Major minerals 1. Calcium (Ca) 2. Phosphorus (P) MEMORIZE 3. Sodium (Na) 4. Chlorine (Cl) THESE 5. Potassium (K) 6. Sulfur (S) -- Smaller Degree 7. Magnesium (Mg) -- Smaller Degree Minor or trace minerals 1.Iron (Fe) 7. Molybdenum (Mo) 2.Copper (Cu) 8. Selenium (Se) 3.Zinc (Zn) 9. Silicon (Si) 4.Iodine (I) 10. Fluorine (F) 5.Cobalt (Co) 11. Chromium (Cr) 6. Manganese (Mn) (Note: The calcium-phosphorus ratio in the feed must be kept between 1:1 to 3:1 for proper utilization of both minerals.) 1.Rickets 2.Broken bones 3.Slow growth 4.Milk fever 1. Lameness 2.Stiffness of joints 3. Lowered appetite 4.Reduced rate of gain 5. Breeding problems 1.Lack of appetite 2.Unthrifty appearance *Next slide graphic picture 1. Reduced growth 2.Lowered reproduction 3. Eating soil 1. Slow growth 2. Reduced feed consumption 3. Muscle weakness 4. Diarrhea Eat a banana or a potato Unthriftiness Anemia *Next slide graphic picture 1. Hairless pig 2.Goiter (enlarged thyroid gland) 3. Weak young and stillbirths 1. Muscle spasms and convulsions 2.Hyperirritability fat soluble converted from carotene Slow growth Night blindness Poor reproductive efficiency Rough hair coat fat soluble depends on ultraviolet light for synthesis Necessary for assimilation of calcium and phosphorus Aids in skeletal development Rickets--Bone deformities Swelling of joints Fat soluble Necessary for reproduction Infertility Stiffening of muscles (Note: This is called white muscle disease in cattle.) fat soluble utilized to form the enzyme prothrombin synthesized in rumen and monogastric intestinal tract Necessary for blood clotting Deficiency usually only occurs in Poultry. Hemorrhaging Helps in the release of energy from foods Helps form red blood cells Helps break down protein into usable form for the body Helps form red blood cells Essential in the formation of collagen Aids in iron absorption Helps form substances between the body cells in teeth, bones and soft tissue Aids in healing Loss of appetite b. Loose teeth c. Swollen and bleeding gums •Loss of appetite •Loose teeth •Swollen and bleeding gums Deficiencies of certain amino acids will cause huge altering deficiencies in animals. A balanced ration should include all of these amino acids.