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The History of the Middle East


									3500 BC
Mesopotamia (Iraq),
Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians and Assyrians

4th millennium BC
Ancient Egypt
Phoenicians, Israelites
6th century BC
Persian Empire
Macedonian Empire founded by Alexander the Great

Ptolemaic Egypt and the Seleucid state in Syria.
2nd century BC
247 BC – 224 AD Parthians Empire or Arsacid Empire

2nd century AD
Sassanids Empire - last pre-Islamic Persian Empire
7th century
Islamic conquest of Persia
1st century BC
Roman Republic
Macedonian Empire

5th century
Roman Christianity was the dominant religion in the Middle East
Empire split into East and West with the Middle East becoming tied to
the new Roman capital of Constantinople
Eastern Roman Empire became the Byzantine Empire, ruling from the
Balkans to the Euphrates

By the 6th century
Islamic Caliphate
Age of the    Caliphs
622-632 AD    Expansion under Muhammad
632-661 AD    Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate
661-750 AD    Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate
7th century
The Roman-Persian Wars
The Arab Empire was the first empire to control the entire Middle
East, as well 3/4 of the Mediterranean region
The Seljuk Empire - was a medieval Turko-Persian, Sunni Muslim empire
7th century
The Christian Byzantine Empire had continued to be a potent military
and economic force in the Mediterranean preventing Arab expansion
into much of Europe

The Seljuk Turks conquered Persia, Iraq (capturing Baghdad in 1055),
Syria, Israel, Palestine, and the Hejaz
The Seljuks ruled most of the Middle East region for the next 200

831 – 1071AD, the Emirate of Sicily
Conquest by the Normans the island developed its own distinct culture
with the fusion of Arab, Western and Byzantine influences.
11th century
The dominance of the Arabs came to a sudden end
Christian Western Europe had staged a remarkable economic and
demographic recovery
The fragmentation of the Middle East allowed joined forces, mainly
from England, France and the emerging Holy Roman Empire to enter the
In 1095, Pope Urban II, had responded to pleas from the flagging
Byzantine Empire, summoned the European aristocracy to recapture the
Holy Land for Christianity, and in 1099 the knights of the First
Crusade captured Jerusalem. They founded the Kingdom of Jerusalem,
which survived until 1187, when Saladin retook the city. Smaller
crusader fiefdoms survived until 1291.
12th century
Middle Ages after the Renaissance of the 12th century
Motivated by religion and dreams of conquest, the kings of Europe
launched a number of Crusades to try to roll back Muslim power and
retake the holy land
Byzantine Empire that began to lose increasing amounts of territory
to the Ottoman Turks.

Egypt once again emerged as a major power in the eastern

Saladin, champion of the Muslims against the Crusaders
13th century
Mongol Empire

Victory Mamluk Turks became Sultans of Egypt and the real power in
the Middle East and gaining control of Palestine and Syria, while
other Turkish sultans controlled Iraq and Anatolia

15th century
1514 Selim the Grim, Ottoman conqueror of the Middle East
the Ottoman emirs, who in 1453 captured the Christian Byzantine
capitol of Constantinople and made themselves sultans and they kept
control of it for 400 years. The Ottomans also conquered Greece, the
Balkans, and most of Hungary.

17th century, Europe had overtaken the Muslim world in wealth,
population and—most importantly—technology.
The Ottomans had been driven out of Hungary
18th century
1830 The French annexed Algeria and Tunisia in 1878.
1882 The British occupied Egypt although it remained under nominal
Ottoman sovereignty. The British also established effective control
of the Persian Gulf, and the French extended their influence into
Lebanon and Syria.
1878 The British took control of Cyprus
19th century
Greece, Serbia, Romania, and Bulgaria asserted their independence,
and in the Balkan Wars of 1912–13 the Ottomans were driven out of
Europe altogether
Ottoman Empire was known as the "sick man of Europe"
1908 oil was discovered in Persia

1908 The Young Turks (officially called the Committee for Union and
Progress), seized power in the Ottoman Empire in    - - Armenian
1912, the Italians seized Libya and the Dodecanese islands
The Ottomans turned to Germany to protect them from the western
powers, but the result was increasing financial and military
dependence on Germany.
1915 Battle of Gallipoli, Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule
Ottoman Empire was defeated in 1918
Late 19th and early 20th centuries Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II
sought to import versions of the western model of constitutional
government, civil law, secular education and industrial development
into their countries.
Egypt, fell under British control because of failed projects that
bankrupted the Islamic empire.
The Ottoman Empire joined Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I,
against Britain and France.
The British and French governments partition the Middle East
Arabs proclaimed an independent state in Damascus
Syria and the Christian coastal regions became Lebanon and French
Iraq and Palestine became British mandated territories. Iraq became
the "Kingdom of Iraq" Palestine was split in half. The eastern half
of Palestine became the "Emirate of Transjordan" The western half of
Palestine was placed under direct British administration.
1932 A British ally Ibn Saud created the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Kemal Atatürk to seize power in Turkey and abolished the caliphate,
emancipated women, enforced western dress
1938 oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia, Libya and Algeria

During the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s, Syria and Egypt made moves
towards independence riots and mass deaths ensued. The British could
not get out of this situation.

The rise to power of German dictator Adolf Hitler in Germany

17 October 1941 – Iran became independent

22 November 1943 – Lebanon became independent
1 January 1944 – Syria became independent
22 May 1946 – Jordan became independent

1947 United Nations plan to partition Palestine

1947 – Iraq became independent

1947 – Egypt became independent

14 May 1948 Zionist leadership declared the State of Israel

1948 The 1948 Arab-Israeli War

The armies of Egypt, Syria, Transjordan, Lebanon, Iraq, and Saudi
Arabia intervened and were defeated by Israel.

Israel annexed Palestinian land creating 800,000 Palestinian

Israel absorbs 866,000 Jews expelled from Arab lands.

Arabs and the Jews fight in Palestine

Jewish leaders accepted the plan. The Arab leaders rejected the plan.

1956 Suez War

August 16, 1960, Cyprus gained its independence

1967 Six Day War
A growing presence of the United States in Middle East affairs due to
the increasing importance of the oil industry

1954 - 1969, the Soviet Union supports Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Libya
with its anti-western. Anti-Israel views.

1970 War of Attrition

The U.S. felt obliged to defend its remaining allies, the
conservative monarchies of Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iran and the Persian
Gulf emirates

Shi'a clergy overthrew the Iran monarchy in 1979 and established a
theocratic regime

1973 Yom Kippur War

1979 Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, and Anwar Sadat concluded a peace
Iraq into its prolonged war with Iran in the 1980s

1982 Lebanon War

The Soviet Union and the collapse of communism in the early 1990s

Soviet Jews to immigrate from Russia and Ukraine to Israel

Cheap oil from Russia, driving down the price of oil and reducing the
west's dependence on oil from the Arab states
Egypt (under Nasser), Algeria, Syria and Iraq moved from
authoritarian state socialism to Arab nationalism

1990 Invasion of Kuwait
The Persian Gulf War and its aftermath brought about a permanent U.S.
military presence in the Persian Gulf region

July 12, 2006 'July War' in Lebanon between Israel and Hezbollah

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