to operate the forklift in an unsafe manner. b. The operator has been involved in an accident or near-miss accident. c. The operator has received an evaluation that reveals that he/she is not operating the fork lift safely. d. T he operator is as signed to drive a different t ype truck . e. The condition in the workplace changes in a m anner that could affect safe operation of the truck. 3. A practical exercise will be given to all forklift drivers prior to certification. Enclosure 1 should be used to record the results of the practical exercise. The practical exercise should inc lude an obstacle course with dumm y loads to allow trainee to turn sharply, stop suddenl y, and avoid driving over debris, holes, etc. A trainee should also drive up and down inclines and drive in reverse with a load to demonstrate the proper technique. 4. Operator performance evaluation. 29 CFR PART 1910.178 (l)(4)(iii) requires the performance of the forklift operator be evaluated every three (3) years . The first-level supervisor m ust ensure this occurs. Enclosure 2 should be used to record this evalu ation. T he current and previous 3 - year evaluation (Enclosure 2) will be retained on file and made available for any OSHA inspection.

TR AI NI NG O UTLI NE : 1 . T h e f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e w a s e s t a b l i s h e d t o a i d t h e
supervisor conduct fork lift training. It is rec omm ended the supervisor also refer to 29 CFR PART 1910.178 and PMR 750-1. Copies are available by contacting the State Safety Office.


Operating a forklift takes skill, mechanical know ledge, compliance w ith safety rules, and defensive driving under unique conditions .
2. Important points about forklift operators : a. Only a trained and authorized operator will drive a forklift . A qualified operator is one who has been fully trained and given a practical exercise, who knows the general design of the vehicle, and who has learned how to perform safety inspections and practices safe driving rules. b. Only assigned drivers will operate a forklift . An assigned driver is responsible for the cleanliness, maintenance, security and the safe operation of the vehicle. c. If at any time a forklift is found to be in need of repair, defective, or in any way unsafe, the truck must be taken out of service until it is safe to operate . 3. Important points about forklift trucks: a. Ever y forklift will bear a m etal identification plate indicating a testing laboratory has approved it. b. Modifications to forklift shall not be perform ed without approval b y the manufacturer. c. All nam eplates and m arkings will be m aintained legible.

1. Main parts of a forklift. a. Mast. The upright section that contains a set of track s that house ball bearing rollers and chains. It tilts forward or back ward and m ay shift from side to side. b. Carriage. Housed within the mast, it contains th e rollers that allow the load to m ove up and down. Forks are m ounted to the carriage. c. Backrest. Mounted to the carriage, it k eeps the load from falling back when fork s are tilted back . T he heaviest part of the load should always rest against the backrest. d. Overhead guard. Keeps falling objects from hitting the operator. However, it is not strong enough to withstand the force of a heavy load. The guard is also not intended to function as a roll bar.


2. How does a forklift differ from a car? a. A fork lift is fundamentall y different from driving cars or other truck s. A forklift steers easier when loaded than empty and is driven in reverse as often as forward but steers differently in each direction. b. Also rem em ber that a fork lift has a center of gravit y that is toward the rear and shifts toward the front as the forks are raised. c. Forklifts steer from the rear. W hen turning, the rear end swings in a circle around the drive wheels, which are in the front. The truck is less stable when turning because the front drive wheels support m ost of the load. You also have less steering control when turning, especially when the forklift is loaded. d. The fork lift’s steering and drive m echanism also m ak es it difficult to stop quickly and dangerous to swerve. e. Fork lifts m ay at tim es have blind spots when loaded. 3. Controls and instruments. a. As a m inim um the operator has to be fam iliar with the location and operation of the steering, starter, service and parking brake, acce lerator, lift and tilt levers, horn, and lights. b. The operator must also know the location and function of the hour meter, ammeter, fuel gauge, and engine and oil pressure indicators. 4. Forklift stability. a. By design, a forklift has an imaginary stability triangle that determines the stabilit y of the truck (See figure 1). The front axle, with its drive wheels, acts as the base of the triangle and supports the weight of the load. The sides of the stabilit y triangle m eet at the point where th e forklift steer wheels are located, either at a single wheel or in the m iddle of the steering axle on four -wheel m odels. b. The center of gravity is the weight that is built into the truck’s basic structure and is used to offset the load’s weight and to m axim ize the vehicle’s resistance to tipping over. W ithout a load, the truck’s center of gravity is in the middle of the truck. The larger the load, the further the center of gravity travels to the front axle. W hen the load becom es heavier than the t ruck, the truck will tip forward. Therefore, never exceed the rated load of the truck . Exceeding the load capacity of the truck places the center of gravity forward of the front axle which will result in the truck tipping forward. c. If the center of gravity of the load is off center, ensure the heaviest part rests against the backrest to maintain the center of gravity over the front axle.


d. Dynamic stability is another force that can cause a forklift truck to tip or fall on its side. D yna m ic forces com e into pla y when the truck is in m otion while carr ying a load. W hen a truck suddenly br ak es, corners, lifts, tilts or lowers a load, the load tends to move faster than the truck. This energy can cause the load to fall off or cause the truck to tip or fall on its side. The heavier the load and the higher the load will create unstable conditions. Therefore, it is extrem ely im portant to m ak e very slow m oves in this situation. e. The load will becom e unstable when the load is raised, while turning, on slopes, when tilting, when braking and when on rough or uneven surfaces. 5. Surface conditions. a. Plan and k now yo ur route of travel prio r to m ak ing your tr ip. b. Make sure the surface is strong enough to support a combination of the truck and load. c. Avoid driving over objects, bumps, holes or uneven floors. d. Avoid driving on wet, oil y, or ic y surfaces. e. Speed increases forklift instabilit y no matter what the surface. It becom es a greater issue when traveling with a loa d. f. Beware of edges on loading docks. 6. Load stability. a. You can increase your load stabilit y b y carr ying a lighter load. Consider this when the load is tall, wide, oddly shaped, lifting high, over rough terrain, or can’t be centered on the p allet. b. Alwa ys space your fork s as far apart as possible. c. Make sure the load won’t shift while traveling. d. Never carry loads on broken pallets. e. W rap or strap loads made up of individual items. f. Never strap loads to the forks or c arriage. g. Be careful of boxes that have off center weight distribution. 7. Lifting a load. a. Square up on its center and approach it straight on. Stop with the tips of your fork s about one foot from the load. Level the fork s and slowly drive fo r ward until the load rests against the m ast. Lift the load high enough to clear whatever is under it and tilt the mast back slightly to a traveling position. Make sure the load is balanced and secure on the forks. Look over both shoulders to m ak e sure it’ s safe to move in reverse. b. Be aware of overhead clearances, such as light fixtures, pipes, sprinklers, door beam s and wires.


c. If there’s another load in front of the one you are lifting, lift without tilting. Rem em ber to lift only enough to c lear the other load. 8. Traveling tips. a. W hen you begin to travel, k eep the load as close to the floor as possible. Rem em ber to k eep alert for other personnel that m ight be in your path. b. Keep to the right, the sam e as highwa y driving wit h an autom obile. c. Keep three vehicle lengths awa y from other vehic les --it’s a space cushion around the vehicle. d. Slow down and sound the horn at all blind corners and intersections. e. Pedestr ians alwa ys have the right of way. f. No horsepla y is allowed. g. Face the direction of travel, k eep your m ind on what you are doing, and never travel forward with the load block ing your view. h. Know the position of your fork s at all tim es. i. Cross railroad tracks at an angle never at a rig ht angle. j. W ear protective equipm ent when required, such as safety glasses, hearing protection and restraining belts. (Seatbelts are not a requirement, but if installed they are required to be worn). k . Be careful of lighting conditions, such as co m ing in from bright light into dimly lit areas, and vise versa. l. On an incline of more then ten percent, drive with the load upgrade, forward up the ram p and reverse down the ram p. m . Drive in reverse when your vision is restricted. n. N EVER dr ive up to an yone standing in front of a fixed object. o. N EVER allow an yone to walk or stand under the fork s, whether loaded or e m p t y. 9. What to do if a truck begins to tip or roll on its side . a . S t a y i n t h e s e a t . A b u c k l e d s e a t b e l t w i l l e n s u r e y o u d o . A l w a ys w e a r a seat belt if one is installed. b. Firmly grip the steering wheel. Do not grab any other part of the truck. c. Brace your feet fir m ly on the floor with your k nees together. d. DON’T JUMP FROM THE TRUCK!


10. Placing the load down. a. Squar e up and stop about a foot away. Drive forwar d until yo u are about half wa y into the loading area. Stop the truck . Level the fork s and drive the rest of the way in. Lower the load. Lower the forks slightly. Look over both shoulde rs and back out slowly. b. Never place loads in front of exits or in a designated path to an exit.

11. Working with stacks. a. To remove a stack, square up in front of the stack and stop approxim atel y one foot away. Raise the mast until the for k s are at the right height. Make sure the m ast is not tilted. Move forward slowly until the load is flush with the back of the forks. Lift the load only high enough to clear the stack below. Look over both shoulders and s lowly back out until you clear the stack . Never attempt to turn with the mast raised. The truck is very unstable in this condition. Stop and lower the load to the traveling position. Tilt the load back and m ove out slowl y. b. To place a load on a stack, first m ak e sure you have en ough overhead clearance. W atch for electrical lines, pipes, light fixtures and sprinkler heads. Approach the stack slowl y and squarel y. Stop about one foot aw ay. Lift the m ast high enough to clear the top of the stack. Inch forward until the load is s quare over the stack. Next level the forks and lower the mast until the load is no longer supported the forks. Keep the forks level as you pull them back . Look over both shoulders and slowly back up. c. Always chock the wheels of a tractor -tr ailer wh en it is being loaded or unloaded. d. Do not attem pt to m ove loads with broken pallets, loads be yond the capacity of the forklift or loads that are unbalanced. e. W henever a driver moves away from the vehicle for more than 25 feet, the vehicle is considered unattended. Therefore, the driver must lower the forks, put the controls in neutral, set the brakes, chock the wheels when on an incline, shut off the power, and rem ove the ignition key or connector plug. 12. Hazardous operations. a. There are seven classes of forklift trucks. Trucks that operate in areas that could have an explosive atmosphere must be suitable for that specific hazard. See Table N-1 of 29 CFR PART 1910.178 or contact the State Safety Office for guidance in these areas. b. Special precautions m ust be taken when working on slopes. Never attem pt to turn on a s lope. Always drive with the load uphill. T his m eans drive up slopes with the load in front and drive down slopes in reverse. W hen forks are e m p t y, b a c k u p a s l o p e a n d d r i v e d o w n i t f o r w a r d s w i t h t h e m a s t t i l t e d b a c k . M a k e sure the forks are high enough so they do not strike the surface at the bottom of the slope.


c. W hen work ing on dock s, m ak e sure dock boards or bridge plates are properl y secured and strong enou gh to handle the com bined weight of your lift and its load. The bridge or dock plate should be free of dirt, oil, water, ice or snow. All trailers must be chocked. d. Internal combustion engines and especially gasoline -powered trucks produce carbon monoxide. W hen working indoors, ensure the area is well ventilated. C arbon monoxide is odor less and you can be overcom e without s u s p e c t i n g t h a t a n y t h i n g i s w r o n g . S ym p t o m s i n c l u d e f e e l i n g w e a k , s l e e p y o r d i z z y , o r g e t t i n g a h e a d a c h e . I f y o u d e v e l o p t h e s e s ym p t o m s , t u r n o f f t h e t r u c k and go outside imm ediatel y. R eport this s ituation to your supervisor imm ediatel y. The supervisor will report this condition to the State Safety Office. e. Trucks that handle hazardous materials (ammunition & explosives, fue l, flamm able liquids, etc.) require a functional test as part of the annual periodic inspection. Ensure the periodic inspection is performed before the functional test. 13. Forklift maintenance. a. Cover all operator instructions and warnings. b. Explain the forklift’s power plant and operator PMCS (See Enclosure 3). c. Explain safe refueling operations. 14. Safety Requirements: a. Seatbelts will be worn b y the operator when installed on the truck. b. Never modify forks or attachments unless approved by the manufacturer. c. Never give rides or let anyone stand on the fork s when in m otion. d. Alwa ys k eep arm s and hands ins ide the cab area. e. Never park in front of fire equipment, doors, exits, or high traffic areas. f. Do not pass another vehicle in a narrow aisle. g. Never sm ok e in a fueling area or when operating a fork lift. h. Do only m aintenance or repair work that you are authorized to do. Leave the rest to trained forklift maintenance personnel. i. N ever oper ate a fork lift while us ing alcohol or drugs. If you are tak ing a p r e s c r i p t i o n m e d i c i n e m a k e s u r e yo u a s k t h e d o c t o r i f i t i s s a f e t o o p e r a t e m achinery while tak ing the drug. j. All fork lifts will have the m axim um load lim it stenciled on the vehicle. If fork extensions are used, the m axim um extension load will also be stenc iled on the forklift. k. All forklifts will have the date the truck received a load test stenciled on the m ast. W henever repairs are m ade to the h ydraulics, the for k lift will req uire another load test.


l. All forklifts will have the date of the next periodic inspection date stenciled on it. m . All forklifts will be fitted with overhead guards unless the carriage does not lift the load above the cab level. n. Operators of gasoline powered forklift trucks will be warned of the danger of carbon m onoxide fum es when working inside buildings. o. W hen the truck is parked on an incline ensure the forks are lowered, parking brake set and wheels chocked.

RE CO RD KE E P I NG AND CE R TI FI C AT I O N: T h e s u p e r v i s o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
ensuring required training is given to all forklift operators. The supervisor is also responsible for ensuring a practical exercise (drive & operate forklift) is given to all trainees for their certification. The supervisor determines if the trainee satisfactorily passed the practical exercise portion. All initial training will be given by the supervisor and will be recorded (Enclosure 4) and maintained on file indefinitely unless refresher training is given which will take its place. Remember that refresher training is not required unless one of the conditions occurs that is mentioned in paragraph 2 of Training Requirements. Refresher training and certification sheets will replace initial training and be m ain tained by the supervisor for an indefinite period. T he three (3) year evaluation sheets (Enclosure 2) will be maintained until the next evaluation is given. This guide will also be maintained as proof of what training topics were covered.

AV O I D ANCE O F D UP LI C ATE TR AI NI NG : I f a n o p e r a t o r h a s p r e v i o u s l y
received training that covered the information mentioned in this guide and it is documented by their signature, then the trainee only needs to take the practical exercise portion. If the operator has also t aken a practical exercise that covers all elements in Enclosure 1, and the supervisor documents it, then the supervisor has the authority to certify them as trained.

F o r k l i f t s w i l l A LW A Y S t r a v e l b a c k w a r d s w h e n d e s c e n d i n g g r a d e s o f m o r e t h a n 1 0 degrees with a load.



Stability Triangle
Alm ost all counterbalanced powered industrial trucks have a three -point suspension s ystem , that is, the vehic le is supported at three points. T his is true even if the vehicle has four wheels. The truck’s steer axle is attached to the truck by a pivot pin in the axle’s center. W hen the points are connected with im aginary lines, this three-point support forms a triangle called the stability triangle. W hen the vehicle is loaded, the com bined center of gravi t y (CG) shifts toward line B -C. The heavier the load the m ore forward the CG m oves. In actual practice, the CG should never be at or over line B-C. If this would occur, the B-C line would be like the center of a see saw. The slightest braking would sh ift the CG forward of the BC line resulting in the truck tipping forward.


ENCLOSURE 1 Practical Exercise
Type of truck:  Gasoline Operator Name: Signature of individual giving test:  Passed the practical exercise.  Failed the practical exercise. Pass Fail
              

 Propane

 Electric Date:

Pass Fail
Use the seat belt --------------------  Space forks properly apart ---------  Place forks under pallet without striking the pallet --------------------  Drive and turn around obstacles with load ------------------------------- Ensure truck is completely stopped before lifting/lowering load --------  Place load square on a stack ------  Always checks for overhead clearance ------------------------------ Drive in reverse with load ----------  Drives down slopes backwards with load ------------------------------- W ith forks empty drives up slopes backwards with forks tilted ---------  Keeps arms and hands inside truck at all times ---------------------  Show where the load capacity, load test, and next inspection due markings are located ----------------  Demonstrate proper procedures for shut down and parking ---------- Docks N/A  Ensures dockboards are secure ---  Never turns when on dockboard --      

Demonstrate use of all controls -  Secure load as necessary -------  Lift and tilt load properly -------Look over both shoulders before backing up ------------------------  

 Tilt forks and lower load --------       Drives up inclines with load in front of truck -----------------------  Does not attempt turns on slopes -------------------------------  W ith forks empty drives down forward with forks tilted ----------  Does not tilt loads while moving truck ---------------------------------  Demonstrate proper body place ment in the event of a rollover  Never slams on brakes ----------  W atches out for pedestrians ----  Docks N/A  Ensures dockboard is level ------  Checks that trailer is chocked --     Travel with load at proper height  Remove load from a stack -------  Observes speed limits -----------


ENCLOSURE 2 Three (3) Year Evaluation
The forklift operator should be evaluated, at a minimum, on the following : 1. Conducts Pre-Use inspection. 2. Demonstrates knowledge and proper use of controls and instruments. 3. Selects safe loads for the truck capabilities. 4. Demonstrates safe stacking and unstacking. 5. Travels safel y over comm on road conditions 6. Uses proper lifting procedures. 7. Uses safety equipment; seatbelt. 8 . T r a v e l s a t s a f e s p e e d s ; o b e ys s p e e d l i m i t s . 9. W atches for pedestrians; uses horn when going around blind turns or through intersections. 10. T ravels up and down slopes properl y. 11. Travels with forks low to the ground. 12. Does not make excessive maneuvering; sharp turns. 13. W hen leaving the vehicle lowers the forks, puts the controls in neutral, sets the brakes, chocks the wheels when on an incline, shuts off the power, and removes the ignition key or connector plug.

A check in the box indicates the driver passed the evaluation:  Name of evaluated driver: (Last, First, MI) Name of individual conducting evaluation: (Signature) Date last evaluation performed: Date this evaluation: Maintain this evaluation until the next evaluation is performed.



BRAKES  Freedom of movement  Hold truck on incline STEERING  No strange noise  No hesitation TIRES  No excessive wear  Good rim condition  Tight wheel nuts MAST & TILT CYLINDERS  Lift to maximum height  Carriage moves smoothly  Lower & hold carriage just above the floor OVERHEAD GUARD  No broken welds  Mounted securely  Lines not worn or leaking  Secure connections TRANSMISSION  No visible damage GAUGES  Gauges working

 Set parking brake on an incline CHAINS FORKS  Centered on carriage  Equally spaced  No cracks  Locking pins work HORN & LIGHTS  Test horn  Test lights ENGINE  No loose/frayed wiring  Air filter OK  Oil filter not leaking  Oil level OK  W ater level OK  No leaks under truck  Engine runs smoothly  Clean & lubricated  No visible damage  Equal tension CYLINDER & HYDRAULICS  Fluid level OK  Cylinders do not leak  Mounting hardware on cylinders secure

 Moves forward smoothly  Indicators working  Moves backward OK  Transmission fluid OK ENERGY SYSTEM  Battery secure MARKINGS  Load rating  Load test date  Inspection due date

Forklift ID Number: Inspector Name (Print): Inspector Signature:

Inspection Date:
 Check if OK to use

 Check if repairs

needed Indicate deficiencies:


T R AI N I N G R E C O R D / C E R T I F I C AT I O N F O R FORKLIFT EQUIPM ENT This is to certify that the undersigned instructor conducted training in accordance with 29 CFR PART 1910.178 and the provisions of this guide. The following individuals received training. The employee’s signature indicates he/she understands the training they received.

Print Name (Last, First, MI)


Date of Training: Instructor’s Name (Print)




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