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Technology Development Roadmap

VIEWS: 73 PAGES: 20

									                                                        ESA’s Programme of Exploration
Enabling Exploration – The
 technology development
roadmaps in ESA’s Aurora
       programme


                                                                 Alain Pradier
                                                        EUROPEAN SPACE AGENCY




                                  NASA Workshop Session 4
   NASA International WorkshopWashington 16-18 November 2004
                              on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                 ESA’s Programme of Exploration




                            What is Aurora?

• European Space Exploration Programme
• Comes from a broad survey conducted with the
  scientific and industrial communities
• Roadmap culminating in a voyage to Mars by 2030,
  with a return to the Moon in the meantime
• Robotic missions in preparation
  for human missions
• Provide the basis for European
  participation in an international
  endeavour


        NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                ESA’s Programme of Exploration




 The Long Term Plan
                                                  Define knowledge and capabilities for planned
                                                                   missions
• Long Term Plan is a
  living document                                  Identify milestones and demonstration needs

• Produced via an iterative                               Define missions required to meet
                                                               demonstration needs
  approach
• Defines missions on the                                       Harmonise missions

  basis of the
                                                   Detail technology roadmap according to final
  demonstration needs of                                           mission plan
  required knowledge and
  capabilities                                         Identify individual technology activities


                                                   Prioritise activities with European interests in
                                                                          mind


       NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                         ESA’s Programme of Exploration




NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                                    ESA’s Programme of Exploration




                         Technical Capabilities
                                (listed w/o indication of priority or importance)



•   Assembly in orbit / Docking                           •      Descent / Precise Landing / Ascent /
•   Advanced Chemical Propulsion                                 Rendezvous
•   Long term Cryogenic Storage                           •      EVA suits
•   Electric Propulsion Systems                           •      Control and communications
•   Lightweight habitat for transit / on-                 •      Low gravity / Psychological
    surface                                                      countermeasures
•   Advanced Life Support System in                       •      Surface power generation (Nuclear,
    transit / on-surface                                         fuel cells)
•   Aerocapture / Aerobraking at Mars /                   •      Advanced Surface Systems
    Earth                                                        (mobility, labs)
•   Software and Data Systems /                           •      ISRU / ISPP
    Computers and Data Systems                            •      Nuclear Thermal Propulsion
                                                          •      Operations
This represents an exhaustive list of required capabilities, however
the process of down-selecting these to identify those areas Europe
                      will pursue is ongoing
           NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                         ESA’s Programme of Exploration




NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                          ESA’s Programme of Exploration



                             Roadmap development
        • Knowledge and Capability Roadmaps are needed to
        complete the Aurora Long Term Plan
        • Each roadmap provides a description of:
                • The interest / justification for the knowledge / capability in
                  the Aurora context
    TRL 5
                • The status to be reached for achieving the end goals of the
  System /        programme
 subsystem      • The status available within Europe and the World
  model or      • The development steps needed for Europe to reach the
  prototype       desirable end status, incl. major milestones and decision
    demo-
 nstration in     points
 a relevant
environment       All of this is carried out assuming that a certain technology
 (ground or       readiness level (TRL 5) is to be reached at the start of Phase B
   space)
                  of any mission using that particular capability / knowledge
                 NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                ESA’s Programme of Exploration




             Roadmap elaboration method


• Full range of technologies split into 18
  domains
• Three step approach:
   • Building block roadmap covering technology
     domain
   • A barchart giving more details – each building
     block broken down into technology activities
   • Development plans based on these activities


       NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                     ESA’s Programme of Exploration




         Example : Radiation countermeasures
• Interest:
   • Astronauts travelling to the Moon or Mars will experience a
     radiation environment fundamentally different from that in LEO, that
     could lead to serious illness or death
• Technology requirements:
   • Address the lack of knowledge so as to reduce the uncertainties in
     radiation risk estimates
   • Design effective shield concepts
• Status:
   • No direct measurement of radiation environment on Mars
   • Radiation effects on humans deduced from experiments with cell
     cultures, theory and empirical data obtained from accidental
     exposures
   • Europe has significant experience flying radiation monitors on many
     missions
            NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                      ESA’s Programme of Exploration

2006      2007     2008    2009   2010   2011   2012   2013   2014 2015 2016 2017       2022     2027   2031




       NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                  ESA’s Programme of Exploration



                           Revised approach
In view of the changed international context the Aurora
Board of Participants in consultation with the Exploration
Programme Advisory Committee (EPAC) authorised the
following:
 • Conduct wide consultation to confirm objectives and
    requirements,
 • Analyse the exploration plans of other nations, especially
    the one of the U.S.; find co-operation opportunities,
 • Elaborate/revise exploration architecture, mission
    roadmap and associated technology and research plans,
    building on the Aurora approach,
 • Determine European priorities on the basis of agreed
    criteria to be integrated into the 2007-2011 Programme
    Proposal to be approved at Ministerial Council level.
         NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                         ESA’s Programme of Exploration




                                           Questions
         What are the key technologies and technology
         development challenges associated with enabling
         sustainable human space transportation?
KNOWLEDGE AND CAPABILITIES CONSIDERED
IMPORTANT FOR THE LONG-TERM OBJECTIVES
OF THE AURORA PROGRAMME                                    •    Descent / Precise Landing / Ascent /
                                                                Rendezvous
     •    Assembly in orbit / Docking                      •    EVA suits
     •    Advanced Chemical Propulsion                     •    Control and communications
     •    Long term Cryogenic Storage                      •    Low gravity / Psychological
                                                                countermeasures
     •    Electric Propulsion Systems
                                                           •    Surface power generation (Nuclear, fuel
     •    Lightweight habitat for transit / on-surface
                                                                cells)
     •    Advanced Life Support System in transit /
                                                           •    Advanced Surface Systems (mobility,
          on-surface
                                                                labs)
     •    Aerocapture / Aerobraking at Mars / Earth
                                                           •    ISRU / ISPP
     •    Software and Data Systems / Computers
                                                           •    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion
          and Data Systems
                                                           •    Operations
                NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                ESA’s Programme of Exploration




                                  Questions

  What is the essential research required for informing
  the use of artificial gravity, radiation shielding,
  biomedical countermeasures?

• Please refer to ESA presentations:

                  » SPACE MEDICINE IN ESA;
                  » RADIATION ENVIRONMENTS & EFFECTS / ESA
                    ACTIVITIES




       NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                ESA’s Programme of Exploration




                                  Questions

  What are the programs and plans that can satisfy
  these challenges?

• European priorities in terms of Exploration
  Technology development activities will be established
  on the basis of Aurora Long Term Plan. They will be
  integrated into the Aurora Programme Proposal
  [2007-2011] to be approved at Ministerial Council
  level (2005).



       NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                ESA’s Programme of Exploration




                                  Questions

  What opportunities are there for flight experiments
  and other collaborative technology development and
  demonstrations that will ease the adoption of new,
  high-performance technologies?

• ESA favours opportunities for flight experiments
  which will be in line with the technology development
  / demonstration objectives of the Aurora programme
  proposal [2007-2011] to be approved at Ministerial
  Council level (2005).


       NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                 ESA’s Programme of Exploration




                                   Questions

   To what extent can collaborations enhance
   technology development directions and plans?

• ESA will engage with its counterparts in international
  discussions on space exploration objectives, scenarios and
  architecture.
• ESA welcomes the setting up of a continued dialogue via
  appropriate international consultation mechanisms.
• ESA will derive the future exploration technology and research
  plans from the technology development roadmaps compatible
  with the European priorities and long term objectives of Aurora
  programme.


        NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                         ESA’s Programme of Exploration




         BACK-UP VIEWGRAPHS




NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                                         ESA’s Programme of Exploration



                        Roadmap relationships
     ● Gravity /
     Psychological                               ● Communications
     Countermeasures                                                                     18 TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES
                                                 ● Operations
     ● Radiation
     Countermeasures
                                                 ● Software,
                                                 Computers and Data
                                                 Systems                                      Key:
          ● ISRU / ISPP                                                                       Technical capabilities in the same box
                                                           ● Assembly in                      have close links in the general strategy
                                                           Orbit / Docking                    for the technology development
     ● Advanced Life                                                                                        The lead capability has a
     Support Systems in           ● Long Term Cryogenic
                                                                                                            roadmap that contains
     Transit / on Surface         Storage
                                                                                                            details on the indicated
                                                                                                            capability
                                  ● Advanced Chemical
                                  Propulsion                                                                The technical capabilities
● Entry / Descent /
                                                                                                            are strongly inter-linked
Landing / Ascent /
                                    Propulsion



Rendezvous




                                                                       Nuclear related
                                                 ● SEP / NEP                                                The enclosed capabilities
● Aerocapture /                                                                                             are all dependent in some




                                                                         systems
Aerobraking at                                   ● NTP                                                      way on the header
Mars / Earth                                                                                                capability


● Lightweight                                    ● Power Generation
Habitat for Transit /
on Surface
                            ● EVA Suits
● Advanced Surface
Systems



    NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                    ESA’s Programme of Exploration




                             Setting of priorities
Objective: efficient use of resources
Criteria (Weighting factor to be established):
•   Technical importance for missions
     • Development duration vs. time available
     • Criticality for a given mission (industry inputs)
     • Place in Exploration mission roadmap
•   Spin-off potential / need
     • Within the Exploration Programme (later missions)
     • For other Agency Programmes
     • For non-space applications (secondary use)
•   Chances for Europe to succeed
     • Status in Europe vs. status elsewhere
     • Item of European independence
     • Criticality as seen by potential industrial partners


           NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration
                                                                   ESA’s Programme of Exploration




     ESA Technology Readiness Levels (TRL)
•   Level 1: Technology concept and/or application formulated
•   Level 2: Analytical & experimental critical function and/or characteristic
    proof-of-concept
•   Level 3: Component and/or breadboard validation in laboratory
    environment
•   Level 4: Component and/or breadboard validation in relevant
    environment
•   Level 5: System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a
    relevant environment (ground or space)
•   Level 6: System prototype demonstration in a space environment
•   Level 7: Actual system completed and “Flight qualified” through test
    and demonstration (ground or space)
•   Level 8: Actual system “Flight proven” through successful mission
    operations



          NASA International Workshop on Creating New and Sustainable Space Exploration

								
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